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Implications of Linearized Supersonic Flow on Airfoil Lift & Drag

To begin, we will divide the airfoil geometry into camber and thickness distributions: y
c ( x )
y
τ( x )
y
( x )
u
x
y
l ( x )
1 i
α
v
v
v
U
U
=
u
cos
α
i
+
U
sin
α
j
1
y
( x
)
= y x
(
)
+
τ (
x
)
u
c
2
1
y
( x
)
= y x
(
)
τ (
x
)
l
c
2

Note:

The x -axis, which is the axis defined through the leading edge and

points, is used to define the freestream angle of attack. The chord line is the line connecting i.e.to t .e. and, the chord length is the distance between these points.

trailing edge

To calculate the lift and drag, we need to integrate the pressure forces around the airfoil.

v

F

=−

airfoil

p n ds

v

when n v points out of the airfoil surface.

Now, we begin specializing this formula for the assumptions of linearized flow, i.e. τ
c
y
c
c

<<

1 (small thickness)

<<

1 (small camber)

α

<<

1 (small α )

The normal on the upper surface is

Implications of Linearized Supersonic Flow on Airfoil Lift & Drag

y x

v dx v

t u =

v

n =−

dy

u

v

j

+

ds ds

v

i +

dy

u

dx

ds

ds

i

u

v

j v
n
u
v
t u
y
( x )
u

But, since we have thin airfoils ds dx , thus

dy

l

v

n =−

u dx

v dy

n l =

l

dx

v

i

Similarly, on the lower surface

Thus, the force may be written:

1

v

j

v

F

v

F

=−

=−

v

F

0

c

p n dx

u

v

u

dy

p

u

0

v

i

c

c

p n dx

l

v

l

v

j dx

dy

l

c

0

=

v

i

u

c

0

⎜ ⎛ p +
l
dx
0
dx
dy
v
c
u
l
+

u

dx

p

l

dy ⎞ ⎟ dx

dx

j

0

(

p

l

p

v

i j dy

v

)

p dx

u

v

i

+1

v

j

The drag component is in the freestream direction:

D

v

′= F

) 1

D

′=

v

F

v

i

+

v

F

v

j

α

 D ′= ∫ c ⎜ ⎛ p ⎝ dy 0 dy ⎟ ⎞ dx l + ∫ c ( − ) p dx u 0 u dx − p l dx ⎠ α ∞ 0 p l v F ( sinα ∞ v i + cosα ∞ v j )

Similarly, the lift is:

L ′= •− −∝ ∞ 1 v =− F • v i v v α ∞ + F • j L ′=− ∫ c ⎜ ⎛ p ⎝ dy u dy ⎞ ⎟ dx l + ∫ c ( − ) p dx u α ∞ 0 u dx − p l dx ⎠ 0 p l

Implications of Linearized Supersonic Flow on Airfoil Lift & Drag

Or, manipulating the L& D slightly: c
dy
dy
u
l
D
′=
p
∫ 0
α
⎟−
p
α
dx
u
l
dx
dx
dy
dy
′=
l
u
L
⎛ ⎜
1 α
+
⎟−
p
1 α
+
dx
∫ 0
l
u
dx
dx

c

p

 Then substituting in for the c p ≡ p − p ∞ , we can write this as: 1 ρ u 2 1 ⎛ dy ⎜ u ⎞ ⎛ dy ⎟− c ⎜ l 2 ∞ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ dx c d = c = c 1 ∫ c 0 ∫ c c ⎡ p c u ⎝ ⎜ ⎛ dx 1 + − α α ∞ ⎠ dy ⎞ l p l ⎟− c ⎝ dx ⎛ ⎜ 1 + − α ∞ α ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ u dy ⎞ ⎟ ⎤ dx l c 0 ⎢ ⎣ p l ⎝ ∞ dx ⎠ p u ⎝ ∞ dx ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ As shown in Anderson
2 θ
=
c p
M
∞ 2 − 1
⎛ dy
u
2 ⎜
α
dx
⇒ c =
p
u
2
M
− 1
dy
l
2 ⎛ ⎜ −
+
α
dx
c
=
p
l
M
∞ 2 − 1

Next, let’s substitute

c

p

u

and c

p

l

In supersonic linearized

flow where θ is the flow

direction relative to the

freestream (and

assuming an isolated airfoil).

α Upper surface
θ
u
dy
u

dx dy u
⇒θ =
−α
u
dx
Lower surface
α
dx
∞ θ
l
− dy
α
l
dy l
⇒θ =−
l
dx
into
c
l :

Implications of Linearized Supersonic Flow on Airfoil Lift & Drag 1
c
2
dy
dy
2
dy
dy
l
l
u
u
c
=
⎜ −
+
α
⎟ ⎜ 1 +
α
⎟−
α
⎟ ⎜ 1 +
α
l
c
0
2
dx
2
M
− 1 ⎝
dx
dx
M
− 1 ⎝
dx
small
small
2
c
dy
dy
l
u
c
⎛ −
+ 2
α
dx
l
0
dx
dx
c M
∞ 2 − 1
2
c
dy
c
dy
l
u
=
⎡ −
dx
dx
+ 2
α
c
0
dx
0
dx
c M
∞ 2 − 1 ⎣
c
dy
But
l dx
= y
(
c
)
y
(0)
=
0
− =
0
0
∫ 0
l
l
dx
c
dy
And, similarly,
u dx = 0
∫ 0
dx
4
α
c =
Important result!!
l
M
2 − 1
∗ c is linear with
α
∞ but note the slope is different than subsonic case
l

. dx

c does not depend on camber! All the y -dependence has disappeared in this

l result. Thus,
c
l also does not depend on thickness.
Now, let’s look at
c
d :
2
2
2
⎛ dy
⎛ dy
u
l
c =
∫ c
α
+ ⎜
α
⎟ ⎥ dx
d
2
0
dx
dx
c
M − 1
2
2
2
⎛ dy
dy ⎞ ⎛ dy ⎞
u
u
l
l
2
=
∫ c
⎛ ⎜ dy ⎞ ⎟
2
α
+
⎟+ ⎜
+
2
α
2
0
dx
dx
dx
dx
c
M − 1
This term will
integrate to 0
2
2
2
⎛ dy ⎞
⎛ dy ⎞
u
l
2
c
=
∫ c
+ ⎜
+ 2
α
dx
d
2
0
dx
dx
c
M − 1

dx

Implications of Linearized Supersonic Flow on Airfoil Lift & Drag 2
2
2
4
α
2
1
⎛ dy ⎞
⎛ dy ⎞
u
l
c =
+
∫ c
+ ⎜
dx
≥ 0
d
2
2
c
0
M
dx
dx
− 1
M − 1
c is >0 unless ∝ = 0
and airfoil is a plate (
y
=
y
=
d
u
l

Note:

const

y

u

=

y

l

= 0)

.

A little manipulation gives another form dependent on the camber and thickness:

 c = d 4α 2 4 1 ∞ + 2 2 c M − 1 M − 1 ∞ ∞ ∫ c 0 ( dy c ) 2 dx + 1 1 ⎛ d ⎞ ⎟ dx ⎜ 2 ∫ c τ 2 c 0 M ⎝ dx − 1 ∞ ⎠ Thus, for a given c , the lowest c l d occurs when the airfoil is a flat plate ( y c =τ= 0) !!