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4551/2 Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

4.1 The chemical composition in the cell No (a) Marking scheme There are two important groups of compound in the cells, the organic compound and the inorganic compounds. the organic compound are protein , nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipid s. describe the presence and importance of organic compound , such as carbohydrate and protein in a cells. Carbohydrate P1-It is a compound synthesized by plants through photosynthesis P2-It is involved in the building of plant cell wall P3-It is present in various forms including monosacharide, disaccharide and polysacharide P4-Polycharide is storage carbohydrate P5-Example: glycogen is storage carbohydrate Protien P1-It is the main component of cytoplasm an dplasma membrane P2-protien is present as keratin in hair and nail P3-Carier protein in the plasma membrane function in the transport of substances across the plasma membrane P4-Enzyme , antibody and many hormones are proteins P5-Hormones function to regulate chemical process and cell metabolism , such as digestion P6-Enzyme act to catalyze metabolism reaction of the cell P7-Antibody defends the body from pathogenic attack P8-Protien also act as source of energy during starvation ANY 10 (b) How are the carbohydrates stored in plant and animal tissues? Carbohydrate are stored as starch in glycogen and glycogen in animal tissue Marks

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10

(c)

How are the delicate internal organs of animal protected by the lipids Lipid form the adipose tissue lining around the delicate internal organs Protecting them from physical injure 1

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4551/2 Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Nucleic acid Trial perlis 2010 Trail kedah 2012 JUJ 2009 Figure below shows the structure of nucleic acid

No (a) (b) (c)

Marking scheme Based on the figure 3, name the type of nucleic acid as shown DNA Name another type of nucleic acid RNA Explain the role of structure in 5.1 in determining the characteristic of organism P1-carry genetic information P2-direct protein synthesis P3-determine the traits that are passed from parents to their children 1 1 1 1 1

Marks 1 1

(d)

Name the diagram S, T and U S: Phosphate Group T: Pentose/sugar/deoxyribose sugar U: nitrogenous base (e) Diagram shows apart of the structure of organic compound found in the cell Cell structure: chromosomes Organelle: nucleus What is the basic unit of molecule X called Nucleotide

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2 1

(f)

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4551/2 Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

(g)

Diagram below shows an incomplete structure of DNA at one polynucleotide chain complete the structure below

Drawing 1m Nitrogenous bases matched correctly : 1m (h) Segment of structure in diagram 2.1 carry characteristic for each individual .describe the application of genetics that be used for Identification purposes in solving criminal cases F1-DNA fingerprint P1-(it is used) to examine DNA from tissue sample of hair/ saliva/blood/semen found at the scene of the crime then compare it to suspects DNA

1 1

1 1

4.2 Carbohydrate No (a) Name two type of disaccharides Sucrose Maltose Explain how the two disaccharide is formed P1-Maltose is formed through the condensation of two glucose molecules P2-sucrose is formed through the condensation of a glucose molecule and fructose molecule Explain how glucose is considered a reducing sugar P1- because it can reduce copper (II)ions P2-which are blue in colour to a brick red precipitate of copper (I) oxide Explain how molecule X( polysaccharide) are formed form their basic unit:polyshacride P1-Molecule is a polysaccharide which consists of many monosaccharide P2-The monosaccharide are joined together by condensation to form a long chains of polymer Marking scheme 1 1 1 1 Marks

(b)

(c)

1 1 1 1

2 44 2

(d)

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Trial Selangor 2008 Trial Melaka 2008

4.3 Proteins

1. Diagram 2 shows a series of reaction process is the formation of molecules Q while process Y is the breakdown of polypeptide Process X Molecule Q

Process Y Molecule P

Molecule X
No (a) (b) Name Molecule X Protein Name Molecule P ,R, and Q Molecule P: Amino acid Molecule R: Dipeptide Molecule Q: Polypeptide State the process X and Y Process X: Condensation Process Y: Hydrolysis Marking scheme

Molecule R

Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(c)

(d)

Explain the process X and Y Process X: P1-Condensation of amino acid /(molecules ) P//(two unit of amino acid)/(molecule)P combine/link and water (molecule) are release P2-Peptides bond formed (between Amino acid /P) Process Y: P1-Hydrolysis of dipeptides/ (molecule) Q //Dipeptides /Q is broken by water(molecule) P2-Peptides bonds are broken down The breakdown of poly peptides molecule to molecule Q through process y occurs in human digestive system State one organ wherer process Y occurs Stomach/lieum/small intestine/duodenum

1 1

1 1

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(e)

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4551/2 Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

(f) (g)

Name one enzyme secreted by the organ which is needed in process Y Pepsin/Erepsin/peptidase/trypsin.protease Explain how the complex molecule R are formed from their basic units P1-Molecule R is polypeptide in which consist of amino acids P2-The amino acids are joined together by condensation and arrange in a sequence to form a long chain Explain the breakdown of molecule Y(Protein) Given basic units : amino acid P1-Molecule is a polypeptide( which consist of many amino acids) P2-Molecule Y is broken down by hydrolysis

1 1 1

(h)

1 1

2. Protein are large organic molecule which play diverse roles in living organism . Diagram 2.1 shows four level of organization in protein structure JUJ 2009 Trail Kelantan 2008

Molecule P X

Molecule Q

P : Primary structure

Q : Secondary structure

R : Tertiary structure

S : Quartnetry structure 46

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4551/2 Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013


Marking scheme Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

No (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Draw the structure

Name structure P;Q.R and S in diagram Name X Peptide bond State the monomer of the structure shown in diagram Amino acid Give one example of each protein P, Q R and S Protein P: DNA/RNA Protein Q: Hairs/nails/Feather Protein R: Hormones. enzyme /antibodies / plasma protein Protein S: Haemoglobin Amino acid is monomer of protein . There are two type o f amino acids which are essential amino acid and non essential amino acid Explain about essential amino acid P1-canot synthesis by the body P2-obtain from diet ESSAY ENCHANCEMENT CONER Name the protein P ,Q and R.Describe the structure of each protein structure P1- P is primary structure E1-It refers ti the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain P2-Q is secondary structure E2-It refers to the polypeptide chain that is coiled to form alpha helix chain o into beta pleated sheet P3-R is tertiary structure E3-It refers to the way the helix chains or beta pleated sheets are coiled or folded into three dimensional shape of a polypeptide chain P+E

(f)

(g)

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4551/2 Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013


4.4 Lipids
JUJ 2009 Trial Melaka 2009

Y
Molecule P

No (a) Name molecule P Lipid

Marking scheme 1

Marks 1

(b)

State two important product obtained from the hydrolysis of lipid Glycerol/fatty acid Name X ,Y and Z X: Glycerol Y: Fatty acid Z: Triglyceride State the process X and Y Process X: condensation (state the reaction that lead to the synthesis of lipid) Process Y: hydrolysis

(c)

1 1 1

(d)

1 1 2

(e)

Write a word equation to represent the biochemical process in diagram Lipase Glycerol +fatty acid triglyceride+ water Name the other product of this reaction besides lipid molecule Water

(f)

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4551/2 Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013


Marking scheme Marks

No (g)

Waxes are a type of lipid. it is found on the cuticles of epidermis of the leaves fruit and some seeds of some plant . Explain another type of lipid in human F1- phospholipids s P1-component in the formation of plasma membrane

1 1

(h)

What is the essential structural difference between a phospholipids molecule and the lipid molecule shown in the figure P1-A phospholipids molecule has two fatty acids and phosphate group attached to a molecule 1 of glycerol P2-ipid molecule in the figure has three fatty acids joined to a molecule of glycerol 1 Describe the behavior of phospholipids in the water P1-One end of the phospholipids molecule , containing the phosphate group is soluble in the 1 water, while the other end , containing the fatty acids is insoluble in water P2-When phospholipid are in water, they forma bilayered structure comprising of to back to 1 back layers of phospholipids molecule P3-the water soluble (hydrophilic)ends point outwards while the water insoluble 1 (hydrophobic ) ends point inwards

(i)

(j)

Structure X Molecule P is important to build the structure of membrane in the cell , including structure X Name structure X Plasma membrane (k) Explain the arrangement of molecule P in X P1-Molecule P consists of hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail P2-the head part of faces the external surface of the membrane because it attract to water P3-the tail part of P is in the enter of the membrane as there is water in the membrane P4-Form a phospholipids bilayer ANY 3 State the function of phospholipids in cells Provide the structure basis for all cell membrane

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(l)

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4551/2 Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013


Diagram shows two types of fats

No (k)

Marking scheme State the type of fat s shown in diagram P: Saturated fat Q: Unsaturated fat Butter is saturated fat but corn oil is unsaturated fat . Explain briefly the differences between saturated fat and unsaturated fat P1- Saturated fat is solid (at room temperature) P2-saturated fat without double bonds between carbon atoms where as unsaturated fat have at least one doubled bond (between the carbon atoms) Compare and contrast fats and oils S1-Both are good energy store D1-At room temperature, fats are solid, whereas oils are liquid 1 1

Marks

(l)

1 1

(m)

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4.5 Enzyme No (a)

Trial Johor 2009

Trial Kedah 2012

Trial Kedah 2009

JUJ 2009

Marking Scheme The general characteristic of enzyme List three characteristic of the enzyme shown Diagram 3/ state two characteristic of the enzyme F1-Enzyme is highly specific//enzyme reaction follow the lock and key hypothesis F2-Enzyme is not destroyed after the reaction // can be reused again //remain unchanged after the reaction F3-Enzyme has a specific site for its substrate F4-Enzyme hydrolyses /breaks down substrate to form products F5-Enzyme is needed in small quantity F6-Enzyme can catalyzed a reversed reaction ANY 3

Marks

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

50 3

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Marking Scheme Marks

No (b)

The enzyme is highly specific. Explain this statement/Why enzyme is said to be highly specific? F1-Enzyme has specific sites called active site F1-One enzyme only catalyzed one substrate F2-the active site has a distinctive/ the active site ( of the enzyme )is specific to certain substances F3-the shape of the substrate must fit the enzyme precisely if a reaction is to catalysed //complements its substrate The enzyme reaction can be slowed down or completely stopped by inhibitors (i) Give one example of inhibitor Heavy metal/leads / mercury (ii) Explain how inhibitor inhibit the enzyme reaction P1- inhibitor change the active sites of the enzyme P2-substrate cannot fits to the active site P3-cannot form enzyme substrate complex

1 1 1 1 1

(c)

1 1 1

(d)

Intracellular and extracellular enzyme Trail Kelantan 2010 State the meaning of extracellular enzyme P1-Enzyme which is synthesized in the cell P2-Secreted out of the cell to work externally State the meaning of intracellular enzyme P1-Enzyme which produced in the cell P2-for use of itself

1 1

(b)

1 1

(c)

Extracellular enzyme are enzyme which are produced in the cell but secreted from the cell to function externally Give one example of the cell Pancreas//ileum //stomach epithelial cell //salivary cell 1 Give one example of an extracellular enzyme produced by the cell Lipase /Amylase /trypsin

(d)

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Synthesis of enzymes
Trail Perak 2012

Trail Johor 2011

Trail Kelantan 2010 Trial Selangor 2010

Trial Pahang 2010 Trial Selangor 2008

Trial MRSM 2011

Trial Perak 2009

R: secretory vesicles P: Golgi apparatus U : transport vesicles T : Ribosomes Q: nucleus S: mitochondria

No

Marking scheme Based on the Diagram 1, name P, Q, R, and S Name correctly

Marks 4 1 1 4 1 1

(a) (b)

State the function of organelle P Modifies and pack the enzyme State the function of organelles P(transport vesicles) Transport protein synthesized by ribosomes to the Golgi apparatus State the function of T P1 P contain respiratory enzyme P2 P generate energy from cell respiration / oxidation of glucose P3 Energy use by the cells for activities Explain the function of Q P1 Q contain genetic material / DNA / gene P2 which determine the type of protein synthesis by the ribosome P3 determine the characteristics inherited by the offspring Synthesis of molecule y is very specific process. It depend on the information contained in molecule X Name X In form of genes /DNA

(c)

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(d)

1 1 1

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(a)

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4551/2 Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013


Marking scheme Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

No (b)

Explain how information is carried out from the nucleus to organelle S P1-DNA replicates/open /unwinds for the synthesis of RNA /messenger-RNA P2-(genetic information) in DNA is copied to RNA P3-RNA moves out of the nucleus and attaches itself on the ribosome Explain the role of x(chromosomes) in the production of an Extracellular enzyme P1-information for synthesis enzyme is carried by /DNA P2-Different sequences of bases in X / DNA are codes to make different enzymes P3-RNA copies the information from DNA in the nucleus P4-Messenger RNA is formed to translate codes into a sequence of amino acid// P5-Ribosomes interprets the information carried by RNA P6-the amino acid are bonded together to form specific enzyme ANY 4 Explain how information is carried out from the nucleus to organelle S P1-DNA replicates/open /unwinds for the synthesis of RNA /messenger-RNA P2-(genetic information) in DNA is copied to RNA P3-RNA moves out of the nucleus and attaches itself on the ribosomes Predicting the absent of organelle Explain what will happen to the production of extracellular enzymes if Golgi apparatus malfunctions. F: The production of the extracellular enzyme is incomplete/ disrupted/affected E1 (without Golgi apparatus), the protein cannot be modified into extracellular enzyme E2-Protien cannot be sorted E3-Extracellular enzyme cannot be released/ transported to the targeted cell /organ Explain what will happen if the rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are absent in the cell P1 Protein cannot be sent to the Golgi apparatus P2 Protein cannot be modified / processes P3 No enzyme extracellular can be synthesis Enzyme is made up of chains of polypeptides molecule. The Golgi apparatus in living cell are malfunction .explain the effect of the malfunction to the production of extracellular enzyme P1-Processing /modifying/packing/sorting/transporting of the synthesized protein could not be carry out P2-Resulting the synthesized protein /carbohydrates/glycoprotein are not able to be carry through the plasma membrane

(c)

(d)

(e)

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(f)

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(g)

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4551/2 Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

The production of extracellular enzyme No (a) Marking scheme Explain the role of P and Q in transportation of extracellular enzyme P1-The nucleus /RNA instruct ribosome to synthesized protein P2-the synthesized protein is transport in the rough endoplasmic reticulum /Q P3-to the transport vesicles P4-then the Golgi apparatus/P packages./modifies/sorts/transports the synthesized proteins P5-to the secretary vesicles to be transported P6-out of the cell through the plasma membrane Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1

(b)

Based on the organelle shown in diagram, explain how extracellular enzyme are produced starting at ribosome P1-Protien are synthesized in the ribosome P2-Rough endoplasmic reticulum transport the protein to the Golgi apparatus (by transport vesicles) P3Golgi apparatus modifies/repackage/transport protein to become enzyme P4-which are secreted out from the cell Explain how the protein form at the ribosome is transform into the extracellular enzyme, so that it can be secreted from the cell P1-Protien enter lumen Rough Endoplasmic reticulum(RER) P2-Modified in RER into extracellular enzyme P3-Carried to the Golgi body by transporting vesicles P4-Processed/packed in the Golgi body for excretion

1 1 1 1

(b)

1 1 1 1

Essay enhancement corner Diagram 8.1 shows the involvement of different cellular component P, Q and S in the secretion of extracellular enzyme in animal cell

54 Based on the diagram, describe the production of extracellular enzyme Module Biology Trail Paper Collection

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4551/2 Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Marking scheme E1-The information for the synthesis of enzyme is carried by DNA in structure Q / nucleus E2-The information is copied and carried/transferred to ribosome/ structure P via RNA /mRNA E3-The information is used to synthesize protein in the ribosome /structure R/rough endoplasmic reticulum E4-protien that are synthesized in the ribosome/structure P are transported vesicles/ S that buds off / from the side of structure R/ rough endoplasmic reticulum E5-protien depart from structure R /RER wrapped in transport vesicles /S that buds off / form the side of structure R/RER E6-These transport vesicles /S fused with the membrane of structure T / Golgi apparatus to be sorted and modified E7-Modified protein is packed into secretory vesicle/ U E8-Secretory vesicles/ U buds off from structure T / Golgi apparatus membrane and travel/sent to the plasma membrane E9-Secretory vesicles / U will Release the modified protein /enzyme outside the cell (as extracellular enzyme The mechanism of enzyme action
Trial Kedah 2012 Trial Kedah 2009 JUJ 2009

Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6

Substrate X Q:substrate

Substrate Y

P: enzyme

R: Enzyme substrate complex

S: Product

No (a)

Marking scheme What is the definition of enzyme? P1-enzyme is an organic catalyst P2-enzyme is a protein which speed up biochemical reaction in living thing 1 1

Marks

55

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Marking scheme Marks

No (b)

Name the structure Name P ,Q, and S if the enzyme used is lipase P:lipase Q:fats S:fatty acid and glycerol Name P ,Q, and S if enzyme used is sucrase P: sucrase Q: sucrose S; glucose/fructose

1 1 1

(c)

1 1 1

(d)

Explain why substrate Y, but not Substrate X, can combine with the enzyme P1-substrate x does not have a specific active sites to fit into tha enzyme P2-only Substrate Y , has shape which exactly fits into the enzyme 1 1 2

(e)

State the principle of enzymatic reaction as shown in Figure key and lock The enzyme reaction is referred as the key lock hypothesis. Explain about hypothesis P1-enzyem has active site where inly certain molecules can fit in P2-substrate represents the key and enzyme represent the lock P3-when the substrate fit into (active sites of ) enzyme forming enzyme-substrate be complex P4-enzyme catalyst the substrate to form products ANY 3 A student carried out and experiment using enzyme X. he replaced lipid with maltose as the substrate. At the end of the experiment, he observed that there was no reaction P1-active site of the enzyme X is not complement to the shape of maltose P2-maltose cannot bind to enzyme X P3-no enzyme substrate complex is formed P4-maltose is not hydrolysed /broken down A student carried out and experiment using enzyme X. he replaced lipid with maltose as the substrate. At the end of the experiment, he observed that there was no reaction P1-active site of the enzyme X is not complement to the shape of maltose P2-maltose cannot bind to enzyme X P3-no enzyme substrate complex is formed P4-maltose is not hydrolysed /broken down

(f)

1 1 1 1

(g)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(h)

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No (a) Name organ X and organ Y Organ X : Small intestine //ileum Organ Y : liver (b)

Marking scheme

Marks

1 1

Name molecule K , molecule M and enzyme L Molecule K ; starch Molecule M : glucose Enzyme L : (pancreatic ) Amlyase

1 1 1 3

Factor affecting the activity of enzyme Trail perils 2011 No (a) Marking scheme State two factor affecting activities of enzymes/state two other factor affecting the enzyme activity P1-temperature P2-pH P3-substrate concentration P4-enzyme concentration Marks

1 1 1 1

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Trial Johor 2011 Trial Kedah 2012 Trial Penang 2012 Trail Kelantan 2010 Trial Selangor 2008

The effect of temperature on the activity of enzyme


Trail Kelantan 2008 Trial MRSM 2011

Trial Perak 2011

No Enzyme activity at high temperature (a)

Marking scheme

Marks

Each enzyme has an optimum temperature at which its reaction rate is the fastest. beyond the optimum temperature an enzyme is said to be denatured Explain the above statement. E1: High temperature alter/changes the( three dimensional) shape of the active site of the enzyme molecules E2-Substrates thus can no longer fit into the active sites of the enzyme E3-the reaction cannot be carried out // substrate cannot be hydroylsed Explain the reaction of sucrose if the temperature of medium is 60oC P1-60oC is high temperature P2-At very high temperature the chemical bond that hold enzyme molecule together begi to break P3-Thus altering three dimensional shape of enzyme P4-Destroying active site of enzyme site of enzyme /enzyme denature MAX 3

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(b)

Suggest what would happen if brand P washing powder is used with hot water (60oC-80oC) 1 P1-Enzyme are protein 1 P2-enzyme are denatured by the high temperature 1 P3-Cleaning is less effective Compare the enzyme activity at high and low temperature Diagram shows the results of an experiment in which two similar shirts P and Q with same blood stain. the shirts were washed by using enzyme-containing washing powder at tow different temperature, 35oCand 65oC

Explain the result of washing the shirt in the diagram 35oC : (shirt P Does not have blood satin remaining) F:the rate of enzymatic activity is the highest P:35 oC is the optimum temperature 65 C: (shirt Q has the larger amount of blood satin remaining) F: the rate of enzymatic reaction is lower P:the enzyme must have been denatured at the high temperature
o

1 1 1 1

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(d)

(e)

Explain why washing of shirt in P is more effective when used with warm water 30oC-40oC than cold water P1-Enzyme are less active at low temperature P2-Many enzyme have an optimum temperature range between 30oC-40oC Enzyme activity at low temperature Explain the rate of enzyme reaction at low temperature and at the optimum temperature P1-At low temperature , the enzyme is inactive and the rate of reaction Is slow P2-at the optimum temperature, the enzyme is very active and the rate of enzyme reaction is at maximum All enzyme are protein .enzyme are sensitive to temperature Explain why food is kept in refrigerator? ( F: temperature of the refrigerator is low P1: Enzyme ( in bacteria) is inactive P2- food cannot be decomposed Enzyme activity at optimum temperature A branded washing machine is provided with temperature regulator A Housewife uses the detergent containing enzyme at 40C to wash the clothes .using the information given, explain why F:40C is an optimum temperature P1-enzyme activity is maximum P2-the cleaning is more effective Enzyme is used to wash away the blood stain on a shirt .explain how the enzyme acts on the blood stain at a maximum rate. F1-Use (warm) water with temperature of 37oC P1-optimum temperature for enzyme (activity)//enzymes work best this temperature Draw a graph to show the effect of temperature on the activity of enzyme

1 1 1 1

(f)

1 1 1

(g)

1 1 1

(h)

1 1

(i)

Draw 1m(/) Label 1m(/) (ii) what is the optimum temperature for this reaction 37oC

1 1 1

2 1

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The effect of pH on the activity of enzyme No (a) Marking scheme Explain the effect of pH on the mechanism of enzyme,in an acidic medium /Explain the reaction of sucrase if the pH value medium is 3 P1-excess hydrogen ions attach to the active site of the enzyme P2-Cause ionic vharge on the activity site are altered P3-substrate is unable ti bind to the enzyme /reaction cannot take place 1 1 1 Marks

(b)

Starch ,protein and peptone can be hydrolyzed by enzyme amylase, pepsine and trypsin respectively Diagram shows the effect of pH an the rate of enzyme activity Based on the diagram , explain how the changes in pH affect the enzyme activity P1-Enzyme are denature by changes in pH level of the reaction medium P2-Each enzyme function actively at its optimum pH P3-he enzyme salivary amylase functions at the optimum pH 7.0. P4-it will become inactive when its reaction medium is too acidic or alkaline P5-the optimum pH for pepsin is 1.5-2.0and trypsin is pH 8.5 P6-the changes in pH will cause the changes in the concentration of hydrogen ion (H+)or hydroxyl ions (OH-) P7-the excess hydrogen ions or hydroxyl ions destabilize enzymes by changing the shape of the active site P8-enzyme stop functioning P9-the effect of pH changes on the enzyme activity are reversible P10-An enzyme which is inactive in a high pH will become active again when it is at its optimum pH

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10

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(c)

Enzyme is used to wash away the blood stain on a shirt Explain how the enzyme acts on the blood satin at a maximum rate P1-Add a little vinegar/acid ( in the water) P2-Enzyme /pepsin work best at this temperature OR P1-Add more soap/ alkali solution (in the water) P2-Enzyme/trypsin protease work best in an alkaline medium

1 1 1 1
Trial perils 2011

The effect of substrate concentration on the activity of enzymes No

Trial Melaka 2008

Marking scheme Diagram show how the amount of an enzyme substrate and product change during seed germination

Marks

(a) (b)

State which curve represents the amount of substrate Curve P Explain your answer If the enzyme involved in the reaction is amylase, continue curve P in the box diagram 2.2 to shows what would happen when photosynthesis begins P1-curve P is plotted downward P2-this shows the amount of substrate is decreasing P33-this due to the substrate being hydrolyzed by the enzyme MAX 2

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(c)

Explain the shape of curve that you have drawn P1-when photosynthesis occur , shoot will start to produce sugars which is later store as starch P2-this increase in tha amount of substrate

1 1

Table 1 shows the enzyme substrate complex molecule at Q where the concentration of the substrate is X%

P-1 R-1 (e) Based on the graph in diagram 3.1, complete Diagram 3.2 by drawing the substrate molecule at region P and R

1 1

(f)

Based on your drawing in diagram 3.2, explain the relationship of the substrate and enzyme molecule at region P and R P- P1-when the concentration of substrate increase, more substrate molecule bind to active sites of the enzyme P2-more product will be produced// the rate of reaction is directly propotional to the substrate concentration R: P3-after the maximum rate , all active sites of the enzyme molecule are filled/engaged P4-the rate of reaction become constant P5-the concentration of enzyme become the limiting factor

1 1 1 1 1

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(g)

If the concentration of enzyme increase, draw a line to show the enzyme activity in diagram 3.3 P

D-1 (h) Explain your answer in (c) P1-When the enzyme concentration increases, more substrate will bind to the active site of enzyme P2-the rate of reaction increase Which curve has a higher concentration of enzyme Curve P Explain curve Q P1-Q has lower concentration of enzyme than P P2-when concentration of substrate increase, the rate of enzyme reaction increase until a limiting factor, where no enzyme substrate complex is form What is the limiting factor of both curve P and Q How can we increase the rate of enzyme reaction? P1-concentation of enzyme is the limiting factor
Trial Johor 2009 Trial Kedah 2012

1 1

(g) (h)

1 1 1

(i)

The use of enzyme in daily life and industries No

Trial Penang 2012

Marking scheme Biological enzyme are added to the washing power to boost its effectiveness

Marks

(a)

(b) (c)

Give one example of a biological enzyme of biological enzyme that can be added to washing powder Explain the action of this enzyme 1 F1-Protease/Lipase/Amylase 1 P2-to breakdown//dissolve/hydrolyses protein stain /fat stain / starch stain Name the enzyme present in washing powder to remove blood stain Amylase/protease/lipase 1 Suggest one type of enzyme would need to be present in a washing powder design to remove blood stain 1 lipase/protease

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4551/2 Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

(d)

Give two example of enzyme present in biological washing powder that helps in the removal of food stain from the clothing. State one function of each of the named enzyme F1-AmylaseP1-to hydrolyse starch stains F1-Lipase P2-to break down oily stains F3-Protease P3-to hydrolyse protein stain ANY 4 F+P (e) Enzyme is widely used in daily life and in industries. explain the use of enzyme in the process of extracting agar from seaweed P1- Cellulase is added P2-to digest the cell wall of the seaweed to extract agar A chef marinate meat with pineapple for 30 minutes before he cook the meat. Explain why P1-protease/bromelian in fresh pineapple P2-can be used to hydrolyse /tenderize the protein in the meat P3-the meat is marinated with pineapple slices fro 30 minutes to give time for enzyme react with protein in the meat ANY2 (g)

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(f)

Enzymes are widely used in our daily life and industries. Explain how enzymes act in : To get rid of stains on cloth: F1- biological detergents contain proteases, amylases and lipases P1- proteases acts on stains containing proteins / blood / saliva P2- amylases acts on stains containing starch / sauces / ice cream/ gravy P3- lipases are effective in removing oil and grease
Helping to cook meat: F2 Protease acts on protein in meat P4 tenderize / softens meat Explain example of the application of enzymes in cereal grains product industry P1-lipase E1-Ripening cheese OR P2-Rennin E2-Solidify milk potien MAX 2

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(h)

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