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4551/2 Chapter 6:Nutrition 2014

6.1 Type of Nutrition No (a) PLANT Marking scheme Marks

Organism P Organism Q Describe the type of nutrition in organism P and organism R. Organism P F1-Autotrophic nutrition P1-Synthesize its own glucose / starch from carbon dioxide and water with the help of light energy through the process of photosynthesis Organism Q F2-Heterotrophic nutrition/ holozoic P2-Obtain its food source/organic substances from the surroundings (eat plant/ producer)

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6.2 Balanced Diet No (a) Marking scheme Marks The necessity for a balance diet Trail Johor What is balanced diet? F1-A balance diet contains al the seven major nutrients which include carbohydrates, 1 protein lipids, vitamin, minerals water and roughage/(dietary) fibre F2-In the correct amount and ratio// in the correct proportions to meet the daily requirement of 1 2 the body Calculating the energy value Type of food Quantity taken Moderately adult man Rice White bread Butter Potato Milk Banana Chicken 300 100 50 100 100 50 200 Energy /kJ Energy obtained/kJ Boy aged 15 per 100 g Moderately Boy aged 15 years old active adult years old 400 150 50 100 200 100 200 2000 1500 3000 500 300 50 800 1500 1500 500 300 25 1600 1500 500 600 50 1600 88 8000

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Complete table 5 by calculating the total energy obtained by each individual 2 Moderate active adult man Rice : 6000 Total energy obtained :11425 Boy aged 15 years old White bread :2250 Total energy obtained:14500 (b) The enrgy requrment for a girl aged 15 is 9000kJ daily Types of food Rice Chips Roasted chicken Grilled mutton Boiled potato Chocolate yogurt Egg Quantity taken (g) 350 150 300 200 150 100 200 100 Energy content (kJ/100g) 1500 1000 800 1200 500 2500 200 600

Calculate the daily total value taken by the girl2 Total eneygy value is 5250+1500+2400+2400+750+2500+400+600=15800kJ Working -1m Answer with units -1m (c)

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Is he daily menu a balanced diet?Explain the consequence to her health2 P1-no/the menu is not balnced diet 1 E1-The menu does no contain the 7 calsses of food in the approproate ratio//The menu is 1 highly rich in carbohydarte and fats//no vegetables and lack vitamins//higher eneygy intake compared to energy requirment for a girl aged 15 Diagram 3 shows an experiment to determine the energy values of a peanut and a Dried prawn.

89 In this experiment, 20 cm3 of distilled water is used and 2.0 g of peanut and 1.8 g of dried prawn is burnt. The initial and final temperature of water is shown in Table 1below. Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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Food sample

Mass

Initial temperature of water(oC)

Final temperature of water(oC) 45 34

Rise in temperature of the water (oC)

Peanut

2.0 1.8

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Dried prawn

State a hypothesis for this experiment The peanut contains more energy (value) compared to dried prawns (b)

(c)

Record the rise in temperature of the water in the spaces provided in Table 1 Rise in temperature of the water ( 0C ) : 1 Peanut : 16 1 Dried prawn : 4 ( Both must be correct) The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 Jg-1 oC -1. Use the following formula to calculate the energy values of the peanut and the dried prawn. 4 Energy value = ( mass of water X 4.2 X rise in temperature of water ) Jg-1 mass of food 1 Energy value of the peanut = 20 X 4.2 X 16 Jg-1 2.0 1 = 672.0 Jg-1 1 Energy value of the dried prawn = 20 X 4.2 X 4 Jg-1 1 1.8 = 186.7 Jg-1 Which food sample has a higher energy value? The peanut Give a reason for your answer in (d)(i). Peanuts contain more lipids /Lipids have higher energyvalue than proteins The energy values of the peanut and the dried prawn are much lower than the theoretical values. State two reasons for your answer. 1. Not all the energy released during the burning of the food is absorbed by the water; some is lost in the form of heat to the surroundings. 2. Some of the energy is absorbed by the boiling tube. 3. The food may not be completely burnt, especially the centre. ( Any two ) Suggest two ways of obtaining a more accurate result in this experiment. 1. Water in the boiling tube must be stirred to ensure that the heat is distributed evenly. 2. (The food must be oxidized completely by) making sure the flame does not extinguished too quickly. 3. The distance between the food and the boiling tube must not be too far. 4. Make sure the thermometer does not touch the bottom of the test tube.( Any two ) 1 1

(d)(i) (ii) (e)

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Factor affecting daily energy requirement Trail Johor No (a) Marking scheme Marks

Explain the difference on the daily energy requirement between a very active man and moderately active man 2 F -Very active man need 15100kJ energy , but moderate active man only need 12600 kJ energy 1 E -because very active man need more energy to carry out all the heavy / tough activity 1 (b) Pregnant women need more calcium in their diet .Explain why P1 Calcium need for formation of bone and teeth of the mother P2 calcium also needed by the fetus to form the bone and teeth P3 the mother to be need calcium to prepare the mammary gland to produce milk P4 milk is the food for the baby Any 2 Individual group Man Sedentary work Moderate work Heavy work Women Sedentary work Moderate work Heavy work Pregnancy Children Up to 2 years 3 to 6 years 5040 6300 195 245 45 56 27 33 7980 9420 12600 10500 310 260 490 410 70 85 115 95 42 49 67 56 10080 11760 16380 390 455 635 90 105 146 53 62 87 Daily energy Carbohydrate/g requirement/kJ Protein /g Fats/g 1 1 1 1

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7 to 9 years 10 to 12 years adolescent 13 to 15 years boy 13 to 15 years girls 16 to 18 years boy 16 to 18 years

7560 8820 10500 9420 12600 9420

295 340 410 360 490 360

70 80 95 82 115 82

40 47 56 49 67 49

Based on the table, Explain why different groups of people have different daily energy requirement 8 F1- Males require more energy input than a female E1-Bigger body size//higher metabolic rate//thinner layer of insulating fat F2-A person who a does heavy works need more energy than a person who is moderately work/sedentary work E2-Type of occupation determine the rate at which energy from food is utilized F3-Growing children needs more energy per body weight E3-The metabolic rate is higher because they require more energy for growth F4-Adolescent require more energy for growth and physical activities E4-They have reached maturity/puberty and are very active F5-Pregant mother needs more energy than non-pregnant women E5-To cater for the developing foetuses in their wombs/perform respiration , digestion and excretion for the developing foetus (d) Breakfast A plate of fried rice A cup of fresh milk Lunch A bowl of chicken rice A piece of roasted chicken A bowl of chicken soup A glass of carbonated drink Does the menu provide a balanced diet for the pregnant women ,Discuss your opinion Dinner F1-No A plate of fried noodle A banana A cup of coffee P1-Contains too much fat P2-infired rice/fried noodle P3-Increase cholesterol; level E1-cause excess body weight/hypertension/cardiovascular problems P4 -carbonated drink contain excess sugar E2-cause diabetes P5-containing colouring,preservatives/chemicals/acids Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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E3-cause cancer/gastritis P6-cofee contain caffeine/drugs/chemicals E4-Acting on nerves P7-Less/no vegetables E5-cause constipation P8-Less vitamin/minerals/ferum//other example E6-For good health/make blood//other example OR F-Yes P1-Rice provides carbohydrates E1-For energy P2-Fresh milk provide proteins E2-For growth of foetus E3-Calcium for bone formation P3-Roasted chicken provides proteins E4--Less fats so less risk of cardiovascular problems P4-chicken soup provide minerals//examples E5-for good health//other example P5-Banana provides fibre E6-Avoid constipation (e)

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Beside the basic nutrient shown in table 8.1, what other nutrient are also essential to be inculded in our daily diet 4 1 F1Vitamin e.g. calcium/iron/sodium/potassium/chlorine/magnesium/iodine/sulphur/phosporus/ Flourine/chlorine F3-(dietary) fibre/roughage,eg cellulose from fruits/vegetables/plants 1 F4- water 1

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Nutrient content in food No (a) Marking scheme Energy content in food Trail Johor Different fruits have different content of vitamin C and energy value.By using your biiological knowledge explain briefly how to determine the vitamin C content and the energy value of an apple Vitamin C content 1. The ascorbic acid solution is added to DCPIP solution untill the DCPIP decolourised 2. The volume of ascorbic acid used is recorded 3. The procedure is repeated using freshly sqeezed apple to determine the volume of juices required 4. The percentage and concentration of vitamin C can be calculated using formula. Energy Value 1. A sliced of apple is weighed 2. It is ignitd and placed under a boiling tube filled with water 3. The final tempearature of water in thr boiling tube is recorded 4. The energy value is calculated using formula Potato P Egg Q Oil R Based on the diagram suggest a food test to determine the nutrient content in the food P,Qand R (i) Starch in food P Iodine test fro starch P1-Two drop of iodine solution id added to a test tube contaning porato cubes P2-The iodine soluiton turns dark blue,showing that starch is persent (ii) Protein in food Q Millons test fro protien P3- 1ml of million s reagentis added to the egg albumen solution in a test tube.The mixture is then heat P4-A white precipitate is forn id for and then changes to a brick red precipitate when boiled, showing that protien is present (iii) Lipid in food R Grease stain test fro lipid P5-A drop of corn oil fripped onto a piece of filter paper.the paper is then dried gentely P6-A translucent stain is observed on the filter paper showing that lipid is persent Minerals No (a) Marking scheme State the function and symptom of deficiency of these minerals. State one source for each mineral Calcium 1 - Needed for the formation of bones and teeth. 2 - deficiency in calcium will cause rickets in children Module Biology Trial Paper Collection Marks 94 1 1 1 Marks

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3 - and osteoporosis most often in women who have gone through menopause 4 - The source of calcium is milk / cheese. Ferum 5 - Required in the production of haemoglobin. - Insufficient ferum leads to anemia 7 - Ferum can be found in meat Iodine 8 - Important component of the hormone (thyroxine) produced by the thyroid gland. 9 - symptom of deficiency is goiter 10 - the source of iodine is sea food/seaweed/ iodine salt No (b)

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Marking scheme Marks Roughage or dietary fibre Trail Johor State the function of food in R (Roughage/dietary fibre)/ State one importance of roughage in digestion Aids/stimulates peristalsis//prevent constipation //absorbing and eliminating toxic substances 1 1

Selection of an appropriate balanced diet No (a) Marking scheme Trial johor 2011 Marks

Name the class of food labeled R and S R: Roughage/dietary fibre S:Carbohydrate Q: protein Name the classes of food that build the muscle tissue and give two example F-Protein P-Fish and meat

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Explain why ice cream, butter cake are placed at level 4 in the food pyramid6 P1: Food at level 4 should only be taken in smallest amount / ratio. P2: Ice cream contains a lot of sugar. P2: Sugar has high energy value. P3: Excessive sugar in the body will lead to obesity / diabetes. P4: Butter cake contains a lot of lipid. P5: Lipid has high energy value. P6: Excessive lipid will form adipose tissue in the body// increase cholesterol level in body. P7: (Excessive lipid will) lead to heart attack / cardiovascular disease/ stroke. (b) Explain the importance of consuming food from level 2 in our daily diet.4 P1: Food at level 2 contains a lot of water, vitamins, minerals and roughage / fibre. P2: Water is important in all cell activities / physiological /biochemical processes in our body. P3 : Body need enough vitamins to preserve / maintain health// Any suitable example of vitamin and the related function P4: Body need enough minerals to preserve / maintain health and growth // Any suitable example of mineral and the related function. P5: Roughage is necessary in the diet to stimulate peristalsis / to prevent constipation.Any 4 P

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(c)

Explain how to achieved a balanced diet byconsuming food from diverse source. Sample Answer P1: Ulam type of salad include fresh leaves/fruits/other plant parts which are eaten raw P2: rich in mineral ions, vitamins and fibre P3: other sources of protein rabbit meat/quail meat/ostrich meat/freshwater fish / prawn P4: rabbit meat is rich in protein but low in fat and cholesterol / the meat has soft texture // ostrich meat is nutritious // fresh water fish low in cholesterol, the protein is easily digestible P5: mushrooms have high nutrient content Any four Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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Choosing an appropriate diet for different target groups No (a) Marking scheme The photographs in Figure 6.1 show three individuals with different needs for energy. Marks

A lady athlete/ (11 000kJ)

A pregnant lady/ (10 000kJ)

An old lady/ (6500kJ)

Based on your biological knowledge about balanced diet, explain the factors that determine the energy requirement for the three individuals in figure 6.1 A lady athlete: F1: An athlete is a very active person and has high rate of metabolism to produce energy. E1: The diet should include more carbohydrates to supply enough energy to carry out the vigorous activity in sports.// She needs to contract and relax her muscles frequently for her vigorous activities. //Energy is needed to contract the muscles. E2: The diet should include more protein to build new tissues to replace tissues that are dead or damaged. E3: She also needs calcium, sodium and potassium to strengthen the bones and to prevent muscular cramp. A pregnant lady: F2: A pregnant lady has a high rate of metabolism to provide energy for herself and the baby. E4: The pregnant lady also needs more iron and calcium to build red blood cells to avoid anemia. E5: She needs a high quantity of calcium and phosphate to form strong teeth and bones for the baby. An old lady: F3: An old lady has low rate of metabolism as she does not need energy to grow. (age) E6: An old lady needs less carbohydrates and fats because she is less active and thus do not need much energy. E7: she needs more proteins, vitamins and minerals to replace dead tissues and maintain her daily activities E8:She needs calcium and phosphorus to prevent osteoporosis E9: She should avoid food that contains a lot of fats, sugar and salt because excess fat can lead to heart diseases, excess sugar can cause diabetes mellitus and excess salt can cause high blood pressure. F1, F2 and F3 and any five E: Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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6.3 Malnutrition No (a) Marking scheme What is malnutrition? Essay & Structure F1-Malnutrition result from taking an unbalanced diet F2-Certain nutrient are excess, lacking or in the wrong proportions Protein deficiency Marks 1 1

(b)

Identify the deficiency disease shown in diagram 5.2 Rickets (c) State the cause of the disease and possible effect on children 2 Cause: Lack of vitamin/calciuferol Possible effect in children : bent leg Malnutrition caused by the unbalanced diet. Malnutrition of B (protein) for long term will affects certain health problem Explain this statement P1-Malnutrition due to the lacking, the excessive or the wrong proportion of nutrient intake for a long term P2-Example of protein :bean/meat/fish P3-Lack of protein intake cause kwashiorkor P4-Health problem/symptom: scaly skin/thin muscle /thin hairs OR P3-Excessive protein intake cause gout/kidney stone/kidney damage P4-Health problem/symptom: inflammation of joint/urination trouble State two effect of malnutrition by giving suitable example 4 F1-Kwashiorkor E1-Protien deficiency F2-Marasmus E2-Protien deficiency combined with a lack of energy-providing nutrient F3-Scurvy E3- Deficiency vitamin C F4-Osteoporosis/oateomalacia E4-Deficiency in calcium /phosphorus/vitamin D Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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F5-Obesity E5-Excess carbohydrate and lipids F6-diabetes Mellitus E6-Excess sugar F7-Cardiovascular disease/high blood pressure E7-Excess saturated fat/cholesterol Note: MAX 4 (g)

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Name and explain the disease in Diagram A, Diagram B and Diagram C related to malnutrition. Diagram A 1-Kwashiorkor 2-A child does not receive sufficient protein in his diet. 3 -has the characteristic sign of scaly skin, thin muscles , thin hair and a swell of the body Diagram B 4- Rickets 5 - Vitamin D deficiencies 6 - poor teeth and bone formation in children 7 - leads to softening and weakening of the bones.. Diagram C 8 - Obesity 9 - excessive intake of food rich in fat 10 - body weight exceed by 20% of ideal/ normal weight t 1 1 1

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Effect of excessive intake of nutrient No (a) Marking scheme Junk food is good that is high in sugar , salt and fat ,.Explain the health problems faced by individual who continuously taken this food P1-Overconsumption of salt (sodium) cause high blood pressure leading to heart disease/stroke P2-Overconsumption of sugar cause overweight/obesity//diabetes //dental caries P3-Overcomsumption of lipid cause obesity//cardiovascular disease Marks

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(b) Content of fast food Excess of mineral salt Excess fats Excess protein Insufficient fibre Presence of food preservative,flavouring and food colouring 500 ml of soft drink excess sugar in the soft rink A teenager frequently consumes the fats food for a long period of time Explain the effect of consuming the above meal for a long period of time compared to consuming a balanced diet for the same period of time 10 F1-Excess mineral salts can cause higher osmotic pressure in the blood P1-Excess fats will be converted into cholesterol F2-Cholesterol accumulates at the artery wall and cause arteriosclerosis P2-High blood cholesterol levels are a risk factor for heart attack and stroke. P3-Excess protein cause excess amino acids which lead to gout. and cause kidney failure. F4-Low in roughage can cause constipation. P5-Deficiency in roughage also leads to difficulties in peristalsis process along digestive tract F5-Food preservatives, food colouring and food flavoring consists of carcinogenic substances. P6-It may cause cancer (c)

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Explain whether the menu is suitable for the boy Explain the consequences to his health if the boy continues taking the daily menu for a long time 5 Criteria 1. Justify 2. Explanaiton 3. Consequences P1-the menu I not a balanced diet ( not suitable for the boy) P2-It contains too little food rich in carbohdrte ( it only has banan and carbonated drink ) which does not dive enough energy value required by the boy to undrgoes his daily activity P3-It contians too little food rich in carbohdrtes ( it only has banana and carbonated drink) which does bot give enough vale required by the boy to undergoes his daily activity P4-It cintains too little water which is required for biocemicel process //anysuitable processes//any suitable function of water P5-It does not contain sufficient vitamin for healthly growth P6-Ir contains food highly rich in fats eaxmple butter and oil which will supply too much enet\rgy for th boy, if stored will cause obesity /arterioclerosis/heart aatack /high blood perssure ( only abpout one third of bodys energy requirments comes form food rich in fats But P7-It has sufficiebt vegetables and frut ( banan ) which are rich in fibre /roughage to prevent contipation P8-The banana, vegetable provide miberals needed for the development of bones and maintianing health(but the different typrs of mieral requirment are not sufficinet Any 2 form P2 and P3 If the boy keep taking the above menu his total eneygy value is not enough //eneygy needed is less than energy taken (i)Bad effect to the boys (ii)Rickets,lack of vitamin D (iii)Beri beri, lacking of vitamin B (iv)Scuvry, lack of vitamin C (v)Kwashoir, lack of protien (vi)Cretinism, lack of iodine//any suitable healthy problem (vii)Diabetes Any one bed effect (d) A girl takes food from group P continuously for a long period of time. Explain the consequences to the health of her heart. F1 : Food fro group P contains high level of cholesterol E1 : Cholesterol // fatty deposits tend to accumulate on the inner wall of arteries E2 : Causes the narrowing of the blood vessels /Coronary arteries are blocked by the build-up Of fatty tissues. E3 : Reduces the flow of blood E4 : The heart muscles become starved of oxygen and dies E5: The girl might get heart attack. Any three Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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6. 4 Food digestion Digestion of carbohydrate, proteins, and lipids Sites of digestion Mouth Question & Marking scheme Name the secretion and the enzyme found in mouth Secretion : Saliva Enzyme: Salivary amylase Write a word equation to show the process of food digestion in liver (1) Salivary amylase (1) Starch + water Maltose Explain how starch is digested in mouth TIPS: F1-(Digestive glands) secreted (digestive juice) which contain ( enzyme ) into ( site of digestion) E1-Which hydrolysed into Name the secretion found in R Gastric juice Name a enzyme found in R Pepsin /Renin Based on your answer in write a word equation to show the process of food digestion in (1) Pepsine (1) Protien+ Water Polypeptide /peptone (1) Renin (1) Caseinogen + Water casein Any one [2marks] Explain how he Protien is digested in stomach TIPS: F1-(Digestive glands) secreted (digestive juice) which contain ( enzyme ) into ( site of digestion) E1-Which hydrolysed into Describe how the hydrochloric acids produce by the gastric gland help in digestion of food P1-Provide acidic medium P2-Dor optimal reaction of enzyme pepsin Name the secretion which passes down tube W and state its function. Secretion : Bile Function : Lipids / fats emulsifier / breaking lipids into tiny droplets State the functions of X. Functions of Y/liver P1 - Maintenance of blood glucose level under the influence of insulin and glucagons. P2 - Synthesis plasma protein such as fibrinogen / prothrombin from amino acids. P3 - Synthesis bile. Module Biology Trial Paper Collection 102

Stomach

Duodenum (liver)

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P4 - Storage of nutrients such as fat-soluble vitamins (A & D)/ B12/ ferum/ copper/ potassium. P5- Detoxification of poisonous substances such as alcohols/drugs/ toxins/pesticides/carcinogens /poisons. P6 - Deamination of amino acids. P7 - Produce heat. Syarifah eats too many mangoes with vinegar. Explain the effect of eating too much of this kind of mangoes on the digestion of food in Y.(Duodenum) 1 - Mangoes with vinegar contain much acid, so its reduces the pH value/ increases acidity in the duodenum 2 - Acid medium is less suitable for the action of enzyme lipase, amylase and trypsin 3 - less/ no lipid is digested/hydrolysed to fatty acid and glycerol by lipase 4 - less/ no starch is digested/hydrolysed to maltose by amylase 5 - less/ no polypeptide is digested/hydrolysed to peptides by trypsin

Duodenum (Pancreas)

Which organ involves in digestive system and endocrine system Organ S State the function of the organ labeled (pancreas) In digestive system : secretes enzyme lipase, amylase and trypsin In endocrine system : Secreted insulin and glucagon Name the secretion found in X Pancreatic juice Name a enzyme Pancreatic amylase/trypsin/lipase Write a word equation to show the process of food digestion in liver (1) Pancreatic amylase (1) Starch+ Water Maltose (1) Polypeptides + Water Trypsin (1) Peptides

(1) Lipase (1) Lipid droplets + Water Fatty acids + Glycerol Any one Explain how starch is digested in duodenum F1-The pancrease secreates an amylase into the duodenum E1-which hydrolysed starch into maltose TIPS: for tyrpsin/ lipase F1-(Organ involved) secreted (digestive juice) which contain ( enzyme ) into ( site of digestion) E1-Which hydrolysed into After having a meal containing rice fish vegetable, the glucose level in the body increase3 F-Q/Pancreases secretes insulin P1-Insulin stimulate the conversion of glucose into glycogen/the rate of respiration is increased P2-reduced the blood glucose level to normal (d) As a doctor you have confirmed that a patient is suffering from a disease. Organ S of the patient has to be removed. (i) What explanation would you give to the patient? In your Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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explanation, state the effects of the removal of organ S on enzymes and hormones, and how these affect the digestion and the level of glucose in the blood. F1-no / less secretion lipase E1- no / incomplete lipid digestion F2- no / less secretion amylase E2- no / less starch digestion F3 -no / less secretion trypsin E3- no / less protein digestion F4- No insulin released E4 -the blood glucose level high F4 /F5 F5 : No glucagon released E5- the blood glucose level low What advice can you give to the patient to help him handle his health problem that may arise from the removal of organ S P1-Avoid / Reduce the intake of oily food P2-Avoid / Reduce the intake of carbohydrates /sugar P3-Reduce the intake of protein P4-injections of insulin P5-pancreas implantation A man is suffering from cancer, his organ Z need to be removed. What should he do to handle health problems that may arise from the removal of organ Z? P1 - Reduce the intake of high carbohydrate food / protein /fatty food. P2 - Get insulin injection when needed / if glucose level too high. P3 - Get glucagons injection when needed / if glucose level too low. P4 - Pancreas transplant. P5 - Eat more vegetables / fruits. Name the secretion and enzyme found in Y Secretion : Intestinal juice Enzyme: Maltase/lastase/sucrase/erepsin State the final product of protien digestion in T Amino acids State one importance of the final product you state in P1-bulid new cells/growth P2-Repair/renew damaged cell P3-Producing enzyme /antibodies / hormones State the final product of carbohydrate digestion in T Glucose Name an enzyme involved in the digestion of carbohydrate in T Amylase pancreatic amylase Write a word equation to show the process of food digestion in Ileum [2marks] (1) Maltase (1) Maltose + Water glucose Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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(1) lactase (1) Lactose +Water glucose + galactose (1) sucrase (1) Sucrose + water glucose +fructose (1) Erepsin (1) Peptides + Water amino acids Explain how the Maltose is digest in Ileum TIPS: F1-(Organ involved) secreted (digestive juice) which contain ( enzyme ) into ( site of digestion) E1-Which hydrolysed into (Product)

Explain the digestion of food No (a) Marking scheme Marks

Starch is a complex molecule. Digestion of starch is carried out by several enzyme along the alimentary canal. Describe how glucose is produced form the digestion of starch along the alimentary canal 1 P1-Saliva is secreted by the salivary glands in the mouth 1 P2-Salivary gland secretes amylase /saliva contain amylase 1 P3-Amlase will hydrolyse starch into maltose 1 P4-Remaining starch and ,maltose enters the stomach P5-(stomach do not cantina carbohydrase), so no digestion of carbohydrate 1 P6-Will take place in stomach 1 P7-Duodenum received pancreatic amylase from pancreas 1 P8-Pancreatic amylase will hydrolyse the remaining starch into maltose 1 P9-the wall of ileum secretes ,maltase 1 P10-Maltase will hydrolyse maltose into glucose Any 6 1

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Explain how fried food P is digested in the digestive system Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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Criteria 1. Identify the classes of food in fried food P /banana 2. Peristalsis occurring in the any parts of alimentary canal 3. Digestion of carbohydrate in month//ileum with correct enzyme 4. Digestion of fats in duodenum//ileum with correct enzyme 5. Any correct product of carbohydarate P1-Fried banana /food P is rich in carbohydrate/starch and fats (physical digestion takes place in the mount where fried banana are chewed into smaller pieces of carbohydrate) P3-In the month Salivary amylase hydrolysed the pieces of carbohydrates/starch P5 in to maltose P2-The food is push down the oesophagus through peristalsis (In stomach ,Food P is not hydrolysed) P4-Fats is hydrolysed /break down P5-To fatty acids and glycerol by lipase // Lipase Fats + Water Fatty acids+ glycerol ( in an alkaline medium) In ileum P4&P5( fats is hydrolysed /break down into fatty acids and glycerol P3&P5-Maltose is hydrolysed into glucose//sucrose is hydrolysed ny sucrose to glucose and fructose//lactose is hydrolysed by lactase to glucose and galactose (in alkaline medium) (c)

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The main food for baby is milk ,describe th digestion of milk in the stomach 4 P1-(gastric glands in the wall of ) stomach secrete gastric juic 1 P2-Gastric juice ( cintian mucus.HCl),Pepsin nd renin 1 P3-Renin coagulates milk by converting soluble milk protien caseinogen to ythe insoluble 1 casien P4-Casein ios then hydrolysed( digested) by pepsin to peptones 1 P5-HCl optimises pH in the stomach for action of enzyme 1 Digestion of cellulose in ruminants and rodents Marking scheme Marks

No (a)

106 Explain One similarity and four differences between alimentary canal R and S Similarity: Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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F1-The alimentary canals of both R and S have bacteria/protozoa to hydrolyse cellulose E1-both and S do not produce cellulose in their food Differences: F2-R has 4 stomach chambers but S has One stomach chamber E2-The stomach of S is not involved in cellulose digestion F3-The size of caecum for R is small but S has a large caecum E3-Caecum for S is involved cellulose digestion F4-the bacteria and protozoa in r are found in the rumen and reticulum While in S they are found in the caecum E4-To produce enzyme cellulose F5-Food passes only once in R but twice in S //regurgitation take Place in R, but does not take place in S E5-R-to increase efficiency of cellulose action S-To complete food absorption (b)

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Compare the process of cellulose digestion in organism R and S Similarities 1 1 - Both have alimentary canal which are made up of the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. 1 2 - Both are unable to produce cellulase to digest cellulose. Organism Q The type of diet is omnivores Stomach has one chamber Microorganisms in the digestive tract do not play an important role in digestion of cellulose/ do not have enzyme cellulase to digest cellulose. The food from the mouth is swallowed to the stomach without regurgitation. Organism R The type of diet is herbivores Stomach has four chambers Bacteria and protozoa in rumen and reticulum secrete the enzyme cellulase to digest cellulose The food from the mouth is swallowed to the rumen and reticulum, then it is regurgitated into the mouth to be chewed again before being swallowed into the omasum. 1 1 1

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(c)

The digestive system of rodent and herbivores

107 By giving one example of organism S , explain how the structure involved in the digestion process Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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Example of organism S: Rabbit/other examples of rodents E1-Stucture T/caecum are enlarge to store the cellulose producing bacteria E2-Plants eaten contain cellulose E3-Bacteria in structure T caecum produce cellulose to digest cellulose to digest cellulose Problem associated with food digestion No (a) R S Marking scheme

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Marks

Explain the effect of malfunction of organ S and organ R to the digestion of food P Malfunction of liver P1-Too little /no bile is secreted by the liver P2-Resulting fats is not / hardly emulsified //medium is not alkaline Malfunction of pancreas P3-Too little / no pancreatic juice us secreted P4- lipid is not / hardly hydrolysed by amylase to maltose P5-Starch is not /hardly hydrolysed by amylase to maltose Any 4 (b)

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X A paitien has organ X removed Explian the effect of removal of organ X on enzyme and hormones and these affect the digestion and level of glucose in the blood 1 F1-no insulin secretion 1 E1-Excess blood glucose cannot be converted to glycogen 1 E2-Blood sugar level increases 1 F2-No glucagons secretions 1 E3-Stored glycoen cannot be converted to glucose 1 E4-Low blood glucose level cannot be increase to normal level 1 F3-No trypsin secretion 1 E5-Protiendigestion not completed 1 F4-No amylase secrerion 1 E6-stach digestion not cimpleted Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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F5-No lipase secretion E7- Lipie not digested.No lipid digestion in body E8-Body donot have enough amino avids and glucose E9-No fatty acids and glycerol (c) Predict wht will happen to a perosn if fails to function (liver)? P1-Digestion of lipid /starch/protien is distribed P2-risk have diabetes mellitus P3-(because)excess glucose cannot be converted in to glycogen (d)

All 5F+any E

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10

Mr X is an obese person. He undergoes an operation to shorten his small intestine Explain how that treatment can help Mr.X to reduce his body mass P1-small intestine is the site/where digestion /absorption of ( digested) food occur P2-lower rate of hydrolyzing of food ( to simplest food)P3-Iluem /small intestine ( has intestinal gland to ( produce ( intestinal juice containing digeative enzyme P4-Shorter ileum has lesser villi/lower surface area P5-As the rate of diffusion of digested food is slower P6-Less digested food is absorbed into blood capillary from the villus P7-the body tissue receives less glucose ( to undergoes cellular respiration ) P8-Lack of glucose will cause the adiposed tissues/stored fat to be oxidized/used to produce energy P9-Reducing the amount of fats stored// increasing the amount of fats used P10-Thus reducing the body mass 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(e)

A gall bladder of a patient is removed due to a gall stone. Explain the effects on the health. P1-Bile cannot be secreted by gall bladder to emulsify excess of lipids into the tiny droplets P2-Lipase cannot react on lipids effectively / less lipids is digested to fatty acid and glycerol. P3-Bile cannot neutralize the acidic foods from the stomach P4-Alkaline medium that is an optimum meduim for the digestion of lipids, carbohydrate and protein cannot be created. P5The digestion of lipids, carbohydrate and protein are affected. P6-More acid in the duodenum, it leads to duodenum gastric.

1 1 1 1 1 1 Marks

No (f)

Marking scheme Gallstone preventing the flow of bile A man has his bile duct blocked with gallstones. He is advised to cut down on his fat intake. Explain why such an advice is given to him? F1 : ( When the bile duct is blocked) , bile cannot be channeled out to the duodenum F2 : Fats / lipids cannot be emulsified F3 : Digestion of fats /lipids will be very slow / digestion of fats /lipids will be incomplete

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6.5 Absortion and assimilation of digested food Adaptive characteristic of the digestive system No (a) Marking scheme Marks

Explain One adaptation/characteristic of the villus for the process in F1-Thin wall/one cell Thick E1-Increase rate of diffusion of digested food/nutrients F2-Large surface area/has microvilli E2-Increase rate of absorption of digested food /nutrient F3-Has a network of capillaries/blood vessels E3-To transport the absorbed nutrients P4-The villus is moist covered with a thin layer of water (b)

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By referring to diagram 8(a) and *(b), explain the characteristic/adaptation of structure X and Y a a major site of nutrient absorption in human digestive system6 Strcuture X F1-Being almost 6 meter long E1-For maximum absorption of nutrient F2-Highly folded Module Biology Trial Paper Collection 1 1 1 110

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E2- Provides a large surface area for efficient absorption of digested food./To increase the rate 1 of nutrient absorption 1 F3-Having finger like projections called villi over its surface 1 E3-To increase total surface area for efficient absorption Structure Y F4-Have microvilli E4-To increase the surface area for absorption F5-Have thin walls : one cell thick E5-so that digested food can be aborb rapidly F6-Have rich supply of blood capillary E6-To transport glucose, amino acids and water soluble vitamin F7-Have lacteals E7-To absorb fatty acids and glycerol/water soluble vitamin efficiently F+E=1mark (c) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10

Based on the figure ,Explain three structural adaptation of the small intstine in effective absorption of digested food F1-length of intestine is long (6m) E1-Increase time for food absorption increase SA for absorption F2-Inner surface is (highly) floaded E2-To increase the SA for absorption F3-Numerous villi ( on the inner surface if iluem) E3-to increase the SA for absorption F5-Numerous blood ncapillaries and lacteal E5-to transport absorbed nutrient ( away)//to maintian concentration gradient ( form diffusiuon of nutrient) Any 3F+3E Module Biology Trial Paper Collection 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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Absorption of digested food No (a) Marking scheme The structure T in Diagram 2 has numerous projections. Draw and label a longitudinal section of one of these projections in the space below. Marks

D Able to draw the following parts epithelium, lacteal, finger-like projection L Able to label any two parts Epithelium

1 (b)
Amino acids

Glucose

Glucose
Amino acids

Lipid Vessel Q

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Name process X t the villus Absorption /simple diffusion/facilitated diffusion (c) Vessels P and Q transport digested food form the villi to the liver and body cells Respectively Name vessel and Q P:Hepatic portal vein Q:Lymphatic/lymph vessel/duct Figure 6.2 shows humans digestive system. X is part of the cross section of structure Y.

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(d)

Y Figure 6.2 What are the processes that occur in structure Y? Describe the processes by giving examples F1: Digestion // P1-Intestinal glands of the wall of ileum secrete a few enzymes to complete the digestion process. P2-Digestion process is completed in ileum to produce simple sugars (glucose, fructose and galactose), amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol. P3-Example: (any correct enzymes/ intestinal juices and substrate reaction) 1. Enzyme erepsin(peptidase) --- peptide to amino acids. 2. Enzyme sucrose -----sucrose to glucose and fructose F2: Absorption // P4-The wall of ileum has many projections called villus to absorb the products of digestion. P5-Blood capillaries in the villus absorb simple sugars, amino acids, minerals, vitamins B and C P6-Lacteal of the villus absorb fatty acids, glycerol, fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K) Must have F1 and F2 and other 3 Module Biology Trial Paper Collection 1 1 1 10 113 1 1 1 1 1 1

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(e)

Explain how glucose is transferred form the small intestine to the body cells P1-Glucose in the lumen of small intestine enter the epithelial cells by active transport P2-Glucose from epithelial cells enter blood capillary by facilitated diffusion P3-Blood carry the glucose into the hepatic Portal vein P4-Hapatic portal vein channel the blood containing glucose into the liver Liver cells will use/assimilate some of the glucose P5-Blood then send the glucose to the heart via hepatic vein then vena cava P6-Heart pump the blood to all body cells P7-Glucose diffused from the blood capillary into the body cells by facilitated diffusion any 6 Assimilation of digested food 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1

No (a)

Marking scheme Explain what happen to the excessive amino acids in the liver? 2 P1-Deamination //The amino group is removed (from amino acid)/converted to ammonia P2-(Ammonia) is converted to urea P3-urea will be excreted through the kidneys any2P Digested food are used by the body cells for growth , to complex compound or structural components State how lipids , amino acids and glucose are used in the cell Lipids; L1-A major energy reserve in the body// L2-(phospholipids)are components of the plasma membrane // L3-Lipids is used as a respiratory substrate/ L4-Excess fats are stored in adipose tissues(under the skin, around internal organs) Any 1 L Amino acids:A1-Amino acids are used in protein synthesis// A2-For repair and production of new protoplasm/growth and repair// A3-Used in the formation of enzyme /some hormones /protein part of hemoglobin /antibodies Any 1A Glucose: G1-Glucose is used as the main respiratory substrate//It is oxidized to realeased energy G2-Excessive glucose is converted to glycogen //blood glucose level rise/increase Any 1 G

Marks 1 1 1

(b)

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(c)

Explain what will happen to a person if his liver receives insufficient insulin from the pancreas2 P1-Diabetes mellitus blood sugar level increase level increase // hyperglycemia 1 P2-Exces glucose cannot be converted to glycogen 1

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No (d)

Marking scheme

Marks

Digested nutrient will be absorbed by ileum and some of ity will be transported to liver .In the liver , the nutrient arte used form complex Process that take place in the liver F-Able to state the nutrient that transported to liver P-Able to describe the process that take place in liver F1-Glucose Amino acids P1-Assimilation P2-Glucose used as the main respiratory substrate/release energy P3-Excess glucose is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver P4-Further excess is converted in to lipids P5-when the blood glucose level decrease below the normal level , glycogen is converted back into glucose P6-Amino acids are used in protein synthesis for the production of new protoplasm , growth and repair P7-Amino acids are involved in the formation of enzymes and some hormones P8-Amino acids are also involved in the formation of the protein part of hemoglobin in the red blood P9-Excess amino acids are deaminated to form urea which is excreted in the urine any 7P Synthesizing Skill :Able to state one of F,P1-and any 3P correctly

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No (e)

Marking scheme

Marks

Urea

Glucose Glycogen Glucose

Amino Acids

Kidney

Lipid Glucose
Amino Acids
Fatty acids& Glycogen

Ileum

Carbohydrate

Protein

Lipid 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Based on Diagram 7, Explain the assimilation of the following (i) Glucose P1-Excess glucose in the blood is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver P2-when glucose level in the blood is low , glycogen is covert to glucose in the liver P3-Excess glucose is converted to lipids by the liver P4-In the body cells , glucose is oxidized to released energy in cellular respiration (ii) amino acids P5-Amino acids is used to synthesise protein in the liver P6-Excess amino acids undergo deamination to produce urea in the liver P7-Urea is then eliminated by the kidney P8-Amino acid is used to synthesise enzymes/antibodies/hormones/new protoplasm/repair damaged tissues in the body cells (iii) Lipids P9-Excess lipids is stored in adipose tissues P10-Phospholipids and cholesterol make up the plasma membrane (f)

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Helmie takes fried chicken at lunch. Explain the absorption and assimilation process of lipid content in the fried chicken Absorption P1-Digestion od lipid prouce fatty acid and glucerol 1 P2-Absorbtion of lipid occur at ileum 1 P3-At ileum there are villi which have lacteal 1 P4-Fatty acid and glycerol are absorbed into lacteal 1 P5-In lacteal condensation of fatty acid and glycerol form lipid 1 P6-the lpipids then transported via the subclaviian vein into the blood stream 1 Assimilation P7-In the cells lipid is use as a ian compomemt of plasmam membrane 1 P8-Lipids also is use as a main component of some hormone and vitamins 1 P9-Excess lipid will be stored underneath the skin as adiposed tissue 1 Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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No (g)

Marking scheme

Marks

Based on the diagram on diagram ,explain how the ileum and liver in the absorption and assimilation of the following digestedfood substances (i) Glucose (ii) Amino acids (iii) Fatty acids F1-iluem has (adaptive features such as having ) many villi/villus /very thin cell wall /villus are surrouded by dense network of blood capilarry/lacteal E1-To increase the rate of diffusion of dieated food E2-glucose diffused from villi into the blood capilary to the liver via the hepatic portal vein E3-excess glucose is converted to glycogen ( to be kept in the liver) E4-Glycogen acts as stored food E5-in body tissueglucose is oxidized during the cellular respiration to produce energy E6-amino acids from villi diffused into blood capilary to the liver via the hepaic portal vien E7-Excess amino acid is deaminated/conveted into urea( to be excreated through the kidney) E8-amino acid will be used to synthesis new protoplasm/repair of damaged tissue//used to synthesis protien of plasma membrane//produce enzymes antibodoes/hormones E9-fatty acids dissuse from villi into lacteal E10-Then reansport to the throracic duct/right lymphatic vessel//lymphatic vessel E11-To the subclavin veins back to the blood circulatory system E12-Fatty acids is synthesized to form the plasmamembrane E13-Stored in the adiposed tissues(beneath the skin as a source of energy) Any 10 (h) Explain the assimilation of digeated food of glucose and amino acids b organ R / liver Glucose P1Gucose is used ( by cells ) to produced energy/ carry ( cellular ) respiration P2Excess of glucose in the blood is converted to glycogen and //Stored as glycogen as glycogen P3-When glucose level in the blood is low the glycogen is converted into glucose P4-Excesss of glycogen is converted into lipids Amino acids P1-Synthesis of plasms protien /enzymes /any suitable protien molecule form amino acids P2-Excess amino acids are converted/ deaminated into area ( to be excreated) Any 4 Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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Assimilation in the liver (summary) Marking scheme Amino Acids P1- Amino acids from villi diffused into blood capilary to the liver via the hepaic portal vien P2-Amino acids is used to synthesise plasma protein in the liver P3-Excess amino acids undergo deamination to produce urea in the liver P4-Urea is then eliminated by the kidney P5-Amino acid is used to synthesise enzymes/antibodies/hormones/new protoplasm/repair damaged tissues in the body cells P1-iluem has (adaptive features such as having ) many villi/villus /very thin cell wall /villus are surrouded by dense network of blood capilarry/lacteal P2-To increase the rate of diffusion of dieated food P3-glucose diffused from villi into the blood capilary to the liver vua the hepatic portal vein P4-Gucose is used ( by cells ) to produced energy/ carry ( cellular ) respiration P5-Excess glucose is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver P6-when the blood glucose level decrease below the normal level , glycogen is converted back into glucose P7-Excesss of glycogen is converted into lipids P8-In the body cells , glucose is oxidized to released energy in cellular respiration P1-fatty acids dissuse from villi into lacteal P2-Then reansport to the throracic duct/right lymphatic vessel//lymphatic vessel P3-To the subclavin veins back to the blood circulatory system P4-Fatty acids is synthesized to form the plasmamembrane P5- Excess lipid will be stored underneath the skin as adiposed tissu e (beneath the skin as a source of energy)

Glucose

Lipids

Assimilation in the cells (Summary) Question & marking scheme Amino acids P1-Amino acids are used in protein synthesis// P2-For repair and production of new protoplasm/growth and repair// P3-Used in the formation of enzyme /some hormones /protein part of hemoglobin /antibodies Any 1A P1-Glucose is oxidized during the cellular respiration to produce energy P1-A major energy reserve in the body// P2-(phospholipids)are components of the plasma membrane // P3-Lipids is used as a respiratory substrate/ P4-Lipids also is use as a main component of some hormone and P5- Excess lipid will be stored underneath the skin as adiposed tissu e (beneath the skin as a source of energy) Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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6.7 Evaluating Eating habits Health problem related to eating habits No (a) Marking scheme Marks

If she continues to take the menu everyday for a long time , explain the consequence to her health F1-Constipation E1-Her menu lacks fibre/roughage so her faeces moves too slowly through the colon F2-Scuvry E2-Lack of vitamin C //any other vitamin deficiency with explanation F3-Obesity E3-High intake of roasted chicken/gilled mutton /chocolate/chips increase the amount of fat stored in the body F4-diabetes mellitus E4-Excess of carbohydrate in rice/chips/potatoes/chocolate increase the amount of glucose in blood when digested F5-Arteriosclerosis/Arthrosclerosis E5-Roasted chicken /grilled mutton /chips contain F6-Heartattack E6-Roasted chicken /grilled mutton/chips contain cholesterol which are deposited in te coronary artery//cause blockage in the coronary artery F7-High blood pressure E7-Narrowing of artery cause the heart to pump with higher pressure

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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No (b)

Marking scheme Content Carbohydrate Protein Lipid Fibre Sodium chloride Mass for 100 g of fried chicken nugget(g) 10.5 20.1 25.3 2.5 0.7

Marks

A teenage boy aged 13 eats 500g this snack food for energy week Is the snack food suitable as a daily diet for the boy? Describe the effect of taking this snack food over a long period F-not suitable 1 P1-The snack contains high fat and protein 1 1 P2-the intake of high fat irregularly may lead to obesity 1 P3-saturated fats in the snack may deposited in the wall of artery 1 P4-the narrow lumen of artery leads to arteriosclerosis 1 P5-soon the teenager faces high blood pressures 1 1 P6-If arteriosclerosis occur at coronary artery the teenager may have heart attack 1 P7-Excessive intake of protein may cause kidney problem 1 P8-th snack contain lack of fibre 1 P9-This may lead to constipation (c) Breakfast Full cream mik Fried egg Fried chicken rice Lunch Rice with brrf curry Fried chicken Ice cream Carbonated soft drink Dinner Chicken burger Cheese cake Teh tarik

Explain the long term effect of comsuming excess of these foods on harith health F1-Full cream milk,fried egg, fried rice chicken,beef curry E1-A health problem will be obesity E2-Excess saturated fats increases the bood cholesterol level E3-Cholesterol deposits on the walls of the blood vessel narrowing them E4-This will contribute to cardiovascular disease/arteoriolesis /hypertensiom/heart problem F2-Fried egg crry,fired chicken ,chicken burger also contain a lot of protien beside fat E5-Excess protien will,cause very taxing on the kidneys duirng excretion E6-Might alos lead to gout Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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F3-Ice cream , cheese,the tarik,carboanted soft drink contain a lot of sugar E7-lead to obesity /diabetes mellitus F4-His diet does not cantain fruit and vegetables E8-That leads to constipation (d) Meals Breakfast Lunch Dinner Types of food Coffee, Nasi lemak Rice, Beef curry,chicken soup,Fresh orange juice Rice,Grilled Fish,Spinach soup,Tea

1 1 1 1

Based on the able ,analysed the food content and justify the preperation food methods toward ahmads health F1-Imbalanced diet P1-Excess of lipids P2-Excess of protien P3-Excess of carbohdrates P4-Fibres P5-Vitamin F2-Good /not good preperation food methods P6-Frouts anf vegetables should not be cooked because vitamins B ,C soluble in water //vitamins A,D Eand K soluble in oil P7-Grill prbvent from more oil added into the food P8-Fry the food not good becouse more oil added into the food Any 2P Evaluation Able to atate F1 and F2- corecly Able to state any one of P1-P4-and any one P5-P7 correctly (e) Some families often eat fast food because working parent does not have time to prepared home cooked food. These eating lead to many health problems

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

You are asked to prepared a talk on good eaing habits for a group of parents Dicuss the good eating hanits that you may want to educate them P1-Good eating habits mean taking food in the correct quatity/propotion at the correct time 1 P2-Improper eating habitscan lead health problemssuch a obesity/diabetes mellitus /anorexia 1 nervosa / and bulimia P3-Always eat a balanced diet that include all /seven /the different classes of food /prtoein , 1 carbohydrate, fat, vitamins , minerals , water and fibre ( follow food pyramids) P4-Take propermeals a regular times of the days //take in three meals a day ( breakfast,lunch 1 and dinner) P5-Check the food labels for information regarding the nutrint content s /The total caloroies of the food] P6-avoid consuming unhealthly food /junk foods,snack foods,because junck food include food Module Biology Trial Paper Collection 1 121

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that is high in Slat/sugar/fats but low in nutritional value P7-Avoidunder eating , it cause food and food rich in sugar P8-Avoid under eaitng , it cause tiredness , amlnutriment P9-Sufficient amount of fibre form friuts and vegetables P10-Take time to chew the food to avoid indigestion P11-Avoid smoking ,drinking too much alcohol ansd coffee P12-We should refrain form overeating or eatign too little during a mela P13-Drinking at least 2 to 3 liters of waters a days Any 10

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10

6.9The importance of macronutrient and micronutrient in plants Element required by plant No (a) Marking scheme The uses of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers in the field of agriculture is hiped farmers ti increase their agriculture yield and as a result helps to increase the countrys productivity Extract from Datuk Seri Abdullah Badawis speech Based on the above extract as well as your biological knowledge, describe how do the element found in the inorganic and organic fertilizers, aid in plant growth F1-The element found in the fertilizers consists of macronutrient and micronutrient elements F2-Macronutrient are element needed by the plant in large quantities Element Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Calcium Sulphur Function For the formation of protein /nucleic acid chlorophyll/photosynthetic enzyme/respiratory enzyme For the formation of nucleic acids/ ATP/ Phospholipids/ coenzymes/ /important for the synthesis of protein/plasma membrane For the protein/carbohydrate metabolism For the formation of lamella //Formation of spindle fibres For the formation of protein//coenzyme in respiration Marks

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F3-Micronutrient are elements required by the plant in minute quantities

Element Boron

Function For carbohydrate transport Module Biology Trial Paper Collection 1 1

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Molybdenum Zinc Manganese Copper Iron

For nitrogen fixation For the synthesis of hormone//growth of shoot/root To active respiratory enzymes For the formation of enzyme //Important for photosynthesis For synthesis of chlorophyll

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10

6.10Photosynthesis No (a) Marking scheme State the meaning of photosynthesis based on the schematic diagram in diagram F1-(Photosynthesis is the )process where by a green plant synthesizes glucose form carbon dioxide and water F2-In the presences of chlorophyll and sunlight (b) The process of photosynthesis contributes to the balance of nature State one importance of photosynthesis to the balance nature E1-Provide food to human beings/animals// E2-Provides /replaces oxygen in the atmosphere// E3-Help maintaining percentage of CO2/O2 in the atmosphere Any 1 (c) Explain how the problem of air pollution can affect the rate of photosynthesis F1-Particles accumulate on the leaf surface E1-covers the stomata//reduces O2 and CO2 gas exchange E2-Cuts/reduces light intensity (that reached the leaves) E4-Less CO2 is absorbed from atmosphere and less O2 is released Any 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Marks

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Leaf structure and function No (a) Marking scheme Marks

Name the structures labeled P, Q, R and S. P : Palisade mesophyll(tissue) Q : Sponge mesophyll R : Xylem S : Phloem T :stomata U :upper epidermis (b) (c) (d) Name the structure where photosynthesis take place chloroplast State the role of oraganelle P in photosynthesis Choloroplast/organelle P (contains chlorophyll) to trap/absorb/capture light energy

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 1 1

Describe the sructure of chloroplst P1 Bounded by double layer of membrane P2 Fill with stroma (the jelly like matrix) P3 Contain grana (ie stacks of membranous structure) P4 Grana contain chlorophyll MAX 2

1 1 1 1

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How are cells within the tissue of a leaf adapted for photosynthesis? Essay /Structure TIPS: If question asked (State) just answers F: for 1 marks e.g.: Explain the adaption of the leaf to optimal/ increase efficiency photosynthesis Structure Cuticle Upper epidermis Adaptation (Marking scheme) F1 : Outer surface of a leaf / cuticle which is waxy/ waterproof P1 : prevent water loss F1-Epidermis with water proof layer of cuticle / coated with a wax P1-Prevent excess transpiration /loss of water OR F2-//Epidermis are transparent P2-Allow light easily penetrate the leaf (and reach the chloroplast) F1-Palisade mesophyll cells are packed tightly F2-contain high density of chloroplasts P1-to receive maximum amount of sunlight F1 : Spongy mesophyll loosely arranged/ contain air spaces P2 : maximize /Easy diffusion of water and carbon dioxide F1: Irregular shapes of mesophyll P2 : To increase the internal surface area for gaseous exchange. F1: Lower surface contain abundant of stomata P2 : To prevent water loss to surrounding //to allow exchange of gases between the leaf and its surrounding F1-Stoma is flanked by two guard cells P1-Which regulate the size of stoma P2-Stoma allow the exchange of gases/ carbon dioxide from atmosphere diffuses into the leaf/water vapour/oxygen diffuses out of the air

Palisade mesophyll

Spongy mesophyll

Lower epidermis

Stomata

Explain how the light intensity affect the opening of structure R (Stoma)3 F1-High light intensity simulate photosynthesis in guard cells/Cell Q E1-Guard cells producing glucose //Potassium ions (K+) Diffuse/moves into guard cells by active transport E2-The guard cell become hypetonic compare to neighbouring cell E3-Water moves into/diffuses by osmosis E4-Guard cells/Cell Q become turgid (stoma open) Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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Xylem

Phloem Vascular bundle

F1- consists of xylem vessels joined together end to an end P1- Cell P does not have any cytoplasm P2- The cell walls are thickened with lignin F1-consists of sieve tubes arranged end to end F2-Sieve tubes have sieve plates to allow continuous flow of organic compound. F1-Vascular bundle/veins contains xylem and poem F2-Xylem transport water minerals salt // give mechanical support F3-Ploem transport organic products of photosynthesis/ glucose(away from the leaf) Any F2 : Thin lamina P3 : allow diffusion of gases to occur efficiently (for photosynthesis) F3 : Flattened shape of lamina P2 : Large surface area for maximum absorption of sunlight // allow light to penetrate and reach the cell F1-Arrangement of leaf mosaic pattern P1 : to receive maximum amount of light

Physical structure Lamina

6.11 The mechanism of photosynthesis Light reaction No (a) Marking scheme 4H2O 4H++4(OH-) Marks

Name the process that has taken place based on the equation above Photolysis of wtaer (b) (c) Where does the reaction take place? Granum of chloroplast

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Describe the photosynthesis /Photosynthetic reaction which occur in Structure P and Q 4 Structure P P1-In P (granum), light energy is absorbed/captured by chlorophyll to produce chemical eneygy/ATP P2-Water molecules are split in to ions H+ and OH-/Photolysis occurs (d) Name an organ in a plant whwre Y is found abundantly Name of the organ: leaf Reason :the leaf has aplenty of palisade mesophyll cells (containing plenty of chroloplast)//the site for photosynthesis Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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No (e)

Marking scheme During photosynthesis ,P (grana) is the site where light reaction occurs whereas R (stroma) is the site where dark reaction occurs Explain how light reaction occurs at P F-P (granum ) contains plenty of chrophyll absorb//capture light energy P1-To produce chemical energy//ATP P2-to split/break donthe water molecule//photolysis os water P3-To realeased oxygen and hydrogen atom Explain the mchanism of light reaction P1-Chrolophyll absorbed light reaction P2-Energy is used to split water molecule in to hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ion loses electron to form hyfroxyl P3-Electron is erecieved by hydrogen ion to form a hydrogen atom P4-Hydroxyl ion loseelectron to form hydroxyl P5-Produce waterand oxygen Explain the importance of this reaction F-Split water molecule into hydroxl ions (OH_) and hydrogen ion(H+) P1-Each hydrogen ion receive an electron from the chlorophyll P2-nuetralised to form a hydrogen atom that is used in the dark reaction P3-to reduce carbon dioxide Any 2 Explain how gas N(oxygen) is produced in reaction A(light reaction) F1-Photolysis/light energy is used to split/breakdown water molecule E1-into hydrogen ion/H+ and hydroxyl ion/OHLight //24H2O 24H++OHChlorphyll E2-Hydroxyl ions loses an electron to form hydroxyl group //24OH24OH+2e E3-Hydroxyl groups combine to form oxygen and water //24OH 12 H2O +24 e Write down the full equation /overall eqautionfor photosynthesis Light Water + carbon dioxide Glucose+oxygen Chlorophyll Light //6H2O +6CO2 Chlorophyll Module Biology Trial Paper Collection C6H12O6 + 6O2

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(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

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Dark Reaction No (a) Marking scheme Describe the photosynthesis /Photosynthetic reaction which occur in Structure P and Q StructureQ P1-In Q (stroma),dark reaction occurs P2-Hydrogen atoms combine carbon dioxide to form glucose Explian the effect to the process of dark reaction in Q if light reaction at P does not occur F-Photolysis/spliting if water molecule does not occur P1-No hydrogen atom ( is released to combine with carbon dioxide( during reduciton process) P2-No glucose is produced Marks

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(b)

Explain the light reaction and dark reaction No (a) Marking scheme Photosynthesis is a pocess whereby a green plnt produces organic food substances rom carbon dioxide and water in the presunce of chlorophyll and sunlight // Describe the process that occur in the leaves as shown in diagram // Explain the machanism that makes place on organelle m that involvced in the formation of starch in the green plant10 Based onyour understanding of th above statement ,describe how a molecule of carbon dioxide in the air and water absorbd form the roots becomes part od a carbohydrate molecule stored in a leaf of a plant P1-Light raction occur in grane P2- chrolophyll absorbs light energy to produce ATP/electrons P3- Light energy split the water molecules into hydroxyl ion and hydrogen ion // photolysis of water P4-The hydrogen ions (H+) imbine with electron to form hydrogen atoms P5-The hydrogen atoms ATP will b used in dark reaction P6-The datk raction takes place in absence oflight P7-It occur in stroma P8-Carbon dioxide combines with hydrogen to form glucose and water P9-Glucose undergoes condensation and is converted to starch for storage in the leaf P8-It occur in a series of chemical reaction which require ATP P10Gucose may also be transformed into sucrose to be transport to other part of the plant Any 8P Module Biology Trial Paper Collection 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 128 Marks

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The different between light reaction and dark reaction No (b) Marking scheme Photosynthesis occurs in two stages are the light reaction and dark reaction. Describe the differences between the light reaction and dark reaction 4 Prefer in structure Q Light reaction D1-Occurs in granum D2-Requires light D3-Involved photolysis of water D4-Materail required is water /Chlorophyll D5-Produces oxygen and water Need chlorophyll Light required Produced ATP and hydrogen Oxygen produced No reduction of carbon dioxide No glucose produced ANY 4 Must answer in complete sentences Dark reaction Occurs in stroma Does not require light Involved dioxide reduction/fixation of carbon carbon 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 Marks

Materials required is dioxide/hydrogen atoms/ATP Produces glucose Do not need chrophyll Light is not required Use ATP and hydrogen No oxygen produced Reduction of carbon dioxide Glucose produced

6.12Factors affecting photosynthesis The factor a effecting the rate of photosynthesis No Marking scheme State four factors which affect the rate of photosynthesis i. Light intensity ii. Carbon dioxide concentration iii. Water/humidity iv. Temperature Marks 1 1 1 1

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Light intensity

No (a)

Marking scheme Explain how an increase in light intensity effects the production of Y in stage 1 P1-an increase in light intensity can increase the production of Y P2-At a higher light intensity, more molecules are split into hydrogen ions hydroxyl ions ( photolysis of water)

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(b) High light intensity Moderate light intensity Low light intensity

In the diagram Draw two curve to show the rate of photosynthesis at (i) a low light intensity (ii)a high light intensity

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Temperature Diagram show a graph of the effect on the rate of photosynthesis Rate of photosynthesis

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Temperature /oC No (a) Marking scheme Explain the graph shown above F-Temperature affect the enzyme activity P1-The rate of photosynthesis/activity of enzyme increase with the increase in temperature P2-Too high temperature/more than 45 oC enzyme are denature/photosynthesis decrease stops P3-Low temperatures decrease the reactivity of enzyme/photosynthesis in the leaf /rate of photosynthesis Any 3 Concentration of carbon dioxide Explain how an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide affects the production of Z in stage 2 P1-When the amount of carbon dioxide is increased, more Z (glucose) is produced P2-A higher amount of carbon dioxide I reduced by the hydrogen atoms produced in stage I ,and results in more (glucose) (c) Marks 1 1 1 1

(b)

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Based on the diagram , Explain the changes of the concentration of carbon dioxide occurs at the places where the density of plants is high such as at the tropical rainforest F1-At night ,percentage of CO2 is high/increase

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P1-Low/decrease of light intensity leads to photosynthesis does not occur P2- CO2 does not absorb from environment P3- CO2 releases to environment as the product of plants respiration (F1and any 1P) F2-At morning ,percentage CO2 is reducing P4-Photosynthesis happen at low rate early morning because of extremity low light P5-Some CO2 produced form the respiration process which was being used in the photosynthesis process/carbon dioxide was less released to the environment P6-when the extremity light increase, the photosynthesis rate increased until the photosynthesize was more that the respiration rate P7- CO2 will be absorbed form environment caused the reducing of percentage(F2and any 3P) F3-At noon , percentage CO2 is very low P8-The extremity of light raise higher and photosynthesis arte at maximum level P9-The absorption of CO2 (3Fand any 1P) from environment is very high which caused very low percent

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The difference in the rate of photosynthesis in plant throughout the day Trail Johor No (a) Marking scheme Graph shows the changes in the rate nof photosynthesis throughout the day in a tropical country Marks

Based on the graph, explain the changes in the rate of photosynthesis in the plant throughout the day 10 F1-From 0000 to 0600 , the rate of photosynthesis is very low P1-The light intensity/temperature is (very) low P2-(at low temperature), photosynthetic enzyme are inactive F2-From 0600 to 1200 , the rate of photosynthesis increase (rapidly) P3-Light intensity/temperature also increase

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P4-Enzyme for photosynthesis become more active P5-Stomata open wider to allow absorption of more carbon dioxide F3-From 1200 to 1800 , the rate of photosynthesis decrease P8-Light intensity /temperature decrease P9-Photosynthetic enzyme are less active P10Stomata opening/pores become smaller P11-less carbon dioxide id absorbed F5-From 1800 to 2300, the rate of photosynthesis become very low //stopped/ceased P12-Light intensity very low/temperature is very low / no light P14-Stomata closed P15-Very little / no carbon dioxide is absorbed ANY 10 Increasing productivity of crops based on the factor affecting the rate of photosynthesis No (a) Marking scheme In countries with four seasons, plant are grown in green houses Based on the statement , explain why this method is carried out to ensure the production of crops throughout the year 6 F-In temperature countries light intensity/temperature changes throughout the year P1-In winter, temperature is very low P2-In autumn, the plants shed their leaves //light intensity/temperature is low P3-Rate of photosynthesis is very low P4-In spring and summer, the light intensity/temperature are optimum for photosynthesis P5-So the rate of photosynthesis is maximum/highest P6-In the green house , light intensity/concentration of carbon dioxide/ temperature are maintained at optimum level (for photosynthesis) throughout the year P7-So the rate of photosynthesis is maintain at maximum level throughout the year(regardless of changes in light intensity or temperature) P8-The plants are able to increase yields /increase the crops production throughout the years (b) Explain why the rate of photosynthesis of plant in green is higher than plant outside P1-Factors affecting can be be controlled at high level all the time P2-Artificial lighting can be used when light intensity is low P3-concentration of cerbon dioxide nof carbon dioxide can be increased by burning paraffin P4-Temperature can be controlled by using temperature controller

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6.14 Technology used in food production Hydroponics Kedah 2012 No (a) Marking scheme Diagram shows amethod of plant cultivation without use of soil Marks

Describe the method used P1-Hydroponic (name the technique) P2-grow plants in culture solution P3-The root of the plants are immersed in solution P4-Which contains all the macronutrient //and micronutrient in the correct proportion P5-The culture solution is aerated P6-To provide sufficient oxygen for respiration Genetic engineering Kedah 2012 No (bn) Marking scheme Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)are organism which carry the genetic information or beneficial genes from other organism Nowadays , the crops such as heat, soya bean, paddy and tomatoes are widely to be cultivated commercially as genetically modified plant Based on the information above, discuss the advantages and disadvantage of producing genetically modified organisms in food production 6 Advantages: P1-Used to produce disease resistance /pest resistant plants P2-Less pesticides are used P3-Les pollution to the environment //better health for consumers P4-increase yields of cops/ profitability P5-help to solve problem of insufficient P6-Increase resistance in plant to herbicide eg. Soya bean plantation P7-Higher vitamin A / Beta carotene content in rice /tomato/accept suitable example of crops P8-Help to solve problem of malnutrition P9-Produce crop with longer shelf lifes P10-Prevent food wastage Any 4P Disadvantage: P11-Pest resistant genes may be transferred to weeds cause difficult to control growth of weeds P12-Some genetic modified crops may have animal genes P13-genetic modified crops may have affect the survival of other organism in the ecosystem P14-Cause the imbalance o nature Any 2P

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6.15Tecnological development in food processing The necessity fro food processing No (a) Marking scheme Food preservation involves methods of preparing food to extend the lifespan and to avoid wastage of food. Based on the above statement, explain the necessity for food processing. P1 prevent food spoilage P2 (food spoilage) causes by the action of microorganism P3 decomposing bacteria/fungi on carbohydrate/protein P4 produced carbon dioxide, water, ammonia hydrogen P5 make food become toxic P6 Oxidation of food when cut/expose to air P7 oxygen react with enzymes/chemicals released by cell P8 Increase it commercial value P9 food additives is added in preserving the freshness of food P10 Improve the taste/appearance/texture P11 Intention of diversifying the uses of food P12 increased the variety of products (b) Diagram 9.2 show a few examples of fresh food and processed food. Marks

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Discuss the good effects and bad effects of processed food in our daily life Good Effect : By producing processed food G1:Food can be preserved / kept longer. 1 G2 : to prevent wasting of food./food spoilage/can be stored for (further use) 1 G3:Crops can be planted / livestock / poultry can be reared in big scale. 1 G4 :to prevent food shortage. G5:(food are packaged) to increase the commercial value / to diversify the uses of food 1 substances G6: more types / varieties of food can be produced. 1 Bad Effect : By regular consuming of processed food B1 : Loss a lot of nutrition value (under high temperature during the 1 process). B2: (Contain) preservative / colouring / dye / flavor which is carcinogenic. 1 B3: lead to mutation / cancer / health problem / suitable example. 1 B4: Contain excessive salt / sugar. 1 B5: lead to high blood pressure / diabetes / obesity. Any 10 1 Module Biology Trial Paper Collection

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Relating the food processing methods with factors causing food spoilage No (a) Marking scheme Fermentation and UHT treatment are food processing methods Explain how the methods above extend the lifespan of the foods Method 1 M1-Fermentation Food substances are added with yeast Explanation/Biological concept M2-Fermentation yields ethanol, which at high concentration, will stop the activity of bacteria, that cause food spoilage 2 Marks

UHT treatment The high temperature kills microorganism/ o and Fresh milk is heated to 132 C for 1-5 bacteria/fungus microorganisms/bacteria/fungus spore seconds(under high pressure )

(b) Type of food Milk Fruits Meat and fish Pasteurisation 1 - milk is treated to 63oC for 30 minutes//72oC for 15 seconds 2 - followed by rapid cooling to below 10oC 3 - destroy bacteria but not the spores 4retains the natural flavour of milk//nutrients//vitamin B 5 - must refrigerated to avoid the growth of germs Canning 6 - use heat sterilization 7 - kill microorganisms and spores 8 - steamed at high temperature and pressure to drive out air 9 - sealed while the food is being cooled 10 - vacuum in the can prevent growth of microorganism Refrigeration 11 - stored at temperature below 0oC 12 - prevent the growth of microorganisms/the germination of spores 1 1 136 1 1 1 1 1 Food preservation method Pasteurisation Cannin Refrigeration 1 1 1 1 1 1

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No (c)

Marking scheme

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Explain the food processing methods which is related to the factors that cause food spoilage. Concept : Food can be preserved by destroying the microorganism present in the food //by stopping the activities of the microorganism F1: Cooking-.high temperature kill the microorganisms P1: denature the enzyme that cause the breadown of food F2: Treating food with sugar/salt P2: causes the microorganism to lose water due to osmosis F3: Adding vinegar will reduced the pH P3 that prevent microorganism from growing F4: Fermentation of fruit juices and other food by adding east P4: high concentration of alcohol prevent the microorganism from growing F5: Dry under hot sun (meat/fish/fruits) P5: removes water from food dehydrated F6: Ultravoilets rays P6: kills microorganism F7: Pasteurisation destroy bacteria which cause tuberculosis and typhoid P7: (technique) -Food is heated to 630C for 30 minutes / 720C for 15 seconds followed by rapid cooling to -10 0C P7.1: (Pasteurisation) retains the natural flavour and nutrients F8: Canning uses heat sterilization to kill microorganisms and their spores P8 (technique) -.Food is packed in cans, steamed at high temperature and pressure to drive out air P8.1: the vaccum created within the cans prevent growth of microorganism F9: Refrigeration P9: food stored at temperature below 00C prevent growth/germination of microorganism P9.1: food remain fresh for a long period of time Any ten : F + P correctly 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 137 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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