You are on page 1of 5

Name:________________________________________ Period: _____ Date: _____________________

Advanced Placement Chemistry Unit 6 (Part II): Bonding Concepts Performance Assessment Score: _____/100 Directions: Answer the following questions in as much detail as possible. Remember to persevere through the problem and dont forget the basic fundamentals of Chemistry. I. Hybridization One of the skills that you will be tested on the most during the AP Exam will be hybridization. Therefore, the first part of this performance assessment contains 6 sample problems from actual AP Chemistry Exams. Determine the hybridization of the central atom in the following molecules: CF4, TeF4, KrF2, AsF5, BF3, SiCl4 (IN THIS ORDER! FOR THE FIRST 3-BE SURE TO PUT AN EXPLANATION, EXPLANATIONS FOR THE LAST 3 ARE BONUS AND OPTIONAL.) 1. ________________________________ 4.______________________________ 2. ________________________________ 5.______________________________ 3. ________________________________ 6.______________________________ II. Multiple Choice 1. The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom is known as (A) Activation Energy (B) Free Energy (C) Ionization Energy (D) Kinetic Energy (E) Lattice Energy 2. The energy required to separatate an ionic solid into gaseous ions is known as (A) Activation Energy (B) Free Energy (C) Ionization Energy (D) Kinetic Energy (E) Lattice Energy 3. For which of the following molecules are resonance structures necessary to describe the bonding satisfactorily? (A) H2O (B) SO2 (C) C2H6 (D) HCN (E) PF3 4. Which of the following has the most polar bond? (A) N2 (B) F2 (C) HF (D) HCl (E) PCl3 5. Which of the following would most likely have the highest boiling point? (A) NH3 (B) CH4 (C) PCl5 (D) HF (E) LiCl Use these answers for Questions 6-8 (A) Hydrogen Bonding (B) Hybridization (C) Ionic Bonding (D) Resonance (E) London Dispersion Forces 6. Is used to explain why bromine molecules are held together at room temperature. 7. Is used to explain why the boiling point of n-propanol, C3H7OH, is greater than the boiling point of propane, C3H8. 8. Is used to explain the fact that the S-O bonds in SO3 are identical. 9. Which of the following elements, if placed as the central atom in a molecule, is capable of having more than eight valence electrons? (A) N (B) F (C) O (D) Te (E) H 10. Which molecule has a Lewis structure that does NOT obey the octet rule? (A) NO (B) CS2 (C) PF3 (D) HCN (E) CCl4 11. Types of hybridization exhibited by the C atoms in acetylene, C2H2, include which of the following? I. sp II. sp2 III. sp3

Name:________________________________________ Period: _____ Date: _____________________

(A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II (D) II and III (E) I, II, and III 12. Which of the following diatomic molecules has the largest bond-dissociation energy? (A) Li2 (B) Be2 (C) B2 (D) N2 (E) O2 13. Which of the following diatomic molecules has the shortest bond length? (A) Li2 (B) Be2 (C) B2 (D) N2 (E) O2 14. Which of the following diatomic elements contains only 1 sigma () and 1 pi () bond? (A) Li2 (B) Be2 (C) B2 (D) N2 (E) O2 15. In a molecule in which the central atom exhibits sp3d hybrid orbitals, the electron pain arrangements form the shape of a(n) (A) Tetrahedron (B) Square-Based Pyramid (C) Trigonal bipyramid (D) Square (E) Octahedron 16. Molecules that have planar configurations include which of the following? I. BF3 II. XeF4 III. NH3h (A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II (D) II and III (E) I, II, and III 17. The electron-dot structure (Lewis structure) for which of the following molecules would have one unshared pairs of electrons on the central atom? (A) H2O (B) NH3 (C) CH4 (D) C2H2 (E) CO2 18. Which of the following molecules has a triagonal pyramidal shape? (A) PCl5 (B) N2O (C) NH3 (D) CCl4 (E) H2O2 19. The AsF5 molecule has a triagonal bipyramidal structure. Therefore, the hybridization of As orbitals should be (A) sp2 (B) sp3 (C) sp2d (D) sp3d (E) sp3d2 Part of 20: CCl4, BeF2, PCl3, SbCl5, XeF4 20. Which of the following does NOT describe any of the molecules above? (A) Linear (B) Octahedral (C) Square Planar (D) Tetrahedral (E) Trigonal Pyramidal 21. The geometry of the H2S molecule is best described as (A) Trigonal Planar (B) Trigonal Pyramidal (C) Square Pyramidal (D) Bent (E) Tetrahedral 22. All of the molecules below display sp3d hybridization EXCEPT (A) NF3 (B) PF5 (C) SF4 (D) BrF3 (E) XeOF2 23. Pi bonding occurs in each of the following species EXCEPT (A) N2F2 (B) C2H2 (C) HCN (D) C6H6 (E) CCl4 24. Antibonding orbitals are found (A) Between the nuclei of atoms. (B) Surrounding the nuclei of atoms. (C) Nowhere; the only exist theoretically. (D) On the outsides of atoms (the sides opposite the overlapping regions). (E) Above the bonding orbitals. 25. Which of the following has a dipole moment of zero? (A) CCl4 (B) HCN (C) NO2 (D) NH3 (E) H2O III. Free Response 1. Using the principals of chemical bonding and/or intermolecular forces, explain each of the following. (A) Neon has a boiling point of -246C, argon has a boiling point of -186C, and krypton has a boiling point of -153C. (B) In its metallic form, copper is used to make electrical wire because of its excellent conductivity, yet the compound copper II chloride, CuCl2, does not conduct electricity.

Name:________________________________________ Period: _____ Date: _____________________

(C) H2O has a boiling point of 100C, while the similar H2S has a boiling point of -60C. (D) The melting point data in the table below: Melting point data for four lithium salts Substance Melting point (C) LiF 848 LiCl 610 LiBr 552 LiI 469 2. Use simple structure and bonding models to account for each of the following. (A) The bond length between two carbon atoms is shorter in C2H2 than in C2H4. (B) The H-O-H bond angle is 104.5, as opposed to the expected 109. (C) The bond lengths in the nitrate ion, NO3-, are all identical and shorter than a nitrogen-oxygen single bond. (D) The ethylene molecule, C2H4, does not rotate around the C-C axis. 3. Discuss briefly the relationship between the dipole movement of a molecule and the polar character of the bonds within it. With this as the basis, account for the difference between the dipole movements of CH2Cl2 and CCl4.

Name:________________________________________ Period: _____ Date: _____________________

KEY I. Hybridization 1. sp3c. The central carbon atom has two electrons in the 2 s orbital and two unpaired electrons in the 2 p orbitals. By promoting an electron from the s orbital to the unoccupied p orbital, carbon can form four sp3 orbitals. 2. sp3d. The molecule requires four bonding pairs of electrons and one nonbonding pair. By promoting an electron to the d orbitals, Te will have five hybridized orbitals. In those sp3d orbitals, one will contain a pair of electrons (the lone pair), while the other four will contain unpaired electrons (which will become bonding pairs with the fluorine atoms). 3. sp3d. By promoting one electron to a d orbital, krypton will have two unpaired electrons (that can bond to fluorine). The three remaining sp3d orbitals will be filled by nonbonding pairs of electrons. 4. sp3d 5. sp2 6. sp3 II. Multiple Choice 1. C 2. E 3. B 4. C 5. E 6. E 7. A 8. D 9. D 10. A 11. A 12. D 13. D 14. E 15. C 16. C 17. B 18. C 19. D 20. B 21. D 22. A 23. E 24. D 25. A III. Free Response 1. (A) Neon, argon, and krypton all are noble gases with increasing atomic number. London dispersion forces are responsible for intermolecular forces that can cause attractions between the atoms. Dispersion forces increase as the size of an atom increase. (B) The metallic bonds allow for free movement of valence electrons within elemental copper. This allows greater conductivity. Copper chloride, on the other hand, is an ionic solid, where the electrons are all held tightly within the crystalline structure of the compound, Tightly bound electrons cant support the follow of electric current. (C) Although the molecules are structurally similar, the polarity of the bonds in each is dramatically different. Oxygen is a much more electronegative element than sulfur. Therefore, the polarity of each OH bond is much higher than the polarity of the S-H bonds. This allows for a higher degree of hydrogen bonding between the water molecules and, hence, a higher boiling point. (D) The trend in the table is that lithium is bonded to elements that become progressively larger. For ionic compounds, the strength of the bonds decreases as atomic size increases. 2. (A) C2H2 has a triple bond between the two carbons, while C 2H4 has double bonds.

Name:________________________________________ Period: _____ Date: _____________________

This allows for increased overlap and the formation of an additional pi bond. This has the effect of shortening the bond length. (B) The two nonbonding pairs of electrons on the central oxygen atom exert a stronger repulsive force than the bonding pairs between oxygen and hydrogen. This has the effect of pushing the hydrogen atoms closer together, decreasing the H-O-H bond angle (C) A question that is worded this way should be a red flag that the test-makers may be asking about resonance structures, which, in fact, is happening here. There are three possible resonance structures. If the electron were localized to any one nitrogen and oxygen, the bond length of that bond would be shorter than the other two, and the other two would have bond lengths the same as a N-O single bond. Delocalization of the electron allows for the three resonance structures and also creates three equal bonds, each of which is less than a single bond but greater than a double bond:

(D) The ethylene molecule, C 2H4, is not able to rotate around the C-C axis because of the presence of the pi bond that forms from the overlap of the 2 p orbitals of each carbon. The pi bonds prevent rotation and lock the molecule into its planar structure. 3. This question really has at least two distinct parts, the first about dipole moments, and the second to address the examples. The dipole moment of a molecule represents the combined effects of the individual vectors for each polar bond. A molecule can have very polar bonds, yet no dipole moment, if the configuration of the molecule is such that the vectors all cancel. It is the resultant of the individual vectors that determines the moment. In the CCl4 molecule, the individual bond polarities are relatively large since there is a large difference in electronegativity between carbon and chlorine. However, the tetrahedral configuration of the molecule causes the individual polarities to cancel each other out. This is not the case in the CH 2Cl2 molecule. This molecule also has a tetrahedral geometry, but the forces do not cancel out this molecule. The interactions between the carbon and hydrogen atoms are insufficient to cancel the dipoles between carbon and chlorine. As a result, there is a dipole moment for that molecule.