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General The industrial and commercial systems have advanced and grown in recent years with capacities close to or sometimes exceeding that of small electric utility (EB = Electricity Board) system Todays intensely competitive business environment forces management personnel to be very aware of the total owning cost of their electrical power distribution system Therefore they demand assurances of maximum return on all capital investments in the electrical power systems The use of digital computers with sophisticated electrical system softwares (like ET !" #$%E" &'% !ower Tools" E(& " E) #&) makes it possible to study the performance of proposed and actual systems under many operating conditions* nswers to many +uestions regarding impact of system expansion" short circuit capacity" stability" load distribution etc" can be intelligently and economically obtained" The planning" design and operation of ,tility (i*e the Electricity Board)" industrial" oil and gas" petrochemical and commercial power systems re+uire several studies to assist in evaluation of the initial and future system performance" system reliability" safety and ability to grow with the production and-or operating re+uirements* The studies most likely to be needed are load flow studies" short circuit of fault studies" relay coordination studies" harmonic studies" transient stability and motor start studies* The .ead engineer or &pecialist Engineer must decide which studies are needed to ensure that the system will operate safely" economically and efficiently over the expected life of the system*


Preparation for the study /or a design or plant electrical engineer to solve a power system analysis problem" the engineer must be thoroughly familiar with the fundamentals of electrical power engineering* The engineer can then analyse the problem" prepare necessary e+uivalent circuits and obtain appropriate data before using a power system software to perform repetitive calculations* /ailute to use valid analytical procedure to establish a sound basic approach to the problem could lead to disastrous conse+uences in both the design and operation of a system* /urthermore" a basic understanding of power engineering is essential to correctly interpret the results of the power system software calculation results* 0t is important to emphasise the need for thorough foundation and base of experience in electrical power system engineering in addition to modern" effective computing tools and software* Electrical power system analysis engineering softwares (such as ET !" #$%E" &'% !ower Tools" E(& or E) #&) are excellent for studying power systems but it cannot be used as a substitute for knowledge and experience* &o some basic fundamentals of power system engineering has to be attained or brushed before an engineer can use the software*

To set up the electrical system %1(E. &.( in the software for system analysis" certain basic data must be gathered with accuracy and proper presentation* The extent of system representation" restriction in terms of nodes or buses and branches ( such as cables" lines and transformers)" balanced three phase network and single line diagram (&.()" impedance diagram" load list at various busbars" spilt of loads as motor or lighting" identification of harmonic generating loads" etc" are all important inputs to a meaningful system study* 3.0 Load Flow Studies These calculate active and reactive power flows from the source and through each of the branches along with and voltages at all the bus and nodes* pplications include2 0dentifying excessive voltage variations-violations under normal and contingency outage conditions* 0dentifying overloaded circuits and necessary plant upgrades under normal and contingency outage conditions* 0dentifying under load circuits for carrying out system optimisation #hecking current flows under different conditions* Estimating overall active and reactive power losses including assessment of these losses in individual branches* Estimating the range of 13 .1 ( ,T1 T ! changers or 1// .oad Tap changers re+uired to ensure system voltages are maintained at all points to well within desired limits under both peak and minimum load conditions &pecifying cables" reactors and transformers* &pecifying compensation e+uipment such as power factor correction capacitors or reactive absorbing devices such as reactors* 4* .oad flow study result acceptance criteria needs to developed and agreed with the #.0E3T for comparison of results with criteria as re+uired to analyse the power system load flow software results* 2.0 Fault Level Studies ccurate fault level assessments support the legally re+uired safety rating of e+uipment to reduce dangers* &tudy includes comparison of evaluated fault levels (like initial # symmetrical rms fault current" peak making fault current and symmetrical break rms fault current values) at any given bus in the system for comparison with corresponding switchgear and breaker peak and break fault ratings* Each of the above peak fault k peak" initial symmetrical rms 0k5 k rms and asymmetrical break rms k rms rating of the switchgear-#B should be greater than the calculated values of each of these currents* That is26

Peak fault rating in kA peak of a switchgear-#B should be greater than the al ulated Peak fault !kA peak" urrent at that switchgear point of the system* #nitial A$ sy%%etri al kA r%s fault rating of switchgear-#B should be greater than the al ulated #nitial A$ sy%%etri al kA r%s fault urrent at that switchgear point of the system* Asy%%etri al &reak kA r%s fault rating of switchgear-#B at breaker opening time (7 cycle to 8 cycle i*e 9: to ;: milli6sec should be greater than the al ulated Asy%%etri al &reak kA r%s fault urrent at that switchgear point of the system*

&tudies <elps To 2 3.0 0dentify e+uipment where ratings are exceeded* &pecify ratings for plant upgrades and new plant* #ontain or reduce fault levels on existing systems* (evelop plant and operating procedures to limit fault current*

Sta&ility Studies &ystem disturbances are a source of instability that can cause loss of synchronisation" stalling or overloading of generators and motors* #atastrophic failure of large parts of the power system can result" along with plant damage* &tability models = &tudies used to2 ssess system susceptibility to transient events such as faults" motor starting or sudden load application and load re>ection* &pecify technical re+uirements for stable operation* (esign or verify suitable protection schemes*


(le tri al prote tion # ( methods to co6ordinate protection on a wide variety of electrical systems so that faulty e+uipment is disconnected promptly leaving functioning e+uipment in service wherever possible*


(le tro%agneti transients * insulation o+ordination studies Electromagnetic transients can damage plant and cause mal6operation of e+uipment* These studies include2 #alculating system overvoltages resulting from faults or switching operations* #alculating overvoltages caused by lightning strikes* #alculating switchgear T)? (Transient )ecovery ?oltage) and )))? ()ate of )ise of )ecovery ?oltage) to specify or check switchgear ratings*

&pecifying or checking surge arrestor ratings* nalysing faults and recommending solutions* 0nvestigating linear and non6linear resonance*