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Part I: Major Essay on Hamlet Choose a novel or play that depicts a conflict between a parent and a son or daughter.

Write an essay in which you analyze the sources of the conflict and explain how the conflict contributes to the meaning of the work. I. Intro a. Thesis: The burgeoning conflict between Prince Hamlet and King Claudius, shown by Hamlets painful fickleness in revenging his fathers murder and Claudius uneasiness in the throne, illuminates one of the many overarching meanings of the play: the complexity of action. 1st paragraph source of conflict a. The source of conflict was the betrayal made evident when King Hamlets wraith divulged his murderer and ordered Prince Hamlet to swear to avenge his fathers death by killing Claudius i. Prince already disliked Claudius because he whored [his] mother (5.2.72) by marrying her with in 2 months of his fathers death. ii. Ghost even detailed to Hamlet how he was murdered: Upon my secure hour thy uncle stole / With juice of cursd hebona in a vial (1.5. 68-69). iii. Conflict was confirmed when Hamlet put on the play of the Murder of Gonzago and Claudius reacted starkly to the nuanced implication and parallel plot. Hamlet provoked his guilt by saying, Your majesty and we that have free / Souls, it touches us not. Let the galled Jade wince; / Our withers are unwrung (3.2.265-267). Claudius guilt was confirmed when he suddenly rose and dismissed himself after the murder scene. iv. Important: Hamlet does not immediately assume the Ghost is honest; only after the play is Hamlet sure of his guilty uncle. Hamlets hesitation is evident. 2nd paragraph Hamlets side a. Hamlets side of the conflict shows not only hatred for Claudius masked by madness, but also a conflict within himself to act. i. Hamlets own mental conflict is seen in his famous To be or not to be soliloquy that he has before the play within a play is performed. He has already sworn he will avenge his father; yet, instead he contemplates death or at the least inactivity. Although his disgust with Claudius is apparent, Hamlet does not see murder as the solution.

II.

III.

ii. Even after Claudius guilt is confirmed and Hamlet has the consummate opportunity to slay Claudius, who seems to be in prayer, he refrains. 1. The man who killed his father should not be sent to heaven because he was killed in prayer. a. Decides to kill him, When he is drunk asleep, or in his rage / Or in th incestuous pleasure of his bed then trip him that his soul may be as damned as black (3.3. 94-95, 98-99) iii. Still, no murderous action has been undertaken by Hamlet although his guilt is strikingly evident and the opportunity has shone. iv. Hamlet has a method to his madness. He understands the prison (2.2.262) he is in and consequently must face the idea of murder by himself, in trust that he, albeit Horatio near the end, is the only one he can rely on. He must kill Claudius but also make it evident why Claudius deserved to die. Exposing Claudius in his own, public charade of warmth, magnanimity, and open government (Neill 324) will prove difficult and until Claudius heinous past can be revealed, madness is a protective veil. This again illuminates the gray scale of action. IV. 3rd paragraph Claudius side a. Claudius measure of the conflict arises from the threat of Hamlet and how to get rid of him. i. To monitor the threat, surveillance becomes a viable option seeing as the lives of the Kings subjects are exposed to merciless inquisition: (Neill 324) 1. Hamlet is not allowed to leave Wittenberg 2. Under surveillance of Guildenstern and Rosencrantz in order to gather what is wrong with Hamlet so that he, opened, lies within [the king and queens] remedy (2.2.18) ii. Directly after Hamlets play, Claudius soliloquy and inability to pray reveal his anguish. In this defining moment, Claudius admits his guilt and his vulnerability to Gods eventual judgment, But tis not so above/ There the action lies / In his true nature (3.3.64-66). 1. Although this soliloquy does permit the audience to see the emotional, sensitive side of Claudius, his immorality is still unmistakable in his wish to be pardoned yet still retain his, crown, [his] own ambition, and [his] queen (3.3.60,59). iii. Claudius is not resolute nor definitive is eliminating Hamlet, the threat to the throne, because he must safeguard his own innocence and does not want to upset Gertrude.

V.

Conclusion a. In the very first act of the play, Hamlet understands his task yet waits until the last scene to execute it. Claudius realizes Hamlets hazard to his throne in act two; yet, his plan is only executed in the last scene as well. The conflict between Claudius and Prince Hamlet illuminates the density of action. In the final moments of the play, Claudius attempt to kill Hamlet through Laertes leads to his own demise as he accidently kills the queen. Only after Claudius intent is made apparent to the entire court, can Hamlet consciously kill him. Action is hard to manifest; not only must the opportunity arise, but also an arduous psychological commitment must be made. Only after months of toil, confusion, and disillusionment can Hamlet finally implement a promise he made in minutes.

Part II: Interpretation of a Poem

Terms
Alliteration

Definition
Repetition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence

Purpose

Example
Garys giraffe gobbled gooseberries greedily I was surprised her nose was not growing like Pinocchios

Allusion

To create a consistent pattern that catches the minds eye and focuses attention Brief reference to a To increase the person, event, or range of place, real or meaning fictitious, or to a through outside work of art context. Repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines To create an artistic effect.

Anaphora

We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on the end. We shall fight in France. We shall fight on the seas and oceans. We shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air. Winston Churchill One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.

Antithesis

Opposition, or contrast, of ideas or words in a

To create a balance between opposite

balanced or parallel construction Asyndeton Omission of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words Authors choice of words Inverted order of words in a sentence (variation of the subject-verbobject order) Placement of two things closely together to emphasize comparisons or contrasts

qualities and lend a greater insight into the subject. To speed up the rhythm of a passage and make it more memorable To convey a certain effect. To emphasize a specific point.

I came, I saw, I conquered.

Diction

Ominous glow vs. beaming light Only then can you belong to me

Inversion

Juxtaposition

To compare, contrast, or create a specific rhetorical effect.

Wealth and poverty, guilt and grief, orange and apple, God and Satan; let us settle ourselves and work and wedge our feet downward through the mud and the slush of opinion, and prejudice, and tradition, and delusion, and appearance.. Her home was a prison.

Metaphor

Figure of speech that says one thing is another in order to explain by comparison

To use the qualities of one element, to illustrate the qualities in another.

Metonymy

Using a single feature to represent the whole Paradoxical juxtaposition of words that seem to contradict one another Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses

To clarify, abbreviate, or create pragmatic focus. To reveal a deeper truth through contradiction. To create rhythm and balance that allows the ideas to be clearly conveyed To give more meaning on an emotional, human level; to make it more interesting or amusing. To evoke thought, or to assert or deny a thought implicitly.

The pen is mightier than the sword (pen=writing sword=fighting) Without laws, we can have no freedom.

Oxymoron

Parallelism

Personification

Attribution of a lifelike quality to an inanimate object or idea

When you are right, you cannot be too radical. When you are wrong, you cannot be too conservative. Martin Luther King JR The stars danced playfully in the moonlit sky.

Rhetorical question

Figure of speech in the form of a question posed for rhetorical effect rather than for the purpose of getting an answer The standard word order and sentence structure of a language.

If practice makes perfect, and no ones perfect, then why practice?

Syntax

To be able to communicate without confusion, to be grammatically correct.

The dog jumped over the fence. (Subject-verbObject)

Part III: Short Essays Pride and Prejudice, By Jane Austen Fall- Netherfield Park (Bingleys stay). Meryton ball where Darcy insults Elizabeth and Bingley dances with Jane. Jane goes to Netherfield, falls ill, and Elizabeth walks there. Darcy begins to fall in love with her. Soldiers arrive, Wickham is introduced and he tells lies about Darcy. Netherland Ball Mr. Collins dances with Elizabeth twice. Darcy dances with Elizabeth as well. Mr. Collins proposes to Elizabeth, she declines. He marries Charlotte soon after. Bingley and Darcy leave to London, ending Jane and Bingleys love. Elizabeth visits Charlotte Lucas and Mr. Collins. Darcy proposed to Elizabeth. She refuses. He writes a letter explaining the situation between Wickham and Georgiana and why he lured Bingley away from Jane (thought she did not love him). Elizabeth travels to Pemberly Estate where Darcy is admired. Sees Darcy, is introduced to Georgiana (sister). Lydia travels to Brighton. Elopes with Wickham. Goose chase to find them, then Mr. Gardiner informs the Bennets that Lydia and Wickham are to be married. Bingley proposes to Jane, they are engaged. Lady Catherine warns Elizabeth about marrying Darcy. Darcy proposes to Elizabeth, they are engaged. Both of the sisters marry. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, By James Joyce Modernism style, expressive of thoughts. Stream of consciousness. Goes to Belvedere then University College of London. Bildungsroman = growing up story. Language progresses with age. Purpose: to reveal Stephan (more to self- satisfaction). Stephan realizes later he wants to become a writer. Hears a story. o Square ditch, sick, infirmary, Christmas. Christmas dinnero Big fight over politics and religion. o First time with adults. o Over Independence of Ireland. o Dont threatens to leave. o Stephan begins to think. Stays home (dad loses money), but gets scholarship to Belvedere. Move often gets progressively poorer. Carved goose becomes jelly glasses for tea. The heroic dad becomes a drunker bartender. Stephans epiphany to become a writer.

o Rejects religion, rejects fighting for Irelands independence, rejects family. o Parnell sleeps with married woman. Stephan goes to prostitutes. Represses all sensual pleasure (music, food) to withhold all desires leads him to go to church. Wants to become a Priest of the Imagination (writer). Dr. Faustus, By Christopher Marlowe Story of a tragic hero. Wants the power of knowledge. Studies at Wittenberg. Wants to overstep bounds of mortal limitations. o No knights, no war, just Dr. Faustus. Middle class, Rhodes, scholarly and educated at Wittenberg. Dr. of divinity, law, medicine. Willing to sacrifice soul for black magic. Tragic hero (feel empathy for him) o Born high (intellectual and scholarly) o Fatal flaw: Pride and a lack of faith in God. Hamlet, By William Shakespeare A room of Ones Own, By Virginia Woolf Biography: Born in 1882 to scholarly parents with a rich library, Woolf was never sent to school but educated herself with tutors and her fathers books. When she was young she was traumatized by the sexual abuse of her half brothers, and the early deaths of her mother and half-sisters. When she was 22, her father died and Woolf was put in to an institution. She married a Jewish man whom she met through a radical group. She eventually killed herself at the age of 59 by putting stones in her pockets and drowning in the river at the on start of WW2. A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction. Starting at Oxbridge college, she reflects on the educational opportunities of men and women. At the British library she finds that all scholarships on women are by men, and the history books elicit nearly nothing on women. So, she hypothesizes the life of Judith Shakespeare, twin sister to William Shakespeare, and the tragic fate of suicide that will befall a highly intelligent woman so stringently suppressed. The Passionate Shepherd to His Love, By Christopher Marlowe Pastoral Poetry o Idealized version of rural life. Romantic, unrealistic. A shepherd cannot make gold buckles, coral clasps, and amber studs. The Nymphs Reply to the Shepherd, By Sir Walter Ralegh Pastoral Poetry o Response to Marlowes poem.

Realistic, cynical. Your flowers will wilt, the seasons will change, and your gifts will be forgotten. Only if all the world and love were young, then might I live with thee and be thy love. The Flea, By John Donne Author and woman are married through the flea that sucked both of their blood. In this marriage, sex would be okay. Constant repetition of 3 = holy trinity She kills innocent flea The amount of honor she would lose by having sex with him is equivalent to the honor she lost by killing the flea. Song, By John Donne Cynical. No woman is faithful. Mystical imagery to parallel the mystical (non existence) of good women; if you can see everything and travel the whole world forever, you will never find a beautiful and faithful woman. If you do, dont tell me. By the time I will meet her, she will have become unfaithful. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, By John Donne First 4 stanzas: We will slowly disappear and die, quietly, mildly. The changes are harmful, and dull lovers cant deal with absence because their love would end. Last 5 stanzas: But not us! Our love is so refined, that we are one and my leave is an expansion: you are the fixed part of the compass that does not move unless I do. When I come home, I grow erect, and your strength and faithfulness confirms the love. (the circle = golden ring) Holy Sonnets, By John Donne 10: Death, you are not mighty. Those that you think die, do not. They experience pleasure; you, death, depend on fate, chance, kings, poison, and war while we can sleep with opium, so dont be proud. We sleep for a while then wake eternally in heaven, and then you, death, shall die. 14: I love you but I am not strong enough to devout myself to you. Please imprison me so that I can be faithful to you. John Donnes Biography: Famous for his puns, paradoxes, and elaborately sustained metaphors known as conceits Learned discourse of theology, alchemy, cosmology, law etc. yet his works were never academic, but rather dramatic monologues. Born an outsider in London in 1572 to a devout Roman Catholic household. Prosperous, yet paid the price by being raised when anti-Catholic feelings in protestant England were piquing. o Consequently, could not hope for a public career or a university degree. He left Oxford without one and studied law for a time at the Inns of Court.

In the 1590s, returned to London from abroad and converted to the English Church. o His works (satires and most of the elegies) from this period show him fascinated and keenly critical of English society (Elizabethan topics and their obsequiousness) and the quest for true religion. o Honest doubting search is better than the facile acceptance of any religious tradition. Societys values are of no help whatsoever to the individual seeker. 1596: Earl of Essexs military expedition against Catholic Spain in Cdiz and the Azores. Upon return, became secretary to Sir Thomas Egerton, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal. o Cut short by his secret marriage to Egertons 17-year-old niece, Ann More. Forced to live financially unstable in the country with the 12 children his wife conceived. Contemplated suicide in Biathanatos. In an attempt to reinstate himself, he tried to please James I by penning Pseudo-Martyr that defended the kings insistence that Catholics take the Oath of Allegiance. After many other tributes, the King would still not offer him anything but suggested he turn towards the Church. Ordained in the Church of England and entered a distinguished career where he gained much recognition for his metaphorical style, bold erudition, and dramatic wit. Donnes Songs and Sonnets directly challenge Petrarchan ideals and structure. Little or nothing has to do with the actual beauty of the woman but the challenge of seduction, processes of the mind and the consequent sense of immediacy. Delight in Disorder, By Robert Herrick Beauty is at its most alluring when its in disarray. Inconsistent rhyme scheme parallels. Petrarchan compliment: going from top bottom. To the Virgins, To Make Much of time, By Robert Herrick Time is fleeting; you virgins are in your prime. Make use of your beauty and get married while the sun is high, the blood is warm, and the flower is blooming. Dont be shy and wait, because you will lose your prime. To His Coy Mistress, By Andrew Marvell Coy = shy. If we had all the time in the world, your shyness would not be a crime. I would court you and love you and spend thousands of years admiring every part of you. You deserve this state.

But, we have no time. winged chariot hurrying near Thy beauty shall no more be found. In your tomb the worms will prey on your foolishly preserved virginity. Your quaint honor will turn to dust. So, now that you are youthful, lets be like amorous birds of prey. Let us roll our strength and love together and fight the devouring time as one. Metaphysical because: dense, dark, vivid imagery and use of conceits. Cavalier because carpe diem (seize the day), Petrarchan compliments, classical allusions, lighter. Sonnets, by William Shakespeare 18: Shall I compare thee to a summers day? You are lovely, temperate, and eternal. Both Petrarchan and Shakespearean structure, Shakespearian rhyme scheme. 29: When I think of myself, I am disgusted. I want other peoples qualities and I curse my fate but then I think about you. I am indescribably happy because remembering your love makes me happy to be who I am. 73: I am slowly dying from old age, like the fire that from his youth, will die again by its ashes. Time, that I love, will consume and kill me. Now that you know I will not be here long, your love will be stronger. 130: My mistress/ eyes are nothing like the sun; Coral is far more red than her lips red Satire on typical Petrarchan compliments. Addressed to the dark lady She has wires for hair, no rosiness on her cheeks, no delightful perfume, and yet I think my love as rare as any woman misrepresented by false comparisons. Metaphysical poets Stretch language, combine holy and profane, ex. John Donne. Characterized by the inventive use of conceits and speculation about such topics as love and religion. Cavalier poets Carpe Diem seize the day. Poets that supported Charles I. Expresses joy and simple gratification, and celebrates beauty, love, nature, sensuality, drinking, good fellowship, honor, and social life. Uses allusions to classics. th 16 Century (1485 1603) Writers wrote in Latin. Prestigious, the language of church and diplomacy. Royal court in London o Power is concentrated in court and monarchy (not theatre originally). Purpose of universities: to become a priest. o Oxford, Cambridge, University of London. o But, Elizabeth needed government managers, so education changers to become a much broader education. Grammar school (6-16) o Women were not educated. Only Elizabeth.

London o Grew, more powerful (Elizabeth made a new world) o Spanish Armada proved that England > Spain (monumental). God is on Englands side. Renaissance Humanism. o Man is the measure. It was all right to improve earthly life. o Interest in Classical texts. Reformation o Henry VIII became a king. All monasteries belonged to him, and the army took ownership over all land, money and education. Writers, printers, and patrons. o No freedom of press (censored history and religious speeches) o Writing was a gentlemans hobby. o Style was long poems (to emulate the classical models) that were printed with money from the noble persons they were dedicated to. University wits o Marlowe. Clever and a university attendee. Tudor style. o More is better. o Prose is pretentious, intricate, and inflated. o Architecture is like a sideways E. harmony of design. Theater o Summer progresses visit people around country (banquets) o Servants would be actors. One act plays. o Mystery plays (bible stories) and morality plays.

The Elizabethan World View Great chain of being. Hierarchy. Divine right of kings. o God o Angels 9 orders o Monarch o Nobility o All classes o Robbers, thieves, murderers, prostitutes, actors. Macrocosm (big world) vs. microcosm (little world). Things in the big world are reflected in the little world. Earl of Rauch hiring actors elevates them Earl of Rs servants Shakespeares Lord Chamberlains Men The Kings men (under James I) Hierarchy of literature. o Epics (heroic literature, ex. Odyssey) o Tragedy (revenge and villain) o Comedy o Sonnets

Marlowe First to use blank verse. Blank verse = unrhymed iambic pentameter. 2 sizes of books- quartos and folios. o Quartos are generally first drafts. 17th Century (582 588) Analogy of order. Chain of being Power of influence. All beings are linked in a hierarchy. Macrocosm/microcosm parallel. Inherited system of knowledge o Analogy and order o Challenged by new discoveries Ptolemaic universe. Fixed earth, and circling sun, planets, and moon. Introduction of Bacons scientific method and Galileos discoveries. Harveys idea of the circulation of blood changed the view of the human body. Four elements- Choler, blood, phlegm, and black bile. Difficulty in dating poems: many only existed as manuscripts. Church promoted writing, and consequently more documents were printed. Legal ownership remained w/ printer (copyright) o Discouraged publication. Censorship Commercial theatre was the first literary market. o Patronage system provided incentive to poets/writers to not end their hobbies. They did make some money (not as much as commercial theatre) Long, allegorical, mythological narratives short, concentrated, witty poems. Metaphysical poets- stretch language Cavalier poets -(Sons of Ben) Carpe diem, support the king, Charles I. Plays and theatre became popular. Shakespeares company (The Kings men) Poetry Shakespearean (English) Q1: abab Q2: cdcd Q3: efef Couplet: gg Petrarchan (Italian)

o Pastoral Poetry

Octave: abbaabba Sestet: cdecde