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New Design of Zero Cross Correlation Codes for

Spectral Amplitude Coding in OCDMA systems.

C. B. M. Rashidi, S. A. Aljunid, F Ghani, M. S. Anuar, H.AI-Khaaji,
M.N.Junita, A.R.Arief
School of Computer and Communication Engineering,
Universiti Mal aysi a Pedis,
No. 12 & 14, Jalan Satu, Taman Seberang Jaya Fasa 3, Kuala Pedis 02000, Pedis,
E-mail: mohdrashidi. chebeson@gmail.,,
Abstact- A new design code structure for Spectal Amplitude
Coding with zero cross- correlation in Optical Code Division
Multiple Access (OCDMA) has been proposed in this paper. The
proposed code called Modifed Zero Cross Correlation Code
(MZCC). MZCC code provides much easier code construction,
given any nmnber of users K and weights to have minimum code
length. MZCC code will be demonstrated using OptiSys 6.0. The
results indicated that MZCC code is truly performs better in
term of noise performance compared with existing Optical
CDMA codes.
Keyword: Modied Zro Cross Correlation, Noise Perormance, Optisys
6.0, In Phase Cross Correlation, Spectral Amplitide Coding.
One goal when designing OCDMA systems is to achieve
desirable properties of the transmitted and received signals
especially to reduce the impact of the MAl. MAl is the
interference resulting from other users transmitting at the
same time, which is the main effect limiting the effective
noise performance for the overall system [1]. Vaious
schemes have been investigated in order to increase the
number of OCDMA's active users while at the same time
reducing efect of the MAl [2]. Several code families have
been developed for OCDMA such as Zero Cross Correlation
codes [3], M-sequence codes [4], Optical Orthogonal codes
[5], Prime codes [6] etc. However, these codes sufer from
certain limitations such as the code either too long (e.g.
Optical Orthogonal Codes and Prime Code), construction are
complicated or cross correlation are not zero. The key to an
efective OCDMA system is the choice of eficient address
codes with low or almost zero correlation properties for
encoding the source [7]. The proposed code structure does not
have overlapping of bits '1' and does not cause zero cross
correlation to interfere between users, thus suppressing Phase
Induced Intensity Noise (PUN). PUN is strongly related to
MAl due to the overlapping of spectra fom diferent users
[6]. This property ensures that each codeword can easily be
distinguished fom every other address sequence.
Assume that, A = {an} and B = {bn} be the sequences of
length N such that:
ai= '0' or 'l' , i= O, . . . N-l (1)
bi= '0' or 'I' , i=O, . . . N-l
978-1-61284-264-6/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE
The auto and cross correlation functions of the sequences are
defined respectively by
N -1
Since an is a {O, I} binary sequence, the maximum value
of I a (r) in Equation (2) is for r = 0 and is equal to w.
I (0) = W
If Aam & Acm denote the maximum out of phase auto
correlation and cross-correlation values respectively, then an
optical code of length N and weight w can be written as (N,w,
Aam, Acm> or (N, w, Aa,) where Aa = max {lr Am}. It may
also be noted that for an optical code an with weight 'w'
A (0)
In practice it is desirable to have a large set of optical code for
a given values of N, w, A and Acm. The codes described by
Equation (1) can be also represented in vector form as:
A=3 for i=O, I, . .N-l
B=bi for i=O, 1, .. N-l
Where A and B are vectors of length N with elements as
defined by Equation (6). In term of the vectors A and B.
Equation (2) and Equation (3) are written as
= A = w
Where A
and B
denote the transpose of vectors A and B
A. Development of the code.
Optical zero cross correlation codes are sets of optical
sequences that require
In fiber optic CDMA system to allow receivers to distinguish
each of the possible users, to reduce channel interference and
to accommodate large number of users, optical zero cross
correlation codes should have lage values of w and the size
K. However it is difficult to design such an optical orthogonal
code which satisfied all the requirements, for example the
condition expressed in Equation (7) is only achieved at the
expanse of the smaller values of 'w' or larger values of code
length or smaller values of code size K. Consider a set of K,
Zero Cross Correlation codes of length N and weight w for K
users. The set of codes can be represented by the K rows of
the KL matrix. whose elements aij are given by
a.j i=l, 2, . . . K, j=1,2, . . . N
aij = '0' or 'l'
The matrix A; is called the code matix. Since the K codes
represented by the K rows of the code matrix are unique and
independent of each other.
; has rank K.
More over for A; to have rank K,
N:K (9)
Thus, for A
to represent a valid set of K. Zero Cross
Correlation cofes of weight w, it must satisfy the following
l. The elements {aij} of
must have values "0" or "I"
a.j = "0" or "I" for i=I,2 .. K, j=I,2, . . N
2. The weight of each code should be equal to w where,
La .. = w, i = 1,2 ... K
j=1 l
3. The auto-correlation of each code for r = 0 in Equation
(7) must be equal to w. That is,
La .. 2 =w
j=! lJ
Note that Equation (11) and (12) are same since a.j = "0" or
4. The set of K code words represented by the K rows of the
code matix
must form an orthogonal set (Zero Cross
w w T
Correlation) that is (
K ) (
K ) must be a KxK
diagonal matrix with w as diagonal elements.
This is given by,
Where, D; in a KxK diagonal matrix with w as it diagonal
elements as shown below,
w 0
0 w ... 0
0 0 ... w
For w= 1 and for K users, one of te code matrices must
satisfy the above four condition as represented by Equation
(10-13) and has the minimum possible length N in the KxK
identity matrix Pk whose elements Pi j ae given by,
P .. =lfori=j i=l, .. K,j=l, .. K
= 0 fo r i " j
The KxK matrix Pk is called the Unit Code Matrix.
r 1
Kx K
Similiarly the code matrix Ai for K users and weight w=2
and satisfied the condition expressed by Equation (10-13), is
given by KL matrix
Noticed that,
N = 2K (17)
Following similar line of agument, te code matrix A; for
K users and weight w in KxwK matrix
Noticed that, the minimum length N to the code is given by,
N =wK (19)
Thus, for a given number of users K, and a given weight w, a
set of Zero Cross Correlation code of minimum length can be
constructed as given by Equation (18). This procedure will be
explained with the help of an example.
The methods of generating a family of zero cross correlation
for given values of K and w consist of the following step: -
1). First forms the KxK unit code matrix as defined in
Equation (15).
2).From the unit code matrix, generate the Kx2K code
matrix as defined by Equation (16).
3). The K rows of the code matix give the K optical
CDMA codes having zero In Phase Cross Correlation
([PCC) and weight w.
This method will now be explained with the help of an
Assume that, it is desired to generate a set of
minimum length zero [PCC optical codes for 3 users having
weight equal to 2. Let's, K=3 and w=2. Following the
procedure outline in above section:
1). The unit code matrix for this code is
[ 1 0 0]
= 0 1 0
and the code matrix for this code is
A; =[
o 0
Matrix A is the KxK unit code matrix of Pb where the
elements Pkij of Pk are given by Equation (15). Thus, when the
number of weight equal to w=2, Matrix A will be [Pk:PJK2K
whereas the number of code length ae satisfied with for
Equation (16). From Example 1 shows, the matrix A is unique
and independent of each other, with unspecified number of
users. Noticed that, the sub elements of matrix A are
combination of 2 matices KxK as given in Equation (15),
which is number of weight is w=1. Since, number of weight
are increasing w=2, Matrix A (KxL) will be coincided with
n,f weight and cause
A. Code Length Comparison:
In optical CDMA systems using Spectral Amplitude
Coding, the length of the code is an important parameter.
It is desirable to have smaller code length as this will
required smaller bandwidth. Moreover, code with smaller
length will require less number of filters at the encoder as
well decoder [12]. This will reduce the complexity and
cost of the system. For vaious numbers of users and
code weight, Table 1 shows the code length for the
MZCC, ZCC and OOC codes. It can be seen from the
table that for any given number of users K and code
weight w the MZCC code has the minimum length. Thus,
systems using MZCC code will be better in term of
power received at the receiver, complexity and
bandwidth requirement. For the same, transmitted power,
systems with MZCC code will, terefore, have better
performance in the presence of noise.
B. Code Weight Comparison
As has been discussed in Section II, the MZCC
code proposed in this paper can be designed for any given
number of users K and code weight w. However, this is not
true with the ZCC code. In the case of ZCC code, the number
of user K is related to the weight w of the code by the
following relation [11]
K=w+l (20)
From Equation (20), it is seen that the variable w and K are
not independent. Thus, it is not possible to obtain the ZCC
code for any given number of users and code weight. For
example for w=3, te code does not exist for two or three
The performance of MZCC code was simulated
using OptiSys version 6.0. A Simple simulation schematic
block diagram was illustrated in Figure 1. Each chip has a
spectral width of 0.8 nm. The tests were carried out at the rate
of 1 Gbps for 10 km distance with the ITU-T G.652 standard
single mode optical fiber. Attenuation of 0.2 dB/km,
dispersion of 16.75 ps/nm-km and non linear effects such as
four wave mixing and self phase modulation were activated
with industrial specification to simulate as close as industry
real environment. The dark current value is lOnA and the
thermal noise coefficient is 1.0 x 10-
WlHz for each of the
photo-detectors. The performance of the system was
characterized by referring to the BER. Figure 2 shows the
system performance for MZCC, MFH, MDW, EDW and
OOC codes. It is clearly depict that when the number of users
are increase simultaneously, MZCC code will shown superior
performance of noise in term of BER. The existing optical
codes, shown that the BER of these codes will be higher thus
the systems using these codes will degraded as the number of
users are increasing. Figure shows the variation of BER
over the Distance for MZCC and ZCC codes. H can be seen
fom the plots, when the increasing of distance it will increase
the BER. Means, for a long distance, the more BER will
afect the signal. Vaious factors which can be responsible for
this, for instance, longer fiber will provide a lager
attenuation, thus increasing the Bit Error Rate. From Figure ,
at distance 20km, MZCC code have better BER 10-
opposed to BER for ZCC code is equal to 10-
which is not
error rate for standard optical communication systems
Table 1: Code length (N) comparison between MZCC, ZCC and OOC
Users, Weight, MZCC ZCC OOC
(K) (w)
2 3 6 12 13
3 4 12 20 40
4 5 20 30 85
5 6 30 42 156
6 7 42 56 253
7 8 56 72 393
8 9 72 90 577
9 10 90 110 811
10 11 110 156 1101
----_...... _ --_ . ..... _ --_ ..... ---- ..... -----...... -----...... -----...... -----.
-...... -----...... -----......-----.
Figure.1 Simulation Schematic Block Diagram
I . E-05
I . E-08 $
11 [

fl 11
,g-3 = ====
O 2O 4O
6O O !OO
hum00|0lA0||v6 U8t||K|
!2O I4O I6O
~ V0WW=6
Figure 2: BER versus Number of Active Users (K) for MZCC
with Existing Optical Codes.
f T!:-T4


JU !: 2U
2b :U
Figure . BER versus Distance (km) for MZCC and ZCC codes.
Several codes of OCDMA had been research for
many years and codes with minimum cross correlation shown
the numerous advantages including code efficient in term of
BER performance, free from sufering of intensity noise even
from incoherent source originating and easy code construction
existence for every natural number of weight and number of
users. A MZCC code stucture for OCDMA system has been
successflly developed in this paper. From the performance
analysis we conclude that the proposed code stuctures can
effectively determined number of length given any number of
users and weights thus it will improve the noise performance.
MZCC code presented in this paper is simpler and effective.
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