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Line Following and Turning

The autonomous robots are required to perform their respective tasks

without any manual guidance. Thus the technique used to make the
robots reach the desired locations in order to perform their tasks is the
white line following, cross detection and turning technique using the
optoelectronic sensors. These optoelectronic sensors are actually
developed during the project using light to voltage converter IC –
OPT101 and LED. These sensors work on the principle of
reflective light amplification. The IC – OPT101 comprised of a
photodiode and amplifier. The light of LED reflects from the surface and
falls on to the OPT101 which is amplified by the amplifier inbuilt the
IC. The intensity of the light falling onto the photodiode of IC
depends upon the color of the surface. Thus while the sensor is on the
white line it gives the saturated output voltage where as while not on the
white line it gives a low voltage. This voltage is converted into a digital
signal using an analog comparator IC TLC324 where the second input to
the IC is a fixed voltage. Thus when the output voltage of the sensor is
below certain level i.e. when the sensor is not on white line it gives ‘0’
as the output whereas if the output voltage of the sensor is above certain
level i.e. when the sensor is on the white line it gives ‘1’ as the output.
Using six such sensors divided into two rows on in front and one at the
rear side the white line following is achieved. To make the robot follow
the white line various sequences of the possible states of the sensors are
considered and depending upon the same, position of the robot and
correction required in the proper direction is analyzed. Finally on the
basis of the required correction, PWM signal is applied to the H-Bridge
drive circuit which uses LMD18200T IC, and the straight line is
followed by the robot. For the motion of the robot high torque Maxon
Motors are used with the gearbox having 1:18 ratio of gear reduction.
While the robot follows the white line it is also required for the robot to
take 90 degree turn in certain direction. For the same the cross detection
is used in which the robot counts the number of crosses in the grid it
passes and when this number matches with the number of cross where it
has to turn or stop, the robot stops the straight line motion and the by
rotating both the motors in the opposite directions it takes the turn in the
desired direction till the desired sensor in the front line of the sensors
come onto the white line.