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We make it easier to communicate

Communicating to ASCII devices can be a hassle with some control systems, but the Productivity3000 controllers user-friendly design makes that job easier. Follow along in this example to set up communications with a bar code scanner: Connect the scanner to one of the Productivity3000 CPUs embedded serial ports Configure the port through the FREE Productivity Suite programming software. Intuitive dialog boxes let you set parameters such as baud rate, stop bits, and the protocol in this case, ASCII/Custom - using selection menus. Configure the ladder logic instruction ASCII IN - define number of characters, assign the destination memory, and update the program in the controller. Youre ready to read data from the scanner. Its that easy! Watch the bar code scanner tutorial and other informative videos to learn why ...

Performance + Value =

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CONTRLENG_0213_Layout 1 1/21/13 9:49 AM Page 1

Products for Lean Manufacturing

Temperature/Process Controller Panel

Easy-to-Use Digital Controller with On/Off, PID and Ramp/Soak Optional Ethernet Control with Built-In Web Server 120V Operation 12 A (1440 W) Nominal, 15 A Max Capacity Visit
CNI-CB120SB Starts at $600

Stepan Popov /

Permanent Magnet DC Motors

OMPM-DC Starts at $ 200

Adjustable DC Speed Control

OMDC-15DVE $152

Signal 50 Warning Tower Lights

OMSL Series Starts at $70





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Vol. 60 Number 2


26 Servodrive control 30 PLC vs. PAC
Courtesy: CFE Media


Smaller, faster, higher accuracy, and easier to use are among servodrive control advances.

These technologies continue to evolve, making differences harder to distinguish. Here are some thoughts on what does what, and how to choose between a PLC and a PAC for your next application.

34 Virtualization on the plant floor

While IT networks already use virtualization extensively, its benefits are moving into industrial networks.

38 2013 Engineers Choice Awards: Spotlight on innovation

Best automation, control, and instrumentation products in 29 categories.

EN1 Energy management: Greater efficiently in 2013 and beyond

EN2 Applying new strategies for higher efficiency. EN4 The right system components are critical to maximizing the energy-saving potential of VFDs. EN10 Worlds largest office furniture supplier celebrates 100 years by reducing its energy consumption and carbon footprint. EN13 Taking the complexity out of designing smart-grid devices.

CONTROL ENGINEERING (ISSN 0010-8049, Vol. 60, No. 2, GST #123397457) is published 12x per year, Monthly by CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Jim Langhenry, Group Publisher /Co-Founder; Steve Rourke CEO/COO/Co-Founder. CONTROL ENGINEERING copyright 2013 by CFE Media, LLC. All rights reserved. CONTROL ENGINEERING is a registered trademark of CFE Media, LLC used under license. Periodicals postage paid at Oak Brook, IL 60523 and additional mailing offices. Circulation records are maintained at CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Telephone: 630/571-4070 x2220. E-mail: Postmaster: send address changes to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Publications Mail Agreement No. 40685520. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Email: Rates for nonqualified subscriptions, including all issues: USA, $ 145/yr; Canada, $ 180/yr (includes 7% GST, GST#123397457); Mexico, $ 172/yr; International air delivery $318/yr. Except for special issues where price changes are indicated, single copies are available for $20.00 US and $25.00 foreign. Please address all subscription mail to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Printed in the USA. CFE Media, LLC does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the material contained herein, regardless of whether such errors result from negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever.


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Industrial Ethernet

Industrial Wireless

Serial Connectivity and Networking

Embedded Computing

The Era of Scalable 10GbE Infrastructures is Here

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- Full Gigabit L2/L3 - Up to 4 10GbE ports - Up to 24 or 48 1GbE connection - Fanless design

for Ed Switches ge-toco Solutio re ns


Moxa is introducing a comprehensive portfolio of edge-to-core switches, including high performance, high capability, 10GbE core switches that feature innovative network redundancy technologies, the best price to performance ratio, and a rugged industrial design.

Distribution Layer: Industrial Modular

DIN-Rail and Rackmount Switches
- Flexible modular design - High port-density - Ideal for control room and outdoor cabinet operation

Edge Layer: Compact, Standalone/Modular DIN-Rail Switches

- Widest selection of switches: from 5 to 19 ports, FE to full GE, managed to unmanaged - Cost-effective solutions - Advanced L2 networking capability

Industrial Core Switches ICS-G7848/G7850/G7852 Series

48G/48G+2 10GbE/48G+4 10GbE-port Layer 3 Full Gigabit Modular Managed Ethernet Switches
it ports Up to 48 Gigab

Up to 4 10GbE ports Up to 52 optical fiber connections (SFP slots) Layer 3 routing to interconnect multiple LAN segments Turbo Ring and Turbo Chain, and RSTP/STP for Ethernet redundancy Fanless design, 0 to 60C operating temperature range Isolated redundant power inputs with universal 110/220 VAC power supply range Modular design for maximum flexibility and hassle-free future expansion Hot swap interface and power modules for continuous operation

Use your Smart Phone to scan for more information.

Moxa Americas, Inc.

Tel: 1-888-669-2872 Fax: 1-714-528-6778

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HART Loop Interfaces:

You have new sensors, transmitters and valves; old sensors, transmitters and valves; and everything in between. You have these PLCs or that DCS. Then, in came the PCs with this or that automation software. To top it off... everything is scattered everywhere, indoors and out.

Wireless Network Module for More Remote Locations

Remote I/O Has Never Been More Rugged and Reliable

When its time to clean up your real mess, the NET Concentrator System is your real solution. Our exible remote I/O lets you use powerful new advances (like Ethernet, the web and wireless) to interface something old with ething something new, or something new with something old. Plus, since real world s be instruments cant always ces, installed in peaceful places, gn its rugged industrial design protects against RFI/EMI, ground loops, vibration and harsh temperature conditions: -40C to +85C (-40F to +185F). Whether youre managing a local process, or need to collect data from locations across the globe, our NET Concentrator System is ready for your real world.
10/100Base-T Ethernet and Redundant MODBUS (RS-485) Communications Just Four, or Thousands of Fully-Isolated Input/ Output Points Per Network mA, V, RTD, T/C, ohm, mV, Pot, Discrete and Relay I/O Industry-Best 20-bit Resolution Advanced Math Functions, PID Control and Data Logging Peer-to-Host or Peer-to-Peer Architectures Integrated MODBUS Master Capability for Gathering Process Data from MODBUS Slaves OPC Server Available

Give us a call at one of our Interface Solution Centers.

United States Belgium Tel: (818) 894-7111 FAX: (818) 891-2816 Tel: 03/448.10.18 FAX: 03/440.17.97 Australia The Netherlands Tel: (02) 8536-7200 FAX: (02) 9525-7296 Tel: (0)344-617971 FAX: (0)344-615920 input #4 at China Tel: 86-21-62491499 FAX: 86-21-62490635 United Kingdom Tel: 01293 514488 FAX: 01293 536852

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Inside Machines
Starts after p. 52. If not, see for February.


Motion control: Product handling, re-feeder challenge

Integrator update: Controlling the product flow in adjacent machines can be challenging. Polytron and Finesse Manufacturing address product handling and re-feeder interruptions, turning a three-legged race into a winning relay.


Integrating advanced power management

Integrating advanced power management with control system architecture enables continuous power to mission critical facilities.


8 Think Again
Robots vs. jobs: Jobs win

20 ROS Industrial aims to open, unify advanced robotic programming 24 Data integration is key for overall equipment effectiveness ratings

10 Product Exclusive
Fanless industrial PC

14 IT & Engineering Insight

Making the virtualized manufacturing environment visible PRODUCTS

78 Industrial wireless hotspot; earth-leakage relay

16 International
Infinite wireless

18 Machine Safety
Is prevention through design enough?

80 Back to Basics
Software moles in your systems


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New Products

Media Library


Industry News

Events, Awards




Plan now for your 2014 Engineers Choice entry.

Read about the 2013 winners on page 38, then enter your product for the 2014 program at:

Connect with us! ControlEngineeringMagazine groups?gid=1967039

More Learning, Less Surfing

Exclusive blogs at Real World Engineering: Making power more efficiently Machine Safety: Does sustainability matter? Pillar to Post: The problem of extra software Ask Control Engineering: Do I need Java or not? How do I tell? Join the discussions at Engineers workload borders on abuse. Time to move on? Do the things that drew you to engineering still apply today?

Media Library
Videos and Webcasts on demand Online training center Engineering education center Case studies130+ all in one place
on dozens of topics

Have you looked at an eGuide? Useful white papers on many topics

Topic-Specific Newsletters
Start your subscriptions at Weekly News: ROS Industrial aims to open, unify advanced robotic programming Process & Advanced Control: Decentralizing control and information management System Integration: Ethernet for sensor networks? Why it makes sense today Safety & Security: Methods to map displays to operator decisions Machine Control: Encapsulated data in automation programming

Services Available
Channels and new product areas
Visit our specialized microsites providing feature articles, news, products, applications, tutorials, research, and more gathered for engineering professionals.

New site search engine

Find content from Control Engineering magazines from 1997 to the present.

Point, Click, Watch

VIDEO: Servodrives at work
In the digital edition of this months issue, the cover becomes a live video showing servodrives powering a laser cutting machine. You can also see the one-minute video at, or get the link from the QR code to the right using your smartphone.

Electronic newsletters

Keep current with the latest information and news with electronic newsletters.

System Integrator Guide

Consult our listing of more than 2,300 automation system integrators. You can find a specific company or run a seven-way multi-parameter search.


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800 453 6202

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Robots vs. jobs: Jobs win
Smart applications of automation and robotics save and create jobs. Proposed Institutes for Manufacturing Innovation could advance manufacturing more quickly.
nearly 900 stakeholders input, proposed a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI), with up to 15 Institutes for Manufacturing Innovation (IMIs) that would serve as regional hubs of innovation to boost U.S. competitiveness and strengthen state and local economies. The NNMI report, Preliminary Design National Network for Manufacturing Innovation, said, The U.S. manufacturing sector continues to be a mainstay of our economic productivity, generating $1.8 trillion in GDP in 2011 (12.2% of total U.S. GDP). Manufacturing firms lead the nation in exports: The $1.3 trillion of manufactured goods shipped abroad constituted 86% of all U.S. goods exported in 2011. The report said IMIs should help reduce the cost and risk of developing and implementing new technologies in advanced manufacturing; educate and train; develop innovative methodologies and practices for increasing supply chain expansion and integration; engage with small- and mediumsized manufacturing enterprises, and large original equipment manufacturers; and share facility infrastructure, scaling up production from laboratory demonstrations to make technologies ready for manufacture. Its good to see productivity proponents think again about the value of innovation, automation, and robotics for manufacturing.

1111 W. 22nd St. Suite 250, Oak Brook, IL 60523 630-571-4070, Fax 630-214-4504

Content Specialists/Editorial
Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager 630-571-4070, x2214, Peter Welander, Content Manager 630-571-4070, x2213, Bob Vavra, Content Manager 630-571-4070, x2212, Amara Rozgus, Content Manager 630-571-4070, x2211, Amanda McLeman, Project Manager 630-571-4070, x2209, Chris Vavra, Content Specialist 630-571-4070, x2219, Brittany Merchut, Content Specialist 630-571-4070, x2220, Ben Taylor, Project Manager 630-571-4070 x2219,

obots are motion-controlled automation. Automation and robots create and save manufacturing, high-technology jobs, and other supporting jobs. When automation is applied correctly, employees feel more valued and secure. Manufacturing strives for continued productivity gains. At the co-located Automate 2013 and ProMat shows, success stories flowed. Robots create jobs and help move workers to better, higher paying, fulfilling, and safer jobs, said John Hayes, national accounts manager at Seegrid, manufacturer of driverless robotic industrial trucks. Qualified workers are difficult to find. Automation doesnt take satisfaction away. Automation is empowering, by eliminating labor in some areas, taking some non-valueadded activities out of the process, Hayes said during the ProMat session, Fact: Robots = Jobs. Macro-level statistics support the premise. Each 1% of manufacturing industry saved represents 1.45 million employees, said Jeff Burnstein, president, Robotic Industries Association. If we had more robots, wed be losing fewer jobs, Burnstein said. The Roadmap for U.S. Robotics, the basis for the National Robotics Initiative, will provide details to Congress on that topic in March. To lower costs and be more competitive, manufacturers often look at offshoring [not as economical as once thought] or using automation and robotics to keep assembly and other jobs here, said Henrik I. Christensen, Kuka Chair of Robotics at the College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology. Christensen, a keynote presenter for the combined events, noted that manufacturing creates 1.3 support jobs for each manufacturing job (more than any sector), so keeping manufacturing competitive with productive applications of automation and robotics does us a world of good. The U.S. National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) Jan. 16 report, with

Contributing Content Specialists

Frank J. Bartos, P.E., Jeanine Katzel Vance VanDoren Ph.D., P.E., Suzanne Gill, European Editor Ekaterina Kosareva, Control Engineering Russia Marek Kelman, Poland Editor-in-Chief Milan Katrusak, Czech Editor-in-Chief Andy Zhu, Control Engineering China

Publication Services
Jim Langhenry, Co-Founder/Publisher, CFE Media 630-571-4070, x2203; Steve Rourke, Co-Founder, CFE Media 630-571-4070, x2204, Trudy Kelly, Executive Assistant, 630-571-4070, x2205, Elena Moeller-Younger, Marketing Manager 630-571-4070, x2215; Michael Smith, Creative Director 630-779-8910, Paul Brouch, Web Production Manager 630-571-4070, x2208, Michael Rotz, Print Production Manager 717-766-0211 x4207, Fax: 717-506-7238 Karie Burt, Account Director, U.S. Sales 212-584-9374; Rick Ellis, Audience Management Director Phone: 303-246-1250; Letters to the editor Please e-mail us your opinions to or fax us at 630-214-4504. Letters should include name, company, and address, and may be edited for space and clarity. Information For a Media Kit or Editorial Calendar, email Trudy Kelly at

Go Online
At, search on this headline to read more on robotic productivity; see photos. RIA is at See more about robots in News.

For custom reprints or electronic usage, contact: Wrights Media Nick Iademarco Phone: 877-652-5295 ext. 102 Email:

Publication Sales
Patrick Lynch, AL, FL 630-571-4070 x2210 Bailey Rice, Midwest 630-571-4070 x2206 Iris Seibert, West Coast 858-270-3753 Julie Timbol, East Coast 978-929-9495 Stuart Smith, International Tel. +44 208 464 5577

Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager


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Super-E Motors

Drive Down Your Consumption

Since our beginning in 1920, Baldor has led the industry in developing industrial electric motors that deliver greater performance and reliability while using less electricity. That commitment continued in 1983 with the introduction of our Super-E line of motors. In horsepower ratings from fractional to 15,000, Baldor offers the broadest choice of energy efficient motors available in the world. Every Super-E motor is designed and built to meet or exceed the efficiency levels defined by NEMA in the USA, NRC in Canada and IEC 60034-30 IE3 in Europe. Many years ago, Baldor Super-E motors were recognized by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency as the first premium efficiency motor line to meet their stringent criteria. And, every Super-E motor meets the compliance standards for the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which became law in December 2010. industrial variable speed drive can dramatically reduce the motors energy consumption while improving process control and reliability for any application. On centrifugal load applications like pumps and fans, reducing the motor speed with a variable speed drive can save as much as 60% in electricity costs! Visit and start lowering your energy costs today.

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Replacing less efficient motors with Super-E premium efficient motors will save you money almost immediately. To achieve even greater energy savings, adding an ABB or Baldor

Quality Is in the Details

Super-E premium efficient motors represent quality to the highest degree. Look inside a Super-E and youll find premium-grade copper windings, annealed laminations of superior-grade steel, premium bearings and low-loss fans, enabling Baldors Super-E motors to run cooler, quieter and longer with better reliability than any other industrial motor.
2013 Baldor Electric Company
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Made in the USA

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Fanless industrial PC doubles performance

Siemens doubled performance capabilities of its embedded Microbox PC and Panel PCs. The industrial PCs, now fanless, withstand harsh operating environments.

A Cut Above

A Multifaceted System for Industrial Data Acquisition & Control

Up to 384 channels all in a standard 19 rack!
Industrys Lowest Cost per Channel Outstanding Isolation 1500Vrms Unparalleled Accuracy 0.035% Wide Operating Temperature 40C to +85C Widest Range Input Power 7-34VDC Product Integrity Ensured by 48-Hour 85C Factory Burn-in

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iemens has doubled the performance capabilities of its embedded Microbox PC and Panel PCs. The industrial PCs can withstand 24-hour operating conditions in harsh environments and are now fanless in all configurations. This innovative design enhancement reduces maintenance costs and eliminates concerns regarding temperature, vibration, shock, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Siemens Simatic IPC427D Microbox and the IPC477D Panel PCs are now available with the third generation Intel Core i7 (1.7 GHz) processor. For maximum performance, a turbo-boost feature allows the processor to deliver up to 2.4 GHz. Additional options include a 250 GB hard disk, expandable main memory, a DVD drive, and a nonvolatile memory of up to 512 KB for nonbattery applications. For a further reduction in maintenance costs, the industrial computers can be remotely maintained and updated with integrated Intel AMT technology and optional Siemens Simatic IPC Remote Manager software. In addition, an 80-GB, solid-state drive (SSD) and a 16-GB CFast flash memory card with high-speed SATA interface offer high system availability and data security. IPC427D and the IPC 477D are designed for maximum flexibility. Measuring 262 W x 133 H x 51 D mm, the Simatic IPC427D Microbox PC fits easily into small control boxes or is machine mounted. The Simatic IPC477D Panel PC has a rugged Go Online cast aluminum front panel with See more products at IP65 degree of protection and operates up to 50 C. It is available with a wide touchscreen display in 12-, 15-, 19-, and 22-in. options, as well as a 15-in. touch-keypad front panel. Siemens Industry

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Success Story

Automation Simplied
GE Appliances. When one of the worlds largest manufacturers of major appliances needed an open, globally supported network that was easy to install, they chose PROFINET.
GE Appliance Park: Louisville, Kentucky

I needed to reduce implementation time. PROFINET does that.

Robert Frank, Senior Advanced Manufacturing Engineer

To learn more, read the complete application story at Or, simply scan the QR code.
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Eclipse 706 Ad Spread_ControlEng_Jan2013.indd 1 CTL130201-MAG_Ads.indd 12 1/31/2013 4:58:46 PM

The dawn of a new standard in level control.

Prepare for a total ECLIPSE of current level and interface control solutions. With superior signal performance, powerful diagnostics and a full line of overfill capable probes, Magnetrols ECLIPSE Model 706 guided wave radar transmitter delivers unprecedented reliability. From routine water storage applications to process media exhibiting corrosive vapors, foam, steam, buildup, agitation, bubbling or boiling, the ECLIPSE Model 706 will take your operation to a new level of safety and process performance. Contact Magnetrol the guided wave radar innovator and level control expert to learn more about the ECLIPSE Model 706. 1-800-624-8765

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IT & engineering


Make the virtualized manufacturing environment visible

Add IT assets to your manufacturing data historian and alarm system for faster reactions and greater plant-floor reliability. Use existing data historian and OPC-UA to provide critical visibility into the virtualized IT environment and stop operating IT assets in the blind.

Dennis Brandl

tags to expose the latest patch version, last boot time, last hotfix version and date, state of critical services, and network card MAC address.


Go Online
Free OPC-UA tools at ua.php At, search Virtual Brandl for more on this topic.

e no longer live in the environment where the computers, networks, and storage devices used for manufacturing are on the manufacturing floor. It was easy to see when something was not working because the lights would be either out or blinking. We had indicator lights for power, CPU activity, disk activity, network activity, and router status. Now most of the elements are remote from the manufacturing floor and are in virtualized systems where there are no physical lights or external indications of problems. A problem is usually noticed when a terminal or mobile device starts responding very slowly or even stops responding entirely. Then, it can take a long time to determine which element has actually failed, diagnose the real problem, and provide the fix. The lack of external indicators and remote location means that diagnosing a problem can be done only by the IT staff, not by the users of the systems. It is time to treat manufacturing IT assets the same way we treat production equipment by monitoring for health and logging performance. Data historians are used to collect information on production equipment to diagnose failures or slowdowns, and they should also collect information on all manufacturing IT assets. This is especially important in virtualized environments where visibility is low and manufacturing IT assets have to share resources with other applications. When operators complain that the system seems to slow down at the same time every day, having historical data will provide the information needed to diagnose the problem. One of the easiest ways to add manufacturing IT assets to your current data historian is through an OPC-UA service on each server. See for more information. The service can monitor the server information and also collect information from the

other network devices, such as disk arrays, network switches, firewalls, and printers. SCADA and HMI systems have alarm detection and management elements, and these can also be applied to information directly obtained through OPC-UA or from the data historian. OPC-UA uses Ethernet technology, is Webbased, uses standard network ports, and has a built-in security model. These features mean that an OPC-UA server application will operate in almost all existing IT infrastructures and is especially suitable for virtualized environments. If your data historian does not yet have an OPC-UA interface, there are packages that convert the OPC-UA information into the traditional OPC format. Create OPC-UA tags to monitor the load on each processor core, the available memory, network throughput, and available disk space for each server in a virtualized environment. Often problems occur because of normal IT changes that operations may not even be aware of, such as changing a network card or applying a hotfix. You can add OPC-UA tags that expose the latest patch version, the last boot time, the last hotfix version and date, the state of critical services (running or stopped), and the network card MAC address. These do not change very often, so they would take very little space on a data historian but may provide invaluable information for problem diagnostics. In modern manufacturing environments it is critical that manufacturing IT assets are treated the same as other production equipment. Adding IT assets to the data historian and alarm system allows for faster reactions and provides the detailed information the IT service organization needs to get production back up and running. ce - Dennis Brandl is president of BR&L Consulting in Cary, N.C., His firm focuses on manufacturing IT. Contact him at


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on safety
Switch to an open, networkable safety solution
There was a time when incorporating even small-scale safety on your network was costprohibitive. Now, you can re-think safety with brand new SafetyBridge technology from Phoenix Contact. Adding SafetyBridge is not only costfriendly, its also open to many types of PLCs. Make the switch and save onsafety:
SIL 3 and PLe rated Safety on standard PROFIBUS, PROFINET, EtherNet/IP and ModbusTCP networks Cost-effective, distributed safetycontrol Open safety solution

To learn more, call 1-800-322-3225 or visit safetybridge.


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Infinite wireless
Remote control, wireless instrumentation, wireless retrofits, and wireless power transmission technologies will increase the value of industrial wireless applications.
Andy Zhu

Key concepts
Rugged wireless technologies are expanding application, implementations Wireless power transmission will be more widely applied as costs decrease Wireless retrofits can use existing knowledge, experience, such as wirelessHART

Go Online At, search Moore Technologies, MacTec Wireless power Honeywell wireless

ireless communication, wireless bring huge value. Experts of wireless technology data transmission, wireless con- from the process control unit of Honeywell have trol, and wireless power charging seen hotspots of industrial wireless applications are all inspiring, and industrial based domestic [China] implementations. wireless applications eventually will release the Another product is worthy of mention: the value of M2M, cloud, and Internet of Things. WirelessHART adaptor, a joint product develSuRui, BYDs first remote driving car tar- opment from MacTek and Moore Industries. It geted at common people, came into the market can transmit data wirelessly for existing devices Aug. 21, 2012. The biggest selling point of this using HART protocol. It can upgrade devices car is remote parking technology. The driver based on HART protocol to achieve wireless can use the mobile phone-shaped smart key to communications. drive the car remotely, within the visible range Meanwhile, wireless technologies are makof 10 m. The device has four keys: left, right, ing steady progress. For example, currently the up, and down, and you can control the driv- common IEEE 802.11b/g/n protocol WLAN is ing direction by pressing based on a 2.4 G frequency these keys, or stop it when band, while future industrial you release the keys. The wireless applications have 23 non-overlapping remote driving speed is only another option: 5 G frequen0.7 km/hr, even slower than cy band for industrial prochannels can be used human walking speed, which duction and M2M (machine to boost signal strength, to machine communications). makes this feature practical, safe, and humanized. It has an advantage in the which means more This innovation could industrial wireless applicabring good luck to BYD. tion area with 23 non-overwireless products can And it is really a big innovalapping channels, 20 more be supported within tion for a domestic [China] than the 2.4 G frequency enterprise to use remote band. Extra channels can be the same industrial control technology comused to boost signal strength, environment. mercially. Maybe it will be which means more wireless a new standard for drivers products can be supported who need to park a car in an within the same wireless ever-more-crowded world. Imagine how embar- environment. rassed you will be when you have to park your Wireless power transmission technology is car in a narrow parking lot manually because another breakthrough. IMS Researchs study says your car doesnt have a remote parking feature, that the market value of this technology, first while other people can park their cars more used for mobile phone charging, will be up to $4 easily. billion. Currently the biggest obstacle to wider Beyond parking, Id like to discuss engi- use remains its high relative cost. The current neering applications of wireless technologies. price of a wireless power receiver is $50-$100, When talking about the topic of new applica- while widespread use requires pricing at $1-$2. tions for automation companies, Steven Toteda, If the receiver is free, then this wireless applicavice president and general manager of the wire- tion should be used everywhere. ce less business unit for Cooper Bussman, said the - Andy Zhu is editor, Control Engineering application of wireless technologies in industrial automation will be strategic. He said it is not China. This article appeared in an earlier ediabout a specific wireless technology, it is about tion of CEC and was edited by Mark T. Hoske, all wireless technologies. I cannot agree more. content manager, CFE Media, for use in Control Some cases of industrial wireless applications Engineering,


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SIMATIC S7-1500 plus TIA Portal

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Is prevention through design enough?

U.S. consensus standards provide direction to suppliers on how to design in machine safety. Can users understand and comply with the additional requirements of ISO 13849-1?

J.B. Titus, CFSE, Certified Functional Safety Expert (CFSE)

Go Online Browse www.controleng. com/blogs Search www.controleng. com for Inside Machines: Does adopting ISO 13849-1:2006 change the U.S. model for compliance and enforcement? Machine Safety does OSHA reference consensus standards for compliance? Machine Safety: Is OSHA okay with my acceptable risk mitigation?

revention through design (PTD) has been a central theme of innovation for accomplishing machine safety in my view for at least the past decade. So, where does this concept reside today on the scale of idea through broad adoption? I have had the privilege of knowing two industry experts for over 10 years, Bruce Main and Fred Manuele. These two gentlemen are strong industry leaders in the understanding, promotion, and implementation of PTD for machine safety. I have learned a lot about machine safety from both of them. The American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE, January issue of Professional Safety is largely devoted to the concept of PTD. In my profession I have been on the user and supplier sides of industry. As a seasoned industry expert, I readily understand and agree that a lot of attention needs to be focused at the design (supplier) side of industry. By doing so we accomplish moving machine safety from an afterthought, where safety is added to a machine on the manufacturers (users) plant floor, to a forethought, where safety is designed into the machine. Accomplishing this transition means that a user can actually purchase a (somewhat) safe machine, even though OSHA does not require a supplier to ship a safe machine. Ah, this is the U.S. dilemma. PTD and our domestic consensus standards provide direction to suppliers on how to design in machine safety. Great! However, enforcement means OSHA inspects installed machines on a users plant floor rather than machines as sold by suppliers. (If a machine is designed safely, then the focus in the plant could be to ensure that the machine is installed, integrated, used, and maintained safely.) However, enforcement via OSHA is accomplished only by inspecting installed machines on a users plant floor. Machines being designed and manufactured by an OEM are not inspected by OSHA. Additionally, more influence comes to the U.S. via international standards, like ISO

13849-1, focused at helping designers with safety-related compliance requirements. Again, the supplier side! So who helps the user? Can users understand and comply with the additional requirements of ISO 13849-1?
Do users have the qualified resources for design?

In my opinion, its great that were focusing on suppliers requirements to improve machine safety. But, lets not forget about users and how theyll use the same standards to maintain their safety compliance. Has this presented you with any new perspectives? Add your comments or thoughts to the discussion by submitting your ideas, experiences, and challenges in the comments section with the post at ce - J.B. Titus, Certified Functional Safety Expert (CFSE), writes the Control Engineering Machine Safety Blog. Reach him at jb@jbtitus. com.

Example sustainable machine safety program elements

1. Goal: Zero workplace fatalities 2. Vision: To become recognized by stakeholders as a global sustainability leader in occupational health and safety. To accomplish this we must: - Learn from any failures in our safety systems and processes - Prevent fatalities, injuries, and illnesses through a strong safety culture - Build capability in all of our team members through education and practical training Source: Jan. 24 Control Engineering blog post: Machine Safety: Does sustainability matter?


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ROS Industrial aims to open, unify advanced robotic programming

ROS Industrial, an open-source industrial robotics package, was used to program and illustrate the robots used in this demo at Automate 2013, as explained by Shaun M. Edwards, senior research engineer, robotics and automation engineering section, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), an independent, nonprofit applied research and development organization. ROS stands for robot operating system. In a short video, Edwards said the software enables advanced industrial automation applications. Increasingly, robots are being considered for use in dynamic environments where perception capabilities are involved and the environment is constantly changing. The robot must act intelligently to avoid collisions and people in its environment. These capabilities arent met by off-the-shelf products, said Edwards, which is why ROS Industrial Consortium (RIC) formed. In the video, two small robots, from Motoman SIA20D and Universal Robots UR5, use 3D perception to identify objects, then quickly pick and place the parts. Many industrial applications can use this functionality, for bin picking or other dynamic applications. Cool on-screen depiction shows what the robot sees and what each is thinking, Edwards said. Software allows the user to create something very complex, see all associated data, robot location, computer-aided design (CAD) data, representations of the robot cell, and 3D information in one environment, with debugging, to ensure programs are robust. RIC seeks industrys help to learn more about advanced robotic needs, then wants to meet those needs. The open-source ecosystem envisions

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Motoman SIA20D and Universal Robots UR5 use 3D perception to identify objects on the table, figure out how to pick them up, and place them where they need to be.

ROS Industrial software allows the user to create something very complex, see all associated data and robot location, in one environment, with debugging, to ensure the programs are robust. Photos courtesy: CFE Media video

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involving end users, system integrators, open-source developers, educators and nonprofit organizations, government, R&D collaborators, and robot suppliers. As the RIC site says, envision a world where industrial robots use a common software language, where reduced integration costs fuel growth in advanced manufacturing, where industrial automation enjoys the same exponential rate of progress as computers and mobile devices. - Mark T. Hoske, Control Engineering,


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Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) named Bill Conley, a cellular device product manager for B&B Electronics, as TIA delegate to the oneM2M group, launched in July 2012 by seven of the worlds leading information and communications technology (ICT) Standards Development Organizations (SDOs). oneM2M plans to develop the technical specifications that enable machine-to-machine (M2M) devices to communicate worldwide. The technical specifications under development by oneM2M will address the need for a common M2M Service Layer that can be embedded within various hardware and software, and relied upon to connect the myriad of devices in the field with M2M application servers worldwide. The ICT SDOs that launched oneM2M include: Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) and the Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC) of Japan; the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) and the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) of the USA; the China Communications Standards Association (CCSA); the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI); and the Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA) of Korea. More recently, the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) joined. oneM2M

Since Universal Robots launched in North America in September 2012 at the IMTS show, the user-friendly, lightweight six-axis robot arms from Denmark have been met with overwhelming interest from distributors and customers, the company said. Return After using the teach function to physicalon investment is 3-8 months; 80% operly move and train robot arm path, Kristian ate without enclosures. Hulgard, Universal Robots area sales The distributor list of the Danish manager in Denmark, moved where he robotic arms is rapidly expanding as would receive a UR10 blow to the chest. resellers show the robots to end cusNo bruises? asked Control Engineering. tomers with production processes preI dont bruise. I am a Viking from Denviously thought impossible to automate mark. The robot is designed to stop after due to cost and complexity, the comsensing an obstruction, even a Viking pany said. at the Automate 2013 show. CFE Media Ed Mullen, national sales manager photo by Mark T. Hoske with Universal Robots, handled the U.S. Since Universal Robots sold its first expansion, noting advantages such as robot in 2009, the company has seen easy programming, portability, and relarapid growth in more than 40 countries, tively low cost. Thats why people are a very promising start, said Thomas literally lining up to help us sell it, he Visti, chief commercial officer with Uniexplained. versal Robots. He expects this trend Key benefits of the robots, comto continue in North America. Product pany said, are that they are simple to portfolio includes the UR5 (working program, easy to install, have flexible radius: 85 cm or 33.46 in.) and UR10 deployment, can run without fence, (radius: 130 cm or 51.18 in.) models that have quick return on investment (ROI), handle payloads of up to work independently without need for human moniGo Online 11.3 lb (5 kg) and 22.6 lb (10 kg), respectively. toring and control, are n At, Repeatability of +/- .004 extremely quiet without search Universal Robots for in. allows quick precision irritating robot noise, are more details, links, photos. handling of even microenergy-efficient, and have scopically small parts. modular design.


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dispensing. Internally routed cables and hoses maximize system reliability, reduce interference, and facilitate programming. The 6-axis MH5 and MH5L robots yield extraordinary production results while requiring minimal capital investment. The MH5 model features a 706 mm (27.8-in.) reach and is said to offer the widest work envelope in its class. When a larger work envelope is required, the MH5L model provides an 895 mm (35.2-in.) reach while maintaining its 5 kg payload capacity. The MLX100 Robot Gateway controllers is used for process-intensive applications, and the new smaller FS100 controller is designed for high-speed handling applications. The MLX100 Robot Gateway enables control and programming of Motoman robots directly from the Rockwell Automation ControlLogix platform, using in-house PAC/PLC expertise.

Robotics: Higher speeds, more power, programming advances

Robotic announcements at Automate 2013 from Yaskawa Motoman included a delta robot for high-speed packaging; robots for high-speed material handling, assembly, and packaging; a gateway that enables control and programming through a PLC; Dual-Arm SDA-series robots with 7-axis arms; high-performance robots; multiple language support; a compact robot controller that works with an open software architecture; and laser welding software that improves seam tracking and finding. Delta-style Motoman MPP3 robot is designed for high-speed picking, packing, cartoning, and kitting applications. Its high-speed operation, 150 cycles per minute, yields extraordinary production results, the company said. Motoman MH5 and MH5L robots require minimal installation space and offer superior performance in small part handling applications, such as assembly, machine tending, packaging, and

Motoman MLX100 controller enables the control and programming of Motoman robots from the Rockwell Automation ControlLogix platform. Courtesy: Yaskawa Motoman

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Two robots are better than one for nimble welding applications
making it ideal for palletizing bags, ABB Robotics attached a nimble boxes, crates, bottles, and more. ABB 6-axis robot on the end of a long-reach said the IRB 660 is considerably faster 4-axis machine, for a 4.96 m total reach than its predecessor. Its optimized (195.28 in.), in 10 axes of motion, ideal motor power and motion for robotic welding. The performance ensure Automate 2013 demTwo robots attached, short cycle times. It onstration showed the working as one comes in a high-speed robot with a welding tip version capable of hanquickly tracing a rotating provides a flexible dling 180 kg payloads vehicle frame, which was motion platform. at full speed, and as a one more axis guided by the same ABB IRC 5 Nothing can hide from 250 kg version for high throughput. robot controller working 10 axes of robotic The 6-axis multipurthe integrated robots motion. pose IRB 140 robot (capable of controlling handles payload of 6 kg, 36 axes total). Nothwith 810 mm reach. The IRB 140 can ing can hide from 10 axes of robotic be floor mounted, inverted, or mounted motion, an ABB Robotics spokesperon the wall in any angle. Available as son said. Dress configuration may limit Standard, Foundry Plus 2, Clean Room, reach slightly, depending on configuraand Wash versions, all mechanical arms tion or application needs. are IP67 protected, making IRB 140 easy The IRB 660, the larger base robot, a to integrate in and suitable for a variety dedicated palletizer, is an exceptionally of applications. Its working area has an fast 4-axis machine that combines a extended radius due to the bend-back 3.15 meter reach with a 250 kg payload,

ABB Robotics combined its IRB 660 and IRB 140 robots, creating an IRB 800 robot with 10 axes of movement for robotic welding and other highly nimble applications. The black mounting plate at the top of the photo is where the two robots connect. Courtesy: ABB Robotics
mechanism of the upper arm (axis 1 rotation of 360 degrees) even as wall mounted. Using IRB 140T, cycle time reductions between 15%-20% are possible using pure axis 1 and 2 movements.

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JP Morgan/CSIA: System integrators see strength

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System integration projects and revenue are expected to increase. A new study by the Control System Integrators Association indicates 2013 will see a further acceleration of growth as manufacturers begin to see a clearer road ahead. CSIA partnered with JP Morgan to conduct a global study of about 200 integrator firms to gauge their business climate. An increase in automation integration projects is closely tied to growth in the manufacturing sector as a whole, and confidence is firming throughout the sector. The study found that 39% of survey respondents said their business was stronger at the end of 2012 compared to midyear, and another 34% found it similar. But 51% see stronger growth in projects over the next six months, and 69% expect revenue growth during that same period. Growth should accelerate modestly, the survey stated. At a minimum, it suggests that industry participants have not seen anything since (the end of the third quarter of 2012) to make them unduly pessimistic about growth for next year. Integrators probably see customers who, for the most part, are in good financial health and willing to spend money on their plants if the payback on these productivity investments can be justified, said Steve Tusa, electrical equipment and multi-industry equity researcher for JP Morgan, and one of the reports authors. Some of these projects may be temporarily delayed due to economic uncertainty, but if the pace of planning and RFPs are continuing at a steady pace, then its understandable that integrators would look for more growth next year. The study also focused on the adoption of manufacturing execution systems. While 21% of integrators who offer MES said its adoption is rapidly occurring, another 59% said that growth would be slow, and 20% said adoption is minimal. Use of system integrators is on the rise. For several years, the market has trended toward more complex automation systems, often involving components from multiple vendors, where the expertise of an integrator is critical. We think this likely continues, Tusa said. Systems integrators as a group have a wide audience, ranging from process integration projects (food and beverage, oil and gas, and water and wastewater are three of the top four client markets) to discrete manufacturing, such as OEMs for industrial projects, mining, and automotive. An area of growth for system integrators is power and energy, with 16% of integrators looking to expand in a market that already has 28% coverage among integrators. U.S. natural gas probably plays a role, but upstream oil capex too has been strong in recent years, as an $80-plus oil price has made a lot of exploration spending economical in some key regions like the Canadian oil sands where the extraction costs are higher, Tusa said. At, search 200 integrator to see more survey comments. - Bob Vavra is a content manager for CFE Media,


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cover story

Precise power: This Mitsubishi 2512HV-20CF laser cutter at Atlas Tool & Die Works Inc. has repeatability accuracy of +/.000197 in. with three Mitsubishi Electric Corp. servos. Operator at the controls, Brian Squeo, is cutting 14 gauge, type 304 stainless steel at a 70 in. per minute (IPM) feed rate, at 650 Watts of power. Speed varies by material and thickness; fastest is 400 IPM (19 gauge mild steel with oxygen). Machine controls can run up to six servo drives, said Tim Gelsomino, sales liaison, MC Machinery Systems Inc., Mitsubishi EDM/Laser. Cover video/ photos by Peter Welander, Control Engineering.

Servodrive control
Smaller, faster, higher accuracy, and easier to use are among servodrive control advances.
Servodrive controls offer high accuracy and repeatability for precise applications, as shown in the cover application video and in the articles, explanations, and examples, with more about each, online.

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View the cover video at or in the digital edition. See more about laser-cutting machine used at Atlas Tool & Die Works, its controls, and about the most-recent machine available in that line, the HVII, with additional photos from MC Machinery Systems.

dvances in servodrive control include open architecture digital permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) controls for a milling machine axis control system, using real-time open architecture on a PXI platform. Servo technologies and techniques can improve manufacturing productivity and energy efficiency. Smaller, more compact energy-efficient servos have faster response time speeds, higher accuracy and dynamic intelligence, along with advanced capabilities. Servomotor technology also contributes to productivity, as improved computing power helps advance servo motor applications. Fast processors in multi-core PC controllers enable updates to multiple servo control loops while handling machine control logic. Servodrive control improvements augment machine tool performance, as applied in an upgraded series of vertical honing machines with higher accuracy and safety, decreased cycle time, and expanded processing options. Advanced servodrive controls can support up to 128 axes with onboard Ethernet among other new features. - Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering,

Open architecture digital PMSM controls

Krzysztof Pietrusewicz, Pawe Waszczuk

ost control loops for electric feed drives used in computer numerical control (CNC) machines for industry are closed architecture systems. The design prevents users from making changes in control algorithms. Conventional cascade position control loops for electric feed drives used in CNC systems have limitations that slow the development of new solutions. Recently, several CNC systems producers have offered quasi-open architecture machines, though these still have not met expectations of end users. Real-time open architecture control systems allow users to modify component algo-

rithms to improve work parameters of the CNC machine to the top level of its functional model. For these reasons, theres a lot of research on this topic. The new approach described here implements measured and digitally preprocessed signals within the control loop of the digital servodrive of the milling machine feeddrive module. The integrated laboratory stand was based on National Instruments hardware and software solutions. Control, measurements, and digital signal processing algorithms were implemented on a PXI platform with specifically dedicated modules. Position measurements of the motor were made



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via an EnDat 2.1 encoder module; vibrations and acoustic pressure signals were obtained with a high sampling rate using an NI 9234 module. A field-oriented control algorithm was executed on FPGA target (NI PXI 7854R), which helps maintain high efficiency of the code. The motor was controlled by an NI 9502 motor drive module, capable of 4 A continuous current output to drive threephase permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). The control and measuring system was connected with an autonomic one-axis feed drive to perform a series of tests.

Vibration in control loop

Vibrations are an integral part of every dynamic system. They appear in feed drive for many reasons, for example: rotational speed of the servodrive, structural vibrations, and so on. Feed drives are used to position the machine tool components carrying the cutting tool and workpiece to the desired location; hence their positioning accuracy and speed determine the quality and productivity of machine tools. For these reasons, it is critical to diagnose the moment and cause of their formation. Vibration monitoring is one of the most often used methods in machine diagnostics due to its relatively low cost and simplicity of implementation. The mechanical energy of a device transforms into acoustic energy when it contacts the air. The sound signals measured closest to a machine reveal information about the state of the process

being performed. To acquire acoustic pressure signals, directional microphones are most often used. Due to the relatively low frequency band related to the axis feed drive, sound signals can be easily measured even with nonspecialized devices. Identification of resulting vibrations helps to improve the positioning accuracy of feed drives; acoustic pressure signals can diagnose abnormal device functionality. The task of the digital signal processing (DSP) block added to the conventional cascade position control loop for the feed drive algorithm is to calculate extra steering signals for one/several/every regulator or setpoint value. Measurements taken during device operation are processed with DSP methods, and calculations in time and frequency domain are made. Due to the former identification of parameters and behavior of the axis feed drive, abnormal conditions and unwanted states of work are known. Using those, a special algorithm monitors sound and vibration signals from the device and calculates added control signals as needed. - Krzysztof Pietrusewicz, DSc, is an assistant professor at West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin. Pawe Waszczuk, Msc, is a PhD student there. Both contribute to Control Engineering Poland.

Integrated laboratory stand measures signals within the control loop of the digital servodrive of the milling machine feed-drive module. A servodrive field-oriented control (FOC) algorithm was used for this high-end application. Courtesy: West Pomeranian University of Technology

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n Digital PMSM controls for more details, four graphics, links to related coverage. n Pietrusewicz to read about other control research.

AC servo technologies, techniques can improve manufacturing productivity, energy efficiency

Sunny Ainapure

he trend for ac servo manufacturing technologies has always been toward smaller, faster, better and will continue for the foreseeable future. From the advent of ac servos, manufacturers have historically focused on developing high-speed, high-precision amplifiers packaged in the most compact footprint possible. In recent years, features and capabilities relating to energy management, networking, preventive and predictive maintenance, and operator safety are steadily gaining in importance for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users as they continue to leverage ac servo technology to boost productivity while reducing waste and inefficiency in their operations. Today, new applications and opportunities in mega-market-growth areas, like smartphone and medical devices manufacturing, are pushing ac servo manufacturers to their limits. Servo manufacturers must continue to find new ways to innovate and deliver even greater productivity and performance with new product development while using available technologies. Four key trends in ac servo design and manufacturingimprovements

Faster and more intelligent CPUs in advanced ac servo systems can monitor and estimate machine characteristics as the machine ages, providing machine diagnostic functions. In addition to increase energy efficiency, Mitsubishi Electric is actively engaged in research and development of silicon carbide (SiC) power devices and their use. Courtesy: Mitsubishi Electric Automation
in semiconductor design, algorithms, monitoring and estimating of machine characteristics, and silicon-carbide power modulesare advancing performance levels and productivity in manufacturing and plant operations. Internal central processing units (CPUs) and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are the engines driving ac servo technology and performance. Speed, processing power, and response

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cover story

New calculations and techniques inside the servo control algorithm dramatically shorten cycle times.

times of ac servo systems are the key factors in realizing superior performance, productivity gains, and throughput in manufacturing operations. Quantum leaps in speed, accuracy, and precision are made possible by advancements in, new semiconductor manufacturing technologies. Among advancements is system on a chip (SoC), where the CPU and ASIC are combined into one integrated chip, offering two main benefits to ac servo designers. CPU and ASIC integration halves the number of components used and contributes a smaller overall amplifier package. Servo manufacturers that employ an SoC configuration will significantly increase processing speeds and accuracy, and reduce the footprint of ac servo packages, some as much as 20%. Modern control algorithms are based on a classical PID theory and have been at the core of servo control algorithms since inception. Newer control techniques are continually incorporated to increase the intelligence of the control algorithm, delivering advanced features and operation. In recent times, ac servo manufacturers began using new techniques like feed-forward control to run their servo control algorithms. Servo manufacturers also are incorporating vibration suppression controls and disturbance control functions to measure friction due to the response of the machine and for other advanced capabilities. Using these new calculations and techniques inside the servo control algorithm dramatically shortens cycle

times. While the discussion of control theory may be technically more complex than most OEM designers desire to know or can appreciate, the real-world benefits result in faster system tuning and setup, which reduces labor costs. Todays advanced ac servo systems can monitor and estimate machine characteristics as the machine ages. Estimating load inertia from the relation between the input and output can be easily adjusted and corrected with a couple gain parameters. This is valuable in establishing predictive and preventive maintenance schedules to help a machine stay in production at peak performance. With the latest CPUs, servo manufacturers can accurately control inertia mismatches and vibration frequencies of a machine compared to previous generation amplifiers. Over time, every machines performance will begin to suffer from normal operation, wear and tear, and vibration. By adjusting a few gain parameters and applying a machine resonance filter and/or vibration suppression filter, end users can dial back the machine to day one. Essentially, this improved estimating of machine characteristics helps users maintain day-to-day peak performance levels for equipment, and lower total cost of operations (TCO) and maximize overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), since the life of the machine will be extended due to more effective maintenance, service, and production planning. - Sunny Ainapure is senior product manager ac servos, Mitsubishi Electric Automation Inc.

Servomotor technology contributes to productivity

Gary Kirckof

ast improvement in computing power is perhaps the most significant contribution to servo motor technology. Fast processors in PC-based controllers (especially multi-core PCs) make it possible to update mulComputing power boosts servodrive contiple servo control loops while trols, and recent advances in servomotor still handling machine control technology significantly reduce the cost of logic. Take the case of robotic ownership. Beckhoff One Cable Technology mechanisms using multiple on AM8000 series servo motors combines the servo motors; only the path of encoder signals with the power wires to elimithe end effectors motion needs nate one of the two cables between the motor to be programmed instead of and drive. Courtesy: Beckhoff Automation dealing with the motion of each individual motor. This abstraction permits faster development Go Online and more creative robotic implementations. The At open architecture of these PC-based controllers search Kirckof for more paired with intelligent software offers standarddetails and advances. ized programming tools. These tools facilitate www.beckhoffautomation. easier implementation of control routines and com/drivetechnology provide advanced preprogrammed routines

though software libraries. Networking advances enable servomotors to better coordinate activities for robotic and CNC applications. Recent advances in servomotor technology significantly reduce the cost of ownership. Servo motors that use one cable technology (OCT) combines the encoder signals with the power wires to eliminate one of the two cables between the motor and drive. Cables represent about 10% of the hardware cost in a typical installation. A handful of motor advancements put together have increased the motors peak torque and continuous torque output. In a typical application, the torque needed to accelerate a mechanical system is orders of magnitude greater than the torque needed to overcome friction. This generally results in a low, continuous torque requirement since the motor isnt constantly accelerating. Servomotors have a peakto-continuous torque ratio in the neighborhood of three, while others can approach seven. - Gary Kirckof is application engineer manager, Beckhoff Automation.


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Servodrive control improvements augment machine tool performance

unnen Products Sunnen Products has introduces new new servomotor and drive servomotor and drive technology in three technology in three primary vertical honing primary vertical honplatforms, bringing addiing platforms, bringing tional capabilities, speed, additional capabilities, accuracy, and safety to the speed, accuracy, and machines. Courtesy: Sunnen safety to the machines. Products Upgraded capabilities in Controlled-rate allows autothe new models include matic tool feed in increments as fine selectable tool-feed, conas 0.1 m (0.000010-in.) Controlled-force stant crosshatch, and faster automatic tool feed monitors force in the tool feed bore detection for reduced cycle times. system, feeding abrasive at the highest The range of machines can process bore rate possible for conditions, ensuring the IDs from 3 mm to 300 mm in parts such shortest cycle times. as piston pumps, hydraulic components, New platforms include safe-drive landing gear, and similar components. technology that monitors New models include Go Online all safety devices on the a 7.5 kW (10 hp) servo machine with a separate spindle. The new SV-2000 At, PLC, which stops or limits platform offers a new search SV-2500 to read more. the speed of the drives if choice of controlled-force triggered. or controlled-rate tool feed.

Trends in servo drives: productivity, speed, performance

ervodrive and motion control product trends, according to Siemens Industry, include better performance and support for up to 128 axes of motion with one controller. New servodrive features include onboard communications and ability to cover all levels of performance for production machines. Controllers can offer PLC, motion control, advanced technology functions, and an integrated drive control. Advanced networking capabilities with integrated Ethernet network switch can facilitate different network topologies, such as line, star, or tree structures, without additional external switches. Graphical software simplifies configuration, programming, testing, and commissioning of applications.

Siemens Simotion D motion controllers for production machines cover all levels of performance, from simple positioning tasks to demanding applications with extremely short cycle times or large numbers of axes, up to 128twice that of the prior generation. Recently added features for Simotion D445-2 multi-axis controllers include onboard Profinet interfaces and high-speed I/O connections. Courtesy: Siemens Industry

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Calculating advantages of advanced capabilities and features of the latest servodrive controls would help cost justify the next automation redesign.

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These technologies continue to evolve, making differences harder to distinguish. Here are some thoughts on what does what, and how to choose between a PLC and a PAC for your next application.
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Key concepts
Differences between PLCs and PACs relate to functionality (or they should) and not just jargon Users making a selection for a new application should select on these differences when possible Applications should build in the ability to expand and incorporate technology improvements

hile PLCs (programmable logic controllers) have been around for more than 40 years, recent advances have greatly increased their capabilities, blurring the line between a PLC and PAC (programmable automation controller). What differences remain between these two categories? Is there a performance gap between PLCs and PACs that users should keep in mind when choosing the best solution for a particular application? A brief bit of history can put the discussion in context. PLCs were created in the late 1960s to replace relay-based systems. Conceptually they were similar and used ladder logic that mimicked the appearance of wiring diagrams engineers used to represent physical relays and timers, and the connections among them. Early PLCs required dedicated proprietary terminals for programming, had very limited memory, and lacked remote I/O. By the 1980s, PC-based software was introduced for programming PLCs, which had become faster and had added more features as years passed. Since then, many new technologies have been applied to PLCs, greatly expanding their capabilities on an almost continuous basis. PACs are relatively new to the automation market, using the term coined by the market research firm ARC in 2001. Since then, there has been no specific agreement as to what differentiates a PAC from a PLC. Some users feel the term PAC is simply marketing jargon to describe highly advanced PLCs, while others believe there is a definite distinction between a PLC and a PAC. In any case, defining exactly what constitutes a PAC isnt as important as having users understand the types of applications for which each is best suited.

Determining users needs

Most suppliers carry a wide range of PLCs and PACs, which can make it difficult to choose

the right product for a particular application. Typically PLCs have been best suited for machine control, both simple and high speed. Common characteristics of these PLCs are simple program execution scans, limited memory, and a focus on discrete I/O with on/off control. On the other hand, a PAC is geared more toward complex automation system architectures composed of a number of PC-based software applications, including HMI (human machine interface) functions, asset management, historian, advanced process control (APC), and others. A PAC is also generally a better fit for applications with extensive process control requirements, as PACs are better able to handle analog I/O and related control functions. A PAC tends to provide greater flexibility in programming, larger memory capacity, better interoperability, and more features and functions in general. As a result of having an architecture based on ladder logic and a focus on discrete on-off control, expanding a PLC beyond its original capabilitiessuch as adding extensive analog control capabilitieshas often proved difficult. In older or lower-end PLCs, separate hardware cards usually had to be added and programmed to accomplish functions outside the PLCs core focus. These functions included, but werent limited to, networking multiple components, extensive process control, and sophisticated data manipulation. To answer the demand for more PLC functionality, manufacturers have added features and capabilities. For example, older PLCs could only accommodate a relatively small number of PID loops, typically about 16, while new PLCs can handle thousands of such loops. Newer PLCs often feature multiple communication ports, and greatly increased memory as compared to older models (see Figure 1). On the other hand, PACs provide a more open architecture and modular design to facilitate communication and interoperability with


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The confusion arises when an application lies somewhere between simple and complex, and in these circumstances a high-end PLC or a low-end PAC platform will work.

Figure 1: PLC system architecture. Newer PLCs offer more communication options, often through add-in cards. Courtesy: AutomationDirect

other devices, networks, and enterprise systems. They can be easily used for communicating, monitoring, and control across various networks and devices because they employ standard protocols and network technologies such as Ethernet, OPC, and SQL. PACs also offer a single platform that operates in multiple domains such as motion, discrete, and process control. Moreover, the modular design of a PAC simplifies system expansion and makes adding and removing sensors and other devices easy, often eliminating the need to disconnect wiring. Their modular design makes it easy to add and effectively monitor and control thousands of I/O points, a task beyond the reach of most PLCs. Another key differentiator between a PLC and a PAC is the tag-based programming offered by a PAC. With a PAC, a single tagname database can be used for development, with one software package capable of programming multiple models. Tags, or descriptive names, can be assigned to functions before tying to specific I/O or memory addresses. This makes PAC programming highly flexible, with easy scalability to larger systems.

The choice is yours

For simple applications, such as controlling a basic machine, a PLC is a better choice than a PAC. Likewise, for most applications that consist primarily of discrete I/O, a PLC is the best choiceunless there are other extraordinary requirements such as extensive data handling and manipulation. If the application includes monitoring and control of a large number of analog I/O points, then a PAC is generally the better solution. This is also the case when the application encompasses an entire plant or factory floor, a situation that typically calls for distributed I/O in large numbers, along with extensive loop controlfunctions better suited to a PAC than to a PLC. The confusion arises when an application lies somewhere between simple and complex, and in these circumstances a high-end PLC or a low-end PAC platform will work. Ultimately, a choice between the two will be defined strictly by other factors outside of specific application requirements. These factors include, but arent limited to, past experience with each platform, price, the level of local support, and anticipated future growth and changes.

Go Online
n Search on PLC or PAC at for hundreds of articles and product information n Subscribe to the Machine Control eNewsletter at www. n For more information on AutomationDirect, visit


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controller platforms

Table 1: PAC advantages over PLCs

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. More open architecture Modular design More analog I/O options Better process control capability Designed for tight integration with SQL and other databases Tag naming that lets users define data types Greater I/O capacity More built-in communications ports USB data logging Programming via USB port

Figure 2: PAC system architecture. As compared to PLCs, PACs offer more builtin features such as USB data logging, advanced process control, and multiple Ethernet and serial communication ports. Courtesy: AutomationDirect

Once a decision is made between a PLC or a PAC, users typically have a wide range of products from which to choose, even if only a single vendor is being considered. Thats because PLCs and PACs are typically designed in systems of scale, meaning there is a family of controllers to choose from that range from lower I/O count to larger system capacity, with correspondingly more features and functions as I/O counts and prices increase.
Functional differences

The demarcation line between PLCs and PACs has become less clear, but there are still some applications that clearly favor a PAC, due to its greater range of features, functions, and capabilities (Table 1). Here are a few observations:

n From a programming perspective, a PLC typically has a fixed memory map and addressing. In contrast, a PAC allows tag naming, letting users define data types as they program. This provides more flexibility, especially when expanding the system. n While many high-level PLCs have excellent execution speeds, PACs typically offer much greater I/O capacity and user memory size for larger projects and larger overall system sizes. This often makes them a better choice for large systems encompassing several areas of a plant. n While advanced PLCs have increased communication and data handling options, PACs still offer more built-in features such as USB data logging ports, a web server to view system data and data log files, and an LCD screen for enhanced user interface and diagnostics (Figure 2). n PACs are designed to be integrated more tightly with SQL and other databases. They often are still the choice for process control applications because they deliver other advantages such as standard 16-bit resolution analog for higher precision measurements. Modern PLCs and PACs share many of the same features, and either will work in many applications. The final selection will typically be determined by dozens of factors for any given application and company environment, including functional requirements, future expansion plans, company/vendor relationships, and past experience with specific automation platforms. ce Jeff Payne is product manager for the programmable controllers group at AutomationDirect, Inc.


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Virtualization on the plant floor

While IT networks already use virtualization extensively, its benefits are moving into industrial networks. Here are excerpts from five diverse viewpoints on its advantages and implementation. The full text of each continues online at

Getting more from less

Virtualization and virtual machines can improve equipment utilization while reducing expenses.
Joel Conover

uring challenging economic times, accomplishing more with fewer resources can help manufacturers with their very survival. Virtualization and virtual machines are technologies that are widely accepted in enterprise IT systems, and can help with the operational efficiencies of deploying, upgrading, and maintaining systems on the plant floor. Virtualization consolidates workloads to raise utilization levels and reduce operating, capital, space, power, and cooling expenses. When deploying virtualization on a converged network, manufacturers can gain greater ease of management while boosting application performance.

which can be later incorporated and referenced by server administrators without involving their network administrator colleagues. Meanwhile, design engineers are freed to focus on business process as defined by the manufacturing execution system, rather than on the details of individual system configuration.

Availability and security

Virtualized systems can improve the availability of manufacturing systems, avoiding downtime through techniques such as automatic restart of failed virtual machine instances and automatic fault-tolerant failover to a different virtual machine on the same, or different, hardware platform. In a business environment where downtime equals lost revenue, these capabilities can significantly mitigate the risk of downtime from technology failure. Security is much more flexible in virtualized systems, and can be managed by policy templates. A common deployment technique is to isolate virtual machines on virtual LANs. With this technique, different systems can have different security levels. Access can be restricted for data which might be reasonably open (analytics), somewhat restricted (control systems), or even severely restricted (robotics).

Ease of management
In a virtualized environment, control systems, servers, and services can be deployed more rapidly than physical ones without requiring hours or days of tedious and potentially error-prone manual configuration. By using role- and policy-based management models available in various unified system management software platforms, such as Cisco UCS Manager, design engineers and control system operators can implement complex changes or new deployments in minutes. This provides greater flexibility to change, upgrade, or reconfigure manufacturing designs on a system. In addition, virtualization allows for efficient remote administration with different views into security and policy implementations that can be extended to the plant floor based on the identity of the remote administrator. Thus, design engineers or control system engineers can administer, upgrade, or move one element without endangering the rest of the overall IT-integrated system. For example, Ciscos approach with UCS Manager offers role-based management models to maintain separation of IT and control system disciplines already established with most manufacturers. Using a policy-based model, network administrators can define all networking policies,

Key concepts
Virtualization represents a huge advance in industrial network design and implementation. This technology is well proven in IT applications and is moving into manufacturing. A thorough understanding of the technology and appropriate planning are key to effective implementation.

Application performance
Virtualization lets you put the power and performance where it is needed. While some people may be skeptical about the efficiency of shared resources, real-world deployments have proven such skepticism as unwarranted. More online: How virtualization extends hardware life, how to work with virtual desktops, and concepts of converged network architecture. Joel Conover is senior director of industry marketing, manufacturing, retail, and financial services for Cisco.


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Virtualization lifecycle considerations

This new approach can help keep some older platforms operating longer.
Paul Hodge

Application layer stations, historians, asset management

Virtualization driver layer VMware, Microsoft

Operating system layer Microsoft, Linux

Virtual hardware touchpoints

ost industrial process users seek to maximize the length of time they can stay on a particular control system platform for two reasons: increase ROI (return on investment) and reduce the amount of disruption to operations. Virtualization is a key technology that can assist in reducing the frequency of hardware refreshes, the cost of each refresh, and the impact to process operations when a refresh occurs, each of which accomplishes the goal of increasing ROI and mitigating operation disruptions. When considering how virtualization can improve operations, users should consider the lifecycle implications of several layers (see diagram). These include: Physical hardware Hypervisor (VMware, Hyper-V, etc.) Virtual hardware Virtualization drivers Operating system, and Application.

Physical hardware
Virtualization provides abstraction or separation of the operating system and application lay-

separates the virtual ers from the physiVMware or Microsoft from the physical cal hardware. This reduces the dependencies that operatHypervisor layer VMware ESXi or Microsoft Hyper-V ing systems and Physical hardware applications have touchpoints Physical hardware layer on hardware, and Dell, HP gives users improved choices for determining which supplier or platform will best meet their performance, reliability, and support Virtualization goals. However, users need to be aware that there is a new dependency between the hypervican assist in sor and the hardware. Therefore, it is important to reducing the consider the compatibility between the hypervisor frequency of and the chosen hardware and how long that hardware combination will be supported. hardware refreshes, More online: Examine each layer, hypervithe cost of a sor through applications (see bullet points, left) refresh, and the in greater detail, examining the ways they interact. Each has its own functions and lifecycle impact to process considerations. operations when a Paul Hodge is virtualization product manager for Honeywell Process Solutions. refresh occurs.

V Virtual hardware layer

Abstraction layer that

Breaking chains to improve delivery

Virtualization can bridge distance and make resources available anywhere.
Grant LeSueur

hile virtual computing has been an indispensible utility within the IT industry for several years, manufacturing and process automation industries have been slower to accept and recognize its benefits. However, as the technology evolves, were beginning to see the obvious impact it can have on a plant environment. In fact, virtualization will soon change how automation providers develop, deliver, and help commission their systems and solutions.

Breaking the fixed sequence

In general, a fixed sequence of events rules a project lifecycle. First, the delivery phase, where the system is designed to match production requirements, equipment procured, the system staged and tested, the system validated and shipped, and then the plant is commissioned. After that, the operational phase kicks in, where

the new system is supported, hardware replaced when it reaches its end of life, and the system upgraded, particularly with new software capabilities. By enhancing both of these phases, virtualization improves the traditional delivery model. While engineering and testing used to be sequential activities that could occur only where the actual equipment was located, virtualization allows providers to decouple activity and location. It enables delivery activity to occur anywhere in the world, effectively breaking the tether between engineers and the physical hardware. Individuals with specialized talent can now apply their skills to system engineering no matter where they are located, even if they are thousands of miles away from the hardware!

Benefits to delivery
In the delivery phase, virtualization gets a system up and running significantly faster than by procuring and installing

hardware and software in the traditional manner. Not only are fewer machines required, but in some cases engineering can commence earlier using a common virtual machine. Hardware that would normally be deployed on-site only after the system has been designed can be procured and delivered to the facility for early installation, independent of engineering configuration. Because virtual machines can be instantiated simply by copying files, engineers can create an entire system in the virtual environment. No longer does engineering have to occur where the system is going to be stagedit can be done anywhere in the world, and the system can be staged and tested in a place that is more convenient for the end user. More online: These capabilities allow suppliers to draw on human assets placed anywhere, anytime. Grant LeSueur is director of product management for Invensys Operations Management.


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Building reusable engineering

Using templates with virtual machines can save reinventing your software wheel.
Anthony Baker

Templates for workstations and servers are provided by some automation vendors with predefined software and OS builds or can be created by users for their specific systems.

Mware vCenter templates provide opportunities for corporate engineering, system integrators, and other engineering teams to standardize work and simplify deployment of common system elements across multiple sites and customers. Templates provide a common starting point for the installation and configuration of automation software. Deploying a control system can take days of effort per workstation and/or server: it takes time to plan out system architecture, check for compatibility, install and patch the OS (operating system), and configure application content. Each of these steps also introduces risk if not done correctly. With virtualization, the time and risk can be reduced drastically. Through the use of virtual machine (VM) templates, deployment can take minutes instead of days. Templates for workstations and servers are provided by some automation vendors with predefined software and OS builds or can be created by users for their specific systems.

Duplicate existing configurations

VMware vCenter Server allows system administrators to create templates from an existing VM. Your engineers can build a standardized VM for different defined workstations, such as operator or

engineering workstations, that contain a defined build of OS and software content. This standardized VM is turned into a template and becomes a golden image for deployment for the rest of the system stations during implementation. It can also be reused should the user decide to expand. When expanding in the future, the user no longer has to worry about locating the exact installation media and hardware or worry about system compatibility. If the user requires an additional operator workstation, he or she can simply deploy a new VM from the template at any time. Standardizing an image in such a manner can be extremely beneficial in validated industries. It reduces the amount of effort that needs to go into testing each stationnot just on initial installation, but over the lifetime of the system when stations need to be maintained and replaced. Should the hardware (e.g., a thin client) fail at a station, it can be replaced without change to the image, reducing the need to revalidate the OS and software. More online: Every software and service may not be suited to this approach, so understand how to choose. Anthony Baker is PlantPAx characterization and lab manager for Rockwell Automation.

Preparing your power distribution system

Virtualization places different demands on your infrastructure than traditional architecture.
Jim Tessier

Go Online
n Read this story online for additional discussion of each topic. n Get more information from the companies involved:

y increasing the utilization level of servers, virtualization brings potential to deliver incredible savings in terms of server count, footprint, power consumption, and cooling requirements. However, in order to fully reap these benefits without sacrificing electrical reliability, a few important power distribution challenges must be addressed. For one, overall power consumption will be lower, but it will be of higher variability and concentration. For example, on an un-virtualized platform, the average server CPU runs at only 10%-15% of capacity. With virtualization, that figure increases to about 70%-80%. As CPU utilization increases, so does power consumption per server. System availability becomes all the more important as servers are pressed to carry these larger workloads. To protect servers, increase the density of enclosure-level power protection and distribution. Enclosure-based power modules are available that can distribute up to 36 kW in only a few U (rack units) of rack space. These cover four to 45 receptacles in an organized manner to meet the needs of a wide range of power densities. Additionally, modern enclosure-based PDUs (power distribution units) are available that can view the status of each circuit securely from anywhere on the company intranet or the Internet, to provide automated alerts of potential trouble.

Increasing power demands

Further up the power system, youll want to ensure existing circuits are capable of supporting high-density computing systems. Traditionally, facility managers could plan for about 60 to 100 W of power consumption per U of rack space, so a full rack of equipment averaged 3 to 4 kW. Todays blade servers have escalated that figure to 600 to 1,000 W per U, which is steadily growing and may soon reach up to 40 kW per rack. Five or 10 years ago, a typical computer room was designed to feed one 20 A, 208 V circuit to each rack, or less than 3.5 kW per rack. If you now have to support 20 kW of equipment in each rack, it could take up to six of these 20 A circuits. The existing electrical infrastructure will be unable to support this load growth, and could easily run out of circuits or capacity, especially with the growing prevalence of dual- and triple-corded loads. More online: Suggestions for developing a power subdistribution strategy, plus the importance of power quality metering, monitoring, and managment at the branch circuit level to permit reacting before irregular conditions threaten processes. ce Jim Tessier is a virtualization product manager for Eaton.


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Hazardous Locations Product Testing and Certification

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Choose the testing and certification organization that delivers the support you require. Today the CSA C/US mark is found on millions of electrical products used in hazardous locations and on other electrical devices that must provide spark-free performance. The CSA C/US mark signifies these products meet U.S. and Canadian standards for safety or performance. CSA Group can help you streamline product evaluation and reduce time to market. And when supply chain or market opportunities expand your focus, we also deliver local service in Asia and Europe. Electrical products used in hazardous locations must inspire total confidence. For total confidence in your testing laboratory, choose CSA Group.


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Spotlight on Innovation
Best automation, control, and instrumentation products in 29 categories.

By Amanda McLeman, Project Manager

he 26th annual Control Engineering Engineers Choice Awards shines a light on 29 categories of control, instrumentation, and automation products, revealing the best of those introduced in 2012 as chosen by you, Control Engineerings print and digital audience. Review the winners and honorable mentions here to see how these innovative solutions can help you solve one of your most pressing problems. Also, join us in congratulating these technological innovators. Let them know you learned about their solutions in Control Engineering, and what problems you need solutions for next. Their continuous improvement ensures that manufacturers, machine builders, and automation system integrators can achieve the levels of agility, efficiency, and effectiveness necessary to competeand winin todays global economy.

More than 100 product nominations from 60 companies were listed on ballots for evaluation. Automation professionals from Control Engineerings subscriber listsall of whom are responsible for or influence technology purchases, or have hands-on day-to-day interaction with the technologies in each categorythen voted to identify the products they felt were the most exceptional based on technological advancement, service to the industry, and market impact. The result is a short list of Engineers Choice Award winners and honorable mentions in 29 categories. A total of 29 winners and 31 honorable mentions were named for 2013, due to ties in certain categories. Control Engineering staff extends appreciation those who nominated products and voted. Awards will be presented as part of a program honoring Engineers Choice Award winners on March 18, in Chicago.

Engineers Choice Awards Index: 29 Winners, 31 Honorable Mentions

READ MORE ONLINE at Pages, products follow.

39 Ti125 Thermal Imager, Fluke Corporation 39 TPC-1251SR, Advantech 39 CX2000 Embedded PC, Beckhoff Automation 39 Vision570, Unitronics 40 M700V CNC System, Mitsubishi Electric 40 SureCross Q45 Wireless Photoelectric Sensor, Banner Engineering 40 In-Sight 7000 Series, Cognex Corporation 40 Allen-Bradley CompactLogix 5370 PACs, Rockwell Automation 42 Do-more H2 Series PLC, AutomationDirect Host Engineering 42 QD77MS Simple Motion Control Module, Mitsubishi Electric 42 Allen-Bradley PowerFlex 753 AC Drive, Rockwell Automation 42 MicroFlex e150 Servo Drive, ABB Inc. 44 Hirschmann RSP Switches, Belden Inc. 44 SafetyBridge Technology, Phoenix Contact

44 UH201 USB Port Guardian, B&B Electronics Inc. 44 Spectre 3G Cellular Router, B&B Electronics Inc. 45 SU200PR Ring Tongue Miniature Circuit Breakers, ABB Low Voltage Products 45 Lightning Monitoring System (LM-S), Phoenix Contact 45 9PX UPS, Eaton 45 Allen-Bradley ArmorStart LT Distributed Motor Controllers, Rockwell Automation 46 DG25 Digital Pressure Gauge, Ashcroft Inc. 46 Simatic PCS 7 v8.0, Siemens Industry Inc. 46 Allen-Bradley GuardLogix 5572S, 5573S PACs, Rockwell Automation 46 KEPServerEX v5.9, Kepware Technologies 47 Business Intelligence Dashboard Template, InduSoft Inc. 47 SolidWorks 2013, Dassault Systmes SolidWorks Corp. 47 PlantTriage v11.0, ExperTune Inc. 47 InduSoft Web Studio v7.1, InduSoft Inc. 48 Studio Mobile Access, InduSoft Inc. 49-50 Honorable Mentions



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Hardware - Handheld Test, Measurement, Calibration

Hardware - HMI, Operator Interface, Thin-Client

Hardware Industrial PCs

Hardware - Integrated HMI Controllers

Ti125 Thermal Imager

Fluke Corporation


CX2000 Embedded PC
Beckhoff Automation


he Fluke Ti125 thermal imager is built for tough work environments. This high-performance, fully radiometric infrared camera is ideal for troubleshooting electrical installations, electromechanical equipment, process equipment, HVAC/R equipment, and other applications. The thermal imager features IRFusion Technology, a patent-pending technology that simultaneously captures a digital photo in addition to the infrared image and combines them, taking the mystery out of IR image analysis. The Ti125 weighs 1.63 lblight enough to aim either vertically or horizontally for a lengthy period of time. The thermal imager also features the IR-PhotoNotes annotation system to quickly identify and keep track of inspection locations by adding digital images of important information and surrounding areas. Multimode video recording also allows for focus-free video in visible light and infrared with full IR-Fusion.

dvantechs TPC1251SR is a 12.1-in. SVGA high-brightness LCD Intel Atom Touch Panel Computer manufactured with a 1,000 nits display, up from the average 300 to 400 nits, and optically bonded with material to fill the gap between the glass cover and the LCD panel, providing a reflection rate of less than 0.2% to be visible in bright sunlight. The TPC is designed with a fanless, completely passive, cooling structure with a wide operating temperature range of -4 to 140 F. It is dual Gigabit Ethernet supported, has a NEMA 4/IP65 compliant front panel, and supports Microsoft Windows Embedded Standard 7, XP, XP Embedded, and Windows CE 5.0/6.0. Additional features include a compact design with die-cast aluminum alloy front bezel, isolation protection for serial ports, and Energy Star approval.

X2000 embedded PCs are equipped with Intel processors from the second generation of the 32-nm series (Sandy Bridge). Power-saving Intel Celeron variants also are available, making fanless options possible. The embedded PCs operating systems benefit from the fast, integrated graphic core as well as faster DDR3 memory. The CX2000 housing concept combines a metallic basic housing with front panels made of a special screening plastic and can handle environments with temperatures ranging from -25 to 60 C. The basic CPU module from the CX2000 series has one DVI port, four USB ports, and two independent Ethernet ports. A factory-configurable internal slot referred to as a magic interface can optionally perform the functions of a wide range of interfaces. Fieldbus master and slave implementations are available.

he Vision570 is a powerful PLC with a builtin, 5.7-in. color touchscreen HMI operator panel. With its IP66 rating, the V57057-T20B-J model comprises a fully flat fascia and is ideal for required spray or wipe-down applications. On-board I/Os can be added by snapping a module onto the back of the PLC; snap-in I/O modules come in several configurations. I/O expansion modules enable integrating up to 1,024 I/Os per Vision PLC. The V570-57-T20B-J offers a rich range of embedded features, such as multiple auto-tuned PID loops, and internal 120K data table for data logging and recipe programming. Communication options include TCP/IP Ethernet, GSM/SMS, Modbus, and CANopen networking, plus remote access for data acquisition and program download. A 2 MB Ladder code application memory enables the Vision570 to run complex control and automation tasks.


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Machine & Embedded Control - CNCs, Board-Level Products

Machine & Embedded Control - Discrete Sensors

Machine & Embedded Control - Machine Vision, Barcode Readers

Machine & Embedded Control - PACs

M700V CNC System

Mitsubishi Electric

SureCross Q45 Wireless Photoelectric Sensor

Banner Engineering

In-Sight 7000 Series

Cognex Corporation

Allen-Bradley CompactLogix 5370 PACs

Rockwell Automation

700V CNCs are advanced multi-axis controllers suited for metalcutting, forming, plastics, and woodworking applications. The M700VS model is a stand-alone, compact integrated controller with a built-in display screen for HMI functions. The M700VW model operates on a Microsoft Windows platform for integrating PCbased control. The M700V CNCs feature HMI screens for facilitating navigation and operation, including menu customization function, pop-up screens, and guidance function. The CNCs are powered by a 64-bit RISC CPU and an exclusive proprietary LSI. Additional machining features include a complete nanometer control and processing for next generation, ultra-precision, advanced machining; an Adaptive Notch Filter control to prevent repeated resonances caused by mechanical wear and usage; and a Super Smooth Surface control for high-quality machining by determining ideal paths and using advanced speed control.

he SureCross Q45 is a self-contained wireless standard photoelectric sensor solution designed for control and monitoring applications. Featuring easy deployment and untethered communications, the SureCross Q45 provides the functionality, reliability, and determinism required for factory applications. Proprietary power management delivers extended battery life of up to 5 years on two replaceable AA Lithium batteries, depending on sensor and application. With performance capabilities ranging from the detection of objects in simple presence/ absence of alignment applications to call-for-parts and error-proofing in productivity solutions, the SureCross Q45 accurately connects and solves applications that are difficult, costly, or nearly impossible with conventional technologies. It is ideal for cable replacement, moving applications, remote applications, and productivity solutions. Models are available in Polarized Retroreflective, Convergent Visible, Remote Device Interface, and Fiber Optic.

ognex Corporations In-Sight 7000 series of vision systems features powerful vision tools, autofocus, faster image capture, integrated lighting and lens, and the capability to power and control a range of external lighting. With the autofocus feature, users can set and save the optimal focus values associated with the inspection of specific parts when situations require the vision system to be placed in hard-to-reach spaces. InSight 7000 offers integrated, field-replaceable lighting with five color options. In addition, integrated fieldreplaceable lenses allow users to further customize the vision system for specific applications. The compact In-Sight 7000 features built-in Ethernet, RS-232 serial, and multiple discrete I/Os. The system can communicate directly to a PLC or robot controller and manage multiple smart cameras remotely from a networked PC or HMI.

he Allen-Bradley CompactLogix 5370 series PACs, which includes the CompactLogix 5370 L1, L2, and L3 controllers, feature enhanced performance and motion capabilities while leveraging the common design and networking environment of the Rockwell Automation Integrated Architecture system. When used with the Allen-Bradley Kinetix 350 servo drive, the CompactLogix 5370 series provides performance and cost competitiveness for machine builders requiring up to 16 axes of complex motion, on one standard industrial networkEtherNet/IP. The EtherNet/IP connectivity offers up to 250% more communication bandwidth than previous CompactLogix controllers, helping enable more network devices and higher performance control. With user memory in the CompactLogix 5370 series PACs ranging from 384 KB to 3 MB, these controllers are ideal for a variety of applications, including sorting, labeling and packaging, blending, batching, and filling.



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Machine & Embedded Control - PLCs

Motion Control

Motion Control Drives

Motion Control Servo Drives

Do-more H2 Series PLC

AutomationDirect Host Engineering

QD77MS Simple Motion Control Module

Mitsubishi Electric

Allen-Bradley PowerFlex 753 AC Drive

Rockwell Automation

MicroFlex e150 Servo Drive

ABB Inc.

o-more H2 series micromodular CPUs are superchargers for the time-tested DL205 hardware. Do-more CPUs can process up to 2,000 PID loops directly. Select from various control modes including automatic, manual, and cascade control; a wide variety of alarms include process variable, rate of change, and deviation. Loop operation parameters are stored in V-memory, allowing easy access from operator interfaces or HMIs. The Do-more Designer PLC programming software provides easy-to-use setup menus; auto tuning reduces setup and maintenance time. The CPUs use the auto tuning feature to automatically determine near optimum loop settings. Domore Designer can download a new version of a code into the Do-more CPU and switch to it at the beginning of the following scan, eliminating errors to the operation of a machine or process.

he QD77MS simple motion module makes programming complex motion profiles easy, even for engineers with minimal motion programming experience. With the ease of the position table feature and the mechanical editor system, users can create motion profiles with little more than drawing on their motion programming experience and intuition. For users who want the ultimate in control and manufacturing quality, advanced motion functions such as camming profiles, registration, and full-fledged speed, position, and torque control are also supported. The rack-based, multi-discipline, PAC integrates PLC, motion, CNC, and robotics into one solution. The QD77MS offers controller compatibility for ensuring smooth transitions when opting to migrate to improved technology platforms by providing tools that offer motion project diversion and project recycling capability.

he Allen-Bradley PowerFlex 750 series of ac drives offers new options designed for low-power applications requiring fullfeatured, ac drives with an optimized size. Features of the PowerFlex 753 and PowerFlex 755 include predictive diagnostics, safety options, simplified integration, and a flexible slotbased architecture. The PowerFlex 753 drives provide machine builders and manufacturers with the versatile motor control needed for general-purpose applications. Designed to meet global user needs, the drive supports multiple languages and complies with global standards and certifications. The PowerFlex 755 drive provides the added benefits of induction and permanent magnet motor support, as well as an embedded Ethernet port that allows users to easily configure, control, and collect drive data over EtherNet/IP networks. In addition, native instructions within RSLogix 5000 provide simplified drive integration with the Rockwell Automation Integrated Architecture system.

BB MicroFlex e150 servo drives include numerous built-in industrial Ethernet protocols and offer a universal encoder interfacing capability, powerful embedded motion control programming, and integrated functional safety capability. These standard features offer a flexible and cost-effective platform for high-speed OEM machinery designs and applicationsfrom networked systems hosted by PLCs to motion control systems with distributed intelligence. Machinery OEMs need versatile, cost-effective products, and these new drives have versatility in abundancewithout needing to add hardware or choose configuration options. The processing performance is ideal for performance-intensive applications, such as high-speed labeling, metalcutting machinery (plasma/ waterjet), grinding or glue laying, packaging automation, semiconductor wafer handling, lab automation, and special effects stage and theater entertainment.



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Network Integration Ethernet Hardware

Network Integration I/O Systems

Network Integration Network Hardware

Network Integration Wireless Products

Hirschmann RSP Switches

Belden Inc.

SafetyBridge Technology
Phoenix Contact

UH201 USB Port Guardian

B&B Electronics Inc.

Spectre 3G Cellular Router

B&B Electronics Inc.

he Hirschmann RSP family of switches feature robust hardware and a powerful operating system and are able to withstand extremely harsh environmental conditions. The switches allow uninterrupted data communication, ensuring continuous access to machines and systems. The zero switchover time enables greater productivity and profitability. The switches feature comprehensive security functions to provide seamless protection against network attacks. The RSP series also supports precise synchronization and can be used to safely network applications that are subject to stringent real-time requirements. For example, if a switch becomes overloaded due to data or power flux, there is a redundancy system already in place. The switches cover data at both endsthe data can come in uninterrupted, and it also is protected within the network.

hoenix Contacts SafetyBridge technology makes it possible to distribute safe I/O modules in a network without the need for a safety controller. This enables functional safety for a machine or system in a cost-effective manner. The technology is network-independent and will work with most commonly used control platforms. SafetyBridge technology allows the I/O modules to exchange safety-related signals with one another. Since the modules process the safety function themselves, the standard control system and network are used only as a transport medium. By eliminating the safety controller and safe fieldbus system, SafetyBridge technology can reduce the cost of a safety system. The safety logic operations are directly processed in the intelligent safety output module. The safety modules can be distributed throughout an automation system using Phoenix Contacts Inline Modular I/O.

he UH201 USB Port Guardian compact protects PCs, laptops, and netbooks from the surges, spikes, electrostatic discharges, and ground loops that can occur when connecting portable devices. The USB Port Guardian provides up to 2 kV protection on the USB line and up to 4 kV ESD contact protection. The isolator is bus powered, has male and female Type A USB connectors, and provides 400 mA downstream power when connected to a high-power USB port. Its high-speed digital isolation chip electrically separates the technicians PC from the remote I/O device, while allowing full-speed USB 2.0 communications at 12 Mbps. The isolator also operates reliably over a wide temperature range (-40 to 85 C). The USB Port Guardian is ideal for situations in which a technician must obtain data from equipment in the field.

&B Electronics rugged Spectre 3G cellular router wirelessly connects M2M equipment over the cellular telephone network where wired connections are impractical. Built for plug-and-play simplicity with customization options, the router wirelessly extends local M2M networks that are connected via Ethernet 10/100, RS-232, RS-422/485, or I/O. Users manage configuration options through an easy-to-use Web interface or a powerful scripting engine. A rugged metal casing with a wide operating range, DIN-rail mounts, and automatic firmware updates that allow mass reconfiguration of routers make the router appropriate for M2M connectivity in harsh, remote environments. The Spectre 3G is modular for easier standardization, deployment, and management of fleets of devices. Applications include: traffic and security camera systems, ATMs, gaming systems, remote monitoring, industrial automation, renewable energy, and oil/gas/water distribution networks.



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Power - Energy, Power Interruption

Power - Energy, Power Protection

Power - Energy, Power Protection, UPS

Power - Motor Control

SU200PR Ring Tongue Miniature Circuit Breakers

ABB Low Voltage Products

Lightning Monitoring System (LM-S)

Phoenix Contact


Allen-Bradley ArmorStart LT Distributed Motor Controllers

Rockwell Automation

he SU200PR is a highperformance branch circuit protection miniature circuit breaker with ring tongue lug connections. The circuit breaker is available in 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-pole devices with rated currents up to 35 A for 480Y/277 V ac and 63 A for 240 V ac. The integrated captive screws simplify the secure connection of cables, help installers avoid losing the connection screws, provide extra protection, and save time. All markings are clear, permanent laser markings and are visible from the front so they are clearly visible, even when mounted in position on the DIN rail. The SU200PR has a true contact position indicator that indicates the actual contact position, to ensure the display of fault conditions, such as contacts that may be welded closed, due to excessive fault.

ightning Monitoring System (LM-S) detects and analyzes the number, magnitude, and duration of surge currents caused by lightning strikes. Based on this information, a manager of a remote control system, such as a wind turbine or offshore oil installation, can decide if a service call is necessary. If a large strike occurs, the system can be repaired before damage leads to an unplanned shutdown. On the other hand, if the strike was minor, the manager knows that no immediate action is required. The system includes an evaluation unit with up to three fiber optic sensors, which is another important factor for wind turbine operations. Sensors can be mounted on each blade of a turbine. The LM-S is suitable for new and retrofit applications.

atons 9PX UPS is compatible with all major switches and servers, and meets reliability requirements of critical IT environments with accessories, including extended battery runtime options, hot-swappable batteries, internal bypass, and maintenance bypass. Using Eatons ABM technology, the 9PX optimizes battery recharge time, eliminates overcharging, and continuously monitors battery conditions to extend battery service life by 50%. A graphical LCD interface on the 9PX helps users manage energy costs and consumption by providing clear information on UPS status and measurements, including key data such as efficiency rating, alarm history, available runtime, load percentage, and more. The LCD interface tilts 45-deg for optimal viewing and rotates to match rack and tower installations, allowing insight into all power data at the touch of a button.

he Allen-Bradley ArmorStart LT distributed motor controllers are ideal for coordinating conveyor motor systems used in material-handling and packaging applications and other types of warehouse distribution systems. The family of distributed motor controllers provides the advantages of on-machine architecture: a pre-engineered system that helps simplify wiring, speeds up commissioning time, and reduces the need for extra cabinet space. ArmorStart LT controllers with EtherNet/IP connectivity improve the exchange of critical information about machine performance and component health, while allowing operators to access parameters, status, and diagnostics, regardless of location. The ArmorStart LT controller is ideal in size and weight for most general material-handling applications, making it easier to integrate on or near the conveyor or machine. Installation is simplified by the distributed motor controllers dual-port EtherNet/ IP switch technology, which supports device-level ring network topology.


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Process Control Process Sensors

Process Control Systems

Safety - Machine Safety

Software - Applications

DG25 Digital Pressure Gauge

Ashcroft Inc.

Simatic PCS 7 v8.0

Siemens Industry Inc.

Allen-Bradley GuardLogix 5572S, 5573S PACs

Rockwell Automation

KEPServerEX v5.9
Kepware Technologies

shcrofts type DG25 digital pressure gauge can be used in place of a traditional dial-mechanical pressure gauge offering advantages, such as easier readability, greater accuracy and resolution, improved resistance to shock and vibration, the ability to record max/min readings, and multiple units of measure. A five-full-digit, .48-in. high LCD display includes a bar graph to show the pressure status relative to the full scale of the gauge. When equipped with the optional backlight feature, the DG25 can be easily read despite poor lighting conditions. With the push of a button, the display can report the maximum and minimum readings since last cleared, reset the zero, tare a pressure preload, and read in a choice of nine preprogrammed engineering units, along with one that is user programmable.

imatic PCS 7 v8.0 integrates functional variety, flexibility, and performance within Siemens Totally Integrated Automation complete range of products, systems, and solutions for all levels of industrial automation. The key features of Version 8 are integrated engineering, Profinet, and an advanced process historian. Integrated engineering allows the exchange of data between planning and engineering tools with Simatic PCS 7, which lowers the entire plant design and implementation process costs. The emerging Profinet technology is supported in Version 8 and enables more data throughput, longer distances, easy configuration, and flexible network topologies. With the new process historian and data visualization tool, users get clear access to real-time and archived data, which can help to optimize processes and operating equipment. Users can easily create and modify reports using the standard Microsoft Reporting Service tool.

he 5572S and 5573S Allen-Bradley GuardLogix controllers provide the same automation capabilities as the Allen-Bradley ControlLogix platform, plus safety-rated control for safety-related functions up to and including SIL 3, PLe CAT IV. The controllers feature a single software program for managing both safety and standard functionality, eliminating the need to coordinate multiple programs on difference controllers. The integration of safety and standard control systems provides operators and maintenance personnel with visibility to all machine eventsincluding safety eventsvia the human-machine interface. With the knowledge provided by the integrated system, personnel can respond quickly to return the machine to full production. The controller further benefits from the introduction of the Point Guard I/O SIL 3 analog input module designed to provide automation and safety functionality in the Point I/O system.

EPServerEX v5.9 allows automation control information to be leveraged throughout all levels of an organization. Information is interpreted and translated through a vast library of communication protocols and interfaces, allowing information to flow seamlessly between automation and enterprise systems. KEPServerEX provides centralized communications where there is an intuitive and easy-to-use interface for consistent project implementation across multiple device protocols. Centralized communications also enables the controlling and limiting of the number of information requests made to equipment and systems through one server platform. It also provides advanced diagnostics and networking tools to diagnose slow and intermittent communications. Ondemand scalability allows users to implement new or additional equipment at any point in time. With plug-andplay drivers and advanced options, the software can be scaled to meet the users project needs at any time.



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Software - Applications, Monitoring

Software - Control Design

Software - Diagnostics

Software - HMI Software

Business Intelligence Dashboard Template

InduSoft Inc.

SolidWorks 2013
Dassault Systmes SolidWorks Corp.

PlantTriage v11.0
ExperTune Inc.

InduSoft Web Studio v7.1

InduSoft Inc.

he Business Intelligence Dashboard Template is an application built on InduSofts Web Studio v7.1. Through intuitive and customizable configurations, the Business Intelligence Dashboard Template allows retrieving information from Microsoft Access or SQL Server and displays it in meaningful, easy-to-understand dashboards. Features of the Business Intelligence Dashboard Template include quick dashboard configuration, enabling the selection of data sources to create dashboards; the ability to retrieve data directly from local or remote databases, including Microsoft SQL Server or MDB files; built-in security, allowing the user to control who accesses the information in dashboards through secure links that protect sensitive data; the ability to visualize dashboards from thin clients running on different devices, including smartphones and tablets; and the ability to save dashboards to PDF reports or send them directly to the printer.

olidWorks 2013 combines ease of use with broad customization, allowing users to learn quickly and to become more productive with previously complex and sophisticated tasks. SolidWorks 2013 offers applications for 3D design, simulation, technical communication, product data management, and sustainable design. Users can create complex geometries faster and easier with true conic surfacing and intersect feature formation with new drawing tools, and benefit from enhanced documentation capabilities and automated outputs for manufacturing. SolidWorks 2013 also includes tools to help users optimize the performance of their SolidWorks installation and maximize design team productivity. For example, the new CAD Administrator dashboard allows users to simplify management and troubleshoot multiple SolidWorks users within the company from an aggregated view. It optimizes collaboration with improved connectivity, enhances viewing capabilities, and expands sharing of designs and data.

lantTriage v11.0 provides on-line monitoring and analysis of process and control information and features built-in tools to help users resolve issues quickly. The softwares drag-and-drop tuning feature allows users to tune control loops from almost any form of bump test, with open-loop and closed-loop tests. PlantTriage also features the Action Ticket system, which allows users to assign and track corrective actions, such as instrument calibrations, valve repairs, and loop tuning. The system has an integrated reporting feature that provides automated e-mails. The software also supports single-bump cascade tuning, so that inner and outer loops of a cascade scheme can be tuned with one bump test. This greatly simplifies the tuning process and makes it accessible to those with limited knowledge of cascades.

eb Studio v7.1 is comprehensive HMI/ SCADA software that includes all the tools necessary for creating SCADA and HMI applications. The software provides an enhanced Studio Mobile Access (SMA) client that works with any HTML5 Web browser to display alarms, trends, and critical tag values. It also adds easy-to-use widgets (gauges, switches, and text boxes) to monitor and interact with process values (tags) on any current browser, including those found on iPad, iPhone (iOS Safari), Android phones, and tablets. Alarms and other information can be sent via multimedia formats such as a PDF to an e-mail account, a printer, or a smartphone in real time or as historical data. Web Studio v7.1 connects to any SQL database including, but not limited to, MS SQL, MySQL, Sybase, Oracle, MS Access, and ERP/MES systems, such as SAP.


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Software - Mobile Apps for Controls, Automation, Instrumentation

Studio Mobile Access

InduSoft Inc.

tudio Mobile Access allows operators, maintenance staff, and managers to be more efficient by securely viewing and interacting with process variables, trends, and alarms from any HTML5 device, such as iPad, iPhone, or Android tablets/phones. The ability to securely access a machine remotely or view dashboards of trends across a plant floor gives machine operators and process managers a chance to make adjustments even when they are not able to physically be at the machine. This may include stopping a machine when certain values are not met, or knowing at a glance whether or not an entire plant is operating at the expected levels. Another key feature of Mobile Access is the ability to acknowledge alarms and maintain traceability remotely, as required by FDA 21 CFR Part 11.

How to enter the competition

Go Online
Learn more about the Engineers Choice Awards program at View all descriptions 2013 winners and honorable mentions Read about each of the 2013 finalists Access the Engineers Choice Awards program FAQs View past Engineers Choice Awards winners, honorable mentions, and finalists Nominate your product for the 2014 Engineers Choice Awards program To submit new products for inclusion in the Products section of the magazine (see page 78 of this issue) and for inclusion on the Control Engineering website, email product releases to

et a head start on the 2014 Engineers Choice Awards program using the entry form at All product nominations, including supporting materials and payment, are conveniently submitted through the online forms. Submit a new or significantly modified hardware, software, or combination of the two introduced and available in North America from November 2012 through October 2013 for the 2014 awards. The summary description and 300-word description provided should be factually convincing, clearly differentiating benefits in the voting criteria: technological advancement, service to the industry, and market impact. We observe that engineers often appreciate quantified benefits more than adjectives. Typically, 85 to 120 products are nominated, with 3 to 10 products in each category. One winner from each subcategory was based on subscriber votes. For the 2013 awards, 129 products from 60 companies (or major divisions) were nominated in in 29 categories, resulting in 29 Engineers Choice Awards to 21 companies and 31 Honorable Mentions to 21 companies.


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Honorable Mentions
Hardware - Handheld Test, Measurement, Calibration Machine & Embedded Control Discrete Sensors Motion Control - Drives

CNX Wireless System Fluke Corporation

The Fluke CNX Wireless System is a suite of five tools that connect together wirelessly to simplify troubleshooting by enabling up to 10 simultaneous electrical and temperature wireless measurements. Hardware - HMI, Operator Interface, Thin-Client

E67 Long Range Perfect Prox Series Eaton

The E67 Long Range Perfect Prox series of photoelectric sensors reliably detect targets in range regardless of color, reflectance, contrast, or surface shape, while ignoring objects outside the target range. Machine & Embedded Control Machine Vision, Barcode Readers

H-Max Series Eaton

The H-Max series of adjustable frequency drives features an ultra-efficient power section, an expanded startup wizard for HVAC system configuration, and a programmable main control board for easy installation and maintenance. Motion Control - Drives

GT16 Series HMI Mitsubishi Electric

The GT16 series HMI offers superior hardware quality, benchmark performance, and a multitude of advanced features, including an ultra-high-speed RISC processor combined with Mitsubishi Electrics own HMI Graphics Accelerator. Hardware - Industrial PCs

Piranha HS NIR Teledyne Dalsa

The Piranha HS NIR camera is designed to meet the requirements of low-light applications, such as solar cell inspection, PCB /electronics inspection, large web applications, and food and drug inspection. Machine & Embedded Control - PACs

Sinamics S120 Siemens Industry Inc.

The Sinamics S120 drives have been expanded to include EtherNet/IP connectivity to provide maximum flexibility for industrial Ethernet communication while offering innovative concepts for one network for an entire facility. Motion Control - Servo Drives

UNO-2184G Advantech
The UNO-2184G is a compact, high-performance fanless industrial grade automation computer with an Intel Core i7 processor, designed for applications with tremendous volume and 3D content. Hardware - Integrated HMI Controllers

SoftPAC Opto 22
SoftPAC works like a hardware PAC but uses a PCs processing speed and file handling to run computationally intensive applications or those needing to log, manipulate, and exchange large amounts of data. Machine & Embedded Control - PLCs

MR-J4 Series Servo System Mitsubishi Electric

The MR-J4 series servo system combines highperformance, energy-saving features for maximum throughput and OEE, and user-friendly HMI functions to accelerate setup, reduce installation costs, and improve operator safety. Network Integration - Ethernet Hardware

Simatic HMI KP1500, TP1500, TP1900, TP2200 Comfort Siemens Industry Inc.
With high-resolution widescreen displays ranging from 4 in. to 12 in., the Simatic HMI Comfort panels universally provide similar high-end functionalities and can be optimally adapted to any application. Machine & Embedded Control CNCs, Board-level Products

Simatic S7-1215C Siemens Industry Inc.

The Simatic S7-1215C has four times the capacity of existing modules while adding a second Profinet interface, two analog outputs, and fast outputs for controlling up to four stepper motors. Motion Control

FL mGuard RS2000, RS4000 Phoenix Contact

The FL mGuard RS2000 and RS4000 protect industrial networks from malicious attacks and accidental interruption, and connect to office or IT networks, providing secure, fast connectivity for supporting remote installations. Network Integration - I/O Systems

AM8000 Series Servo Motors Beckhoff Automation

The AM8000 servo motor series features One Cable technology, with which the power and feedback systems are combined into one standard motor cable, reducing component and commissioning costs.

XI/ON Modular I/O System Eaton

The XI/ON modular I/O system is designed for decentralized signal processing, reduces equipment costs, and provides intelligent, adaptable I/O options for global applications across industries.

IndraControl L85 Bosch Rexroth

The IndraControl L85 is a CNC controller with a multi-core processer that establishes new levels of sophistication, performance, and processing power for advanced multi-axes CNC applications.


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Honorable Mentions
Network Integration - Network Hardware Power - Motor Control Software - Applications

Power Xpert Gateway 200E Eaton

Power Xpert Gateway 200E collects energy usage data from meters, which enables users to benchmark energy usage, set energy management goals, determine the effectiveness of energy management initiatives, and reduce energy costs. Network Integration - Wireless Products

ISS Smartstart Cerus Industrial Inc.

The ISS Smartstart is a motor starter designed to seamlessly incorporate operator control, superior overload protection, and automation system compatibility, while being housed in a compact, ruggedized unit. Process Control - Process Sensors

Simatic PCS 7 Process Historian Siemens Industry Inc.

The Simatic PCS 7 Process Historian allows the user to access real-time and archived data to optimize processes and operating equipment and to generate specific reports from production data. Software - Applications, Monitoring

AWK-1127-PoE Moxa Inc.

The AWK-1127-PoE is designed to stand up to harsh industrial environments, with extended temperature models that operate reliably in temperatures from -40 to 75 C, and provides key wireless benefits. Power - Energy, Power Interruption

VLM10 Inline Vortex Flowmeter Spirax Sarco Inc.

The VLM10 inline vortex flowmeter combines an inline vortex meter, a built-in flow computer, and an integral temperature sensor measuring mass, volume, and energy flow on steam, liquid, and gas applications. Process Control Systems

Intuition Executive Honeywell Process Solutions

Intuition Executive is innovative software that connects sources of data across the enterprise, delivering enterprise-wide information management, decision support, and collaboration tools to help achieve operational excellence. Software - Control Design

SurgePOD Modules Cooper Bussmann

The SurgePOD modules are board-mounted and feature an internal voltage clamp element that, upon an overvoltage breakdown condition, becomes conductive and safely disconnects the devices surge to ground. Power - Energy, Power Protection

Experion PKS Orion Honeywell Process Solutions

Experion PKS Orion is a distributed process automation and control system that allows plants to remotely configure process and safety I/O without additional hardware and also trim production costs using virtualization. Safety - Machine Safety

Simatic PCS 7 Advanced ES Siemens Industry Inc.

The Simatic PCS 7 Advanced ES acts as a data import application that extends the functionality of a standard PCS 7 system by reducing configuration and commissioning costs while improving engineering quality. Software - Diagnostics

EnergyPAQ Mitsubishi Electric

The EnergyPAQ features the ability to measure, track, visualize, and optimize energy consumption from each piece of equipment and machinery in a facility through five hardwired independent circuits. Power - Energy, Power Protection, UPS

Pluto D45 Safety PLC ABB Inc.

The Pluto D45 safety PLC allows the automation and control of machine safety systems in a variety of industrial applications including presses, packaging systems, injection molding machines, and more. Safety - Machine Safety

PlantESP v2.0 is a plantwide monitoring and optimization solution that isolates underperforming PID controllers via interaction analysis tools and provides recommendations through enhanced reporting tools for improving them. Software - HMI Software

PlantESP v2.0 - Control Station Inc.

FactoryTalk VantagePoint v4.0 Rockwell Automation

FactoryTalk VantagePoint v4.0 software is designed to simplify user experience, connect to Rockwell Automation products, and provide native integration to Microsoft SharePoint 2010. Software - Mobile Apps for Controls, Automation, Instrumentation

SSGB-1S40-5U 40 AH Battery Bank Falcon Electric

The SSGB-1S40-5U 40 AH battery bank is a ruggedized wide temperature (-30 to 63 C) extended runtime battery bank that provides long backup runtimes for protecting equipment operating in harsh environments.

Simatic Step 7 Safety Advanced v11.0 Siemens Industry Inc.

The Simatic Step 7 Safety Advanced v11.0, part of the Totally Integrated Automation Portal, provides end users with configuration and programming tools required for generating a fail-safe program within the portal.

MobileHMI is an HMI/SCADA client for enterprise applications that provides state-of-theart graphics, charting, trending, and intelligent asset management for smartphone devices for access to KPIs, alarms, HMIs, and assets. 50

MobileHMI - Iconics Inc.


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Connecting the Global Engineering Community

Control Engineering is the leader in connecting the global industrial engineering audience through coverage of and education about automation, control, and instrumentation technologies in a regionally focused, actionable manner through online and print media and in-person events. Visit for the information you

want in the format of your choice, including: articles, podcasts, webcasts, videos, etc. Industry channels provide quick access to focused content on key industries and related technologies. System Integration Information Control Process Control Machine Control Sustainable Engineering

Engineering Education Center: The Engineering Education Center is dedicated to providing plant and operations engineers with practical education on relevant technology, process, and practice. New courses and topic modules are added regularly.
the convenience of email with Control Engineerings eNewsletters.


Electronic Newsletters: Receive timely industry information via Weekly News System Integration Process Instrumentation & Sensors Process & Advanced Control Machine Control Information Control Energy Automation Safety & Security

Social Media: Online social media has quickly become an important

tool for many people as a means of staying in touch with their professional community. Control Engineering connects with you via Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter and Google Plus.

Engineers Choice Awards: Each year the editors of Control Engineering rely on the insight of engineers in the eld to help determine the most noteworthy products introduced in the past year. Automation Integrator Guide: The annual Automation Integrator Guide is a unique and comprehensive service directory listing more than 1,800 automation system integrators and contract engineers. IANA Global Automation & Manufacturing Summit:
This event brings together some of the top industry experts to tackle key issues facing manufacturing in the U.S., and explores how manufacturers can take advantage of the rapidly-expanding global manufacturing market.

Learn more about how you can connect with the global engineering community at

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Application Examples in Action
Control Engineerings Case Study Database allows endusers to identify relevant solutions and explore what the experts are doing to effectively implement a variety of technology and productivity related projects.

Users can upload their own case studies by filling out a simple form that outlines the project title, abstract and full story in 1,500 words or less. Photos, videos and a logo can also be included.

Users can search for case studies based on industries and engineering specialties. Each case study will be hosted on the Control Engineering website in the Case Study Database.

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inside machines

Motion control: Product handling, re-feeder challenge

Integrator update: Controlling the product flow in adjacent machines can be challenging. Polytron and Finesse Manufacturing address product handling and re-feeder interruptions, turning a three-legged race into a winning relay.

wo closely coupled machines can each falter from each others stumbles, like two runners in a three-legged race. Three-legged races can slow even two fit athletes. Although production processes are automated, a process interruption can delay a packaging machines ability to keep up with the volume coming from the making area, creating havoc on the line. This is particularly true when critical upstream processes, such as complex cooking processes or freezing operations, need to operate as a continuous process. Most packaging systems account for stoppage by adding a buffer. Many buffering methods can minimize the effect of an interruption and manage the volume of product waiting to be packed. The simplest and cheapest method often is to dump product in a bin for manual re-feed or packing offline. But that can negatively impact product quality, batch yield, throughput, and labor costs. What is needed to solve this buffering challenge is a piece of equipment that can both buffer high-speed production and re-feed products to the packaging line at a predictable, manageable rate. Until the late 1990s, there were few inline buffer solutions for manufacturers to tackle these issues when dealing with flexible and difficult-to-handle products and packaging. In the late 1990s food manufacturers were experimenting with modifications to re-feed systems that had been designed for rigid, nonfood components. These alternate uses for commercially available equipment proved unworkable. In 2002, Polytron and partner Finesse Manufacturing Solutions developed a re-feed system to provide the marketplace with the ability to accumulate, orient, singulate, and re-feed difficult products discharged on a constant pitch for use by an automated secondary operation.

The re-feed machine redesigns flow and decouple operations to carefully move difficultto-handle (flexible, wrapped, or soft) products. Standard re-feeder elements include ability to: Receive product in bulk from tote dumper, upstream operation, or manual feed Buffer product in a hopper that is appropriately sized for the product and application A consistent, constant product stream Separate product into single units Orient product to meet requirements of downstream equipment (cartoner or tray packer) Position product consistently spaced to a known pitch by adjusting gap between products Inspect and sort product for specific graphic orientation or removal of damaged product Synchronize the feeding of each product with the target pitch downstream equipment. As the diagram (next page) shows: 1. Hopper (on the right side of the diagram) receives products from a tote dumper, manual dump, or automated delivery; holds them in bulk; and reintroduces the product on demand. 2. Metering conveyor spreads product from bulk using load cells and a weight-loss algorithm. 3. Smart modules, using individual conveyor sections and product sensors, complete the orientation and provide the spacing and rate required to feed the downstream equipment. 4. Graphics orienter can be added to the system if graphics orientation is required. Plug-in equipment solutions: When correctly implemented, product handling equipment can quickly reduce product waste with a continuous process application and reduce labor with automation. The challenge becomes how to effectively and efficiently install and implement unique equipment along the line for special-purpose

David Hettesheimer, PE, PMP

Key concepts
Reduced product waste through controlled accumulation and re-feed Improved throughput for higher volume salable product Reduced labor due to automation in the packaging area Flexibility to use assets to run multiple products.

Go Online
At search and read: Advanced motion control for product feed, unique packing needs flowtech.htm


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inside process

Small is the big news in motion ampliers.

ATLAS Digital Ampliersthe latest innovation from PMDpack an amazing amount of output power in an ultra compact design. These single-axis ampliers provide highperformance torque control of DC brush, brushless DC, and step motors. And, while theyre as small as a paper clip, they offer up to 1 Kilowatt of total output powerall without breaking the bank. Learn more about the big advantages of thinking small in digital amplication.

FlowTech feeder has a hopper (on the right) that receives products from a tote dumper, manual dump, or automated delivery; holds them in bulk; and reintroduces the product on demand. A metering conveyor gently spreads the product from bulk using load cells and a loss in weight algorithm. Smart modules, using individual conveyor sections and product sensors, complete the orientation and provide the spacing and rate required to feed the downstream equipment. A graphics orienter can be added to the system if graphics orientation is required. Courtesy: Polytron

input #25 at

product handling while maintaining and increasing the return on investment (ROI) of the production line. The good news is that this type of equipment is relatively easy to install along the line or even in another part of the manufacturing facility to facilitate the completion of the specialized packing processes. Technology solution considerations: When selecting packaging equipment, consider how well the equipments technology fits the manufacturers specs, overall line architecture and layout, and long-term maintainability. Several factors facilitate ease in installation of product feed equipment into the current operations or into a new line design. Technologies help facilitate installation and integration into the line. Open architecture allows the manufacturer to maintain code, add data collection features, and integrate with other equipment and the manufacturing execution system (MES) or enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. PLC platform can be in a dedicated PLC, or the logic can be integrated into a PLC in the existing line. Machine wiring is reduced with use of remote I/O, allowing for cleaner installation with shorter install time. Human machine interface (HMI) options allow plant personnel to select product size, rate, and pitch by either setting the values or selecting a preconfigured recipe. This demonstrates flexibility to run multiple products. Stepper motors, not servo motors, are appropriate technology for the applicaM2

tion, to lower costs, eliminating gearboxes and extensive cabling. Product metering software has a standard, proven control algorithm that allows use of lower cost hardware. Hardware options can be tailored to end user specifications.
Beyond an inline buffer

What happens when the packing requirements get complex based on the type of production process, product, and packaging? Especially challenging are products with odd-sized, difficult-to-handle packaging, combo packing, and multicook processing along the line. Complex packing requirements call for more sophisticated functionalities and equipment combinations, such as synchronizing with downstream equipment, product counting, bulk feed from a dumper, buffering product in a hopper, orienting pouches in directional flow, USDA sanitary requirements for packing fresh or frozen meats, multi-lane feed for multiproduct packing, and multiple re-feeders integrated into one system. Re-feeders provide similar solutions for automated kit assembly packaging, which combines various prepackaged parts and accessories into one specialized package. With technology that spaces, positions, counts, and inserts product appropriately, the process can be completely automated for greater ROI. The right equipment at the right location on the line enables effective product handling and efficient feeding to complete


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Simplest and cheapest method, dumping product in a bin for manual re-feed or packing offline, can negatively impact product quality, batch yield, throughput, and labor costs.

the packing operation. The result allows decoupling the line between process and packaging, so operations can maintain required production and minimize manual product handling, which helps achieve yield, quality, and ROI levels for the manufacturer.
Case study: Fruit bars

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How could a multi-stage motion control design help your product flow situation?

Situation: A global fruit bar manufacturer needed a unique packaging solution to accumulate product and re-feed product in an efficient packaging process. Requirements for packaging included the ability to create variety packs for two to four flavors of product; the ability to dynamically change the flavor mix based on capacity and accumulated product in the hopper; a packaging system to handle multiple-sized fruit bars; and consistent and effective accumulation. Challenge: Fruit bar production involves a complex, continuous cooking process requiring a packaging system to allow the appropriate handling of product. Any disruption downstream created significant accumulation in the packaging area, creating discarded product on a regular basis. Solution: Re-feeders with an advanced design were deployed to allow flexible packaging pro-

cesses to handle the production volume without disruption. The ability to buffer and use open PLC architecture to coordinate between machines allowed the re-feeders to function as a variety pack assembly system. The system included four two-lane re-feeders with hoppers with collation units at the discharge end of re-feeders; automated system to dynamically change the packaging mix of the product, within acceptable variation, based on accumulation in the hopper; automated collation unit to package correct mix and number of fruit bars re-feeder dispensed into carton; lugged carton conveyor system coupled with re-feeders. Results: The new automated re-feeder system provided a flexible production operation that decoupled process and packaging through automated systems. The design reduced product waste through controlled accumulation and re-feed; improved throughput for higher volume salable product; reduced labor due to automation in the packaging area; and added flexibility to use assets to run multiple products. ce - David Hettesheimer, PE, PMP, is senior project manager, Polytron Inc. Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, CFE Media, Control Engineering,

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inside machines

Integrating advanced power management

Integrating advanced power management with control system architecture enables continuous power to mission critical facilities.
Jack Faett

Go Online
At, search Integrating advanced power management for an additional section on integration at the end of the article.

Power from alternative energy sources

Facility cooling Backup power generation

Parallel power switching



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Courtesy: GE Intelligent Platforms

Figure 1: Integrating advanced power management strategies into mission critical control systems involves synchronizing power from multiple backup power sources.

ission critical facilities, such as those that support operations in data centers, healthcare, and emergency response, are under intense pressure to maintain continuous system availability while increasing energy efficiency to reduce costs. These demands require a renewed focus on the design of mission critical backup power control systems that play a key role in the ability to maintain continuous operations and increase efficiency. Integrating advanced power management strategies into mission critical backup power control systems enhances the ability to deliver on these metrics by enabling power grid synchronization coupled with measurement of power consumption metrics (see Figure 1). An advanced power management application strategy is only as good as the power monitoring data the solution can deliver. Effective backup power infrastructure management depends on specific criteria for specification categories that include power-measurement configuration, elec-

tric meters, power factor resolution, integrated ANSI standard protective calculations, and control system integration (see Table). With the intelligence gained from the mission critical backup power infrastructure data specification, several key advanced power management strategies can be used to deliver the best asset performance and reduced total cost of ownership:
Power grid synchronization

Mission critical facilities typically have multiple on-site backup power generators that must be managed and synchronized in a main utility source power outage. For example, backup generator synchronization to the grid may require voltage differences less than 2%, frequency between buses match within 0.5 Hz, and phase shift between generators less than 2 deg. Genset controller or auto-synchronizer commands the engine to go faster or slower to adjust the frequency and also interact with the field voltage of the alternator that adjusts voltage. When frequency and phase angle values are within the

Table: Specifications, descriptions

Specification Description
Power measurement configuration Electric meter Single-phase or 3-phase 3-phase delta or 3-phase wye ANSI C12 Class 2 n Measure up to 0.01 units of control n Frequency = 0.01 Hz n Phase angle = 0.1 deg n Note: Power factor penalties are utility dependent, but typically imposed at 0.90. A power-factor resolution of 0.01 provides 10 times the units of control for measurement and predictive decision making. System fault condition monitoring; equipment damage avoidance protective calculations: n Undervoltage/overvoltage n Reverse power n Voltage imbalance n Under frequency/over frequency n Overcurrent n Mismatched phase sequence/angle Backplane communications for full access to control system data and I/O

Power-factor resolution

Integrated ANSI standard protective calculations:

Control system integration

synchronizing bandwidth, the generator can be switched to the grid as the main power source.
Load sharing, shedding

Reactive power metrics provide the ability to collect and analyze electrical system power consumption over time. This critically important data can be used to avoid peak demand charges and to shed loads during peak operating periods to increase efficiency and reduce costs. This functionality enables synchronization of multiple buses to split the load requirements based on the relative capacity of each backup power generator; speed control of each generator so the load does not deviate from the preset dead band; and raise and/or reduce power load share adjustment signals based on load share metrics and error conditions.
Power factor correction

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UPSs, generators, and utilities have power factor specifications. Utility companies generally impose power factor penalties when the consumers power factor is lagging or leading by as little as 0.1. Power factor correction can be as simple as switching additional circuit capacitance such as capacitor banks into the facilitys electrical distribution system. However, it may require significantly more coordination to minimize the operation of lightly loaded motors such as cooling fans, which may require moving loads to other circuits.
Power quality monitoring



Advanced power management data collection can be used to drive a waveform capture function of the backup power electrical infrastructure. Waveform captures can provide detailed fault condition views, harmonic power analysis, and capture transient voltages and currents to verify power quality and validate system configurations (see Figure 2). Harmonic distortion of voltage and current waveforms is introduced into power systems from nonlinear loads. Distorted waveforms can lead to excessive neutral currents and increased transformer and conductor temperatures, and can cause premature equipment failure.
Visualize, control, analyze

Effective mission critical facility support strategies can be implemented using data collected from an advanced power management system. Continuous operation and performance improvements of all backup power systems are only as good as

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Figure 2: Images from waveform captures can provide power quality and system configuration verification by showing detailed fault condition views, harmonic power analysis, and voltage and current transients.

PLC + Advanced Motion Control = Machine Control Made Easy

Aerotechs A3200 MotionPAC softwarebased Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is completely integrated with Aerotechs A3200 motion controller, which shortens your development time. MotionPAC complies with IEC61131-3 and PLCopen. Users can program in Ladder Diagrams (LD), Function Block Diagrams (FBD) or Structured Text (ST), AeroBasic or .NET. MotionPAC's Integrated Automation reduces programming and commissioning time by 30% to 50%, and is ideal for full machine control.

the run-time data collected for analysis. Coupling the advanced power management data with key software applications provides facility managers and operations personnel with the ability to make informed decisions based on actionable data. These software applications include: Critical alarm response management software that empowers operators to make better decisions by providing information and guidance with the exact responses needed to address critical alarms within the backup power system Work process management software that allows HMI/SCADA users to provide operators with specific instructions and the precise information they need to make the correct decisions in critical situations or switchover scenarios Advanced analytics software that provides insight into the likely causes of events or issues, performs what-if scenario analysis, identifies opportunities for continuous improvement, and prevents future power system problems. Analytics can provide insight into metrics, such as power usage effectiveness, to better understand relationships among the factors that impact the metric, providing a means act on the extracted knowledge.
Conventional control systems

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Advanced power management can be accomplished in conventional control systems with the right upfront system design, development, and start-up commissioning to ensure all components operate seamlessly. Implementing advanced power management strategies in a conventional control system has drawbacks: In addition to the control system, for each grid in the backup power electrical infrastructure, a variety of synchroscopes, meters, switches, lamps, and relays are needed to provide necessary control components. These additional components result in a more complex system archiM8

tecture and potential for single points of failure. External synchroscopes required to perform waveform capture and display are typically not integrated with the conventional control system. Multiple programming environments, which may be required to configure, control, and maintain the control, network, and metering systems, increase the risk of human error during normal operation and/or problem resolution. Application code must be developed in the backup power control system to collect, interpret, and calculate the appropriate data values for executing the various advanced power management functions required to perform generator synchronization and load sharing. These functions could be implemented via manual input with visual indicators and pushbuttons. Collecting, interpreting, and contextualizing power and generator parameters from external devices for control system advanced power management functions creates potential for data accuracy and execution latency issues in run time. Detailed work instructions for dayto-day operation, maintenance, and failover for operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel will be required. Historical data will have to be memory-mapped and stored in a separate database system for offline analysis. With integrated advanced power management control systems, companies can design and implement highly available backup power infrastructures for maximized uptime, reduced costs, and improved performance and efficiency. ce -Jack Faett is industry manager, mission critical power, GE Intelligent Platforms.

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IndustrialEnergy Industrial Energy Management



Many facets of energy management

A comprehensive strategy requires keeping tabs on a host of moving parts
Maximizing the energy-saving features of VFDs EN4 A 100-year-old company learns new energy-management tricks EN10 A platform for easy Smart Grid device design EN13

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Sidney Hill, Jr. CFE Media Contributing Editor


Success in energy management starts with setting goals

Setting goals is easy; reaching them often proves much more difcult.
JUST ASK ONE OF THE MANY PEOPLE who already have broken New Years resolutions made barely a month ago. Its a good bet that many of those folks didnt really understand what it would take to make a major lifestyle change. No matter how devoted you are to completing a task, youll never succeed without knowing the proper steps to take to get the job done. When Control Engineering started publishing these Industrial Energy Management supplements, the goal was to spread at least a modicum of knowledge of what it will take for manufacturers to cut their overall energy use without negatively affecting critical metrics like production efciency and product quality. We knew that was a major challenge, largely because energy management is not a narrowly focused discipline. It touches every facet of a manufacturing enterprisefrom monitoring the lighting, heating and cooling systems in the front ofce to making strategic decisions about allocating power to production equipment. This issue, in particular, shows how challenging it can be for a manufacturer to devise a truly comprehensive energy management program. It requires keeping a close eye on a host of moving parts, many of which are not always easy to see. for product innovation; it was unnecessarily expensive. So, Steelcase management set a goal to reduce energy use by 15% and shrink its carbon footprint by 25%, all in the ve years leading up to the companys 100th anniversary in 2012. With the help of a new automation and control platform, Steelcase met those goals and continues to improve upon them. We also have an article about one of those energymanagement moving parts that can be difcult to see. Its fairly common knowledge that variable frequency drives (VFD) can aid energy management strategies by constantly calibrating motors to operate only as fast as necessary to perform a specic task at a given time. This not only cuts down on the amount of energy a motor consumes, it also extends the motors life by reducing wear and tear. It may not be readily apparent, however, that that selecting the right VFD components is crucial to maximizing the energy-saving properties of VFDs. Read the article starting on EN4 to learn why its important to choose the right VFD cables. Theres also a short checklist on how to make the proper cable selection for a specic application. The nal article in this issue should encourage anyone whos waiting for the full rollout of the Smart Grid. Its a Q&A with Brian MacCleery, principal product manager for clean energy technology with National Instruments. He is talking about a new development platform that should ease the process of designing devices that can be tied to the Smart Grid. This issue does, indeed, cover a gamut of energymanagement topics. We expect to continue doing so in the future. Again, our goal also is to pass on some useful knowledge in the process.

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Mission accomplished
For instance, our cover story is a case study on Steelcase, a 100-year-old company that leads the way in designing stylish yet functional ofce furniture. As Steelcase approached its centennial, its management realized that not only was the company not using energy as efciently as it could, but its methods of tracking energy use were antiquated. That didnt just look bad for a company known


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By Peter Cox

The right system components are critical to maximizing the energy-saving potential of VFDs
Cablinglike other componentsmust be vetted for its ability to withstand the harshest operating conditions.
INVESTMENT IN VFD TECHNOLOGY has proven time and again to pay offoften dramaticallynot only in terms of reducing energy use and costs, but also in cutting carbon emissions and extending the service life of costly capital equipment. To ensure optimum performance, however, it is important to correctly specify and install the entire VFD system, including the cables. for what manufacturers call a VFD cable. The market carries a diverse mix of products with a variety of designs and performance levels. That said, there are four specic issues that need to be addressed to ensure a robust and reliable cabling solution: Common mode current (CMC) Capacitive coupling Reected wave voltages Overall installation reliability. Common mode current (CMC) is any current that ows between the drive and motor on any path other than the three primary motor leads. It is a function of inductive and capacitive coupling of the drive output waveform. Although the VFD cable does not really change the magnitude of CMC, cabling that can contain the CMC and return it to the drive is important to the overall success of the system because it prevents this type of current noise (CMC) from interfering with other sensitive signals, instruments, or networks.

Matching the cable to the challenge

A cable should never be the weak link in a VFD system; the cable selected must have the ability to withstand the harshest operating conditions in order to maintain the health of the other system components. In addition, noise emission is likely the single most signicant problem associated with VFD systems today. Unless a proper cable shielding design is present to control it, noise emission from a drive system cable can disrupt plant and factory operations. It is important to understand that there is no standard

The case for VFDs as energy savers

Variable frequency drives (VFD) control the rotational speed of an ac electric motor by controlling the frequency of electrical power supplied to the motor. Although they have been around for two decades, VFDs are gaining popularity as industry seeks to control costs. Today, VFDs are used to alter the speed of a motor whenever the behavior of the motors load changes its demands on the motor. Additional benefits from VFDs VFDs make signicant energy savings possible. For example, at half maximum speed using a pulse width modulation VFD, a motor consumes roughly one quarter of the energy required to run at full speed. In addition, VFDs reduce wear-and-tear, resulting in lower maintenance costs and longer motor life. Because VFDs can control motor speeds to within 0.1% tolerance, they also contribute to less variation in the nished product and reduce material usage and scrap.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagram of.a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . typical VFD . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .system. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .



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Capacitive coupling and cable charging currents are currents lost to interactions with other cables and cable systems. For long runs with smaller drives, cable charging currents can become a signicant performance issue. In some pipe and wire systems where multiple motor lead sets are run together in a high-capacitance product, such as thermoplastic high heat-resistant nylon-coated (THHN) insulation material, the cable charging currents rob the motors of torque. The results are false trips of drives and the potential safety hazard of induced voltage in other cable systems. Both lower capacitance and effective shielding act to reduce charging currents, resulting in more current delivered to the motor to do work. Reected wave voltages can cause in-service motor failures. They are mitigated by the right VFD cable in two ways. First, a properly designed VFD cable can reduce stress on motor insulation in many applications because it will have a lower capacitance (stored energy) and thus increase the critical distance required to generate the peak reected wave voltages. Second, VFD cables themselves should be designed with an insulation system that can withstand the effects of the peak reected waves. The wrong cable can allow voltage waves to reect back from the motor toward the VFD, producing peak voltages of at least two times the drive bus voltage in the cables conductors. There is the possibility of long-term cable damage under high voltage, and this problem is of even greater concern with VFDs operating at 575 V. Peak reected wave voltages can be very close to the corona inception voltages for THHN. Age, moisture, or even stresses of installation can easily weaken THHN to the point where it can no longer withstand the reected wave peaks, which then leads to cable failure. High voltage levels in the cable can sometimes cause a corona discharge between the conductors. Corona discharge can damage the cable, motor, motor bearings, and drive, leading to system failure, production downtime, and costly repairs or component replacements. Overall installation reliability will be addressed in more detail below. Needless to say, careful selection of VFD cable and sound installation practices will result in a system that is safer and more reliable.

Six steps for choosing the right VFD cable

With a good understanding of what makes an effective VFD cable, engineers can use this six-step checklist for selecting the right VFD cable for the job. 1. Select the most appropriate cable design. Consider only cables with cross-linked insulation suitable for the voltage demands and peaks. When the drive, cabling, or motor is close to sensitive equipment or networks, consider using a highperformance VFD cable with foil braid or dual copper tape shielding. If you are in a less sensitive environment where only reected wave and capacitive coupling are concerns, consider a more economical construction grade product. 2. Match the cable ampacity to the motor full load amps (FLA). A higher motor horsepower translates to a higher current ow through the cable. Additional factors such as ambient temperature, altitude, or length of run may require additional derating. It is critical to follow the NEC guidelines for cable rating and applicable derating factors, and note that the cable ampacity must be a minimum of 125% of motor FLA. 3. Make sure the cable is able to support the voltage rating of the VFD itself. Enough said. 4. Ensure the cable is capable of providing a good seal if sealing is required. A round cable is the easiest to seal as it passes through circular openings and connection glands. Always choose the most suitable cable glands for the environment, and avoid the use of conductive glands as they will lead to unintended release of CMC noise. 5. Identify the possible impact of radiation on neighboring circuits. In noise-sensitive environments, cable with foil and braid shielding or dual copper tapes provides extra protection against EMI. Follow good practices for cable installation and avoid parallel runs in close proximity to networks and sensitive circuits. Keep the cable shields and jacket intact when routing them in enclosures with sensitive equipment or networks. 6. Determine the need for additional lines carrying signals between the drive and the motor. If signals are required (e.g., brake signals to slow or stop a motor if necessary), it can be more efcient to choose cable that has a signal pair integrally packaged inside the same outer jacket as the drive cable.



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next most effective conduction of high-frequency noise and currents. Single copper tape is the least attractive option; it tends to be less exible than dual tapes and its smaller surface area reduces the ability to conduct high-frequency noise. Foil shields are not robust enough to restrict the volume of noise generated by VFDs. Sturdy thermoset insulation for stable electrical performance: Industrial-grade XLP (XLPO or XLPE) insulation far surpasses PVC as an insulator for VFD cables. It provides a more stable electrical performance as well as a lower capacitance. Its dielectric constant is low, thus reducing voltage reections from the motor back to the drive. Lower cable capacitance also supports longer cable runs, reduces peak motor terminal voltages to extend motor life, and greatly reduces the likelihood of corona discharge. It also reduces the magnitude of standing waves and increases the efciency of power transfer from drive to motor. XLP insulations high impulse voltage breakdown rating signicantly reduces the risk of failure in case of reected wave voltage spikes resulting from cable-to-motor impedance mismatch. It allows engineers to more closely match the impedance of the drive to the motor to increase energy efciency because it reduces reected voltage, delivering more energy to be converted into useful rotational energy in the motor. Thermoset insulation materials such as XLP reduce the likelihood of either the cable or the motor voltage reaching its corona inception voltage (CIV). A corona discharge produces extremely high temperatures, which can melt insulation materials such as PVC, causing premature cable burnout or a short circuit. Thermoset insulation materials do not melt. There is a 2 kV Myth arising from the historic failures in PVC/nylon. Many speciers believe a 2000 V cable is required to reliably withstand the reected wave voltages. Beldens extensive research, coupled with experience in insulating materials, has proven that dielectric failures of properly constructed XLP 600 V VFD cable are not an issue. The lightest insulation available has a safety factor of at least 3 for corona inception voltages, as compared to the peaks obtainable. On the other hand, 600 V THHN cabling may eventually fail because peak reected wave voltages can often exceed the corona inception voltages. Correct grounding conguration and termination: A properly grounded VFD cable avoids the problem of uncontrolled current contaminating the ground plane and creating noise-related issues within the system. The recommended approach for grounding a cable is to use a suitable ground conductor, terminated at the motor and at the drive. The shield surrounding the circuit conductors should be tied both physically and electrically to the insulated ground at the point where the cable enters the motor housing or drive proper. Introducing intermediate shield or ground connections, such as a bonding or conductive cable gland, will

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This comparison illustrates how shield types conduct highfrequency noise and current.

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Noise impedance decreases with motor size. Graphs courtesy: Belden

Attributes of a well-designed VFD cable

The optimal cable design is not the same for all systems. In general, smaller drives are proportionally more problematic than larger ones; they can contain far less output ltering and common mode current control. They also tend to lack bus inductors, and they use much faster switching devices. In addition, the grounds and shields in a VFD cable can be very active in conducting CMCs; they must be designed to deliver optimum performance. Smaller drives require a much larger percentage of copper at ground potential. Noise radiated from a VFD cable is proportional to the amount of varying electric current within it, as well as cable length; more current and greater length mean more radiated noise. Beldens research suggests that shielding systems including copper tape and combination foil/braid types are the most appropriate for VFD applications, due to the low impedance path they provide for common-mode noise to return to the drive. Foil/braided constructions offer the highest performance and exibility with superior high-frequency noise conduction. Dual tapes, contra-helically layered, offer the

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9. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . .. .. .. .. .EN .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ............ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lead to the unintended release of CMC noise, often close
to sensitive equipment. Grounding to an enclosure ground before grounding to the drive can also have the unintended consequence of releasing captured current noise. If the drive is mounted in an enclosure with other equipment, best practice is to leave the cable jacket in place until the cable enters the drive itself. Intermediate terminations can render the cable system ineffective in CMC containment, operating much the same as pipe and wire. For smaller constructions, typically drives of 50 hp or less, Beldens research indicates that having excess copper at ground potential is the most important factor in reducing the magnitude of CMC forced to return to the drive as noise in the ground plane. A cable with full-sized ground and a large drain and braid can have ground potential copper equivalent to as many as three circuit conductors. It is important to note that many cables described as VFD carry only the minimum grounds as required by the National Electrical Code (NEC): sometimes less than one full-sized ground equivalent. As horsepower increases, cables become larger and carry more current. The relative size of the ground conductors within the cable can be reduced as the ratio of common mode to working current declines. For motors above 50 hp, the internally induced ground currents begin to be of concern, and symmetric grounds become an important design consideration. In an asymmetric cable, conductor-to-ground spacing is not the same for all conductors, thus there is a net current ow in the ground. This current ow will lead to a potential difference between the motor and the drive, and result in current ow in the ground plane. This induced current has the potential to return to ground through the motor bearings and contribute to eventual failure. For more information on proper termination, see Beldens Unarmored Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) Cable Termination Guide at Appropriate stranding: VFD cables are available with two basic stranding constructions. Construction-grade VFD cables typically use Class B stranding, the same as used in commercial building wire. High-performance VFD cables use higher strand-count conductors that are frequently tinned. Tinned copper offers advantages over bare copper in terms of increased corrosion resistance and improved thermal stability. A tinned connection is much less likely to oxidize and degrade at hot spots. High-performance VFD cables contain from four to eight times the surface area of construction-grade stranding. High strand-count conductors enhance cable exibility and ex life in applications with motion or exibility; in a VFD cable the high strand-count offers greater afnity for high-frequency circuits generated by the drive. This results in signicantly more attractive return paths for the highWWW.CONTROLENG.COM

Peter Cox, project manager, Belden

frequency noise currents and a signicant reduction in the current forced to ow in the ground plane as harmful noise. It also results in reduced cable heating as the high-frequency resistance is much lower. Industrial hardening: VFD cables must be reliable and rugged enough to handle the harsh industrial environments in which they are placed. It is important to choose industrial-grade cabling that can withstand humidity, grit, sunlight, oil, and other conditions that can break down less robust materials. Tested and certied: Because there are no standards for VFD drives, Belden recommends selecting VFD cables that have been tested and certied to fully comply with all industry certications and safety standards appropriate for the specic VFD equipment, application, and/or installation site. Belden VFD cables, for example, are approved for use with ac drives by most leading drive manufacturers.

One of the major advantages of a VFD system is its ability to save energy and reduce waste. Improper cable choices can lead to: Reliability and safety issues leading to increased troubleshooting and repair costs. Reduced equipment efciency due to current leakage, which can also cause a safety hazard when service personnel experience electrical shocks or other surprises. Expensive downtime and lost operations due to premature cable failure, or worse, damage to the motor or drive. The correct cable must be properly installed to be effective. Investing in the right VFD cables and installation technique supports uptime and reliability of the VFD system as a whole, and protects the sensitive instrumentation and control systems adjacent to it.

Peter Cox is a project manager at Belden. He has worked in the cable, drives, and automation industries or as a consultant to those industries and markets for 27 years.


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How to reduce manufacturing energy use, carbon footprint

Worlds largest ofce furniture supplier, Steelcase, celebrates 100 years, meeting efciency and sustainability goals with control system and energy monitoring software solutions.
STEELCASE CELEBRATED ITS 100TH ANNIVERSARY in 2012. It also marked 100 years of staying on the cutting edge of the ofce furniture market. Steelcases rst product, a reproof wastebasket, was a technological achievement in 1912. In this century, Steelcase leads the way in designing and manufacturing furniture that helps boost ofce workers productivity by making their work environments both aesthetically pleasing and ergonomically sound.


Given its track record for innovation, its not surprising that Steelcase approached its 100th anniversary looking for ways to build energy-saving measures into its manufacturing processes. Management set goals to cut overall energy consumption by 15% in 2011 and to reduce the companys carbon footprint by 25% during the ve years leading up to leading up to its 100th anniversary. The following case study tells the full story of how Steelcase met those goals, and continues to improve upon them.


The Energy Center at Steelcases Grand Rapids, Mich., headquarters.

Success in business is no longer accomplished by producing more products in less time. Improving efciencies and identifying areas of improvement is the name of the game for best-in-class organizations. Steelcase is no exception. To help maintain its position as the worlds largest ofce furniture supplier, Steelcase management set aggressive goals for improving the companys bottom line through improved efciency and sustainability efforts. The deadline: the companys 100year anniversary in 2012.



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Our business is very competitive, explained Bruce Reynolds, manager of corporate communications at Steelcase. To be successful, we have to constantly improve our production practices. Steelcase implemented a new control system to more cost-effectively operate its boilers, and installed energy management software to gain better insight into companywide energy consumption. Due to these and other efforts, the company met all of its efciency and sustainability goals, including reducing energy consumption by 15% and shrinking its carbon footprint by 25%.

Control system sofware provides a complete view of Steelcases energy network.

The energy center at Steelcases Grand Rapids, Mich., headquarters is home to four boilers (two coal-based and two gas-red) that produce and distribute steam throughout the manufacturing process areas. The energy center is truly the lifeblood of our Grand Rapids facility, explained Eric Newsome, senior automation engineer, Steelcase. If it goes down, so does production, and with the volume of orders were meeting each day, downtime simply isnt an option. The reliability required of the boilers left no room for error. Unfortunately, the existing distributed control system (DCS) running the boilers was more than 25 years old, and locating spare parts had become extremely challenging. Bill Boss, the chief boiler operator at Steelcase, bought used parts wherever he could nd them, and whenever a problem arose with the system, he was forced to call in support from the DCS vendor. It was a black box system that we couldnt troubleshoot ourselves, explained Boss. The vendor had the software tools and the expertise we needed, and whether we had a service contract or paid by the phone call, getting help was becoming prohibitively expensive. In addition to looking at boiler reliability, the company also was evaluating its overall energy monitoring capabilities. Management set goals to reduce energy consumption by 15% in 2011 and to reduce the companys carbon footprint by 25% during the ve years leading up to Steelcases 100th anniversary in 2012. Management also wanted to comply with ISO-14001. The international standard was designed to help companies identify, control, and improve the environmental impact of their activities and products by implementing a systematic approach to setting and achieving environmental objectives. A lot of companies require their vendors to be ISO14001-compliant, said Reynolds. Compliance is recognized as a sign of commitment to the environment, and its a key part of our strategy for balancing people, planet, and prot. Before making improvements, Steelcase relied on manual data collection practices to monitor water, air, gas, electric, and steam (WAGES) consumption throughout its facilities. We had one guy responsible for visiting the meters installed on each substation in each building once per month, explained Newsome, the senior automation engineer. He wrote down the readings, entered the data into a spreadsheet, then reconciled the utility bills. The process worked neuntil that guy went on vacation. With the primary data collector out of the ofce, data collection practices changed, resulting in a database lled with skewed information that took weeks to resolve. We needed a way to automatically gather real-time data so we could identify opportunities for improvement, said Kay Bolinger, senior facilities engineer, Steelcase. As our manufacturing infrastructure became leaner and our IT



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a Rockwell Automation PartnerNetwork member and authorized Allen-Bradley distributor, Steelcase was quite familiar with Rockwell Automation products. The company saw value in working with Rockwell Automation to improve its enterprisewide energy monitoring. Ultimately, the Steelcase team selected Rockwell Software RSEnergyMetrix software, favoring the standard off-the-shelf reporting features it included. Steelcase worked with the Rockwell Automation Global Solutions team to implement about 100 points of AllenBradley PowerMonitor electric metering devices throughout the companys Grand Rapids and Mexico facilities. Some of the site metering points also gather gas, steam, and air consumption data to be sent directly to ControlLogix and AllenBradley MicroLogix controllers, which act as energy data concentrators. From there, energy data is communicated via an EtherNet/IP network to the RSEnergyMetrix software database that is hosted on Steelcases virtual server.

With its control system platform, Steelcase can quickly create reports that show energy usage.

infrastructure expanded, we realized it was time for us to consider a comprehensive WAGES metering strategy.

Solutions include control system

Steelcase needed a cost-effective control system for its energy center that would be easy for the company to maintain, troubleshoot, and optimize on its own. After reviewing several options, the team ultimately selected the PlantPAx process automation system from Rockwell Automation to replace its existing DCS. Our engineers were familiar with Rockwell Automation products, which we knew would ease maintenance and troubleshooting, said Newsome. Plus, we already had a TechConnect support contract with Rockwell Automation, which provided the added level of service we needed. The Rockwell Automation Global Solutions team surveyed the existing infrastructure and mapped out a specic roadmap for implementing the PlantPAx system prior to design and installation. The team came to our project having executed dozens of similar, successful engagements, said Boss. They gave us a lot of advice on how to accommodate fuel source uctuations so our boilers could operate at top efciency regardless of what type of coal we were using. The PlantPAx system also was able to utilize existing Allen-Bradley 1771 Remote I/O modules on ancillary equipment controllers, communicating with a central Allen-Bradley ControlLogix controller via an EtherNet/IP network. A standard PC in the control room runs FactoryTalk View Site Edition human-machine interface software to provide operators with comprehensive insight into boiler operations. Most of our plant processes run on Allen-Bradley controls, so plantwide integration and optimization was much easier using the PlantPAx system, said Boss. After looking at options for improving the efciency of its boilers, Steelcase then looked to get better insight and control of the energy consumption in its facilities. Having worked closely for more than 25 years with Kendall Electric,

Results include easier maintenance

Because of its open platform, the Steelcase team can maintain the new control system almost entirely on its own. Also, management can access and troubleshoot the system remotely, which signicantly reduces unplanned downtime. Because we could add PlantPAx system support to our existing TechConnect contract and eliminate the service agreement with our old DCS vendor, were saving around $25,000 per year, said Newsome, the senior automation engineer. With the new energy management solution, Steelcase can document and quickly address energy events, such as, voltage sags, surges, or outages. By doing so, the team can reduce downtime and help protect critical production assets from potentially harmful operating situations. Energy management software provides the Steelcase team with visibility into its energy consumptiona critical component for ISO14001 compliance. We can see when something is running hot and consuming more energy than it should, which is an indicator that something needs xing on the equipment, explained Newsome. Prior to the new energy management system, the Steelcase team needed to guesstimate the losses resulting from air leaks. Now, management can identify the exact air loss amounts, which ultimately helps justify the cost of the system. With improved insight into energy consumption, the Steelcase team can more easily justify investments in newer, more energy-efcient technology. Steelcase was one of the rst to use the wireless AllenBradley PowerMonitor W250 power meter to gather consumption information on individual production lines. Ultimately, the team hopes to capture exactly how much energy it takes to produce a specic product, so the company can include energy costs on its bills of material.

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Taking the complexity out of designing Smart-Grid devices

New development platform should bring renewable energy sources to the grid much faster, says a National Instruments executive.
LAST AUGUST, NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS (NI) unveiled a product that it expects to quicken the pace at which renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power make their way onto the Smart Grid. The NI Single-Board RIO General Purpose Inverter Controller (GPIC) includes a hardware chassis that harnesses eld programmable gate-array (FPGA) technology and the well-known NI LabVIEW System Design Software suite. Control Engineering Contributing Editor Sidney Hill recently spoke with Brian MacCleery, National Instruments principal product manager for clean energy technology, about how this new development platform should ease the task of building Smart-Grid-ready products. Hill: Lets start with what may be the biggest question for most Control Engineering readers. Exactly how can the NI SingleBoard RIO GPIC make it easier to build products for the Smart Grid? MacCleery: Our primary goal in developing the GPIC was to offer an embedded systems platform that is optimized for building grid-tied power control systems. This has been a collaborative effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the California Energy Commission. In addition, more than 20 companies around the worldall of whom are in NIs customer basehad input into the design of the GPIC, because we really wanted to make sure it matched their requirements. When we started this effort, we did question whether it was possible to develop an off-the-shelf system that could, in fact, be used by any company that does grid-tied power

conversion. The release of the GPIC proves that we answered that question. Hill: How were you able to ultimately come up with a platform that is successfully being mass marketed? MacCleery: As we started talking with companies in different industries about this problem, we found that there was, indeed, a common set of requirements that spanned industries and applications. Because of the broad interest in solving this problem, virtually every company we contacted agreed to have its engineering team spend at least a half day with us, going over every single specication for the GPIC to make sure it would meet their specic requirements.

This chart shows the I/O that users must bring when developing various applications on the NI Single-Board RIO GPIC.


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We took that as a good sign. If companies were willing to invest that amount of time and resources to help us design it, there must be a real need for the type of solution we were developing. Hill: What were some of the common requirements? MacCleery: Weve created a fact sheet that lists the GPICs specications. They were carefully developed in collaboration with NREL, the California Energy Commission, and approximately 20 companies that are heavily involved in designing power inverters. So, we know the platform can be used to develop inverters for a broad spectrum of applications, including: Grid-tied solar inverters Wind turbine power converters Unity-scale energy storage systems and exible ac transmission systems (FACTS) Medium-voltage motor drives and pumps with unidirectional or regenerative inverters Electric and hybrid electric vehicles, automobiles, trains, agricultural equipment Somewhat surprisingly, we found that with the I/O on the GPIC and the price point we are able to deliver, we can meet the application requirements of any grid-tied power converter that is 50 kW or larger, even up into the tens of thousands of units. That was NRELs vision when we started working with them on this project. A gentleman named Bill Kramer, who manages R&D for energy systems integration technology at NREL, had just this visionwhat he calls modular power electronics. The idea is that everyone in industry can save a lot of money by using standard designs and system level development tools that enable Smart Grid and power electronics domain experts to take the lead in designing and implementing the embedded system. Hill: From a technology perspective, what specific characteristics of the GPIC ease the process of designing Smart-Grid-capable devices? MacCleery: Lets start with some background on the origins of the GPIC. Its based on a technology we launched in 2004 called NI CompactRIO, which has grown to be one of our largest product lines. The idea behind CompactRIO was to place FPGA technology, or eldprogrammable gate arrays, at the core of a commercial off-shelf-system for designing circuit boards. We wanted to give embedded design teams the same exibility they have when developing fully custom designs but on a pre-validated, low-risk platform that provides a fully integrated software development experience. In other

This is the hardware for NIs first development platform to incorporate FPGA technology.

words, its embedded design without the development cost, risk, and traditionally large specialized design team. The FPGA technology, in essence, makes it possible for every user to conduct custom circuit board design. The difference is that theyre now working with an offthe-shelf platform and high-level graphical programming tools designed for advanced digital signal processing and embedded control. It makes it possible for users to customize hardware at the silicon logic level. Traditionally, if you wanted to tailor an FPGA to your specic application, you needed to be an expert in specialized programming languages like Verilog or VHDL. Theres a relatively small population of developers with those skills. Also, embedded system chips are becoming more complex every day, making it even more difcult to program them with text-based languages, even for people with those skills. Hill: How did a platform for developing Smart-Gridready devices emerge from this effort? MacCleery: It evolved from another one of our products, the Single-Board RIO. That product has an FPGA and a Power PC processor running the VxWorks real-time operating system. The GPIC has the same components as the Single Board RIO in addition to 134 channels of I/O. Those I/O channels are designed specically to meet the requirements of a broad spectrum of power converter applications. Incorporating the channels necessary to create the GPIC took roughly a year of development time. The economic impact of integrating these inputs and outputs in LabVIEW FPGAwhere you can just drop down an I/O node and are up and runningis tremendous. It cuts 70% to 80% of the software development cost off the conventional embedded design process for an FPGA board. When you develop your own fully custom FPGA

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. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .EN .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15 . . .. .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . board, roughly 70% of every dollar spent on software

development goes toward work devoted strictly to interfacing to the I/O. Our goal is to bring that expense down to less than 10%. That would allow developers to focus all of their software engineering dollars on developing the complex algorithms needed for their Smart-Grid products. Hill: With 134 I/O channels on the GPIC, developers have the flexibility to use certain of those I/O channels and not the others, depending on their application. Is that correct? MacCleery: Exactly. The fact sheet I mentioned previously includes a chart that outlines how the platform maps to various applications. It shows the I/O that a user needs to bring in from a power converter system. For instance, a wind turbine will often have a position sensor on the motor/generator and auxiliary motors. If a digital sensor is used, it would typically connect to the GPIC through the LVTTL, which connects directly to the digital I/O buffers on the FPGA. Many companies developing medium-voltage drives use ber-optic connections rather than copper. In that case, they link to the LVTTL with a ber transceiver and use the FPGA to communicate data, clocks, and pulse width modulation command signals. This is common in large megawatt size inverters. Hill: The GPIC debuted last August. At this point, are you able to cite any examples of how customers are using the platform? MacCleery: Yes. Theres a GPIC FAQ page on our Website. One of the questions relates to customer feedback, and there are comments from a number of early adopters. For example, Yakov Familiant, the lead engineer for power systems and architectures at Eaton Corporation, commented on how it has improved their development process signicantly on a range of projects. In essence, this platform accelerates the pace at which Eaton, a $16-billion company with 100 years experience in electric power, is able to deploy its Smart-Grid power converters in the eld at high volumes. Hill: The literature on the GPIC refers to a tool chain for power system development. What does that mean? MacCleery: That term refers to all of the components necessary to optimize the design of grid-tied power systems. Ultimately,

Brian MacCleery, principal product manager for clean energy technology, National Instruments.

NI wants to offer a comprehensive tool chain for developing Smart-Grid power electronic systems. Perfecting the GPIC hardware is an important part of this, but we also want to give developers the best software tools. Thats where the LabVIEW graphical programming suite comes into play. Companies using this platform are developing complex applications. When youre talking about Smart-Gridready inverters, youre managing sophisticated control systems as well as the networking thats necessary to make that system t into the Smart Grid a very complex system-level design. We wanted to create a tool chain that enables people to manage this complexity and design their embedded control systems at a system level, what we refer to as graphical system design. With the complexity of embedded systems today, companies really cant afford to design at the gate level using hardware description language. Companies also must deal with a lot of tough engineering tradeoffs. In the solar realm, solar panels can last 20 to 30 years and still generate 80% of the power they generated at the time of their initial deployment. Inverters, on the other hand, tend to fail much sooner. So a major challenge for the solar industry is to develop inverters that not only are more energy efcient, but also have a longer lifespan. System-level design tools make it easier for developers to analyze these complex tradeoffs. If they pull one

This board combines FPGA technology with 134 channels of I/O, enabling users to develop Smart-Grid-ready devices.


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string they can see how that impacts the rest of the system. For example, I may be willing to take a small efciency hit to keep the temperature of the power electronics more constant and thereby extend its life. Every time you heat and cool the power transistors, this takes a tick off their lifetime. Hill: Is that also what you meant when you spoke of being able to prototype on this platform? MacCleery: Yes. The typical design ow on the applications were talking about starts with simulation. No one tests their Power tools: National Instruments believes developers need a complete tool chain, software for the rst time on a fully functioning inverter. You have consisting of both hardware and software, to simplify the process of designing, testing high voltage, high current, and ex- and deploying Smart-Grid devices. Courtesy: National Instruments pensive equipment; so its just too This also makes it possible for a more thorough and dangerous and complex. Much of the validation and verication work must rst take place in a safe simulation disciplined development process because I can have engineers and engineering management reviewing and testing environment. Historically, the process of moving from the simu- my system simultaneously in both the simulation world lation environment to the actual embedded system was and the real world. very long and expensive, especially for FPGAs. In many cases, it involved printing the simulation block diagrams Hill: I guess you see this platform helping to accelerto use as design specications, and then writing the cor- ate the full rollout of the Smart Grid? responding code by hand in low-level text based programming languages. In that approach, the simulation really MacCleery: Yes, thats our goal. There are multiple levels only helps you develop design requirements and speci- of complexity related to the Smart Grid. Theres the comcations. The actual process of moving to the embedded plexity of designing the individual system, like the inverter. Theres also the system-level complexity of managing software is done by hand. With the improvements weve recently made to our the overall griddetermining when nodes should switch tool chain, customers can now develop their graphical on or off. Offering a tool chain that makes it possible to FPGA code in a high-delity simulation environment that simulate all of that interaction brings the design of these captures all of the complexity of the switching power systems into the information technology age. So, it really electronics and the grid. They can see things like how seems that this type of graphical system design tool chain hot and cool the transistors will get and how the grid re- is necessary to speed up the full rollout of the Smart Grid. sponds to the software theyve written. Additionally, they can write actual live code in the simulation environment and move it to the FPGA on the GPIC in minutes. Developers tell me they want the ability to very easily take the same control software code to go back and forth between For more information on the NI Single-Board RIO the simulation world and the deployment world. General Purpose Inverter Controller visit the followWe manage that transition in the LabVIEW project ing resources: environment, which makes it possible to use the same embedded software code in both a simulation world and the physical world.

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AutomationDirect . . . . . . . . . . C2 . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . Baldor Electric Company . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . CC-Link Partner Association. . 25. . . . . . . 19 . . . . . Control Engineering Case Study Database . . . . . . . 52. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Engineering E-Newsletters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CSA Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. . . . . . . 22 . . . . . Danfoss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33. . . . . . . 21 . . . . . Dataforth Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . Eaton Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . 13 . . . . . Harting, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . 16 . . . . . HELUKABEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . 20 . . . . . Magnetrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 13. . . . . 9 . . . . . . Moore Industries - Intl. Inc . . . 4. . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . Moxa Technologies . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . National Instruments . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . Neuroblast, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . 18 . . . . . Omega Engineering Inc . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . OPTO 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . Phoenix Contact . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . 10 . . . . . PI North America. . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . PR electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . 15 . . . . . SEW Eurodrive Inc . . . . . . . . . C4 . . . . . . 36 . . . . . Siemens Industry Inc . . . . . . . C1, 17 . . . 11 . . . . . Solutions for Engineers . . . . . 51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turck Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . 14 . . . . . Unitronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . 17 . . . . . Yaskawa America, Inc . . . . . . . C3 . . . . . . 35 . . . . .

Bailey Rice

(630) 571-4070 x2206

AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, MT, NV, NM, OR, UT, WA, WY, Western Canada

Iris Seibert (858) 270-3753

CT, DE, MD, ME, MA, NC, NH, NY, NJ, PA, RI, SC, VA, VT, WV, DC, Eastern Canada

Julie Timbol (978) 929-9495

CFE Media Contributor Guidelines Overview

Content For Engineers. Thats what CFE Media stands for, and what CFE Media is all about engineers sharing with their peers. We welcome content submissions for all interested parties in engineering. We will use those materials online, on our website, in print and in newsletters to keep engineers informed about the products, solutions and industry trends. explains how to submit press releases, products, images and graphics, bylined feature articles, case studies, white papers, and other media. * Content should focus on helping engineers solve problems. Articles that are commercial in nature or that are critical of other products or organizations will be rejected. (Technology discussions and comparative tables may be accepted if non-promotional and if contributor corroborates information with sources cited.) * If the content meets criteria noted in guidelines, expect to see it first on our Websites. Content for our e-newsletters comes from content already available on our Websites. All content for print also will be online. All content that appears in our print magazines will appear as space permits, and we will indicate in print if more content from that article is available online. * Deadlines for feature articles intended for the print magazines are at least two months in advance of the publication date. Again, it is best to discuss all feature articles with the appropriate content manager prior to submission. Learn more at:

Engineers Choice Awards Beckhoff Automation LLC. . . . 41. . . . . . . 23 . . . . . Cognex Corporation . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . . 24 . . . . . Industrial Energy Management Fluke Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EN5 . . . . . 33 . . . . . Invensys Operations Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . EN7 . . . . . 34 . . . . . National Instruments . . . . . . . EN3 . . . . . 32 . . . . . Inside Machines Aerotech Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M8 . . . . . . Banner Engineering Corp. . . . M5 . . . . . . Fluke Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M3 . . . . . . P M D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M2 . . . . . . Solutions Direct . . . . . . . . . . . M7 . . . . . . Triangle Research Intl Inc . . . . M7 . . . . . . Yokogawa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M4 . . . . . .

31 28 26 25 29 30 27

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Software moles in your systems

Old programs, utilities, and plug-ins languishing on your computer or control systems could threaten your security.
Peter Welander

The most frustrating situation would be if a hacker used a vulnerability in an old software platform still on your system that no longer even served a purpose.

Go Online
Read more on industrial cyber security at Cyber security vulnerability assessment, Feb. 2012 Giving your plant a cyber health checkup, July 2012

n the world of espionage, a mole is an agent or spy that infiltrates an enemy environment and establishes him- or herself as a normal citizen. Eventually, the mole will receive orders to carry out the spying functions originally planned, taking advantage of trust built up over the years. Moles may be living in your computer and control systems. In this context, were talking about software that has security vulnerabilities. One recent situation is Java, with reports that hackers have been able to exploit vulnerabilities in conjunction with dangerous websites. Many computers still have Java installed, possibly an old version, even though the user may not be aware of it. To a hacker, it can become the port of entry for breaking into the system. The software is the mole. Its been on the computer for who knows how long because nobody has checked to see whats there. If it doesnt get used, it probably doesnt get updated, so older versions with wellpublicized vulnerabilities may still be in place. Java is certainly not unique in this sense. There are many examples of programs that have been exploited in the same way. The U.S. DHS publishes alerts related to industrial software online at If youve never gone and seen the number of platforms that are compromised, brace yourself for a shock.

Recommendations on Java
Matthew E. Luallen The US-CERT recently issued alert TA-13-010A on the Java vulnerability and guidance on how to respond to it. You will need to find out if Java is needed for any of your local or web-based applications and then disable it if it is unnecessary. Systems that are already not communicating to areas of less trust are not at risk, as the exploit must be transferred to local device over the network or through a local connection such as a USB drive. The wider view of security is to not just worry about Java but to ensure continuous protection of your cyber system. This includes having or installing only the applications that are necessary, using a functional change management process to handle system changes, such as addition or removal of access, applications, and patches, and a monitoring and response mechanism. Some practical advice for these and more are available through the 20 critical security controls or the consensus audit guidelines.

The threat is that a hacker will use one of those vulnerabilities to pry his way into your system. Perhaps he has become proficient at exploiting some favorite vulnerability and goes around looking for that software as targets of opportunity. Or, if he is determined to break into your system specifically, he may probe to catalog what you have and figure out the weakest platform. The first step of building a defense is knowing what you have on your systems. Look at all the software loaded on your individual computers and servers, and know everything that is there, down to the revision level. You also need to know why it is there. The most frustrating situation would be if a hacker used a vulnerability in an old software platform still on your system that no longer even served a purpose. Worse yet, imagine that it was unrelated to your process that some bored operator installed so he could watch DVDs in the control room. How would you explain that to your boss? You need to know revision level because platforms go through various iterations, some of which are better than others. Generally, the assumption is that the most recent revision will have more of the vulnerabilities fixed. Checking revision levels often exposes the reality that industrial users dont patch software with any regularity. There are exceptions, of course, but studies show that users simply dont implement patches as they should. There are some important reasons why users are cautious. If you have a control system that uses Windows and Microsoft sends out an update, its possible that there are elements of that update that arent compatible with the control system platform. You either need to test the patch yourself in a way that wont interfere with your functioning system, or wait for the vendor to clear it for deployment. Whoever is responsible for that network probably has other things to do, and who has time to deal with that kind of thing anyway? The sad truth is that most industrial users represent easy targets for a determined hacker. While it may not be practical to undertake more comprehensive efforts to protect your networks, you can keep track of your software collection. ce Peter Welander is a content manager for Control Engineering.

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When our engineers work on a motion project with you, they share everything thats in their heads. Sometimes that means turning over 100 pages of notes, formulas and drawings. Other times, its simply having straight forward conversations. At the same time, Yaskawa customers share their proprietary knowledge because they can trust us. Because we give their challenges a lot of thought. Because when they talk to us, they know we are on their side. Trusting the guys across the table from you with your most important product secrets. Thats noteworthy.


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