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LESSLOSS RISK MITIGATION FOR EARTHQUAKES AND LANDSLIDES

LESSLOSS Report No. 2007/03




Innovative Anti-Seismic Systems Users Manual



Editor
Massimo Forni


Reviewer
Polat Glkan



July, 2007


























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ISBN: 978-88-6198-007-5


FOREWORD
Earthquake and landslide risk is a public safety issue that requires appropriate mitigation
measures and means to protect citizens, property, infrastructure and the built cultural
heritage. Mitigating this risk requires integrated and coordinated action that embraces a
wide range of organisations and disciplines. For this reason, the LESSLOSS Integrated
Project, funded by the European Commission under the auspices of its Sixth Framework
Programme, is formulated by a large number of European Centres of excellence in
earthquake and geotechnical engineering integrating in the traditional fields of engineers
and earth scientists some expertise of social scientists, economists, urban planners and
information technologists.
The LESSLOSS project addresses natural disasters, risk and impact assessment, natural
hazard monitoring, mapping and management strategies, improved disaster preparedness
and mitigation, development of advanced methods for risk assessment, methods of
appraising environmental quality and relevant pre-normative research.
A major objective of the project is to describe current best practice and advance
knowledge in each area investigated. Thus, LESSLOSS has produced, under the
coordination of the Joint Research Centre, a series of Technical reports addressed to
technical and scientific communities, national, regional and local public administrations,
design offices, and civil protection agencies with the following titles:
Lessloss-2007/01: Landslides: Mapping, Monitoring, Modelling and Stabilization
Lessloss-2007/02: European Manual for in-situ Assessment of Important Existing
Structures
Lessloss-2007/03: Innovative Anti-Seismic Systems Users Manual
Lessloss-2007/04: Guidelines for Seismic Vulnerability Reduction in the Urban
Environment
Lessloss-2007/05: Guidelines for Displacement-based Design of Buildings and Bridges
Lessloss-2007/06: Probabilistic Methods to Seismic Assessment of Existing Structures
Lessloss-2007/07: Earthquake Disaster Scenario Predictions and Loss Modelling for
Urban Areas
Lessloss-2007/08: Prediction of Ground Motion and Loss Scenarios for Selected
Infrastructure Systems in European Urban Environments


ABSTRACT
This report contains the Innovative Anti-Seismic Systems User Manual, which was
prepared by all partners of Sub-Project 6 at the conclusion of the LESSLOSS Project.
The aim of this User Manual is to provide potential Designers and End users of the
antiseismic devices developed within Sub-Project 6 of the LESSLOSS project with
practical tools to design structures incorporating such devices. The document contains a
description of the main features and performance of the devices and instructions for their
design, installation and maintenance. Comparisons among different types are also
provided, so as to help the User to choose the most suitable device. The antiseismic
devices developed in the framework of Sub-Project 6 are:
1. Low Stiffness Isolators (LSIs), particularly addressed to the seismic isolation of light
structures like family houses;
2. Electroinductive Dampers (DECS), energy dissipators suitable for the seismic
protection of large structures like bridges;
3. Steel Hysteretic elements coupled with flat sliders, addressed to the isolation of
viaducts and bridges;
4. Sliding Isolation Pendulum, curved surface sliders for the protection of buildings and
other structures.
Devices 1 and 2 are developed by ALGA, Italy. Devices 3 and 4 are developed by
MAURER Shne, Germany. All the devices have been subjected to severe qualification
tests. Moreover, all of them have been tested on the ENEA shaking table in real seismic
conditions using natural and synthetic acceleration time-histories implemented by ENEA.
STAP and VINCI, design and construction companies, contributed to the optimization
of the devices and the preparation of this document.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD................................................................................................................................................. i
ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................................. iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................................... v
1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................. 1
2. LOW STIFFNESS ISOLATORS .......................................................................................................... 3
2.1 DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................................................................... 3
2.2 MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS ........................................................................................................ 5
2.3 SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................................. 5
2.4 CALCULATION EXAMPLES ................................................................................................................ 6
2.5 TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROLS ............................................................................................... 8
2.5.1 Testing..................................................................................................................................... 8
2.5.2 Quality controls...................................................................................................................... 8
2.6 INSTALLATION, INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE ...................................................................... 9
2.6.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 9
2.6.2 Installation ............................................................................................................................10
2.6.3 Maintenance..........................................................................................................................15
3. ELECTROINDUCTIVE DEVICES..................................................................................................19
3.1 DESCRIPTION ...................................................................................................................................19
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3.2 MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS...................................................................................................... 20
3.3 SPECIFICATIONS .............................................................................................................................. 20
3.4 CALCULATION EXAMPLES.............................................................................................................. 20
3.5 TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROLS............................................................................................. 21
3.5.1 Testing .................................................................................................................................. 21
3.5.2 Quality controls ................................................................................................................... 21
3.6 INSTALLATION, INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE.................................................................... 22
3.6.1 Installation............................................................................................................................ 22
3.6.2 Maintenance......................................................................................................................... 24
4. STEEL HYSTERETIC SYSTEMS..................................................................................................... 27
4.1 DESCRIPTION................................................................................................................................... 27
4.2 MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS...................................................................................................... 31
4.3 SPECIFICATIONS .............................................................................................................................. 32
4.4 CALCULATION EXAMPLES.............................................................................................................. 33
4.5 TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROLS............................................................................................. 39
4.5.1 Testing .................................................................................................................................. 39
4.5.2 Quality controls ................................................................................................................... 40
4.6 INSTALLATION, INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE.................................................................... 41
4.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................. 41
4.6.2 Type Designation Plate on each Bearing ......................................................................... 41
4.6.3 Unloading, Transportation and Storage........................................................................... 41
4.6.4 Installation............................................................................................................................ 42
4.6.5 Maintenance......................................................................................................................... 43
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5. SLIDING ISOLATION PENDULUM.............................................................................................45
5.1 DESCRIPTION ...................................................................................................................................45
5.2 MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS ......................................................................................................49
5.2.1 Concave Plates, Housing and Lens ...................................................................................49
5.2.2 Concave Sliding Surface......................................................................................................50
5.2.3 Bearing Liner ........................................................................................................................50
5.2.4 Other Materials ....................................................................................................................51
5.3 SPECIFICATIONS...............................................................................................................................51
5.4 CALCULATION EXAMPLES ..............................................................................................................51
5.5 TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROLS .............................................................................................58
5.5.1 Testing...................................................................................................................................58
5.5.2 Quality controls....................................................................................................................58
5.6 INSTALLATION, INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE ....................................................................59
5.6.1 Type Designation Plate on each Bearing..........................................................................59
5.6.2 Unloading, Transportation and Storage............................................................................60
5.6.3 Installation of SIP bearings ................................................................................................61
5.6.4 Maintenance..........................................................................................................................65
REFERENCES...........................................................................................................................................67


1.INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
The current earthquake codes for conventionally protected structures, though they
prevent collapse, allow even severe damage under strong earthquakes. In fact, the seismic
resistance of the conventionally protected structures relies on their capacity to undergo
significant inelastic deformations in strong earthquakes, namely on their ductility.
Moreover, the conventional techniques provide no protection to the contents of a
building or to secondary structural features. The prevention of earthquake damage to
contents such as sensitive equipment is vital for hospitals and other critical facilities like
museums [Pinho, 2004].
Passive control systems of seismic vibrations are innovative techniques which are
worldwide considered to be already fully mature for providing mitigation of seismic
damage for civil structures and components or equipment and have proven to be reliable
and cost-effective for bridges and viaducts, civil buildings, cultural heritage and critical
facilities.
This Manual presents the most common passive control systems, which are the seismic
isolation and the energy dissipation.
Seismic isolation (SI) provides a method for protecting not only the structures but also
the non-structural members and the structure contents, by means of a considerable
reduction of the seismic loads transmitted through the foundations into the
superstructure.
The horizontal stiffness of the SI system has to be sufficiently low as to make the
fundamental response frequency of the structure well below the frequency range of the
ground motion; the SI systems must also possess sufficient damping capability, in order
to limit the horizontal displacement to an acceptable value. For buildings the SI system is
usually installed at the base or at the first floor, while for bridges and viaducts it is usually
installed at pier top.
Energy dissipation (ED) consists in the use of special devices, which attract on
themselves and dissipate there a large amount of the seismic energy: for buildings they are
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installed at the base (usually in conjunction with SI devices) or, more frequently, inside
them between positions subjected to significant relative displacements; for bridges and
viaducts they are installed (similar to the isolators) at pier top or, more frequently,
between deck and abutments.
ED systems may be used in most cases where SI is not applicable, e.g. for retrofits of
buildings that are not provided with sufficiently large gaps, construction of high rise
buildings, components which require small lateral displacements, soft soils, etc.
Several types of seismic isolators and energy dissipators have been developed, both inside
and outside Europe.
As regard isolators, the High Damping Rubber Bearings (HDRBs) can very often provide
a simple and economical isolation system, as they combine the required low stiffness and
displacement capacity with a sufficiently large level of damping. The high-to-medium
stiffness HDRBs presently available on the European and non-European markets are
excellent for a wide variety of applications, but there exist several circumstances where
their use is technically difficult, if not impossible. These circumstances include, for
instance, light structures, like small buildings or electrical equipment, which are quite
important potential markets for SI.
Furthermore, the performance of presently available ED devices may be considerably
improved from both the technical and economical points of view. Finally, other
innovative ED devices, based on different physical phenomena, can be developed. Hence
the main objectives of Sub-Project 6 were:
- the development of innovative low stiffness isolators (LSIs) to be used in civil
applications characterized by light structures (residential houses) or for light industrial
equipment;
- the development of innovative electro-inductive devices (DECS) to be used in civil
applications characterized by heavy structures (bridges and viaducts);
- the evaluation of the benefits, as well as ascertaining the limitations, of two important
types of devices actually available on the market: sliders coupled with hysteretic
elements and Sliding Isolation Pendulum (SIP) systems.


2. LOW STIFFNESS ISOLATORS
2.1 DESCRIPTION
Regular High Damping Rubber Bearings (HDRBs) are formed by alternate vulcanized
rubber layers and steel plates, bonded together by use of chemical compounds. They are
usually placed between the structure and its foundations. Their features provide high
stiffness in the vertical direction (to support the dead load) and low stiffness in the
transverse direction (which minimizes amplification of ground acceleration, by leading,
however, to large horizontal displacements during strong earthquakes).
During the seismic attack, the isolated structure oscillates at the isolation frequency f
(usually chosen close to 0,5 Hz), which is given by Equation (2.1),
M K f
h
/ 2 / 1 = (2.1)
where K
h
is the total horizontal stiffness of the isolation system and M is the total mass of
the isolated structure.
The horizontal stiffness (K
h
) of a single HDRB is given by the following correlation:
t GA K
h
/ = (2.2)
where G is the shear modulus of the rubber, A is the cross-section of the isolator and t is
the total thickness of the rubber.
The cross-section of the HDRB is proportional to the dead load to be supported while
the total height of the rubber is proportional to the design displacement, which strongly
depends on the seismicity of the site. Heavy structures are equipped, in general, with
isolators with large cross-sections: they are stable under the design vertical load, even at
large deformations (Figure 2.1). On the contrary, light structures need low cross-sections;
in this case the isolator could be much too slender and could become instable in the
deformation range of interest (Figure 2.2). Paradoxically, the seismic isolation of a light
structure like a small house is more difficult than that of a heavy one like a nuclear
reactor, referring to the same seismicity of the site.
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Figure 2.1. View of a HDRB 250 mm diameter and 72 mm rubber height which supports 800 kN
vertical load up to 300% shear strain. A seismic isolator with high cross-section is
stable and can support the dead load up to very high horizontal deformations.

Figure 2.2. A light structure like a statue requires a low cross-section isolator which could became
instable. To avoid the roll-over of the isolator, a particular configuration called MULTI-
STAGE is necessary. In Italy, several statues, like the Riace Bronzes, are isolated using
this system.

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One of the aims of the LESSLOSS Project was the development of a seismic isolator
characterized by a very low horizontal stiffness to be used for the isolation of light
structures like family houses. This goal was reached with the development of a regular
HDRB with a huge central hole (Figure 2.3). This geometrical solution reduces the cross-
section area and consequently the horizontal stiffness of the isolator, providing at the
same time sufficient stability at large deformations.

Figure 2.3. Finite element model of a Low Stiffness Isolator.
2.2 MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS
The low stiffness isolators are usually made with regular soft rubber compounds, with a
G modulus equal to 0.4-0.5 MPa. Dimensions and sizes are those of the regular HDRBs,
typically 500 mm diameter and 150 mm rubber height.
2.3 SPECIFICATIONS
The low stiffness isolators are similar to the high damping rubber isolators so the design
rules given by international design codes have to be applied. The codes describe the way
to design, verify and test the isolators and how to design the structures where the devices
are to be installed.
The principal standards for the design of base isolated structures are:
AASHTO - Guide Specifications for Seismic Isolation Design;
EN 1998-1 - Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance;
prEN 15129 - Anti-seismic devices, CEN;
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Only for Italy: Ordinanza 3274 - Primi elementi in materia di criteri generali per la
classificazione sismica del territorio nazionale e di normative tecniche per le
costruzioni in zona sismica.
2.4 CALCULATION EXAMPLES
The design of the low stiffness isolators follows the same rules and procedures of a
regular isolator.
In the following an example of the calculation of a low stiffness isolator system is shown.
The design data are taken from the small building design example shown in LessLoss
Deliverable Report D33 [2006] where a single floor isolated family house has been
considered. The main data for the isolation system design are the following:
- total mass of the structure in seismic load condition = 472 ton;
- target isolation period = 2.58 sec;
- total isolation system stiffness = 2796 kN/m;
- number of isolators = 16;
- single isolator stiffness = 174,8 kN/m;
- single isolator vertical load in seismic condition = 300 kN;
- isolator device equivalent damping = 10%;
- isolation system design displacement = 160 mm.
Using the previous design data the calculation checks of a suitable isolators system are
shown in Table 2.1. In this example the checks are done using the new Italian code for
the design of structures subjected to earthquakes. According to the code the isolators
displacement must be amplified by the factor 1.2 for the checks so in this example the
isolator is checked for a displacement equal to 192 mm.







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Table 2.1. Calculation checks of a low stiffness isolators system















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2.5 TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROLS
2.5.1 Testing
The low stiffness isolators work as the well known rubber isolators, each test program
follows the international standard applied for the design or can be eventually defined for
the specific project. In any case the types of test are the following:
1. compression test in order to evaluate the capacity of the low stiffness isolator to
sustain the design static maximum vertical load. The test is performed applying the design
vertical load by defined load steps and the vertical displacement is measured in order to
evaluate the device vertical stiffness;
2. horizontal test performed by applying the vertical load in the seismic load condition
and applying the horizontal displacement by defined displacement steps in order to
calculate the horizontal stiffness; the load is applying at least for three cycles;
3. rubber-steel adherence test where the isolator horizontal displacement is amplified in
order to reach the rubber deformation tan = 2.5 to verify the capacity of the isolator to
sustain a very heavy horizontal displacement with no rubber cracks or failure in the
connection between rubber and steel plates;
4. dynamic test applying the horizontal displacement in order to evaluate the damping
of the low stiffness isolators.
2.5.2 Quality controls
The quality production control is applied to the raw materials of the low stiffness
isolators and to the final product.
For the raw materials the quality control is applied by using ad hoc ALGA internal
procedure to check conformity of the materials to the reference standards. For the steel
parts the following checks are performed:
- chemical analysis;
- yield strength;
- tensile strength;
- elongation at break.
For the rubber compound the main checks are:
- hardness;
- tensile strength;
- elongation at break;
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- density;
- compression set;
- hardness changes due to accelerated ageing;
- tensile change after accelerated ageing;
- elongation at break after accelerated ageing;
- ozone resistance test;
- bond test;
- G modulus test.
On the manufactured low stiffness isolators the main final checks are:
- dimensional checks;
- visual inspection of corrosion protection and thickness check;
- functional tests such as vertical stiffness test, horizontal stiffness test (G modulus),
bonding steel-rubber test.
2.6 INSTALLATION, INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
2.6.1 General
The philosophy of the recent design codes requires that the design and construction of a
new structure must consider as a primary target the efficiency and the maintenance of the
construction along its life time; in order to satisfy the previous requirements each
structural component must have a maintenance plan.
For the structure where seismic isolators can be used (buildings, infrastructures) the most
suitable criteria for maintaining the functionality is the planned maintenance that follows
the structure behaviour during its life in order to detect the factors that can cause primary
damages and to plan with an adequate time the retrofit tools to obtain the maximum
benefit with the minimum financial costs.
To prepare in advance a general retrofit plan can be very difficult due to the need of
considering the variation of the structure conditions during its life. The maintenance plan,
in fact, must be managed as a consequence of the inspection results considering also the
velocity of degradation. For the previous reason it seems not significant to make
inspection plans with a time prevision longer that 20 years.
Due to the fact that the control inspections start with the service functioning, the first
inspection is required during the final construction inspection. In the first inspection one
must analyze the structure recording photo, comments to define a clear initial status of
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the structure and of the seismic isolation system; it represents the reference status for the
future inspection controls. These will be characterized by a detailed analysis and a
comparison with the initial status to detect possible changes that could affect the seismic
isolation system response.
The present section defines the criteria and the procedures to censure an adequate
control and maintenance of the high damping rubber isolators manufactured by Alga
S.p.A.
2.6.2 Installation
Delivery and temporary storage. All the bearings are dispatched assembled and ready
for installation, with the main characteristics marked on an aluminium label. If the
bearings are not installed immediately after their arrival on site, the final user has to make
sure that they are properly stored, i.e., protected against dirt, humidity and any other
damage whatsoever.
Inspection before installation. In order to preclude any mix-up of the bearings all the
data written on the aluminium label shall be checked and compared with the ones showed
in the shop drawings. Furthermore, before installation, parallelism of bearings plates has
also to be checked.
Casting of the substructures. Substructures shall reach the exact level to suit the
thickness of the bearing so that the superstructure will be at the specified level after
completion. An advisable procedure is to cast substructures leaving void spaces in the
concrete substructure in the positions foreseen for the anchors. These void spaces should
allow suitable tolerance for positioning of the bearing. Advised to create these void
spaces are for instance some pieces of corrugated steel sheathing, the same used for post-
tensioning tendons with a 10 to 15 cm diameter.




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substructure
void to place the
anchor bar
isolator with lower
anchor bars







Figure 2.4. Schematic view of casting of substructure in view of positioning a Low Stiffness Isolator.
Bearing positioning. Exact level will be reached by means of three or more steel (or
wood, or concrete) wedge-shaped spacers. Care shall be taken so that the maximum
deviation from the horizontal plan does not exceed 0.001 radians. A wood formwork
surrounding the bearings base plate and with top level higher than plate bottom by 10
mm at least, shall be made.
A wood formwork, surrounding the bearings base plate and with top level higher than
plate bottom by 10 mm at least, shall be made. At this point, the bearing may be grouted
on the substructure; to this end, advised material is a non-shrink, quick setting cement
mortar. If the wedges used to hold the bearing in its correct position are made of
different material from concrete, they shall be removed after sufficient hardening of the
mortar and then voids shall be filled by the same mortar pad.
If the thickness of the quick setting cement mortar exceeds 40 mm, a suitable
reinforcement shall be provided.
Note that top level of cement mortar shall not exceed bottom level of the bearing, in
order to avoid bearings embedding, with consequent problems for future removal.


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Figure 2.5. Schematic view of bearing positioning to place a Low Stiffness Isolator.



















Figure 2.6. View of a Low Stiffness Isolator installed on the substructure.


isolator placed at the final level
mortar to grout the
isolator and anchor bars
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Casting of the superstructure - cast in situ superstructure
Superstructure formwork shall be tightly arranged around the top plate perimeter and
scaled with adhesive tape to prevent leakage of concrete during casting. Formwork will
also be arranged in such a way that the bearing will not protrude into superstructure
(taking into account also the estimated settlement of scaffolding during pouring), as this
would make the bearing replacement very difficult or even impossible.
Be sure that the total height of the bearing is kept equal to that shown on the shop
drawing during the superstructure casting.
Any welding work as well as mounting and cutting-off of auxiliary structures for bearings,
are not admissible except when carried out by Alga S.p.A. erectors or by any other
specialist working on Alga S.p.A. instructions.
Upon completion of such works, the bearings must be cleaned of dirt and the coat of
paint is to be repaired, where necessary.




















Figure 2.7. LSI installed on the substructure with the formwork and reinforcement for casting the
superstructure already placed

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Casting of the superstructure - prefabricated superstructure
As the bearings have top anchorages, the prefabricated structure shall have void rooms
suitable for those ones, the beam shall be supported on the bearings or by other methods
agreed by the Engineer.
At this point, a rubber seal (with its injection and leakage pipes) shall be placed all around
the upper plate of the bearing, to cover the air gap between the same bearing and the
superstructure; then high strength mortar shall be cast filling up the gap and the void
rooms in the superstructure. When the mortar has achieved sufficient strength to
transmit the weight of the bearings, the temporary supports shall then be removed.
In case of steel superstructure a suitable counter plate with threaded holes to fix the
isolators anchor bolts must be provided and once the steel beams have been placed on
the bearings the anchor bolts must be screwed.
Upon completion of such works, the bearings must be cleaned of dirt and the coat of
paint is to be repaired, where necessary.



















Figure 2.8. Example of a LSI installed on the top of a column of a steel superstructure
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2.6.3 Maintenance
General requirements and control frequency. The state of functioning and
conservation of the isolators should be checked by a visual inspection made by a qualified
inspector with adequate experience on these devices, with a frequency at least equal to the
one to be done on the principal structure. It is recommended, in any case, to perform the
first inspection within the first year after installation and to repeat every five years Table
2.2.
Should the inspector verify some critical condition that he/she is not able to completely
evaluate or recommend suitable repairs, the assistance of an expert before completing the
inspection must be required. In this case contact the Alga S.p.A. Technical Director of
Technical Design Office Manager.
Table 2.2. Frequency of inspections of isolators
Normal inspection. It is strongly recommended to do a normal inspection each five
years; the checks to be performed for a normal maintenance plan are shown in Table 2.2.
In any case the normal inspection procedure is here shown and the following properties
must be checked:
a) sufficient capacity of moving into the structure near the isolation devices to reach each
device;
b) absence of macroscopic and visible defects: rubber external cracking; positions,
parallelism and planarity not correct; unexpected movements and/or deformation;
c) condition of conservation and cleanness of the area surrounding the devices and in
particular of the fixing tools to the structure;
d) conservation of the anti-corrosion protection system;
e) absence of visible defects of the structural parts around the device.


INSPECTION FREQUENCY

MAINTEINANCE INSPECTION Frequency of the inspection [years]

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Principal inspection
X X


Normal inspection
X * X








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The results of the inspection must be registered and stored. The inspection report will be
eventually completed with drawings and photos of the inspected parts. In case of visible
defects or damages that could affect the functionality of the isolators, further checks will
be performed as described in the next paragraph.
Principal inspection. The principal inspections will be performed at time intervals less
frequent that the normal ones and normally substitute one of the normal. It is suggested
to perform a principal inspection after a seismic event or each ten years after installation.
The normal inspection has the aim of obtaining a detailed documentation of the status of
the isolators in order to ensure that the devices are continuing to guarantee their response
according to the design requirements. The first inspection must be performed within the
first year of installation of the devices and the construction must be analysed in detail to
describe the initial condition by comments, drawings and photos in order to define a
reference document that will be the base for the future inspections.
The principal inspection will include all the items required in the normal inspection but it
must be performed with a more detailed control. The items of particular importance that
for each device must be checked are the following. The recovered measurements
calculated for the same load condition will be compared with the design values as a
function of the age of the structure. In case the devices show significant rotations and
displacements they must be calculated in order to check the device functioning. The
regularity of the vertical deformation of the rubber layers will be checked according to the
scheme shown in Figure 2.9.

Figure 2.9. Schematic view of vertical deformation of the rubber layers

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The absence of macroscopic cracking of the rubber will be checked and the ones that go
into the rubber cover layers of 5 mm must be carefully investigated.
For each principal inspection it is suggested to remove one isolator and test it in a
laboratory to acquire the variation in time of the main properties under service loads.
Control results. According to the inspection results one of the following procedures
should be adopted:
A) positive result: no action to be taken.
B) irregular displacement and/or rotations, or small rubber cracks with dept lower than 5
mm, or damages to the corrosion protection of the steel parts: additional checks and
measurements to be performed and repair of the corrosion protection. In case after the
additional inspection the damages are worse than before, it is recommended to contact
Alga S.p.A. before starting the procedure described in the item C.
C) structural damages to the device or to its components: repair and/or replacement of
the device or parts of it, local or general repair of the corrosion protection, etc. It is
recommended in any case to contact immediately the Technical Direction of Alga S.p.A.
before starting any device repair or substitution.
Control frequency plan
In case that during the periodic control inspections the inspector notice damages that
need exceptional maintenance contact the Technical Director of Alga S.p.A. Technical
Design Office Manager before starting any operation on the devices.
The exceptional maintenance and eventual substitution of the devices is required in case
that important damages that affect the device functioning are noticed. Due to the
different situations that could occur for an exceptional maintenance it is not possible to
develop a general procedure but each situation must be carefully studied by the structural
engineer and Alga S.p.A. technicians in order to guarantee the functioning of the isolation
system and also to avoid any significant damages to the structure.




3. ELECTROINDUCTIVE DEVICES
3.1 DESCRIPTION
The principle of operation of the Electro-Inductive Devices (DECS) is based on the
generation of electrical power from vibration power, using the motion caused by external
excitations due to earthquakes as primary energy source at the device mechanical input, in
order to limit and damp the motion.
The devices, in fact, must be located on structures and connected between two points in
relative movement during the earthquake excitation. Due to these movements, the
apparatus develops electric energy (as in the electrical generators), subsequently dissipated
into heat.
The basic device scheme of a non-active device includes a part equipped with permanent
magnets, in order to create a magnetic field, and another part, in relative motion with
respect to the previous one, containing the induced electric circuit and, in case, connected
to an external circuit: the selection of which parts are fixed or moveable depends on
design choices, nature of the device, level of power to be dissipated. The use of
permanent magnets, instead of a current excitation system, is preferable because of its
simplicity, security and ready availability of the magnetic field and the consequent higher
reliability features.
The dissipation level depends on the relative velocity of the electric circuit as regards to
the magnetic field. Being the response of devices related to the operating linear velocity
v, the electro-inductive dissipators can be compared with the viscous dampers; for both
the devices the response law can be expressed by the following equation:
F = C v

(3.1)
where: F represents the response force, C and suitable constants to model the device
behaviour.

When the velocity is small, the reaction force of the devices is negligible: this is
fundamental to allow the slow movements of the structures (for example, thermal
LESSLOSS Risk Mitigation for Earthquakes and Landslides

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expansion or contraction); on the contrary, when the motion is fast, the response
increases and the dissipation effect is required.
Compared to standard dampers, the electro-inductive devices require very low
maintenance (limited to the anchorage to the structure), no ageing effects, no limitation
on cycle life and low scattering on the response.
The operating velocity range definition is the basic requirement for the electro-inductive
devices design; for seismic applications, a reasonable average reference value for the
earthquake velocity is approximately equal to v
ref
= 0.5 m/s.
3.2 MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS
The materials used for the DECS manufacturing are:
- hot rolled structural steel type S355JR according to EN10025;
- steel 100Cr6 for roller bearing;
- permanent ferrous magnets.
3.3 SPECIFICATIONS
The DECS devices are designed to meet the international design codes. The principal
standard for the design of structures are:
AASHTO - Guide Specifications for Seismic Isolation Design;
EN 1998-1 - Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance;
prEN 15129 - Anti-seismic devices, CEN;
Only for Italy: Ordinanza 3274 - Primi elementi in materia di criteri generali per la
classificazione sismica del territorio nazionale e di normative tecniche per le
costruzioni in zona sismica.
The codes describe the way to design, verify and test the devices and how to design the
structures where the devices are placed.
3.4 CALCULATION EXAMPLES
The calculation of the DECS device has to be performed by a non linear dynamic analysis
that can be summarized in the following steps:
- model the device as a damper in a finite element code;
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21
- select the parameter C adopting a device design velocity;
- perform the dynamic analysis and check the device response;
- if the response is suitable and the dampers have an optimal dissipation, the design is
completed; if not, modify the parameter C in order to increase the device reaction.
3.5 TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROLS
3.5.1 Testing
The DECS devices response is similar to the hydraulic dampers and so the tests to be
applied can be obtained by the ones of the hydraulic devices. The types of tests are the
following:
1. slow motion test in order to evaluate the friction reaction force of the DECS;
2. dynamic fast tests at different velocity values in order to evaluate the response curve
of the device;
3. sustained load test with at least 10 cycle at maximum velocity in order to verify the
stability of the device under severe motion and energy dissipation condition.
3.5.2 Quality controls
The quality production control is applied to the raw materials and to the final product.
For the raw materials, the quality control is applied by using ad hoc ALGA internal
procedure to check conformity of the materials to the reference standards. For the steel
parts, the following checks are performed:
- chemical analysis;
- yield strength;
- tensile strength;
- elongation at break.
For the magnets the main checks are:
- the magnetic field intensity;
- the dimensions.
On the manufactured DECS, the main final checks are:
- dimensional checks;
- visual inspection of the corrosion protection and thickness check;
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- functional tests such as checking of the allowable stroke and slow motion checking in
order to verify the DECS functioning.
3.6 INSTALLATION, INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
3.6.1 Installation
Delivery and temporary storage. All the bearings are dispatched assembled and ready
for installation, with the main characteristics marked on an aluminium label. If the
bearings are not installed immediately after their arrival on site, the final user has to make
sure that they are properly stored, i.e. protected against dirt, humidity and any other
damage whatsoever.
Inspection before installation. In order to preclude any mix-up of the bearings all the
data written on the aluminium label shall be checked and compared with the ones showed
in the shop drawings. Furthermore, before installation, parallelism of bearings plates has
also to be checked.
DECS installation. The DECS device is normally located between two parts of the
structure where relative motion can occur such as: deck and abutment wall and/or pier
cap and deck. In order to install the DECS, suitable anchorages must be inserted in the
structure. If a steel deck is used, the DECS anchorages are bolted to the steel beam at one
side and fixed to the pier cap or abutment by anchorages into concrete. If a concrete deck
is used, the DECS anchorages are provided by anchorages to be grouted into concrete. If
the concrete deck is cast in situ, the DECS anchorages are directly grouted during deck
pouring. If the deck is precasted, the anchorages must be inserted in the beam deck
formwork.
Once the anchorages are fixed to the structure, the DECS device must be installed by
inserting the connection pins that fix the DECS to its anchorages. The pin connection
guarantees the future replacement and allows the DECS to react as a truss (only axis
force) with no negative bending effects.
The DECS installation phases for a device placed between abutment and deck is shown
below.


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Phase 1 Device positioning near the final position





Phase 2 Device positioning in the final position




Phase 3 Insertion of the connections




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Phase 4 Device final position




For future replacement the sequence starts from the last phase to the first.
3.6.2 Maintenance
General requirements and control frequency. The DECS state of functioning and
conservation will be checked by a visual inspection made by a qualified inspector with
adequate experience on these devices with a frequency at least equal to the one principal
structure. It is recommended in any case to perform the first inspection within the first
year after installation and to repeat every five years Table 3.1.
If the inspector verifies some critical condition that he/she is not able to completely
evaluate or recommend suitable repairs, the assistance of an expert before completing the
inspection must be required. In this case contact the Alga S.p.A. Technical Director of
Technical Design Office Manager.
Table 3.1. Frequency of inspections of devices


INSPECTION FREQUENCY

MAINTEINANCE INSPECTION Frequency of the inspection [years]

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Principal inspection
X X


Normal inspection
X * X








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Normal inspection. It is strongly recommended to do a normal inspection each five
years; the following properties must be checked:
a) sufficient capacity of moving into the structure near the devices to reach each device;
b) absence of macroscopic and visible defects: unexpected movements and/or
deformation;
c) condition of conservation and cleanness of the area surrounding the devices and in
particular of the fixing tools to the structure;
d) conservation of the anti corrosion protection system;
e) absence of visible defects of the structural parts around the device.
The results of the inspection must be registered and stored. The inspection report will be
eventually completed with drawings and photos of the inspected parts. In case of visible
defects or damages that could affect the functionality of the DECS, further checks should
be performed by Alga S.p.A. Technician.
Control results. According to the inspection results, one of the following procedures
should be adopted:
A) positive result: no action to be taken.
B) irregular displacement and/or rotations or limited corrosion of the steel parts:
additional checks and measurements to be performed and repair of the corrosion
protection. In case after the additional inspection the damages are worse than
before, it is recommended to contact Alga S.p.A. before starting the procedure
described in the item C.
C) structural damages to the device or to its components: repair and/or replacement
of the device or parts of it, local or general repair of the corrosion protection, etc.
It is recommended in any case to contact immediately the Technical Direction of
Alga S.p.A. before starting any device repair or substitution.
Control frequency plan
The exceptional maintenance and eventual substitution of the devices is required in case
that important damages that affect the device functioning are noticed. Due to the
different situations that could occur for an exceptional maintenance, it is not possible to
develop a general procedure but each situation must be studied carefully by the structural
engineer and Alga S.p.A. technicians in order to guarantee the functioning of isolation
system and also to avoid any significant damages to the structure.


4. STEEL HYSTERETIC SYSTEMS
4.1 DESCRIPTION
Steel Hysteretic Dampers (SHD) preferably serve as base isolation in bridge construction.
They are installed in the bridge bearings area as devices independent from the bearing
itself, which means they do not participate in the damping of loads from the
superstructure. The dampers are arranged in a way that if necessary they can possibly
be replaced with a new unit after an earthquake.
Due to the steel hysteretic dampers, the total bridge bearing becomes a fixed one. Hence,
the dissipation device has to be designed considering the degrees of freedom of the
bearing. During a severe earthquake the steel elements undergo a plastic deformation.
The superstructure shifts on the sliding bearings activating the sliding friction. The plastic
deformation of the coupling elements produces the necessary energy dissipation.
The different damper forms are shown as examples in Figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1 Steel-hysteretic dampers with crescent moon/pin/U-clamps
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The chosen coupling elements are predominantly those forms that are subjected to
bending and/or shear strain, so that the entire volume extensively and uniformly
plasticises. All other parts including joints and fastenings must not plastically deform,
stresses must remain in the elastic region.
The coupled arrangement shown in the sketch in Figure 4.2 consists of parallel triangular
plates with constant thicknesses that are exposed to a bending force F. The bending
moment M(x) is linearly variable, while the shear force Q is constant:

=
l
x
Fl x M 1 ) ( (4.1)
const F Q = = (4.2)
The triangular shape results in a constant curvature over the
height of each plate, since the bending stress is constant and
thereby an extensively uniform plasticisation occurs. It has to
be considered that the short plate stumps at the top are
subjected to large shear stress. The material has to possess
distinctive stable flow behaviour.





Figure 4.2. Bending/shear stress in a triangular element
A precise dynamic seismic analysis of a complex structure, e.g. a bridge including
superstructure, piers, abutments, different forms of bearings and integrated steel
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hysteretic dampers with high grade non-linear behaviour, can be executed only by means
of sophisticated design software, which, however, might be too expensive.
In this case an assessment based on the secant stiffness procedure is recommended, in
particular because it provides a quick overview. The supporting frame is assumed as an
elastic structure. The curved hysteretic gradient of the steel hysteretic dampers is replaced
by a bilinear gradient.
The gradient depends on the type of element as schematically shown in the force
displacement diagrams as illustrated in Figure 4.3.
Figure 4.3. Different plastic hysteretic loops (schematic)
Figure 4.4 shows the hysteretic loops of a triangular element with linear growing
displacement amplitudes from one cycle to the next cycle.
Figure 4.4. Hysteresis of a plasticizing steel-hysteretic element
The parameters k
e
, k
p
, F
p
and y
p
characterise the bilinear behaviour. The values can be
drawn from measurements, as it is demonstrated in Figure 4.4 (b,c,d). It can be seen that
the dissipated energy is somewhat overestimated, which should be adjusted by correction
factors depending on the solidity of the material.
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Satisfactory plastic ductility particularly during the violent phase of an earthquake is the
main requirement for the functionality of a steel hysteretic damper. Alternating
plasticisation must not lead to short-time fatigue and thereof to brittle failure. As
indicated in Figure 4.5, mild steel is able to withstand high plastic energy dissipation for a
certain period of time. The number of acceptable cycles strongly depends on the
deformation amplitude.





Figure 4.5. Resistant energy dissipation amplitude at low cycle fatigue
It is therefore essential to know the dissipation amplitudes particularly at critical locations
of the device to check functionality and reliability. Time history analyses with several
natural or artificial acceleration diagrams are necessary for a realistic determination of
functionality and reliability.
One of the main objectives of the Lessloss Project was to evaluate the benefits and to
determine the limits of sliders coupled with steel-hysteretic elements. The specific
objective of sub-task 2.2a_2.1 was to study the effects of different types of steel hysteretic
elements on the response of the structure. The influence of the elastic/post-elastic
stiffness ratio, which is the most representative parameter of this class of devices, was
particularly examined.
For the calibration of the model developed by ENEA, the characterization tests with the
SHD devices were carried out at the University of Armed Forces in Munich.
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4.2 MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS
The steel-hysteretic dampers are designed for a high fatigue resistance and for operation
at high levels of plastic strain. This is achieved by using high-ductility mild steels.
In the scope of the LessLoss Project different types of steel were tested. The steel-
hysteretic devices and the bearing parts were composed of structural steel grade
S355J2G3 acc. 10025 with minimum tensile strength as specified in Table 4.1.
Material certification is according to EN 10204, 3.1. B.
Table 4.1 Nominal values of yield and tensile strength in MPa (according to Table 3.1, EC3 1-1,
conform to EN 10025)
Thickness (mm)
t 40mm 40mm < t 100mm Steel
f
y
(MPa) f
u
(MPa) f
y
(MPa) f
u
(MPa)
Fe 510 345 490 315 490

Maurer Shne designed and manufactured 37 steelhysteretic elements for
characterisation tests at the University of Armed Forces and shake table tests at ENEA.
Figure 4.6 shows the shape of the devices and the dimensions are listed in Table 4.2.





Figure 4.6. Model of a triangular plate device - geometric definition and element deformation
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Table 4.2 Geometrical data of triangular plate elements

Figure 4.7 shows an example of the so-called TR-element no. 7 (triangular plate with half
moon head).







Figure 4.7. TR-Element 7 with half moon head
4.3 SPECIFICATIONS
The standards for the design of base isolated structures are:
AASHTO - Guide Specifications for Seismic Isolation Design;
EN 1998-1 - Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance;
prEN 15129 - Anti-seismic devices, CEN.
Element L b c t s
max
# [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]
7 250 70 50 40 60
13 190 100 50 14 96
17 190 70 70 35 36
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Standards for the design of sliding bearings and isolators:
ETA-06/0131 Maurer MSM Spherical Bearing;
EN 1337-2:2004;
EN 1337-7:2004.
The codes describe the way to design, verify and test the devices and how to design the
structures, in which the devices shall be placed.
4.4 CALCULATION EXAMPLES
The effect of a base isolation with SHD is shown with a simple example. The calculation
model of the structures with solid foundation is shown in Figure 4.8. a), while in Figure
4.8. b) it is enlarged by a base isolation. The model presents a realistic building. Mass m
G

and spring constant k
G
are kinetically equivalent to the real properties of the building.
Self-damping capacity exists and corresponds (with =0.025) to the behaviour of
common structures. The structure is analysed without and with base isolation.









Figure 4.8. Example a) SDOF with rigid clamping b) DDOF with interconnected base isolation
The system is analysed according to the response spectrum procedure. The response
spectrum S
e
shown in Figure 4.9 (following Eurocode 8) is taken as excitation input. The
spectrum is not a reference spectrum S
d
and the behaviour value q is not included.


Steel Hysteretic
devices SHD
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Figure 4.9. Elastic acceleration response spectrum

Structure without base isolation
Starting from the following system parameters:
kg m
G
6
10 4 , 1 = and m N k
G
/ 10 85
6
= ,
the natural vibration behaviour is then determined:
1
79 , 7

= = s
m
k
G
G
G
,
Hz f
G
G
24 , 1
2
= =

,
s
f
T
G
G
81 , 0
1
= = .
The damping coefficient follows:
) / /( 10 5 , 5 2
5
s m N m d
G G G G
= =
The acceleration value is taken from the spectrum for the natural vibration period
T = 0,81 s:
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35
/ 685 , 4
81 , 0
795 , 3
) 81 , 0 ( s m s T S
e
= = =
Multiplied by mass m
G
the appertaining inertia force results as follows:
kN N F 6559 10 559 , 6 685 , 4 10 4 , 1
6 6
= = =
The lateral elastic deflection with k
G
is:
m u 077 , 0
10 85
10 559 , 6
6
6
=


=

Structure with base isolation
A base plate with mass m
B
supported on the base isolation is added. Figure 4.8. b) applies
for the base isolation:
m N k kg m
G G
/ 10 85 ; 10 4 , 1
6 6
= =
qui B B
k k kg m = = ; 10 1 , 0
6

The system in question is dual, which means that two natural mode shapes exist:
5. Self generated form 1 (Mode shape): both masses swing in the same direction with a
natural period T
1
.
6. Self generated form 2 (Mode shape): the masses swing in opposite direction with a
natural period T
2
.
Natural oscillation form 1 is dominant and therefore normative.
25 pieces of steel hysteretic devices type 7 with the following properties are used:
m mm u
N kN F
m N 10 0,154 N/mm 154,5 k
m N 10 5,226 N/mm 5226 k
p
p
6
p
6
e
0098 , 0 8 , 9
51300 3 , 51
/
/
= =
= =
= =
= =


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Figure 4.10. Bilinear Hysteretic definition SHD
k
qui
is calculated for selected -values:
y
y
y
y y k F
k
p p p
qui

) 0098 , 0 ( 10 154 , 0 51300

) (
6
+
=
+
=
The damping ratio
qui
is calculated using the assumed -values and the elastic
displacement u
p
:
2 2

) 0098 , 0 ( ) 49790 ( 2

) ( ) (
2
u k
u
u k
u u u k F
qui qui
p p p p
qui


=


The conversion factor is calculated:
qui
qui

+
=
05 , 0
10 , 0

and finally the spectral acceleration S
e
as well as the displacement S
u
:
) 05 , 0 , ( ) , (
qui e qui qui qui e
T S T S = ,
) , (
2
) , (
2
qui qui e
qui
qui qui u
T S
T
T S

= .
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37
The results for five different -values are listed in Table 4.3. It becomes apparent that the
sought result lies between 0,060 and 0,090m. An additional iteration delivers the solution
u = 0,084 m.
Table 4.3 Values from iteration calculation


Figure 4.11. Elastic acceleration response spectrum with spectral values from the calculation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
T
1
T
2

1

2

qui

qui
0,03 1,39 0,17 1,51 -0,047 0,39 0,48
0,06 1,74 0,19 1,27 -0,056 0,45 0,45
0,09 1,99 0,19 1,20 -0,060 0,44 0,45
0,12 2,19 0,19 1,16 -0,062 0,43 0,46
0,15 2,34 0,20 1,13 -0,063 0,41 0,47
0,084 1,95 0,19 1,21 -0,059 0,45 0,45
m s s - - - -
8 9 10 11
S
e

qui
x S
e
S
u
S
u
/
2,73 1,30 0,0635 2,12
2,18 0,98 0,0748 1,25
1,91 0,86 0,0861 0,96
3,47 1,59 0,1925 1,60
3,24 1,52 0,2108 1,41
1,95 0,88 0,0840 1,00
m/s m/s m -
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The total structure is loaded with an inertial force of:
N F F
B
6 6 6
10 32 , 1 88 , 0 ) 10 1 , 0 10 4 , 1 ( = + = = (1.1)
The structure without base plate (m
G
) carries a force of:
N F
G
6 6
10 232 , 1 10 32 , 1
5 , 1
4 , 1
= =
The associated displacement is:
m u
G
0145 , 0
10 85
10 232 , 1
6
6
=


=
This static value is scaled with
1
= 1,21 (Table 4.3):
m u
G
0175 , 0 0145 , 0 21 , 1 = =
The total displacement of the structure m
G
is:
m y
G
102 , 0 0175 , 0 084 , 0 = + =
The comparison of the different systems for this example is shown in Figure 4.12.







Figure 4.12. Max. oscillation without and with base isolation
0,017
0,102m
0,084
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39
The displacement of the SHD isolator can be calculated additionally using the following
formula:
m
k
F
u
qui
B
B
071 , 0
10 87 , 1
10 32 , 1
7
6
=

= =
The calculated displacement value S
u
delivers a conservative result of 0,084 m. It is
reasonable to calculate with the iteration of F
B
/k
qui
.
The oscillation with a period of T = 1,95 s corresponds to an Eigen angular frequency of
=3,222 rad/s. The initial force is determined as follows:
N F
m y
G
G
6 2 6
10 243 , 1 086 , 0 222 , 3 10 4 , 1
086 , 0 0145 , 0 071 , 0
= =
= + =

The example shows that the u
G
-values (movement of the structure) of the different
concept lead to different results.
u
G
without base isolation: 0,077 m
u
G
with base isolation: 0,0175 m (= 0,23 = 23%)
The relative displacement of the structure is reduced by the base isolation to 1/5. Hence,
the stress due to an earthquake is negligible.
4.5 TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROLS
4.5.1 Testing
Tests shall be carried out with the steel-hysteretic devices and samples of sliding elements
to demonstrate the satisfying properties of the following general performance
characteristics:
1. Load bearing capacity
2. Horizontal displacement capacity
3. Rotation capacity
4. Isolation characteristics / Energy dissipation
5. Wear resistance / Fatigue capacity
Each test program is according/complies with international standards applied for the
design or, alternatively, should be defined for the specific project.
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4.5.2 Quality controls
The quality production control is performed with the raw materials and the final product.
MAURER bearings are designed according to European Technical Approval ETA-
06/0131 or EN 1337. MAURER is supervised by an independent third party the
Material Testing Institute of University of Stuttgart.
The internal quality control is supervised by control cards with details about dimensions,
tolerances, design issues, applied materials and the numbers of the material certificates.
The prototype testing is executed at independent Universities to prove the performance
of the devices.
Figure 4.13 shows an example of the hysteretic loops of the dynamic test of the SH
element no. 17 with the material 1.0570 and the finite element model analysis of element
no. 17 with the same material. Basically, it seems that the yielding stress of the device
material is higher than the ones obtained in the tests of the material.
Figure 4.13. Dynamic test TR 250 1.0570 with 60 mm displacement
Device #17 - W0570
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
Displacement (mm)
F
o
r
c
e

(
k
N
)
Test new
Spring
Spring mat. updated
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4.6 INSTALLATION, INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
4.6.1 General
Detailed information is available in the European Standard EN 1337-11: Transport,
storage and installation.
4.6.2 Type Designation Plate on each Bearing
All important data of the bearing are shown on the plate in Figure 4.14, which is located
at the bearing top part edges.
Figure 4.14. Type data plate
Description of the short cuts on the designation plate:
Type = Type of bearing or isolator (SHS = Steel Hysteretic Slider),
O-NO = Order number and date of order,
C-NO = internal sheet number and bearing number,
LOC = Axis resp. location of bearing within the building structure,
v
x
= Plus/minus movement in longitudinal direction,
e
vx
= Pre-adjustment in longitudinal direction,
v
y
= Plus/minus movement in transversal direction,
e
vy
= Pre-adjustment in transversal direction.
4.6.3 Unloading, Transportation and Storage
The delivered steel-hysteretic sliders are precision-made components. Therefore,
functionality can only be guaranteed if the devices are carefully treated. Sliding plate resp.
bearing top part and lower bearing part are assembled parallel to each other in the
workshop and safely fixed for transportation by means of assembly brackets. The
assembly brackets are red marked and must be kept until the bearing is completely
installed. This means the bolts of the brackets must not be loosened until the bearing is

SHS ... KN
66**** / 05-2007
no. 1
140 0 140 0
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located at the final position and is safely grouted to the superstructure or substructure
respectively.
Immediately upon receipt of the bearings at site, the bearings must be examined for
transportation damages. In case of any damage, Maurer Shne shall be informed
immediately in written form and the damage must be indicated in the shipping
documents, too.
Bearings, which cannot be installed in the structure immediately, should be stored in a
suitable place, covered with well-ventilated tarpaulins, to protect them from damage and
fouling with dirt.
4.6.4 Installation
The steel-hysteretic elements are located between two parts of the structure, where
relative motion occur, e.g. between deck and abutment, or pier cap and deck. In order to
install the steel-hysteretic elements suitable anchorage must be inserted in the structure.
The steel-hysteretic elements shall be fixed to the structure by bolts to allow replacement
in case of damage or fatigue.
The anchorages are fixed to the structure with bolts. The bolt connection enables a future
replacement.







Figure 4.15. Location of Steel-hysteretic devices in a structure
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4.6.5 Maintenance
It is recommended to perform the first inspection after installation and to repeat the
inspection every five years. Functionality and conservation of the steel-hysteretic
elements shall be checked visually by a qualified, adequately experienced inspector.
If the inspector finds a critical situation or a situation difficult to judge, it is
recommended to require the assistance of an expert before completing the inspection. In
this case contact Maurer Shne Munich.
The five-yearly inspection shall be included in the maintenance program for the structure
and shall check the following questions:
a. Is there sufficient space left between the isolated structure and the abutment after an
earthquake or other movements?
b. Has the device itself sufficient capacity of movement?
c. Has the device any macroscopic and visible defects resulting from unexpected
movements, deformation, fatigue or corrosion?
d. Is the conservation in good condition and are the device and its surrounding clean?
e. Is the fixation to structure, e.g. bolts OK?
The results of the inspection must be reported in a written form. The inspection report
shall be eventually completed by drawings and photos of the inspected parts. In case of
visible defects or damages that influence the functionality of the steel-hysteretic devices, a
further inspection shall be performed by Maurer Shne.
An exceptional maintenance and eventual substitution of the device is required if
damages affecting the functionality of the device occur. Each situation must be studied
carefully by a structural engineer and Maurer Shne technicians in order to guarantee the
reliability of the isolation system and to avoid damages to the structure.



5. SLIDING ISOLATION PENDULUM
5.1 DESCRIPTION
The Sliding Isolation Pendulum Bearing (SIP) consists of a pivoting solid steel lens with a
slider, which slides along a stainless steel spherically curved sliding surface (the concave
plate) in bridge bearing quality. This lens is a double spherically shaped solid steel part,
which matches the stainless steel concave curved sliding surface, and an opposing convex
spherical surface, which allows its containment in a load bearing housing (the housing
plate) while its free rotation (pivoting) is allowed. A self-lubricating bearing liner material
called MSM

is fixed to the sliding surface of the lens and to the housing. A environment
rubber apron is provided around the bearing. The housing and concave plates are locked
in with suitable temporary shipping and transportation restraints at the edges of the
housing plates.

Radius
housing
Lens

MSM
Concave sliding plate with
stainless steel sheet

Figure 5.1 Principle sketch of SIP
The Isolator Slider Material is MSM

. The tolerance definition of the inner bearing


components and detailed inner isolator geometry were developed by the supplier and are
proprietary information protected by applicable law for the protection of intellectual
property and patents. Therefore any information provided about these issues must be
treated strictly confidentially.
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Theoretical and mathematical description
The bearing types SIP are designed for friction values of = 3 up to 12%, acting at the
specified design force level of the bearing. The design force level is the load during
service and design limit state.
The MAURER sliding isolation pendulum bearings are modeled according to the
equations below.

Figure 5.2. Characteristic hysteretic loop of a spherical sliding isolator

Figure 5.3. Principle sketch of a spherical sliding isolator of SIP type
Innovative Anti-Seismic Systems Users Manual

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Equations for the design of SIP devices:
Horizontal resisting force:
( ) v W D
R
W
F
H
sgn + = [5.1]
where W = W
SLS
= vertical load,
= dynamic friction coefficient,
D = horizontal displacement,
v = horizontal displacement velocity,
R = radius of curvature.
Horizontal stiffness due to rise of mass:
R
W
dD
dF
K
H
H
= = [5.2]
The pendulum period results from:
H
K
M
T = 2 ,
g
W
M = ,
R
W
K
H
=
g
R
T
pendulum
= 2 [5.3]
Effective (peak-to-peak) stiffness:
D
W
R
W
D
F F
D
F
K
eff

+ =

= =

2
min max
[5.4]
Effective period =
) (
2
R D g
D R
T
eff
+

=

[5.5]
This equation shows that T
eff
is independent from mass W.
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Effects of damping produced by friction between the sliding couple (stainless
steel against sliding liner material) can be taken into account by means of the
damping ratio
eff
, which is defined as:
rectangle bed circumscri of area
loop hysteresis of area 2
=

eff
[5.6]
where area of the hysteretic loop = D W 4 [5.7]
area of the circumscribed rectangle =
2
4 D K
eff
[5.8]

eff
is obtained by introducing [5.7], [5.8] and [5.4]:
) (
2 2
R D
R
R D
eff
+

=
+
=

[5.9]

2
eff
for D/R << , while
D
R
eff

2
for D/R >> .
Radius relation to period: R =
2
2
2
25 , 0
) 2 (
T
T g

[5.10]
Upward displacement depending on displacement
2 2
D R R
V
= [5.11]
Static re-centring criterion: D/R > must be fulfilled [5.12]
Dynamic Self-centring capability must be fulfilled
s s
E E 25 , 0 [5.13]
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- E
S
is the reversible stored energy (elastic strain energy, potential energy and
kinetic energy)
) cos 1 (
d s
R W E = ;
d
the design angular displacement [5.14]
- E
H
is the energy dissipated by hysteretic deformation

d h
R W d R W E
d


sin cos
0
= =

[5.15]
5.2 MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS
The materials shall conform to the standards specified herein.
5.2.1 Concave Plates, Housing and Lens
All bearing parts except bolts, liner and stainless steel sheets are composed of structural
steel grade S355J2G3 acc. 10025 with minimum tensile strength as specified in Table
5.1.
Table 5.1 Nominal values of yield and tensile strength in MPa (according Table 3.1, EC3 1-1,
conform to EN 10025)
Thickness (mm)
t 40mm 40mm < t 100mm Steel
f
y
(MPa) f
u
(MPa) f
y
(MPa) f
u
(MPa)
Fe 510 S355 345 490 315 490

All parts shall conform to the dimensions of the drawings within the acceptable tolerance
criteria set herein:
Flatness requirement for the mechanical machining (lathing) of the concave and
convex surfaces: the tolerance of flatness over the plan dimension (diameter D of
concave or convex surface) must be equal or less than 0,0008 x D,
Flatness requirement for the mechanical machining (milling) of the flat upper and
lower bearing surface: the tolerance of flatness over the plan dimension (diagonal D
of upper or lower bearing surface) must be equal or less than 0,0007 x D.
Steel plates certification and test certificate is according to EN 10204:3.1.B
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5.2.2 Concave Sliding Surface
All stainless steel used for the bearing construction is Stainless Steel approved for bridge
bearings, EN 10088-2 1.4401+2B (X5CrNiMo17-12-2), EN 10088-2 1.4404+2B
(X2CrNiMo17-12-2), or equivalent with test certification by EN 10204, with the
following properties:
- chemical composition: according to the above European Standard.
- min. tensile strength: 550 N/mm2; min. elongation: 40%.
- after surface treatment, the medium value of surface roughness Rz shall not
exceed 3 m.
- the minimum thickness of stainless steel overlay shall be 2,5 mm after welding,
grinding and polishing.
- the surface hardness shall be in the range of 150HV1 to 200 HV1 according to
ISO 6507-2, and HB 187 max.
5.2.3 Bearing Liner
a.) The isolator liner used at all sliding interfaces (slider surface facing the concave plate
and inside the housing plate facing the slider) is MSM

and is an un-lubricated
composite liner with minimum 200MPa compressive yield strength, and with
composition and construction as required to satisfy the specified mechanical
properties. MSM

is patented and protected by MAURER SHNE.


b.) The Supplier provides a certificate for chemical and micro organism resistance of the
applied MSM

liner material.
c.) The finally installed isolator liner has to fulfill the friction requirement specified herein
and has to be suitable to transmit the requested vertical and horizontal load range
without damages.
d.) Bearing liner bedded into recess according to EN1337-2: Bearing liner thickness of
the solid liner disc shall be measured at each production isolator. The bearing liner
sliding gap shall have a minimum thickness throughout its surface of 1 mm after
compression by seismic design load. The admissible tolerance on thickness is
0,5/+1,3mm from 8 mm original thickness.
e.) The wear of the isolators shall be tested on the prototype bearings in accordance to
Section 1.6 of this specification. In addition long term wear tests have to be provided
according to EN1337 on request.
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5.2.4 Other Materials
Perimeter protective seal: EPDM (Ethylene Propylene) or any other suitable material.
Assembly brackets: S235JRG2, S355J2G3 according to EN 10025.
Restraining Plates Connection Bolts: 8.8 quality according to ISO 898.
5.3 SPECIFICATIONS
Design rules given by international design codes have to be applied.
The principal standards for the design of structure base isolation are:
AASHTO - Guide Specifications for Seismic Isolation Design;
EN 1998-1 - Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance;
prEN 15129 - Anti-seismic devices, CEN.
The principal standards for the design of bearings and isolators are:
- ETA-06/0131 Maurer MSM Spherical Bearing,
- EN 1337-2:2004 and EN 1337-7:2004.
The codes describe the way to design, verify and test the isolators and how to design the
structures, in which the devices are placed.
5.4 CALCULATION EXAMPLES
The effect of a base isolation is shown with a simple example. Figure 5.4a) shows the
model of a structure with solid foundation and Figure 5.4b) a structure with base
isolation. The model presents a real building. Mass m
G
and spring constant k
G
are
coordinated that way as to kinetically equivalent replace it. Self-damping capacity exists
and corresponds (with =0.025) to the behaviour of common structures. First of all the
structure will be analysed without and with base isolation thereafter.





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Figure 5.4. Example a) SDOF with rigid clamping b) DDOF with interconnected base isolation
The system is analysed according to the response spectrum procedure. The response
spectrum S
e
shown in Figure 5.5 (following Eurocode 8) is taken as excitation input. The
spectrum is not a reference spectrum S
d
and the behaviour value q is not included.







Figure 5.5 Elastic acceleration response spectrum
Structure without base isolation
Starting from the following system parameters:
Sliding Isolation
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53
m N k kg m
G G
/ 10 85 ; 10 4 , 1
6 6
= =
The natural vibration behaviour is determined:
s
f
T Hz f s
m
k
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
81 , 0
1
; 24 , 1
2
; 79 , 7
1
= = = = = =


The damping coefficient follows:
) / /( 10 5 , 5 2
5
s m N m d
G G G G
= =
Take the acceleration value from the spectrum for the natural vibration period T=0.81s:
/ 685 , 4
81 , 0
795 , 3
) 81 , 0 ( s m s T S
e
= = =
Multiplied by mass m
G
the appertaining mass force results as follows:
kN N F 6559 10 559 , 6 685 , 4 10 4 , 1
6 6
= = =
The lateral elastic deflection with k
G
is:
m u 077 , 0
10 85
10 559 , 6
6
6
=


=

Structure with base isolation
A base plate with mass m
B
supported on the base isolation will be arranged. Figure 5.4b)
applies for the base isolation:
m N k kg m
G G
/ 10 85 ; 10 4 , 1
6 6
= =
qui B B
k k kg m = = ; 10 1 , 0
6

The system in question is dual, which means there are two natural oscillation forms:
1. Self generated form 1, where both masses swing in one direction, self oscillation time
T
1
.
2. Self generated form 2, where the masses swing in opposite direction, self oscillation
time T
2
.
Natural oscillation of form 1 is dominant and therefore normative.
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The radius of curvature of the Sliding Isolation Pendulum bearings is chosen as r = 2500
mm = 2,5 m and the friction value = 0.06. k
qui
is calculated for selected -values,
where
g m m G
B G
+ = ) (
is the total load transmitted via the isolation system:
81 , 9 ) 10 1 , 0 10 4 , 1 (

06 , 0
5 , 2
1

1
6 6
+

+ =

+ = =
u
G
u r
k k
qui B


Table 5.2 shows the computation result for five u-values: =0,050; 0,075; 0,100; 0,125;
0,150 m. T
1
and T
2
are the natural periods of 1st and 2nd natural mode.
1
and
2
are the
appertaining amplitudes, i.e. conditions of the amplitudes of m
1
m
G
to the
amplitude of m
2
m
B
in the respective natural mode. A positive means a movement in
the same direction of m
G
and m
B
, a negative means an opposite-one. The second natural
mode is suppressed, i.e. T is set = T
1
.
The spectral acceleration value S
e
is taken from the elastic response spectrum (Figure 5.6).

Table 5.2 Values from iteration calculation












Iteration
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Figure 5.6. Elastic acceleration response spectrum with spectral values from the
calculation
The damping ratio
qui
is calculated for the assumed - values:

+
=

+
=
06 , 0
5 , 2

06 , 0 2

2
u
r
u
qui


The conversion factor is calculated:
qui
qui

+
=
05 , 0
10 , 0

and finally the spectral acceleration S
e
as well as the displacement S
u

) 05 , 0 , ( ) , (
qui e qui qui qui e
T S T S =
) , (
2
) , (
2
qui qui e
qui
qui qui u
T S
T
T S

=
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The calculation for five -values is shown in table 4.2. The sought result is between 0,075
and 0,100m. A additional iteration deliver the solution u = 0,091 m.
The total structure is loaded with an inertial force of:
N F F
B
6 6 6
10 224 , 1 814 , 0 ) 10 1 , 0 10 4 , 1 ( = + = =
The structure without base plate (m
G
) carries a force of:
N F
G
6 6
10 140 , 1 10 221 , 1
5 , 1
4 , 1
= =
The associated displacement is:
m u
G
0134 , 0
10 85
10 140 , 1
6
6
=


=

This static value is scaled with
1
= 1,171 (table 4.2):
m u
G
0154 , 0 0134 , 0 171 , 1 = =
The total displacement of the structure m
G
is:

m y
G
107 , 0 0154 , 0 091 , 0 = + =

The following comparison of the different systems is shown in Figure 5.7.
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57

Figure 5.7. Max. Oscillation without and with base isolation
Alternatively, the displacement of the SIP isolator can be calculated using the following
formula:
m
k
F
u
qui
B
B
078 , 0
10 59 , 15
10 221 , 1
6
6
=

= =
The calculated displacement value S
u
delivers a conservative result of 0,091m. It is
reasonable to calculate with the iteration of F
B
/k
qui
.
The oscillation with a period of T = 2,10s complies with result to an Eigen angular
frequency of =2,992 rad /s. The initial force is determined to:
N F
m y
G
G
6 2 6
10 146 , 1 0914 , 0 992 , 2 10 4 , 1
0914 , 0 0134 , 0 078 , 0
= =
= + =

The example shows that the u
G
-values (movement of the structure) according to different
concept lead to different results.
u
G
without base isolation: 0,077m
u
G
with base isolation: 0,0154m (= 0,2 = 20%)
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The relative displacement of the structure is reduced by the base isolation to 1/5. Hence,
the stress due to an earthquake is negligible.
5.5 TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROLS
5.5.1 Testing
Tests shall be carried out on the Sliding Pendulum Isolator and samples of sliding
elements to demonstrate the satisfying properties of the following general performance
characteristics:
1. Load bearing capacity;
2. Horizontal displacement capacity;
3. Rotation capacity;
4. Maximum frictional resistance to service movements;
5. Isolation characteristics;
6. Wear resistance of the friction material.
Each test program is according to international standards applied for the design or can be
alternatively defined for the specific project.
5.5.2 Quality controls
The quality production control is performed with the raw materials and the final product.
MAURER bearings are designed according to European Technical Approval ETA-
06/0131 or EN 1337. MAURER is supervised by an independent third party Material
Testing Institute of University Stuttgart.
The internal quality control is supervised by control cards with details about dimensions,
tolerances, design issues, applied materials and the numbers of the material certificates.
The prototype testing is executed at independent Universities to check the performance
of the devices.

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Figure 5.8. MAURER quality control
5.6 INSTALLATION, INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
Detailed information is available at the European Standard EN 1337-11 Transport,
storage and installation.
5.6.1 Type Designation Plate on each Bearing
All important data of the bearing is shown on this plate, which is located at the bearing
top part edges.

Description of the short cuts on the designation plate:

SIP ... KN
66**** / 05-2007
no. 1
140
0 140 0
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Type = Type of bearing and service load,
O-NO = Order number and date of order,
C-NO = internal sheet number and bearing number,
LOC = Axis resp. location of bearing within the building structure,
v
x
= Plus/minus movement in longitudinal direction,
e
vx
= Pre-adjustment in longitudinal direction,
v
y
= Plus/minus movement in transversal direction,
e
vy
= Pre-adjustment in transversal direction.
5.6.2 Unloading, Transportation and Storage
The delivered SIP bearings are precision-made components. Functioning can only be
guaranteed if they are carefully treated. Sliding plate resp. bearing top part and lower
bearing part are assembled parallel to each other in the workshop and are safely fixed for
transportation by means of securing assembly brackets. By all means position of the
bearing parts must be kept until the bearing is completely installed. This means, the bolts
of the securing devices must not be loosened until the bearings will be located in the final
position and be safely grouted to the superstructure or substructure respectively.
Immediately upon receipt of the bearings at site, they must be examined for
transportation damages. In case of any damage being found, immediate notice should be
given to MAURER in written form and must be indicated in the shipping documents
respectively.
Bearings, which cannot be installed in the structure immediately, should be stored in a
suitable place, covered with well-ventilated tarpaulins, to protect them from damage and
fouling with dirt.




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5.6.3 Installation of SIP bearings
a) Preparation of bearing plinth









b) Setting and levelling of lower bearing anchor plate (flatness tolerance according to SIP
design drawings) and inserting two 10-15mm diameter steel chains into the joint


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c) Grouting of anchor plate within the curing time of the resin! See also additionally
enclosed information about grouting procedure of bearing bottom plates. A suitable
grout is e.g. PAGEL V1 (Company PAGEL; www.pagel.com). The grout joint has to
be free of air bubbles!

d) After grout/resin has gained 50% of service hardness the bearing is placed by crane
and bolted to the lower anchor plate by bolts of high strength grade 10.9.

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63
e) Placing of upper anchor plate onto the bearing and bolting it to upper bearing plate

f) IMPORTANT: Protection of bearing against dirt and concrete before superstructure is
cast onto the upper anchor plate










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The dirt dust protection apron delivered together with the bearing is not suitable to
protect the bearing from liquid concrete or any other liquids, therefore the responsible
construction company has to provide additional rubber or plastic bearing protection
aprons around the bearing itself to avoid any concrete at the bearing itself!

g) Casting of superstructure onto the bearing

h) Removal of shuttering and rubber apron after the concrete is fully cured. Cleaning of
bearing with warm water but without damaging the corrosion protection coating.
IMPORTANT: Removal of the four red assembly bolts around the bearing, which fixed
the bearing during transportation.








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65
If the corrosion protection coating is damaged, it should be repaired to avoid corrosion.
Also the bearings have to be free from grout to grant proper service.
After installation a final inspection by MAURER staff shall be carried out.
5.6.4 Maintenance
Detailed informations are available at the European Standard EN 1337-10, Inspection
and maintenance.
Reason for Bearing Maintenance
The SIP bearings are designed for a service life of at least 30 years in case of appropriate
environmental conditions and without exceeding the seismic design earthquake. They are
in general maintenance-free.
Nevertheless, in case of unforeseen events or conditions, which do not comply with the
design specifications of the contract or of the supplier (e.g. more severe earthquake,
setting effects of the building substructure, working conditions of the SIP, etc.), the SIP
might/could be damaged. If so, it has to be examined whether the damaged bearings are
still ready for service or whether they have to be exchanged.
However, regular visual inspections in combination with regular building inspections
for instance every 5 years shall be carried out are recommended.
Any other maintenance is not necessary. In case of serious damages of the bearing, a
specialist of MAURER has to be called to determine if a bearing exchange is necessary.
Visual Bearing Inspection
A visual inspection includes the following procedure and measurements:
1. The concrete or mortar/resin at the upper or lower bearing anchor plate has got
cracks.
2. The sliding gap of the sliding couple in primary and/or secondary sliding gap is less
than 0,5mm.
> 0,5 mm
> 0,5 mm
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3. Deformation of upper and lower bearing part more than +/-1mm along one
edge of the bearing.






4. Massive defects of the corrosion protection coating, which affects the sliding
couple or even the load carrying capacity, resulting in steel plate bending.
Contact to MAURER in case of detected significant visual damages
MAURER SHNE GmbH & Co. KG
Frankfurter Ring 193
80807 Munich
Germany
Tel.: +49 / 89 / 32394 341
Fax: +49 / 89 / 32394 306




Shall be less than +/-1 mm
Shall be less than 1 mm


REFERENCES
LessLoss Deliverable Report D33, [2006] Validation of LSIs analysis method and design
procedure, Sub-Project 6, University of Pavia, Italy.
Martelli, A., Forni M., Rinaldis D., et al. [2005] Development of innovative antiseismic systems in
the framework of the LessLoss European Integrated Project, Proceedings of 9
th
World Seminar
on Seismic Isolation, Energy Dissipation and Active Vibration Control of Structures, Kobe, Japan.
Medeot, R., [2004], Re-centering capability evaluation of seismic isolation systems based on
energy concepts, 13
th
World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, Canada.
Medeot, R., [2004], Steel Hysteretic Damper, Maurer Shne GmbH & Co.KG, Munich,
Germany.
Pinho, R., Calvi, G.M. [2004] LESSLOSS A European Integrated Project on Risk Mitigation for
Earthquakes and Lanslides, IUSS Press, Pavia, Italy.
Petersen, Ch., Beutler, H., Braun, Ch., Mangerig, I., [2005] Stahlbau Kalender 2005
Erdbebenschutzsysteme fr den Hoch und Brckenbau, Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, Germany.