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SPM CHEMISTRY

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY

Panel : 1. 2. 3. 4. June Ling S J Chen Soo Chien Felix Ngui Jong Kah Yin SMK St Joseph, Kuching Kolej DPAH Abdilah, Kuching SMK Tabuan Jaya, Kuching SM Sains Kuching

REVISION MODULE FOR THE MASTERY OF THE BASICS IN SPM CHEMISTRY

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Compiled and edited by : Jong Kah Yin

SPM CHEMISTRY

INDEX CONTENT 1 REVISION CHECK-LIST Form 4 Form 5 2 WRITING EQUATIONS 2.1 Charges of ions 2.2 Formulae of compounds 2.3 Reactions of Acid 2.4 Displacement of Metals 2.5 Double decomposition reaction 2.6 Others 3 CALCULATIONS 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4 Relative Masses Mole and Number of particles Mole and Mass & Volume of Gases Empirical and Molecular Formulae Calculations involving Acids and Alkali Thermochemistry 23 24 24 25 26 27 29 29 - 30 17 17 18 19 20 20 21 4 - 10 11 - 15 PAGE

GUIDED ESSAY WRITING FOR PAPER 2 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Chemical Bond Ionic bond Chemical Bond Covalent bond Preparation of Salt Insoluble salt Preparation of Salt Soluble salt Rate of Reaction Heat of Combustion 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

WRITTEN PRACTICAL PAPER - PAPER 3 5.1 Structure Questions 5.2 Essay Questions SUGGESTED ANSWERS 41 47 48

6.2 Written Practical Paper Paper 3


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6.1 Guided Essay for Paper 2

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SPM CHEMISTRY

STUDENTS REVISION CHECKLIST FOR SPM CHEMISTRY

By : JONG KAH YIN SM SAINS KUCHING

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SPM CHEMISTRY

Chapter 2: The Structure of the Atom A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)
1) State the kinetic theory of matter. State one example to support the kinetic theory of matter 2) What are atom, molecule and ion? 3) What is melting point? 4) Define proton number and nucleon number. 5) State the meaning of isotopes. 6) State the uses of isotopes such as carbon-14 and cobalt-60.

Check

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


7) Explain why the temperature remains unchanged during the melting process. 8) Explain why the temperature remains unchanged during the freezing process. 9) A solid compound is heated until it converts into gas. Explain the changes in energy content, forces of attraction between the particles, and arrangement of particles. 10) State the subatomic particles of an atom. Compare and contrast the relative atomic masses and the relative charges of the subatomic particles of an atom. 11)
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Al is the symbol of aluminium.

(a) Determine the number of neutron of aluminium. (b) Draw the electron arrangement of aluminium.

C. Synthesis (Experiment)
12) Solid Z has a melting point of 65oC. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the melting point of Z. Your answer should show how the melting point of Z is determined. 13) Compound W has a freezing point of 82oC. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the freezing point of W.

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SPM CHEMISTRY

Chapter 3: Chemical Formulae and Equations A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)
1) State the meaning of relative atomic mass based on carbon-12 scale. 2) Define mole. 3) State the meaning of molar mass 4) State the meaning of molar volume of gas. 5) State the meaning of empirical formula. 6) State the meaning of molecular formula.

Check

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


7) Explain why we could not determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide by heating copper powder in a crucible. 8) Compare and contrast empirical formula with molecular formula using ethane as an example. 9) Vinegar is a dilute ethanoic acid with a molecular formula of CH3COOH. (a) Find the empirical formula of ethanoic acid. (b) Find the percentage composition by mass of carbon in ethanoic acid. 10) 3.6 g of carbon reacted with 0.8 g of hydrogen to form a compound. (a) Determine the empirical formula of the compound formed. (b) Given that the relative molecular mass of the compound is 88 g, find its molecular formula. [Relative atomic mass: C ,12; H, 1] 11) Hydrogen gas is reacted with 20 g of hot copper(II) oxide powder to produce solid copper and water. (a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction. (b) Calculate the maximum mass of solid copper formed. [Relative atomic mass: Cu, 64; O,16; H,1]

C. Synthesis (Experiment)
12) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide. Your answer should include all the precautions and calculations involved. [Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; O,16]

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SPM CHEMISTRY

Chapter 4: Periodic Table of Elements A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)


1) State the basic principle of arranging the elements in the Periodic Table from its proton number. 2) State the physical properties of Group 1. 3) State the physical properties of Group 17. 4) State the changes in the atomic size and electronegativity of elements across Period 3. 5) State three special properties of transition elements? B. Understanding / Application / Analysis 6) State the position of element
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Check

X in Periodic Table. Explain your answer.

7) When going across Period 3 from sodium to argon, the atomic size decreases. Explain. 8) When going across Period 3 from sodium to argon, the electronegativity increases. Explain. 9) The reactivity of Group 1 increases when going down the group. Explain. 10) The reactivity of Group 17 decreases when going down the group. Explain. 11) Why helium gas is not reactive? 12) X is an element from Group 1. X is burnt in oxygen and the product is dissolved in water. What is the property of the solution formed? Explain. 13) Chlorine gas is dissolved in water. What can you observe if a piece of blue litmus paper is immersed into the solution formed? Explain. 14) W is an element from Group 1. Predict the chemical reaction of W with: a) water, b) Oxygen, State the observation and write the chemical equation involve.

C. Synthesis (Experiment) 15) Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of elements in Group 1: lithium, sodium and potassium. 16) Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of chlorine, bromine and iodine in the reaction with iron wool. State the observation and write the chemical equations involve in reactions.

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Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)


1) What is anion? 2) What is cation? 3) State two physical properties of ionic compounds. 4) State two physical properties of covalent compounds. B. Understanding / Application / Analysis 5) Explain why sodium chloride can conduct electricity in aqueous state but cannot conduct electricity in solid state. 6) Magnesium chloride and hydrogen chloride are two compounds of chlorine. At room condition, magnesium chloride exists as a solid but hydrogen chloride exists as a gas. Explain why. 7) Describe the formation of ionic bond in sodium chloride, NaCl. 8) By using example, describe the formation of covalent bond between element from Group 14 and element from Group 17. C. Synthesis 9) Draw electron arrangement of the compound formed from the following elements. a) Nitrogen and hydrogen, b) Carbon and oxygen, c) Magnesium and chlorine, d) Carbon and hydrogen, e) Hydrogen and chlorine, f) Sodium and oxygen.

Check

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Chapter 6: Electrochemistry A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)


1) State the meaning of electrolyte. 2) State the meaning of electrolysis. 3) State three factors affecting electrolysis of an aqueous solution.

Check

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


4) Explain why solution of hydrogen chloride in water can conduct electricity but solution of hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene cannot conduct electricity. 5) By using example, explain how the following factors can determine the selective discharge of ions at the electrodes. a) Types of electrodes, b) Concentration of the ions. 6) Describe the electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide. 7) Describe the extraction of aluminium by electrolysis. 8) Draw the structure of Daniell cell and explain how it can produce electricity. 9) Draw the structure of a dry cell and explain how it can produce electricity. C. Synthesis 10) Describe a laboratory experiment to extract lead from lead(II) oxide by using electrolysis. 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to show that types of electrodes affect the selective discharge of ions in electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution. 12) You are given magnesium ribbon, copper plate, magnesium nitrate solution, copper(II) sulphate solution, connecting wires with crocodile clips, 250 cm3 beaker, voltmeter and porous pot. Construct a voltaic cell by using the above materials. Explain how the voltaic cell can produce electricity. Your answer must include observation and half equations for reaction at anode and cathode. 13) Describe a laboratory experiment to construct the electrochemical series of magnesium, copper, zinc and lead.

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Chapter 7: Acids and Bases and Chapter 8: Salts A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)
1) State the meaning of acid and alkali. 2) What is the meaning of strong acid and weak alkali? 3) What is neutralisation? 4) What is salt? 5) What is double decomposition reaction?

Check

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


6) The pH value of solution ammonia in water is 9 but the pH value of solution of ammonia in trichlomethane is 7. Explain why the pH values of the two solutions are different. 7) 80 cm3 of distilled water is added to 20 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 solution of HCl. Find the molarity of the dilute solution. 8) In a titration, 40 cm3 of 0.25 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide, KOH solution is needed to neutralise 20 cm3 of nitric acid, HNO3. Calculate the molarity of the nitric acid, HNO3. 9) Given dilute nitric acid and dilute sulphuric acid have the same concentration of 0.5 mol dm-3. In a neutralisation experiment, 20 cm3 of nitric acid is required to neutralise 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution but only 10 cm3 of sulphuric acid is required to neutralise 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution. Explain why.

C. Synthesis
10) Describe a chemical test to show that a given solution is an acid. 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide by using titration process. You are given 0.2 moldm-3 of dilute sulphuric acid, phenolphthalein, burette, pipette and conical flask. 12) You are given solid sodium chloride. Describe how you can prepare sodium chloride solution of 0.2 mol dm-3 in laboratory by using 250 cm3 volumetric flask. 13) Describe the preparation of zinc sulphate . 14) Describe the preparation of lead(II) chloride. 15) Describe the preparation of potassium nitrate. 16) Solid W is a salt. Describe the tests you would carry out to confirm the presence of zinc ions and nitrate ions in the salt 17) Solid X is a metal carbonate. Beside heating, describe chemical tests that you would carry out to confirm that X consists of carbonate ions. . 18) You are given four test tubes filled with solution consisting zinc ions, lead(II) ions, aluminium ions and magnesium ions respectively. Describe the tests you would carry out to confirm the ion that is present in each test tube. 19) You are given potassium chloride solution, lead(II) oxide powder and dilute nitric acid. Describe how you would prepare lead(II) chloride salt from the given materials.

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20) You are given dilute sulphuric acid, copper(II) nitrate solution and sodium carbonate solution. Describe how you would prepare copper(II) sulphate salt from the given materials.

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Chapter 9: Manufactured Substance in Industry A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)


1) What is the meaning of alloy? State the aims of making alloys. 2) What is the meaning of composite materials? State the components of the following composite materials: a) Reinforced concrete, b) Superconductor, c) Fibre optic, d) Fibre glass, e) Photochromic glass. 3) State the catalyst, temperature and pressure of the following process: a) Contact process b) Haber process 4) What is the meaning of polymers? Name the monomer of polythene and polyvinyl chloride. 5) State four types of glass and their compositions. List the uses of each glass. 6) What is ceramics? State the properties and list the uses of ceramics.

Check

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


7) Bronze is an alloy consisting of copper and tin. Explain why bronze is harder than copper. 8) Explain how acid rain is formed. Describe how acid rain causes environmental pollution. 9) Explain the industrial process involved in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Write all the chemical equations involved.

10) Explain the industrial process involved in the manufacture of ammonia gas. Write all the chemical equations involved.

C. Synthesis
11) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ammonium sulphate (ammonium fertiliser) 12) Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the hardness of brass and copper.

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Chapter 10: Rate of Reaction A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)


1) What is rate of reaction? 2) What is stated in the collision theory? 3) What is activation energy? 4) What is effective collision?

Check

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


5) Explain how total surface area (size of reactant) can increase the rate of reaction based on collision theory. 6) Based on collision theory, explain how temperature can increase the rate of reaction. 7) Based on collision theory, explain how catalyst can increase the rate of reaction. 8) Explain why hydrochloric acid of 2.0 mol dm-3 is reacted faster with zinc compare to hydrochloric acid of 0.5 mol dm-3 .

C. Synthesis
9) Hypothesis: The smaller the size of solid reactant, the higher the rate of reaction. Describe a laboratory experiment to confirm the hypothesis by using the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. 10) Describe a laboratory experiment to show that the presence of catalyst will increase the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to show that an increase in temperature will increase the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and sulphuric acid.

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Chapter 11: Carbon compounds A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)


1) What is homologous series? 2) What is saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon? State an example of each of them. 3) What is polymer? State an example of polymer and its monomer. 4) What are saturated and unsaturated fats?

Check

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


5) Explain what is isomers and isomerism by using butane as an example. 6) Explain why ethene gas can decolourises the acidified potassium mangante(II) solution whereas ethane cannot decolourises acidified potassium mangante(II) solution. 7) Explain why both hexane and hexane having six carbon atoms per molecule but hexene burns with a more sooty flame than hexane 8) Pentane and propane are members from the alkane family. Explain why the melting point of pentane is higher than propane. 9) Propanol and propanoic acid are dissolved in water. It is found that propanol solution is a neutral but propanoic acid is an acidic solution. 10) Explain the coagulation process of latex. 11) Explain how to prevent coagulation of latex.

C. Synthesis
12) Describe a test to differential hexene and hexane. 13) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethane gas from ethanol. 14) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethanoic acid from ethanol. 15) Ethyl propanoate is a product from reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid. (a) State two physical properties of ethyl propanoate. (b) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethyl propanoate. Your answer must include a diagram of the apparatus set-up and the chemical equation involved. 16) Explain how to prepare propanoic acid from propene.

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Chapter 12: Oxidation and Reduction A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)
1) What is oxidation and reduction based on loss or gain of oxygen? 2) What is oxidation and reduction based on transfer of electrons? 3) What is oxidation and reduction based on changes in oxidation number? 4) What are redox reactions? State an example of redox reactions. 5) What is oxidising agent and reducing agent? State an example of oxidising agent and reducing agent.

Check

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


6) Determine whether the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide is a redox reaction. Explain your answer based on changes in oxidation number. 7) Determine whether the reaction between lead(II) nitrate and copper(II) is a redox reaction. Explain your answer based on changes in oxidation number. 8) The reaction between zinc and copper(II) sulphate solution is a redox reaction. Explain. 9) When bromine water is added to the potassium iodide solution, the solution changes colour from colourless to brown. Explain the observation. 10) Describe the rusting of iron. 11) A mixture of copper(II) oxide and aluminium powder is heated strongly. The mixture burns brightly. Explain this observation based on oxidation and reduction. 12) Chlorine water is added to potassium iodide solution in a test tube. 2 cm3 of 1,1,1trichloroethene is added to the test tube and the mixture is shaken thoroughly. The colour of 1,1,1-trichloroethene changes from colourless to purple. Explain the observation.

C. Synthesis
13) Describe a laboratory experiment to change the oxidation number of iron from +2 to +3. How would you confirm that iron(III) is formed? 14) Describe a laboratory experiment to change the oxidation number of iron from +3 to +2 by using zinc.

15) Describe the extraction of iron. 16) You are given lead, zinc, copper and their oxides. Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of these metals toward oxygen.

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Chapter 12: Thermochemistry A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)


1) What is exothermic reaction and endothermic reaction? State an example for each reaction. 2) What is heat of precipitation? 3) What is heat of displacement? 4) What is heat of neutralisation? 5) What is heat of combustion?

Check

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


6) Explain how exothermic reaction and endothermic are formed based on energy change during formation and breaking of chemical bonds. 7) Explain why the heat of combustion of butanol is higher than ethanol. 8) Explain why the heat of neutralisation between strong acids and strong alkalis is a constant, that is -57kJmol-1 9) Explain why the heat of neutralisation between ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide is less than -57kJmol-1 10) 50 cm3 of 2 moldm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. The temperature increases t oC. a) If 100 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 100 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid, predict the increase in temperature. b) If 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid, predict the increase in temperature. c) If 50 cm3 of 4 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 4 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid, predict the increase in temperature.

C. Synthesis
11) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of displacement of copper by zinc. 12) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of neutralisation between strong acids and strong alkalis. 13) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of combustion of methanol. 14) The higher the number of carbon atoms per molecule, the higher is the heat of combustion Describe a laboratory experiment to prove that the above statement is true by using methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol and pentan-1-ol.

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Chapter 13: Chemicals for Consumers A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)
1) What is soap? 2) What is saponification process? 3) What is detergent? 4) State the functions of each of the following additives in detergent. a) Whitening agent(example: sodium perborate) b) Optical whitener(fluorescent dyes) c) Biological enzyme (Example: amylases, lipases, proteases and cellulases) d) Fragrance 5) What is hard water? 6) State the function of each of the following food additives: a) Preservatives ( Sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate) b) Antioxidants (Ascorbic acid) c) Flavourings (Monosodium glutamate (MSG), Aspartame) d) Stabilisers e) Thickeners 7) State the functions of the following modern medicines. a) Analgesics ( Aspirin, Paracetamol, Codeine) b) Antibiotics ( Penicillin, Streptomycin) c) Psychotherapeutic medicine ( Stimulant, Antidepressant, Antipsychotic) 8) State the side effects of paracetamol and aspirin.

Check

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


9) Describe the cleansing action of soap. 10) Explain why the cleansing action of a detergent is more effective than a soap in hard water.

C. Synthesis
11) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare soap from palm oil using the saponification process. 12) Describe a laboratory experiment to investigate the cleansing action of a soap and a detergent in hard water.

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2. WRITING EQUATIONS
2.1 FORMULAE OF IONS 2.2 CHEMICAL FORMULAE OF COMPOUNDS 2.3 REACTIONS OF ACIDS 2.4 DISPLACEMENT OF METALS 2.5 DOUBLE DECOMPOSITION REACTION 2.6 OTHERS

By :

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JONG KAH YIN SM SAINS KUCHING

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2.1 Charges of cations and anions Ions Ammonium ion Carbonate ion Sulphide ion Sodium ion Oxide ion Aluminium ion Bromide ion Lead(II) ions 2.2 Formulae of compounds Formula NH4+ CO32S2Na+ O2Ions Nitrate ion Sulphate ion Phosphate ion Magnesium ion Iron(II) ion Hydroxide ions Silver ions Calcium ion Formula NO3SO42PO43Mg2+ Fe2+

SUBSTANCE Naphthalene Nitric acid Zinc carbonate Silver chloride Magnesium Lead(II) chloride Sulphur trioxide Ammonia gas Sulphuric acid Zinc carbonate Iron(II) sulphate Hydrogen chloride Aluminium sulphate Calcium hydroxide

Formula C10H8 HNO3 ZnCO3

Type of compound Covalent Covalent Ionic

Type of particles Molecules Molecules Ions Ions

Mg PbCl2 SO3 NH3 H2SO4 ZnCO3 FeSO4

Ionic Covalent Covalent Covalent Ionic Ionic

Atoms Ions Molecules Molecules Molecules Ions Ions

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Copper(II) nitrate

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2.3 WRITING CHEMICAL/ IONIC / HALF EQUATIONS A. Chemical Properties of Acid 2.3.1 Metal + Acid Hydrogen + Salt Example : Chemical Equation : Fe + 2HCl H2 + FeCl2 Ionic equations : Fe (s) + 2HCl (aq) H2 (g) + FeCl2 (aq) Fe + 2H + + 2 ClH2 + Fe2+ + 2 ClHalf Equations : Fe Fe2+ + 2e 2 H+ + 2e H2 Applicable in topics : a. Acid & Bases
1. Nitric acid + Chemical reaction Ionic equation Half equations Lead

b. Preparation of Salts

c. Rate of reaction

2. Hydrochloric acid + Chemical reaction Ionic equation Half equations

Zinc

3. Sulphuric acid Chemical reaction Ionic equation Half equations

Magnesium

4. Nitric acid + Aluminium Chemical reaction Ionic equation

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Half equations

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2.3.2 Acid

Base

Water + 2KOH + ZnO

Salt 2 H2O + H2O + K2SO4 Zn(NO3)2 c. Thermochemistry

Example : H2SO4 2HNO3 Applicable in topics: a. Acid & Bases

b. Preparation of salts

5. Hydrochloric acid + Calcium oxide Chemical reaction Ionic equation

6. Nitric acid

+ Barium hydroxide

Chemical reaction Ionic equation

7.

Sulphuric acid + Sodium hydroxide

2.3.3 Acid

Metal Carbonate

Water + Carbon dioxide +

Salt

Example : 2HCl + ZnCO3 H2O + CO2 + ZnCl2 Applicable in topics: a. Acid & Bases b. Preparation of salts and qualitative analysis of salt c. Rate of reaction
8. Sulphuric acid Chemical reaction Ionic equation + Sodium carbonate solution

9. Hydrochloric acid Chemical reaction Ionic equation

calcium carbonate granules

10. Nitric acid

copper(II) carbonate

Ionic equation

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Chemical reaction

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2.4. Displacement of metal reactions Example : Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + Zn (s) Cu (s) + Zn(NO3)2(aq) Applicable in topics: 1. Electrochemistry 2. Redox 3. Thermochemistry
11. Silver nitrate solution + Iron metal Chemical reaction Ionic equation Half equations

12. Copper(II) sulphate solution + Magnesium metal Chemical reaction Ionic equation Half equations

2.5. Double decomposition Example : AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) AgCl (s) + NaNO3(aq) Applicable in topics: 1. Salts preparation 2. Thermochemistry
13. Lead(II) nitrate solution + Potassium chloride solution

Chemical reaction Ionic equation

14.

Copper(II) nitrate solution + sodium carbonate solution

Chemical reaction Ionic equation

15.

Barium chloride solution + sulphuric acid

Chemical reaction Ionic equation

16.

Calcium nitrate solution + potassium sulphate solution

Chemical reaction Ionic equation

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2.6 Others
17. Potassium iodide solution + Bromine water

Chemical reaction Ionic equation Half equations

18.

Magnesium + chlorine gas

Chemical reaction Half equations

19. Complete combustion of ethanol Chemical reaction

20. Complete combustion of propene Chemical equation

21. Heating of zinc nitrate Chemical Equation

22. Heating of copper(II) carbonate Chemical Equation

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3. CALCULATIONS
3.1 RELATIVE MASSES 3.2 MOLE AND NO. OF PARTICLES 3.3 MOLE AND MASS & VOLUME OF GASES 3.4 EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAE 3.5 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING ACIDS & ALKALI 3.6 THERMOCHEMISTRY

By : JUNE LING S J SMK ST JOSEPH, KUCHING

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3.1 Calculate Relative Molecular Mass(Mr) or Relative Formula Mass(Mr) from Relative Atomic Mass(Ar) Relative Atomic Mass of an element, Ar = Average mass of one atom of an element 1/12 x mass of one atom of carbon-12 Example 1 : How may times is one calcium atom heavier than one oxygen atom? [RAM O,16; Ca,40] Solution: Mass of one Ca atom Mass of one O atom

= 40 = 2.5 16

The mass of one Ca atom is 2.5 times heavier than one oxygen atom. Example 2 : How may calcium atoms have the same mass as two atoms of bromine? [RAM Br, 80] Solution: Mass of two atoms of bromine = 2 x 80 = 160 Number of calcium atoms = 160 = 4 40 Relative Molecular Mass of a molecule, Mr, = Average mass of one molecule ______ 1/12 x mass of one atom of carbon-12

For ionic compounds, the term Relative Formula Mass, is used in place of relative molecular mass. Calculate Mr by adding up all the Ar of all the atoms present in the covalent molecule or one formula unit of the ionic compound. Ar and Mr have no units.

Example 1 : Find the RMM and RFM of the following substances : Molecular Substances Oxygen Hydrochloric acid Water Sulphuric acid Ammonia Molecular Formula O2 HCl H2O H2SO4 NH3 Relative Molecular Mass (RMM) 2(16) = 32

[Ar: S, 32; O, 16; H, 1; Cl, 35.5; N, 14] Chemical Relative Formula Mass (RFM) Formula Sodium chloride NaCl 23 + 35.5 = 58.5 Aluminium oxide Al2O3 Calcium carbonate CaCO3 Hydrated Copper(II) Sulphate CuSO4.5H2O [Ar: Na, 23; Cu, 64; Al, 27; Ca, 40; O, 16; H, 1; Cl, 35.5; S, 32] Ionic Compounds

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3.2 The Mole and the Number of Particles 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 number of particles. There are three kinds of particles: atoms molecules ions

Number of particles = n x NA

where n = number of moles NA = Avogadros Constant, 6.02 x 1023

Example 1 How many zinc atoms are there in 0.5 moles of zinc powder? Solution: The number of zinc atoms in 0.5 moles of zinc powder = 0.5 x 6.02 x 1023 = 3.01x 1023 Example 2 (a) How many water molecules are there in a glass containing 3.5 moles of water? (b) How many hydrogen atoms are there in the glass? Solution: (a) The number of water molecules in 3.5 moles of water = 3.5 x 6.02 x 1023 = 2.17 x 1024 (b) One molecule of water, H2O, contains two hydrogen atoms. The number of hydrogen atoms in 3.5 moles of water = 2 x 3.5 x 6.02 x 1023 = 2 x 2.17 x 1024 = 4.21 x 1024 Example 3 (a) Find the number of moles of oxygen gas, O2, containing 3.01x 1023 molecules of oxygen gas. Solution: Number of particles = n x NA number of moles of oxygen gas, O2, n = Number of particles NA = 3.01x 1023 6.02 x 1023 = 0.5 Example 4 A beaker contains 0.2 moles of MgCl2. Find the total number of ions in the beaker. Solution: 1 mole of MgCl2 gives 1mole of Mg2+ and 2 moles of Cl- ions i.e. 3 moles of ions in total. Number of moles of ions in 0.2 moles of MgCl2 = 0.2 x 3 = 0.6 Number of ions = 0.6 X NA = 0.6 x 6.02 x 1023 = 3.61 x 1023 C) Equations for calculating the number of moles, n, in: a) Substances n =

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_ m____ Molar mass

m= mass of a subatance Molar mass = Ar or Mr in grams

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b) Solutions n = MV M = molarity in mol dm-3 V = volume of the solution in dm3

When the volume of the solution is given in cm3, n = MV 1000 V = volume of the solution in cm3

c) Gases n=

Volume of a gas Molar volume

volume of a gas in dm3 Molar volume, Vm = 22.4 dm3 at STP or 24 dm3 at room conditions

Note: Molar Mass = mass of 1 mole of a substance in gmol-1 = Ar or Mr in grams Molar Volume = volume occupied by 1 mole of all gases [i.e. 22.4dm3 at STP or 24dm3 at room conditions] Review Question 1: Calculating number of moles, mass in substances. Use equations in (a) above 1. Zinc, Zn Ar = 65 Calculate a) Mass of 1 mole b) Mass of 2 moles c) Mass of moles d) Mass of 3.01 x 1023 Zn atoms

2. Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH a) Mass of 3 moles of NaOH:

Mr = 23+16+1 = 40 b) Number of moles in 20g of NaOH:

3. Carbon dioxide gas, CO2 , Mr = a) Mass of 2.5 moles of CO2 gas:

b) Number of molecules in 1.5 moles of CO2 gas:

c)

Number of atoms in 2 moles of CO2 gas:

4. Sodium chloride, NaCl a) Mass of 0.65 moles :

Mr =

5. Copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 Mr = a) Number of moles in 56.4g of copper(II) nitrate

[Ar: Zn, 65; Na, 23; Cu, 64; O, 16; H, 1; C, 12; Cl, 35.5; N, 14]
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Example 2: Calculate the molarity of the solution obtained when 14 g of potassium hydroxide is completely dissolved in distilled water to make up 500cm3 of solution. [Ar: K,39 H,1; O,16] Solution: Use equation in (b) above. Molarity of KOH, M = n x 1000 v Number of moles of KOH, n = 14 [39+16+1] = 0.25 x 1000 500 = 0.25 = 0.5 mol dm-3 Example 3 Calculate the volume occupied by the following gases at STP. i) 2 moles of carbon dioxide gas ii) 16g of oxygen gas Solution: Use equation in (c) above. i) Number of moles, n = _Volume of the gas, V molar volume, Vm Volume occupied by 2 moles of CO2, V = n x Vm = 2 X 22.4 = 44 .8 dm3 ii) n = mass of oxygen gas, O2 Mr of oxygen gas,O2 = 16 32 = 0.5 mol Volume occupied by 16g of O2 gas, v = n x 22.4 = 0.5 x 22.4 = 11.4 dm3 3.5 Using Empirical Formula to find Molecular Formula

Empirical Formula is the simplest whole number ratio of number of atoms of each element in the compound. Molecular Formula shows the actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule of the compound. Molecular Formula = (Empirical Formula)n % composition by mass of an element in a compound = Total mass of the element in the compound Mr of the compound Example 1: When 100grams of a hydrocarbon gas is analysed, it is found to contain 85.72% carbon and 14.28% hydrogen. Element Percentage composition by mass/% Per 100 g Number of moles of atoms Mole ratios Simplest mole ratios C 85.72 H 14.28

Empirical Formula = CH2


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85.72 85.72 = 7.14 12 7.14 = 1 7.14 1

14.28 14.28 = 14.28 1 14.28 = 2 7.14 2

Question gives % by mass instead of the mass of each elements in the compound. Per 100 g Divide the mass of each element by its molar mass Divide each number by the smallest number Get the simplest whole number ratio

SPM CHEMISTRY
Example 2: 2.58g of a hydrocarbon contains 2.16g of carbon. The relative molecular mass of the hydrocarbon is 86. [Ar: H,1; C,12 ] Find the empirical formula and determine the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon. Solution: Step 1: Find the Empirical Formula by using the table below. Element Mass of element/g Number of moles of atoms Mole ratios C 2.16 2.16 = 0.18 12 0.18 = 1 0.18 3 0.42 0.42 = 0.42 1 0.42 = 2.33 = 7 0.18 3 7 H Write down the mass of the elements as given by the question Divide the mass of each element by its molar mass Divide each number by the smallest number Get the simplest whole number ratio

Simplest mole ratios

Empirical Formula = C3H7 Step 2: Find the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon Molecular Formula = (Empirical Formula)n = (C3H7)n Mr = (Sum of the Ar of all atoms in the Empirical Formula) x n 86 = [ 3(12) + 7(1)] x n n = 86 = 2 43 Molecular formula : (C3H7)2 = C6H14

3.5 Calculations in Acids and alkalis Concentration can be expressed in two ways: i) Concentration of a solution (g dm-3) = ii) Molarity of a solution (mol dm-3) = Mass of solute in gram/g Volume of solvent /dm3 Number of moles of solute/mol Volume of solvent /dm3

n V iii)Conversion between Molarity (mol dm-3) and concentration in (g dm-3):

Molarity
(mol dm )
-3

x Molar Mass

Concentration
(g dm-3)

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Example 1: Calculate:a)the molarity of a solution which is prepared by dissolving 0.5 mole of hydrogen chloride, HCl, in distilled water to make up to 250 cm3 solution. [Ar: H,1; Cl,35.5 ] Solution: a)From n = MV 1000 M = n x 1000 V = 0.5 x 1000 250 = 2 mol dm-3 Example 2: Find the mass of sodium hydroxide that should be dissolved in water to produce 500cm3 of 0.5 moldm3 sodium hydroxide solution? [Ar:H,1; Na,23; O,16] Solution: Number of moles of NaOH, n = MV 1000 = 0.5 x 500 1000 = 0.25 Mass of 0.25 moles of NaOH = number of moles x molar mass = 0.25 x [23+16+ 1] = 0.25 x 40 = 10g Neutralisation Neutralisation is a reaction between an acid and a base to form salt and water only. Acid A + alkali B aA + bB Then, MAVA MBVB
= a b

salt and water products MA = Molarity of acid A MB = Molarity of alkali B VA = Volume of acid A VB = Volume of alkali B a = mole ratio of acid A to alkali B b

Note: Make sure that VA and VB are in the same units; both in cm3 or both in dm3 Example 1: 27.50cm3 of 0.15 mol dm-3 H2SO4 completely neutralizes 25.0 cm3 of NaOH. Calculate the molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution. Solution: Step 1: Write the chemical equation for neutralization: H2SO4 + 2 NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O

Step 2: List down the values given by the question for each letter in the formula:

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= a

MA = 0.15 mol dm3 VA = 27.50 cm3 a =1 b 2

MB = ? VB = 25.0cm3

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Step 3: Rearrange the formula above. Substitute the values into the formula to calculate the required molarity. Molarity of NaOH, MB = b x MAVA = 2 x 0.15 x 27.50 a VB 1 25.0 = 0.33 mol dm3 Review Question 1: Repeat the above reaction by using 0.15 moldm3 hydrochloric acid, HCl. Find the volume of the acid required to completely neutralize 25.0cm3 of 0.33 mol dm3 of NaOH solution. (Ans: 55.00cm3; note that HCl is a monoprotic acid whereas H2SO4 is a diprotic acid ) Preparation of a solution by dilution method Moles of solute before dilution = moles of solute after dilution M1 = molarity of the solution before water is added M1V1 = M2V2 V1 = volume of the solution before water is added M2 = molarity of the solution after water is added V2 = volume of the solution after water is added Note: Make sure that V1 and V2 are of the same unit. Example 1: Calculate the volume of 2.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4, needed to prepare 2.5 dm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 of the same acid solution. M1 = 2.0 mol dm-3 V1 = ? M1V1 = M2V2 M2 = 0.5 mol dm-3 V2 = 2.5 dm3 V1 = M2V2 = 0.5 x 2.5 = 0.625 dm3 or 62.5cm3 M1 2.0 Review questions: 1. Find the volume of 2.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4, needed to prepare 100 cm3 0.5 mol dm3 sulphuric acid. (Ans: 25cm3) 2. 200 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4, is poured into a 250 cm3 volumetric flask. Distilled water is then added to make 250 cm3 of solution. What is the molarity of the diluted acid solution? (Ans: 0.8 mol dm-3) 3.6 Calculations in Thermochemistry Calculate: heat of precipitation, Hppt heat of displacement, Hdisp heat of neutralization, Hneut (exothermic) heat of combustion, Hcomb (exothermic) Step 1: Write the chemical equation for the reaction Step 2: Calculate H= mc m= total mass of solution or water/g c = specific heat capacity of water= 4.2J g-1 0C-1 = temperature change/0C H = heat released or absorbed in joules. Step 3 : Calculate number of moles, n, of the products formed in displacement, precipitation neutralization reactions and the number of moles of the reactant burnt in combustion.

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Step 4: H = ___H___ n x 1000

Units of H is in KJ mol-1 but units for H is in J Add a negative sign in front of H for exothermic reaction and a positive sign in front of H for endothermic reaction.

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Example 1: When 100cm3 of 2.0mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution is added to 100 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 potassium sulphate solution, the temperature of the mixture increases by 9 0C. What is the heat of precipitation? Step 1: Write the chemical equation for the precipitation reaction:Pb(NO3)2(aq) + K2SO4(aq) PbSO4 (s) + 2KNO3(aq) m = total mass of solution = (100+100) cm3 c = specific heat capacity of water = 4.2J g-1 0C-1 = temperature change/0C = 9 0C

Step 2: Calculate H= mc = 200x4.2x 9 = 7560J

Step 3 : Calculate number of moles, n, which is the same for both reacting solutions: n = MV 1000 = 2.0 x 100 = 0.2 1000

Step 4 : H = ___H___ n x 1000 = 7560___ 0.2 x 1000 = 37.8 kJ mol-1

Example 2: When 30 g of butane C4H10 is completely burnt in air, the heat energy released increases the temperature of 500 cm3 of water by 70 0C. Find the heat of combustion of butane. Step 1:Calculate H= mc = 500 x 4.2 x 70 = ? J Step 2 : Calculate number of moles, n of butane. Mr [C4H10] = 4(12) + 10(1) = 58 Number of moles of butane = mass___ Molar mass = _____?_______

Step 3 : H = ___H___ n x 1000 = ?______ _?_ x 1000 = ___________kJ mol-1 (Remember to add the negative sign for exothermic reaction)

(Answer: - 284.33 kJ mol-1) Review Question: 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 nitric acid is added to 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide. The temperature of the mixture increases by 6.5 0C. Calculate the heat of neutralization of the solution. ( Ans: - 54.6 kJ mol-1 )

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4. GUIDED ESSAY WRITING FOR PAPER 2


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 CHEMICAL BOND IONIC BOND CHEMICAL BOND COVALENT BOND PREPARATION OF SALT INSOLUBLE SALT PREPARATION OF SALT SOLUBLE SALT RATE OF REACTION HEAT OF COMBUSTION

By : CHEN SOO CHIEN KOLEJ DPAH ABDILLAH, KUCHING

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4.1 CHEMICAL BONDS: IONIC BOND Guided Exercise 1. Element Proton number A 3 B 9 The reaction between atoms A and B forms an ionic compound. (i) Explain how this ionic compound is formed. (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. Answer: (i) .. A has electron arrangement of .. To achieve the . electron arrangement // .. arrangement, atom A . one valence electron and a ion, A+ is formed. [A ] 2. Element Proton number C 12 D 8 The reaction between atoms C and D forms an ionic compound. (i) Explain how this ionic compound is formed. (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. Answer: Exercise

B has electron arrangement of .. To achieve the . electron arrangement // arrangement, atom B .. one electron and a ion, B- is formed. [B ]

A+ and B- ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces to form an ionic compound AB. (ii)

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4.2 CHEMICAL BONDS: COVALENT BOND Guided Exercise 1. Element No of protons N 7 H 1 The reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen atoms forms a covalent compound. (i) Explain how this covalent compound is formed. (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. Answer: A nitrogen .. has electron arrangement of . // A nitrogen atom has valence electrons. A nitrogen atom needs . more electrons to achieve the . electron arrangement // arrangement. A hydrogen . has electron arrangement of . // A hydrogen atom has . valence electron. Each hydrogen atom needs .. more electron to achieve the . electron arrangement // arrangement. Each of the three hydrogen atoms contributes electron and one nitrogen atom contributes electrons for . to form a covalent compound, NH3 2. Element No of protons C 6 Cl 17 The reaction between carbon and chlorine atoms forms a covalent compound. (i) Explain how this covalent compound is formed. (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. Answer: Exercise

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4.3 PREPARATION OF SALT: INSOLBULE SALT Guided Exercise 1. Describe the preparation of lead(II) chloride in the laboratory. In your description, include the chemical equation involved. Answer: Substances: solution, solution, . water Apparatus: . cylinder, beaker, filter funnel, filter Exercise 2. Describe the preparation of calcium sulphate in the laboratory. In your description, include the chemical equation involved. Answer:

Procedure: 1. 50 cm3 of . mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution into a beaker. 2. Add cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution. 3. the mixture with a glass rod. 4. . the mixture. 5. . the salt / precipitate with distilled water. 6. . the salt by pressing between pieces of filter paper.

Equation: Pb(NO3)2 + NaCl

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4.4 PREPARATION OF SALT: SOLUBLE SALT Guided Exercise 1. Describe the preparation of copper(II) sulphate in the laboratory. In your description, include the chemical equation involved. Answer: Substances: acid, copper(II) // copper(II) .. // copper(II) . powder, .. water Exercise 2. Describe the preparation of zinc nitrate in the laboratory. In your description, include the chemical equation involved.

Apparatus: cylinder, beaker, spatula, .. rod, ... dish, .. burner, tripod stand, wire gauze, filter ., filter paper

Procedure: 1. 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid into a beaker. the sulphuric acid. 2. Use a spatula to add powder a little at a time into the acid. .. the mixture with a glass rod. 3. Continue adding copper(II) oxide until some of it no longer . 4. . the solution into an evaporating dish to remove the unreacted copper(II) oxide. 5. the solution until the final volume is 1/3 the initial volume // to produce a saturated solution. 6. .. the saturated solution until crystals are formed. 7. .. the solution to obtain the copper(II) sulphate crystals. 8. the crystals with a little distilled water. 9. .. the crystals by pressing between 2 pieces of paper.

Equation: CuO + H2SO4

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4.5 RATE OF REACTION : Guided Exercise 1. Experiment I Reactants: 100 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 HCl, excess CaCO3 chips Experiment II Reactants: 100 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl, excess CaCO3 chips 2. Experiment I Reactants: 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 , excess granulated zinc Experiment II Reactants: 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 , excess zinc powder Exercise

Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory.

Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory. Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment .is higher than Experiment ... (ii) In Experiment II, zinc powder has a total surface area exposed to .. than granulated zinc in Experiment I. Frequency of collision between ions and .. atoms in Experiment II is than in Experiment I. Frequency of.. collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.

Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment . is higher than Experiment (ii) The concentration of acid / . ions in in Experiment II is .. than Experiment I. The number of H+ ions per unit .. in Experiment II is .. than Experiment I. Frequency of collision between ions and..in Experiment II is ... than in Experiment I. Frequency of.. collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.

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Guided Exercise 3. Experiment I Reactants: 50 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution, 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, Temperature: 30 oC Experiment II Reactants: 50 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution, 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, Temperature: 45 oC 4.

Exercise Experiment I Reactants: 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 , excess zinc powder Experiment II Reactants: 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 , excess zinc powder CuSO4 solution

Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II. Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory. Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is than Experiment I. (ii) of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I . energy of H+ ions and S2O32- ions in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. The H+ ions move . and . more often with S2O32- ions in Experiment II is than in Experiment I. Frequency of .. between . ions and . ions in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. Frequency of . collision in Experiment II is .. than in Experiment I. . (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory.

Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is than Experiment I. (ii) Copper(II) sulphate solution in Experiment II acts as a .. whereas no catalyst is used in Experiment I In Experiment II, the presence of catalyst enables the reaction to take place through an path which requires a . activation energy. In Experiment II, more .. ions and ................ atoms are able to achieve the activation energy than Experiment I. Frequency of .. collision in Experiment II is .than in Experiment I.

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4.6 HEAT OF COMBUSTION Heat of combustion is the heat change when one mole of alcohol is completely burnt in oxygen under standard conditions. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of combustion of ethanol, C2H5OH. In your description, include the following: [Relative atomic mass : C=12 ; O=16 ; H=1] o diagram showing the set-up of apparatus o procedures of the experiment o tabulation of data o calculation to obtain the heat of combustion o Two precautionary steps taken to obtain more accurate result Answer:

thermometer Wind shield Copper can water Tripod stand Spirit p Wooden block Procedure: 1. Measure 100 cm3 of and pour into a .. can. The copper can is placed on a tripod stand. 2. Record the .. temperature of the water. 3. Weigh a spirit lamp with and record its . 4. Place the spirit lamp under the .. can and . the wick of the lamp immediately. 5. the water in the can continuously throughout the experiment 6. Put out the flame when the temperature of the water by about 30 0C 7. Record the temperature reached by the water. 8. Weigh the spirit lamp and its content and record the mass.

ethanol

Tabulation of Data: The highest temperature of . / oC The initial temperature of / oC

T2 T1 m2 m1

of spirit lamp and its content after burning / g

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Calculation steps: Increase in temperature of water Mass of ethanol burnt = = oC g

Number of mole of C2H5OH

m 46

The heat energy given out during combustion by ethanol = the heat energy absorbed by water = mc = .. = x J Heat of combustion of ethanol, H = - mc J mol-1 n = .. J mol-1

Two precautionary steps taken to obtain more accurate result: 1. Make sure the flame touches the .. of the copper can // Place the spirit lamp very close or just beneath the .. of the copper can. 2. Stir the water in the copper can . throughout the experiment. 3. the spirit lamp and its content . when the flame has been put out. 4. Use a wind during experiment. [Any two]

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5. WRITTEN PRACTICAL PAPER PAPER 3


5.1 STRUCTURE QUESTIONS 5.2 ESSAY QUESTIONS

By : FELIX NGUI SMK TABUAN JAYA , KUCHING

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SPM CHEMISTRY Answer all the questions. The time suggested for answering Question 1 is 45 minutes.

A student carried out an experiment to construct the electrochemical series by measuring the voltage of copper and metal T in a simple voltaic cell as shown in Diagram 1.1. The experiment is repeated by replacing metal T with metals P, Q, R and S.

Cu

T Copper(II) sulphate solution DIAGRAM 1.1

The voltmeter readings for each pair of metals are shown in Diagram 1.2

DIAGRAM 1.2 (a) Based on Diagram 1.2, record the voltmeter readings for each pair of metals in Table 1.1. Pair of metals Cu and P Cu and Q Cu and R Cu and S Cu and T Negative terminal P Q Cu S Cu Page TABLE 1.1 [3 marks]
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(b) Based on the voltmeter readings, arrange the metals Cu, P, Q, R, S and T in descending order of electropositivity. _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ ________

Descending order of electropositivity of metal. [3 marks]

(c)

Complete Table 1.2 for the experiment. Variables Manipulated variable: Action to be taken (i) The way to manipulate variable: ................................................................. ................................................................ (ii) What to observe in the responding variable: ................................................................. ................................................................. (iii) The way to maintain the controlled variable: ................................................................. .................................................................

(i)

........................................................... ........................................................... (ii) Responding variable:

.............. .............. (iii) Controlled variable:

.......................................................... ......

TABLE 1.2 (d) State a hypothesis for this experiment.

[6 marks]

................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... [3 marks ]

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(e) State three observations and corresponding inferences that can be obtained from the cell in Diagram 1.1(Cu and metal T). Observation 1 .. . . 2 .. . . 3 .. . . Inference 1 .. . . 2 .. . . 3 .. . . [6 marks] (f) Predict the voltage of the cells which contain the following pair of metals.. Pair of metals P and S P and T Q and R [3 marks] (g) Classify metals P, Q, R, S and T into more electropositive than copper and less electropositive than copper. Write your answers in the table provided. Voltage/ V

[3 marks]

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(h) Explain why the voltage of cell of copper and metal S is larger than the cell of copper and metal P. ... ... ... [3 marks] (i) Another example of a chemical cell is Daniell Cell. Draw the apparatus set-up of the Daniell Cell of copper and metal T.

[3 marks]

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2.

A student carried out an experiment to investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction. He poured 50cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution into a 250 cm3 conical flask. The conical flask was then placed on a mark X on a piece of white paper. 10.0 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid was added to the sodium thiosulphate solution and shaken. At the same time, the stopwatch was started. The stopwatch was stopped as soon as the mark X on the piece of white paper was no longer visible. The student repeated the experiment using sodium thiosulphate solution with the concentration of 1.0 mol dm-3, 1.5 mol dm-3, 2.0 mol dm-3 and 2.5 mol dm-3 . Diagram 2 shows the readings of the stopwatch for each of the reactions at different concentrations.

Diagram 2 (a) Record the time for each reaction in the spaces provided in Diagram 2. [3 marks]
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(b)

Construct a table and record the concentration, time and

1 of this experiment. time [3 marks]

(c) State the operational definition for rate of reaction for this experiment. .. .. .. [3 marks] 1 (d) (i) Draw a graph of concentration against time on a graph paper. [3 marks]

(ii) Using the graph drawn in (b)(i), state the relationship between concentration and the rate of reaction. .. .. [3 marks] (e) Predict the time taken for the mark X to be no longer visible if the experiment is repeated using 3.0 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution. .. [3 marks] State one observation for the experiment. Explain your answer. ..

(f)

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.. [3 marks]

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(g) Suggest a hypothesis for this experiment. .. .. .. [3 marks]

(h) (i)

Variables Manipulated variable:

Action to be taken (i) The way to manipulate variable:

........................................................... ...................................................................... ........................................................... ....................................................................... (ii) Responding variable: (ii) What to observe in the responding variable:

............... ....................................................................... ............... ................................................................... (iii) Controlled variable: (iii) The way to maintain the controlled variable: . .. [6 marks] (i) The relationship between concentration and rate of reaction can be applied in our daily life. Using your knowledge of chemistry, explain why fanning glowing charcoal will cause the charcoal to ignite. .. .. .. .. [3 marks]

. ..

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3.

If iron is exposed to oxygen and water, rusting will occur but if iron is in contact with a more electropositive metal, rusting is inhibited.
Plan a laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of other metals on the rusting of iron. Your planning should include the following aspects:

(a) Statement of the problem


(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) All the variables Statement of the hypothesis List of substances and materials Procedure of the experiment Tabulation of data (17 marks)

4.

Vulcanised rubber is more elastic than unvulcanised rubber.


Plan a laboratory experiment to compare the elasticity of vulcanised rubber and unvulcanised rubber. Your planning should include the following aspects:

(a) Statement of the problem


(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) All the variables Statement of the hypothesis List of substances and materials Procedure of the experiment Tabulation of data (17 marks) 5. Soaps and detergents are cleansing agents but their effectiveness in hard water is different.

In an experiment to compare the effectiveness of a soap and a detergent in hard water. Your planning should include the following aspects:

(a) Statement of the problem


(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) All the variables Statement of the hypothesis List of substances and materials Procedure of the experiment Tabulation of data

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(17 marks)

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6. SUGGESTED ANSWERS

6.1 GUIDED ESSAY WRITING FOR PAPER 2

6.2 WRITTEN PRACTICAL PAPER

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6.1 GUIDED ESSAY WRITING FOR PAPER 2

6.1.1 CHEMICAL BONDS: IONIC BOND Guided Exercise 1. Element Proton number A 3 B 9 The reaction between atoms A and B forms an ionic compound. (i) Explain how this ionic compound is formed. (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. Answer: (i) Atom A has electron arrangement of 2.1. To achieve the stable electron arrangement // duplet arrangement, atom A donates one valence electron and a positive ion, A+ is formed. [ A A+ + e ] Atom B has electron arrangement of 2.7. To achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement, atom B receives one electron and a negative ion, B- is formed. [ B + e B- ] A+ and B- ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces to form an ionic compound AB. (ii)
X X

Exercise 2. Element Proton number C 12 D 8 The reaction between atoms C and D forms an ionic compound. (i) Explain how this ionic compound is formed. (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. Answer: (i) Atom C has electron arrangement of 2.8.2 To achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement, atom C donates two valence electrons and a positive ion, C2+ is formed. [ C C2+ + 2e ] Atom D has electron arrangement of 2.6. To achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement, atom C receives two electrons and a negative ion, D2- is formed. [ D + 2e D2- ] C2+ and D2- ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces to form an ionic compound CD. (ii)
X X XX X X XX X X

+
X X XX X X XX X X

2+ _
X X

2XX X X XX X X

A+

B-

C2+-

D2--

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6.1.2 CHEMICAL BONDS: COVALENT BOND Guided Exercise 1. Element Proton number N 7 H 1 The reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen atoms forms a covalent compound. (i) Explain how this covalent compound is formed (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. Answer: A nitrogen atom has electron arrangement of 2.5 // A nitrogen atom has five valence electrons. A nitrogen atom needs three more electrons to achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement. A hydrogen atom has electron arrangement of 1 // A hydrogen atom has one valence electron. Each hydrogen atom needs one more electron to achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement. Each of the three hydrogen atoms contributes one electron and one nitrogen atom contributes three electrons for sharing to form a covalent compound, NH3 2. Element Proton number C 6 Cl 17 The reaction between carbon and chlorine atoms forms a covalent compound. (i) Explain how this covalent compound is formed (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. Answer: A carbon atom has electron arrangement of 2.4 // A carbon atom has four valence electrons. A carbon atom needs four more electrons to achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement. A chlorine atom has electron arrangement of 2.8.7 // A chlorine atom has seven valence electrons. Each chlorine atom needs one more electron to achieve the stable electron arrangement // octet arrangement. Each of the four chlorine atoms contributes one electron and one carbon atom contributes four electrons for sharing to form a covalent compound, CCl4
XX XX X

Exercise

H H
X X XX X

N N

X XX

X X

H
XX XX

X XX XX XX XX X X X X XX Cl X X C X X X X XX XX XX XX X XX XX X X Cl X X X XX XX

XX XX

Cl

XX XX

XX XX X XX Cl X X X XX XX

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6.1.3 PREPARATION OF SALT: INSOLBULE SALT Guided Exercise 1. Describe the preparation of lead(II) chloride in the laboratory. In your description, include the chemical equation involved. Answer: Substances: Lead(II) nitrate solution, sodium chloride solution, distilled water Apparatus: Measuring cylinder, beaker, filter funnel, filter paper Procedure: 1. Pour 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution into a beaker. 2. Add 100 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution. 3. Stir the mixture with a glass rod. 4. Filter the mixture. 5. Rinse / wash the salt / precipitate with distilled water. 6. Dry the salt by pressing between 2 pieces of filter paper. Equation: Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl PbCl2 + 2NaNO3 Exercise 2. Describe the preparation of calcium sulphate in the laboratory. In your description, include the chemical equation involved. Answer: Substances: Calcium nitrate solution, sodium sulphate solution, distilled water Apparatus: Measuring cylinder, beaker, filter funnel, filter paper Procedure: 1. Pour 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 calcium nitrate solution into a beaker. 2. Add 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium sulphate solution. 3. Stir the mixture with a glass rod. 4. Filter the mixture. 5. Rinse / wash the salt / precipitate with distilled water. 6. Dry the salt by pressing between 2 pieces of filter paper. Equation: Ca(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 CaSO4 + 2NaNO3

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6.1.4 PREPARATION OF SALT: SOLUBLE SALT (NOT Na+, K+ OR NH4+ SALT) Guided Exercise 1. Describe the preparation of copper(II) sulphate in the laboratory. In your description, include the chemical equation involved. Answer: Substances: Sulphuric acid, copper(II) oxide // copper(II) carbonate // copper(II) hydroxide powder, distilled water Apparatus: Measuring cylinder, beaker, spatula, glass rod, evaporating dish, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire gauze, filter funnel, filter paper Procedure: 1. Pour 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid into a beaker. Warm the sulphuric acid. 2. Use a spatula to add copper(II) oxide powder a little at a time into the acid. Stir the mixture with a glass rod. 3. Continue adding copper(II) oxide until some of it no longer dissolves. 4. Filter the solution into an evaporating dish to remove the unreacted copper(II) oxide. 5. Heat the solution until the final volume is 1/3 the initial volume // to produce a saturated solution. 6. Cool the saturated solution until crystals are formed. 7. Filter the solution to obtain the copper(II) sulphate crystals. 8. Rinse the crystals with a little cold distilled water. 9. Dry the crystals by pressing between 2 pieces of filter paper. Equation: CuO + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O Exercise 2. Describe the preparation of zinc nitrate in the laboratory. In your description, include the chemical equation involved. Answer: Substances: Nitric acid, zinc // zinc oxide // zinc carbonate // zinc hydroxide powder, distilled water

Apparatus: Measuring cylinder, beaker, spatula, glass rod, evaporating dish, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire gauze, filter funnel, filter paper Procedure: 1. Pour 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 nitric acid into a beaker. Warm the nitric acid. 2. Use a spatula to add zinc oxide powder a little at a time into the acid. Stir the mixture with a glass rod. 3. Continue adding zinc oxide until some of it no longer dissolves. 4. Filter the solution into an evaporating dish to remove the unreacted zinc oxide. 5. Heat the solution until the final volume is 1/3 the initial volume // to produce a saturated solution. 6. Cool the saturated solution until crystals are formed. 7. Filter the solution to obtain the zinc nitrate crystals. 8. Rinse the crystals with a little cold distilled water. 9. Dry the crystals by pressing between 2 pieces of filter paper. Equation: ZnO + 2HNO3 Zn(NO3)2 + H2O

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6.1.5 RATE OF REACTION : Guided Exercise 1. Experiment I Reactants: 100 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 HCl, excess CaCO3 chips Experiment II Reactants: 100 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl, excess CaCO3 chips 2. Experiment I Reactants: 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 , excess granulated zinc Experiment II Reactants: 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 , excess zinc powder Exercise

Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory.

Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory. Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. (ii) In Experiment II, zinc powder has a larger total surface area exposed to collision than granulated zinc in Experiment I. Frequency of collision between H+ ions and zinc atoms in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I. Frequency of effective collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.

Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. (ii) The concentration of acid / hydrogen ions in in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. The number of H+ ions per unit volume in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. Frequency of collision between H+ ions and CaCO3 in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I. Frequency of effective collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.

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Guided Exercise 3. Experiment I Reactants: 50 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution, 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, Temperature: 30 oC Experiment II Reactants: 50 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution, 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, Temperature: 45 oC 4. Experiment I Substances: 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 , excess zinc powder Experiment II Substances: 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4 , excess zinc powder, CuSO4 solution Exercise

Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory. Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. (ii) Temperature of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I Kinetic energy of H+ ions and S2O32- ions in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. The H+ ions move faster and collide more often with S2O32- ions in Experiment II is than in Experiment I. Frequency of collision between H ions and S2O32- ions in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I. Frequency of effective collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.
+

Compare the rate of reaction in Experiment I and II. (i) Which experiment has a higher rate of reaction? (ii) Explain your answer in (i) with reference to the collision theory.

Answer: (i) Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than Experiment I. (ii) Copper(II) sulphate solution in Experiment II acts as a catalyst whereas no catalyst is used in Experiment I In Experiment II, the presence of catalyst enables the reaction to take place through an alternative path which requires a lower activation energy. In Experiment II, more H+ ions and zinc atoms are able to achieve the lower activation energy than Experiment I. Frequency of effective collision in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I.

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6.1.6 HEAT OF COMBUSTION Heat of combustion is the heat change when one mole of alcohol is completely burnt in oxygen under standard conditions. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of combustion of ethanol, C2H5OH. In your description, include the following: [Relative atomic mass : C=12 ; O=16 ; H=1] o diagram showing the set-up of apparatus o procedures of the experiment o tabulation of data o calculation to obtain the heat of combustion o Two precautionary steps taken to obtain more accurate result Answer:

Thermometer

Wind shield
Copper can

water Pipe clay triangle ethanol Spirit lamp Wooden block

Procedure: 1. Measure 100 cm3 of water and pour into a copper can. The copper can is placed on a tripod stand. 2. Record the initial temperature of the water. 3. Weigh a spirit lamp with ethanol and record its mass. 4. Place the spirit lamp under the copper can and light the wick of the lamp immediately. 5. Stir the water in the can continuously throughout the experiment. 6. Put out the flame when the temperature of the water increases by about 30 0C. 7. Record the highest temperature reached by the water. 8. Weigh the spirit lamp and its content immediately and record the mass. Tabulation of Data: The highest temperature of water / oC The initial temperature of water / oC

T2 T1 m2 m1

Mass of spirit lamp and its content after burning / g

Mass of spirit lamp and its contents before burning / g

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Calculation steps: Increase in temperature of water Mass of ethanol burnt = = (T2 - T1) oC (m1 - m2) g

Number of mole of C2H5OH

m 46

= n

The heat energy given out during combustion by ethanol = the heat energy absorbed by water = mc = mc(T2-T1) = x J Heat of combustion of ethanol, H = - mc J mol-1 n = - x n J mol-1

Two precautionary steps taken to obtain more accurate results: 1. Make sure the flame touches the base of the copper can // Place the spirit lamp very close or just beneath the base of the copper can. 2. Stir the water in the copper can continuously throughout the experiment. 3. Weigh the spirit lamp and its content immediately when the flame has been put out. 4. Use a wind shield during experiment. [Any two]

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SPM CHEMISTRY

6.2

MARKING SCHEME CHEMISTRY PAPER 3

Question 1(a)

Rubric
[Able to record all the five readings accurately]: Suggested answer: Pairs of electrodes Cu and P Cu and Q Cu and R Cu and S Cu and T Voltage/V 1.5 1.7 0.5 2.3 1.2

Score

1 (b)

[Able to arrange the position of all metals in descending order of electropositivity correctly] Suggested answer: S, Q, P, Cu, R, T 3

1 (c)

[Able to state three variables and the way to control them correctly] Suggested answer: Manipulated variable: Pair of metals Responding variable: Voltmeter reading Controlled variable: Electrolyte / copper(II) sulphate solution // concentration and volume of electrolyte // same voltmeter // copper electrode Substituting the electrode T with different metals // P, Q, R, S and T Reading of the voltmeter// voltage 6

Use the same electrolyte / concentration of electrolyte / CuSO4 // use the same voltmeter // use copper electrode in all experiments.

1 (d)

[Able to state the relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable and the direction correctly] Suggested answer: The further apart / the distance of the pair of metals in the electrochemical series, the higher is the voltage / the voltmeter reading. 3

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Question 1(e)

Explanation [Able to state three observations and three inferences correctly] Observation 1. Copper strip / rod / metal dissolves / becomes thinner 2. Brown solid is deposited at metal T 3. The intensity of the blue coloured solution remains unchanged Inference Copper is oxidised / loses electron to form copper(II) ion // Copper is more electropositive than P. Copper is formed // Cu2+ is reduced to copper The concentration of Cu2+ in the solution remain unchanged // the rate of Cu2+ formed at anode is the same as the rate of discharge of Cu2+ at the cathode.

SPM CHEMISTRY Maximum score

1(f)

[Able to predict the voltage of the three cells accurately] Suggested answer:

Pair of metals P and S P and T Q and R


1(g)

Voltage/ V 0.8 2.7 2.4

[Able to classify all the metals correctly]


Suggested answer: 3

More electropositive P, Q, S
1(h)

Less electropositive R, T

[Able to explain the difference in the voltage of the cell] Suggested answer: The distance between Cu and metal S is further / greater than the distance between Cu and metal P in the electrochemical series. 3

[Able to draw the labeled apparatus set-up completely]


1(i) Suggested answer: 3

Copper

Metal T

Salt bridge
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Copper(II) sulphate solution

T nitrate solution

SPM CHEMISTRY Question 2 (a) (b)

Rubric
[Able to record all the five readings accurately to one decimal point]: t1 = 55.0 s, t2 = 48.0 s, t3 = 42.0 s, t4 = 37.0 s, t5 = 33.0 s, [Able to construct a table and transfer all the five readings from (a) correctly with unit for each heading.. The values for

Score
3

1 must be given to three time 1 / s-1 time


0.018 0.021 0.024 0.027 0.030 3

decimal places].
Concentration / mol dm-3 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 (c) Time / s

55.0 48.0 42.0 37.0 33.0

[Able to give the operational definition correctly] Rate of reaction is inversely proportional to the time taken for the mark X to be no longer visible // Rate of reaction

1 time

(d)

[ Able to do the following: Draw a graph of suitable size / using suitable scale (occupying about 75% of graph paper) Label the axes concentration / mol dm-3 and

Plot the five points correctly from the table constructed in (b) Draw a straight line (linear) graph ] (i) concentration / mol dm-3 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

1 / s-1 time

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SPM CHEMISTRY (d) [ Able to state the relationship between concentration and the

rate of reaction correctly]


(ii) An increase in concentration (of sodium thiosulphate solution) will increase the rate of reaction. (e) (f) [Able to predict the time taken using the graph drawn] Suggested answer : 30 s [Able to state and explain the observation correctly.] A yellow precipitate is formed. The reaction of hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate solution produces sulphur, sulphur dioxide and water. // The sulphur produced from the reaction forms the yellow precipitate. [Able to state the relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable and the direction correctly] The higher / lower the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution, the shorter / longer the time taken for the mark X to be no longer visible. [Able to state three variables and the way to control them correctly] Suggested answer: Manipulated variable: Concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution Repeat the experiment using sodium thiosulphate solution with -3 concentrations of 1.0 mol dm , 3

(g)

(h)

1.5 mol dm-3, 2.0 mol dm-3 and 2.5 mol dm-3 .
Time taken for the mark X to be no longer visible

Responding variable: Time taken for the mark X to be no longer visible // Rate of reaction Controlled variable: Temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution // size of conical flask // concentration and volume of hydrochloric acid used // total volume of reacting mixture Reject : Use of Quantity or amount of hydrochloric acid / reacting mixture. (i)

Solutions of same temperature are used // use conical flasks of same size // use the same concentration and volume of hydrochloric acid // keep the total volume of reacting mixture the same.

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[Able to explain phenomena using relevant knowledge of chemistry] Suggested answer : Fanning increases the concentration of oxygen blown over glowing charcoal // Fanning causes the glowing charcoal to be exposed to more oxygen. Thus, the glowing charcoal ignites.

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SPM CHEMISTRY Question 3(a)

Rubric
How do different metals in contact with iron affect the rusting of iron? // What is the effect of different metals in contact with iron on the rusting of iron nails ? Iron nail rusts when it is in contact with a less electropositive metal. Iron nail does not rust when it is in contact with a more electropositive metal MV : Different metals in contact with iron nail RV: Rusting of iron CV: Type of (iron) nail, medium in which iron nail is kept, temperature Name one metal more electropositive (magnesium) than iron and one metal less electropositive (copper) than iron. Materials : Iron nails, magnesium ribbon, copper foil, hot jelly solution containing potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution, sandpaper. Apparatus : test tubes, test tube rack, Procedure : 1. Clean / Rub three iron nails with sandpaper. 2. Two iron nails are coiled / wound separately with magnesium ribbon and copper foil. 3. The three nails are each put / dip / immersed into labelled test tubes A, B and C containing hot jelly solution with potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution separately . 4. The test tubes are put on a test tube rack under room condition for a few days. 5. The test tubes are observed and the results are recorded. Tabulation of data : Suggested answer(any one ) Pair of metal Iron nail only Iron nail coiled with magnesium ribbon Iron nail coiled with copper foil Observation

Score
3

(b) (c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

3 Tets tube A B C Pair of metal Iron nail only Iron nail coiled with magnesium ribbon Iron nail coiled with copper foil Observation

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SPM CHEMISTRY Question 4 (a)

Rubric
Is vulcanised rubber more elastic than unvulcanised rubber ? // How does the elasticity of vulcanised rubber differ from unvulcanised rubber ? // Does vulcanisation increase the elasticity of rubber? MV : Types of rubber // Vulcanised and unvulcanised rubber RV: Length of rubber strip CV : Size of rubber strip, mass of weight Vulcanised / Unvulcanised rubber is more elastic than unvulcanised / vulcanised rubber. Materials : Vulcanised rubber strip, unvulcanised rubber strip Apparatus: Retort stand and clamp, (bulldog) clips, ruler, 10 g, 20 g, 30 g , 40 g and 50 g weights, Procedure : 1. (Using bulldog clips,) hang a vulcanised rubber strip and an unvulcanised rubber strip onto a retort stand each. 2. The (initial) lengths of the two rubber strips are measured. 3. A 10 g weight is hung to each of the two strips and the lengths of the two strips are measured and recorded. 4. The weights are removed and the lengths of the rubber strips are measured and recorded. 5. Steps 3 and 4 are repeated using 20g, 30g, 40g and 50g weights to replace the 10 g weights.

Score

(b)

(c) (d)

(e)

(f)

Tabulation of data Weights /g Length of vulcanised rubber Length of unvulcanised strip / cm rubber strip / cm Without With Weight Without With Weight weight weight removed weight weight removed

10 20 30 40 50

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SPM CHEMISTRY Question 5(a)

Rubric
How effective are // How is the effectiveness of soaps and detergents in hard water ? // What is the effectiveness of soaps and detergents in hard water ? // Is the cleansing action of a detergent / soap more effective than that of a soap / detergent in hard water ? // Is soap as effective as detergent in hard water ? Detergents are effective in hard water. Soaps are less / not effective in hard water. // Detergent is a more effective cleansing agent than soap in hard water. MV : Different types of cleansing agent / Detergent and soap RV: (Removal of) oily stain on a cloth CV: Volume and concentration of magnesium sulphate solution, volume and concentration of detergent and soap, type of stain / oil stain on cloth, temperature of magnesium sulphate // calcium sulphate solution. Materials : Soap solution, detergent solution, two pieces of cloth with oily stains, magnesium sulphate // calcium sulphate solution Apparatus : measuring cylinder, basin // [any suitable container such as a basin] Procedure : 1. 50 cm3 of 5% soap solution and 50 cm3 of 5% detergent solution are separately poured into two beakers containing 20 cm3 of magnesium sulphate solution / hard water. 2. A small piece of cloth with oily stains is dipped / immersed / put into each beaker. 3. Each cloth is washed with the cleansing agent / soap or detergent in the beaker. 4. The cleansing action of the soap and detergent is observed and compared // The oily stain remaining on the cloth is observed and compared. 5. The results are recorded in a table. Tabulation of data : Beaker X Y Observation

Score

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

or
Cleansing agent Soap solution Detergent solution Observation

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