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Well...just finished implementing LDISO's for 6 weeks on a couple of athletes. Here are some more o ser!ations.

"he# shouldn't e named Long Duration Isometrics. "he# pro a l# should e called e$treme e$hausti!e isometrics. %ecause #ou are taking them to an e$treme joint position and #ou are litterall# tr#ing to reak #ourself. If #ou are doing them correctl#& the longest #ou are pro a l# going to last is an#where from '( to )* seconds...and )* seconds pro a l# meant #ou took a reak somewhere during that time. +a$imal reall# means that...if #ou are pulling into the deepest position or in the case of the su scap hold& pulling down with #our scaps ma$imall#...its a out '( seconds. I noticed that when we took a couple of da#s off& we were stronger ut then I also found out we couldn't last as long after we had , or ' da#s of rest. Wh#- %ecause we got stronger and could contract more muscles and we could pull harder ecentricall#. So the more I look at these positions& the closer I see some resem lance to D%'s. "he ig difference etweent the , are the energ# s#stems. LDISO's don't recogni.e energ# s#stems ut rather ma$imal efforts. I'm not sa#ing there are not different energ# s#stems that must e trained for... ut when #ou train ma$imall# all the time& it just doesn't come into consideration. "he other m#th is a out taking #ourself into a .one. /ou can't take #ourself or use an end picture ecause if #ou are thinking a out an#thing other than pulling down as hard as #ou can& #ou are not getting it done. When it comes to fatigue& we also found that there is a fatigue factor ut if #ou are accustomed to traditional Strength and conditioning...#ou will enter a dark period and that dark period sucks. /our od# is tr#ing to adapt and its wanting to adapt ut ecause #ou fed #our cns and muscles with so much su ma$imal effort& the s#stem responds # almost going into a period of shock. %est wa# out of it is pull harder. Within ' to ) weeks& #ou will start feeling good and #ou won't e alwa#s feeling e$hausted...actuall# #ou will feel prett# good. 0re LDISO's the onl# thing #ou need to prepare for sport- 1o.... ut if #ou are lifting su ma$imall# or doing some other cute e$ercises that are an#thing less than su ma$imal& #ou would e etter off sta#ing on Ldiso. Do the# get #ou stronger- 2or some people who are prett# d#sfunctional& the increases can e prett# su stantial. 2or others& one rate ma$ ma# not increase ut work capacit# will go through the roof. 0nother words& if #ou can do a one rate ma$& after #ou ha!e adapted to e$treme iso's& #ou will find #ou can keep repeating #our one rate ma$. We did a out 6 or 3 isos and then ack off to ) isos for each athlete ased on what the athlete needed and how the# reacted to the stimulus. If #ou are going to practice mo!ement and test #our new range of motions and sta ilit#& not sure how #ou can alwa#s do 3...thats just me. I do ha!e an e!en greater appreciation for them... ut I reali.ed I was doing them wrong...and m# guess is that most of #ou are pro a l# doing them wrong as well. Sometimes #ou will e$perience what #ou think is a spasm of the ecentric muscle ut might e closer to a stretch rele$. 0 powerful stretch refle$ is one of man# attri utes #ou are actuall# training for. When #ou do e$perience that ig refle$& take a deep reath and tr# and reak down a new arrier. "he od# is alwa#s searching for the easiest and most efficient path. /ou will see some ig jumps and suddenl# #ou will notice #ou can go much longer.... ut don't sta# in that realm444 1ow #ou must dig e!en deeper to pull harder and contract harder than #ou pre!iousl# did. Wh# a heart rate monitor& in m# opinion& is the est indicator of effort for 5this5 t#pe of training. "hats interesting info regarding heart rate. ,*( seems !er# high. We ha!e ne!er gotten a o!e ,(( when just performing iso's. So if #ou are getting #our heart rate that much& m# guess is #our effort is e$cellent. We ha!e not spent a lot of time on altitude drops e$cept to see if there was an adaptation in eing a le to a sor a lunge drop in perfect position without a compensation. "his summer& we did a lot more inertia training at ma$imum !elocit# without weight. We ha!e started s6uatting and our capacit# has increased su stantiall# and ig impro!ement in position. +a# e ne$t week we ma# test 7 rate ma$. I can tell #ou that we ha!e adapted much etter on lower od# than upper od#. I don't know how an#one could perform these on their own. Looking ack on m# first post of this thread...I know there will e a ton of na#sa#ers. I'm prett# simple person. I like to take the straightest line. I ha!e tried all of the end picture& diaphragmatic reathing& working to get to certain times and all I got were luke warm results. "he onl# wa# for this to work is to totall# gi!e e!er#thing #ou ha!e& life or death t#pe effort. 8osition is ke#& ut thats wh# #ou need a coach or colleague watching. It reall# is a out effort. +a# e once we figure out the effort& the end picture will come into pla#. "he other thing is that when #ou are tr#ing to reak #ourself& it takes awa# from the pressure of ha!ing to go a long distance. It actuall# ecomes an athletic pursuit to see if #ou can go harder each and e!er# set. 9etting the muscles to support the joint ma$imall# will free the od# to do some things #ou ne!er thought #ou could. "hats a good 6uestion and the more I think I ha!e learned& the less I know. When pulling down against the concentric contractions& the effort is primaril# anero ic...#ou can feel #ourself performing !alsal!a reathing pattern ecause #ou continuall# need a ma$imum effort...much like what would happen if #ou were tr#ing a one rate ma$. So #ou are not holding #our reath intentionall# ut it is h#po: o$ic in nature. We go the ne$t rep as soon as we catch our reath...shake our #our legs& and enough time to mentall# prepare to gi!e

e!er#thing. I think '( seconds etween each rep is normal. I know this isn't the wa# it is taught& ut it comes ack to results. Same thing for the one legged s6uat. Don't just sit there and make sure #our leg is straight with #our torso& pull the leg into h#per:e$tension as hard and as long as #ou can and make sure the spine also sta#s in e$tension. I ha!e noticed that some athletes get knee pain when performing a one legged s6uat. ;suall#& this is a popliteus pro lem and pain goes awa# immediatel# when popliteus is acti!ated. Well...learning to pull into the ground with #our hamstring is prett# important... ut the lunge is a out elongating the ack hip fle$or...so #our ack leg should e in e$tension. Don't let #our ack knee end44 If all #ou can do is 7* seconds with ma$imal effort& than so e it. /ou are tr#ing to make the muscles of each joint !er# !er# sta le. Don't forget that when #ou are pulling #ourself into the ground& their are , sets of muscles in!ol!ed in getting #ou into the right position. "he hip fle$ors and the hamstrings...the# oth must e recruited ma$imall#4 If #ou are onl# thinking a out the hamstring& #ou are onl# getting half the results...same thing for the wall sit. +# #oungest son tested out on ack s6uat. He had not s6uatted since +a#. He performed his one rate ma$ 6 times ut with much etter position. He pro a l# could ha!e eaked out more ut it was at the end of the training session and I wanted to test some other things. We ha!e gone 3 weeks on iso's...we switched o!er to wgf methods and I'm thrilled with the lower od# adaptations. Our reacti!e e$ercises are solid and in good position. If #ou put an all out effort& #ou will e rewarded. 1ot the end all to #our training& ut the eginning. I copied this off a face ook we site& <alled 5In:%alance "echni6ue5 %# Dr. =ohn 8ietila. "his gu# is ahead of the cur!e on a num er of fronts. I don't go along with the * minutes thing...we go ' minutes...sometimes ). 2rom an energ# utili.ation de!elopment standpoint& he pro a l# is correct. I think I can get the same thing accomplished using other methods. I ma# e wrong and I could change m# mind if I saw conclusi!e results. 1e!ertheless& I do elie!e he has nailed the e$treme positions. I would encourage readers to rowse through his discussion pages as there is a wealth of information. It seems through all of the discussion there are two major thought patterns. 1. In the extreme position the concentric muscle group should be pulling us further into position and the eccentric muscle group should be resisting that movement with an equally forceful contraction. or 2. The concentric muscle group should be pulling us further into position while the eccentric muscle group is relaxed and maximally lengthening. Which is it I !now that better feedbac! occurs with greater muscle involvement.I also !now that more motor unit recruitment can occur with great muscle involvement. "o based off of these two ideas the correct way should be for the concentric group to be pulling down# while the eccentric muscle group should be resisting the movement in the most extreme position. $this position should be slowly but constantly changing toward an even more extreme position% In the lunge. &sing the position noted by 'arrett $than!s buddy% we should be pulling to a lower position with the front leg hip flexor $acting on hip flexion% and hamstring $acting on !nee flexion%. We should resist that motion with the front leg glut $acting on hip flexion% and the quad $acting on (nee flexion%. With the bac! leg we should use the glut to pull into hip extension and quad to pull into !nee extension while the bac! leg hip flexors resist the motion at the hip and the hamstring resists that motion at the !nee. 'iven the mechanical advantage of the concentric muscle groups coupled with gravity# eventually they should win causing slow constant movement further into the extreme position. This will simulate running because li!e running# all of the muscle groups are wor!ing together. The memory of this position will be implanted into the nervous system# so later it can be recalled and utili)ed. The longer you hold the better the imprint into the brain and cerebellum. $it ta!es a while for this to happen%*ver time the brain will connect with more motor units# thus an increase in strength and performance. The muscle will physically become strongerThe communication between antagonistic muscle groups will be enhanced. $the brea!down of communication is the cause of bad timing leading to muscle related injuries%+lso lengthening occurs allowing for decreased fatigue# faster contraction# as well as greater range of motion. I feel that in a normal person# one could move their leg into an extreme position# but literally the brain wouldn,t have any idea what to do with it. In fact the feedbac! received by the brain my even be confusing because it has never received that feedbac! before and it doesn,t !now how to construct a proper movement patter to return the leg to a normal position. -a!ing a wrong choice for order# timing# intensity# and. or duration will lead to a strain.sprain injury. /eing uncomfortable is a big part of the process. Isn,t that why people give out when training The burning feeling# the sha!ing# the ripping feeling# the inability to catch your breath. *nce we get to that feeling we are just starting to push our boundaries. 'iving up at that point is doing nothing to help us achieve our goals. 0ou can train all day long and gain nothing if you give up every time it gets uncomfortable. 1oing the first 22 seconds of a lunge will not challenge your system enough to create a change. 3ven if you do it 22 times. &nless you ta!e it to the end of your abilities. 1*4 >emem er& that the front shin should remain !ertical throughout the duration...so that position is fi$ed. So the onl# antagonist is the 6uad to the hamstring. Lots of resultant forces. %ut if #ou want to keep it simple...=ames said just think of the front leg wanting to go up or awa# due to the hip fle$or& and the ack leg wanting to go in the opposite direction !ia the glute. ?e$tension@ "he ke# is to go all out...lea!e nothing in reser!e. Don't tr# to hold on ecause then #ou do egin racing.

Well <harles& I will do m# est. "he first thing that comes to mind with mo!ement is the cere ellum. It is widel# known that the cere ellum works together with the contralateral corte$ and the ipsilateral od#. One of it's functions is to help control mo!ement and especiall# comple$ mo!ement. "o increase the fre6uenc# of firing of the right cere ellum #ou can ha!e the patient to specific t#pes of mo!ement depending on what area #ou want to affect more then others. 9enerall# though& the lateral portions of the cere ellum help control the lateral parts of our odies ?hands and feet@. 0s we mo!e more medial in the cere ellum we also mo!e more medial in the od#. Al ows:Bshoulders. "hese areas are more inter medial parts of the cere ellum. 2inall# things like the spinal musculature and the e#es are controlled # the most central part of the cere ellum. So in order to increase acti!ation of the lateral cere ellum the patient should do a comple$ mo!ement of the distal e$tremit# ? asicall# the hand or foot@. I usuall# ha!e them make a ig figure C in the air like the# are wa!ing in a parade& and I ha!e them look at it. So the trick# part of the cere ellum is that as long as the mo!ement is alwa#s changing the cere ellum will ecome acti!ated. 1ow consider a mo!ement such as making a fist and rela$ing o!er and o!er. "his action is not di!erse and actuall# will lower the acti!ation of the ipsilateral cere ellum. Wh#- %ecause the cere ellum has surround inhi ition. 0s we learn to do the acti!it# etter and etter our cere ellum will start inhi iting areas near the pathwa# and start selecting onl# the specific areas needed to fire to get the e$act mo!ement. With a di!erse mo!ement all areas of the cere ellum need to fire. "his is how #ou get etter in throwing darts. 2irst dart ?new mo!ement@ man# areas of the cere ellum. 0s #ou continue to do the same acti!it# the areas of the cere ellum not needed ecome inhi ited. 0t the same time though #ou ecome a etter and etter thrower. 0n#wa#s. We can actuall# use this to either increase a week cere ellum or decrease an o!er firing cere ellum. 0lso with the cere ellum to work more centrall#& e#e mo!ements or head mo!ements are the ke#. 2or right cere ellar acti!it# mo!e the head 6uickl# to the right while the patient maintains fi$ation of the e#es on an o ject. /our task is to watch their e#es and to mo!e their head at the highest rate possi le while the# can still maintain fi$ation. O !iousl# if the# can mo!e fast to the left ut !er# slowl# to the right the# ha!e a decreased right cere ellum. ;sing e#e mo!ements without head mo!ements is simple as well. Ha!e them fi$ate on #our finger and mo!e #our finger at a )* degree angle a out 7C inches awa# from their face. So for a right cere ellum #ou would start in the upper right 6uadrant and mo!e down to the left and ack to the starting position again. Watch their e#es. "he cere ellum is to make the mo!ement smooth. So if #ou compare right to left and the right is more jerk#& that is decreased firing. 0 little side note& if #ou do a test and find a decreased function usuall# that test ecomes the therap#. >emem er we can alwa#s couple feed ack together. 2or e$ample if doing an e#e mo!ement for the right cere ellum is ad& tr# doing the e#e mo!ement followed with a right coupled adjustment. "he results are super good. So that is the cere ellum. 2or <orte$& we know that the feed ack and output comes from and goes to the contralateral half of the od#. So to dri!e the left corte$ use mo!ement on the right side of the od#. If we use icep contraction& to get the greatest acti!ation to the corte$ we would want to ha!e high resistance and we want to e mo!ing into a concentric contraction. <oncentric contraction fires !er# highl# the muscle spindle which is attached to the I0 ner!e. "his is the iggest and fastest ner!e in the od# and it can carr# a lot of information. SO that must mean that what e!er it is connected to must e sending a lot of information. So firing the +uscle Spindle ?+S@ this wa# will send high arrages of info directl# to the corte$. 1ow on the other hand& doing the e$act opposite actuall# causes more acti!ation of the 9olgi "endon Organ ?9"O@. "his is attached to a I% fi er. We know that this t#pe of fi er is inhi itor#& so when we fire this # doing an eccentricall# resistant mo!ement we will get inhi ition firing to the spine and rain. "his is e$actl# wh# after stretching there is a refractor# period of decreased muscle acti!ation. Literall# meaning if #ou stretch efore a race #ou will actuall# run slower. "hus the in!ention of the d#namic warm:up. 1ow <harlie I am sure #ou are thinking specificall# a out the different t#pes of e$ercises and how the# affect the rain. I ha!e theories& ut I am not totall# sure. So lets look at the first e$ercise on <harlie's mind. "he isometric eccentric hold. 2irst of all D(E of people do this e$ercise wrong. Lets simpl# look at the s6uat ?which is not simple@. "he first pro lem is the position& knees forward& pushing into the ground with the heals& feet far apart and angled outwards& not at D( degrees knee end& head down& shoulders rounded forward& and not to mention all that ut the person won't stop complaining of the discomfort. So these are all ad things. We want the position to e D( degrees at the hip and knee& Fnees not forward of the feet& pushing into the ground with the all of the foot. %ack straight and head up. If #ou can do that #ou are alread# half wa# there. 1e$t mistake. 8eople will e tr#ing to hold themsel!es in that position # using the 6uads. "hat again is wrong. ?#es I know if #ou turn off #our 6uads #ou will fall down@. %ut think of the mo!ement this position is replicating ?or what direction are #ou mo!ing@. "he answer& #es <harlie& Down. What muscle in #our legs or od# will pull #ou down- 0gain <harlie has the right answer. "he Hamstrings. So in this position #ou need to e pulling hard ?it takes a lot of rain power@ with the hamstring. /es& #ou will e pulling against #our own 6uad& ut the important neurological e$ercise is that #ou pull !er# hard with the hamstring. 1ow I taught #ou that the eccentric position causes inhi ition& which it does. %ut it fires through a I% neuron. 1ot the iggest I0 neuron. "he hamstring& which is concentricall# loaded& and firing the +S to the I0 neuron should e firing at a higher le!el then the feed ack from the 9"O& I%& of the 6uad. So O1L/ in this instance are we actuall# training the od# to do a mo!ement correctl#. ?using the right muscles in the right order@ We are teaching #ou to pull down. We are lengthening the 6uads through inhi ition ?rela$ation not stretching@. One important note is we are training the two together. Wh# is it important- %ecause one muscle can onl# contract as fast as the antagonist can rela$. So the rela$ation is the important factor in speed. Here we are training the proper neurological refle$es to 6uickl# rela$ the 6uad and contract the hamstring. 0nother important factor of the ISO A$treme is the num er of muscles #ou are contracting. "he more muscles #ou contract& 7. the longer

#ou can hold properl#& ut ,. more areas of the rain are firing and starting to work together. "his is the e$act mechanism to increase the muscular recruitment from ,(E to ,*E. See what just happened there. 1ow with the same muscles #ou ha!e just made #our ench go from ,(( l s. to ,*( l s. 0nd the muscle is the same si.e. ?actuall# the increase goes higher& ut from this effect we get a out *E gain on strength@ "raining in this manner will also lengthen the muscles. ?meaning doing more then just s6uat& and training the whole od#@ We know from research that the longer a muscle is the faster and harder it can contract. "hat is wh# runners in the locks at a race tr# to set the lock so their calf is full# e$tended. So the# ha!e push harder and faster. 1ow thinking of fatigue. "o me fatigue is nothing more then a shortening muscle. 0 reco!ered muscle is nothing more then a lengthened muscle. /ou could actuall# test the fatigue of a muscle if #ou could test the length some how. 0n#wa#s. 0s #ou fatigue #our muscle is shortening and shortening until it get all the wa# short. 0t that point #ou can no longer continue. What would happen to the duration of the acti!it# if #ou started with a muscle longer then #our competitors. 7. #ou would ha!e a stronger output. %ut , #ou would ha!e more endurance. ?this factor comes from to things@ %ut who doesn't want that in athletics. Sorr# I can see I am getting in to a whole different discussion& ut oh well. >eco!er# after an acti!it# takes time. 2or man# people , da#s. Wh#& ecause that is the time it takes for #our muscle to lengthen ack out. /ou might sa# that if #ou ha!e longer muscles that it would take longer for #our reco!er#. 0nd ma# e so& ut we keep training& so we keep lengthening our muscles ?from the training@ and we actuall# can use training to reco!er our muscles faster. 0 6uick e$ample. In m# clinic we were ? # we I mean the other people and not me@ training a High School 2oot all team. "he team had , a da# practices at the High School& plus a group of the gu#s came to the clinic for a 'rd training session. 9uess what we did. 9ood guess <harlie& Isometric Accentric e$ercises. "he group that did the 'rd training session actuall# felt more fresh& less stiff& and less sore the ne$t da#. "he# were read# for the ne$t da# of , practices. "he gu#s who just went home after the ,nd practice were so stiff and sore and fatigued it was !er# difficult to participate in the practice. So we actuall# reco!ered them # training them& we lengthened their muscles& so the# also ha!e a higher output as well as longer endurance& and now the 'rd thing. Deceased chance of injur#. I coached track for 3 #ears. I was alwa#s the cra.# gu# making the runners do stupid e$ercises. %ut it was worth it. I ne!er forced an#one to do them. "he# could opt out if the# wanted. %ut what we did was ISo metric e$ercise for 7* min. ? which is nice ecause it lea!es us 7G)* for training track skills@ We did a * min right lunge and a * min left lunge. and a * min push:up. "hen we would either train technical ?hurdles or pole !ault@ or we would ha!e a running work:out. "hen following the training we would again do * min. of standing glutHham. "he num er of injures we had was (. Out of the group who opted out& ) of them got hurt. One important point to note is ) people opted out. So this can also e !er# pre!entati!e for injuries. >emem er that the more force #ou can a sor the more force won't e transferring to areas of #our od# it shouldn't e. I'm going to stop now& ut <harlie ma# e #ou can continue a little to get me ack on track of what #ou were asking.

Well when #ou are talking a out <orte$ it is alwa# contralateral for making feed ack& ut could e oth for efferents. A$tensors and fle$ors& good 6uestion. "#picall# when we are talking a out distal fle$ors we can create feed ack to the contralateral corte$. "he <ere ellum works # creating a motor program and sending that to the contralateral corte$. ?motor planing@ then it goes a step farther to recei!e the actual plan the corte$ sent to the muscle and it recei!es feed ack from the area mo!ing so it can compare the two. "hat is wh# comple$ mo!ements acti!ate the cere ellum. It is in m# opinion that modulating the tone of the fle$ors and e$tensors will not effect the cere ellum !er# much& ut will ha!e an effect in the corte$. %# changing the tone of the fle$ors #ou can get the greatest effect in the <orte$. 2or e$ample. If #ou find a weak right corte$ the est wa# to effect that is to decrease the tone of the fle$ors on the right and increase the tone of the fle$ors on the left. 2le$ors ?compared to e$tensors@ ha!e a much higher somatotopic representation in our rain and it is easier to make a nice ig change. 1ow tone in the od# is effected # cortical output to the 8+>2& generall# we get increased tone of the ipsilateral fle$ors. "he cere ellum while is does fire to that area is firing up towards the corte$. ?the corte$ fires down to the od# !ia 8+>2& <ere ellum fires up to the corte$ !ia 8+>2@ So if #ou ha!e increased tone on the right due to a weak corte$ on the right #ou can change that # doing left cere ellar stim. ?left cere ellum up !ia 8+>2 to right corte$ then ack down to od# !ia 8+>2 to the right fle$ors@ <an #ou see the connection. Out put of the cere ellum doesn't go down to the od#. Where is the cere ellarspino pathwa#- 1one. "here are t#pical presentations of <ere ellar d#sfunction seen in tone. "#picall# we find weakness of the posterior pro$imal muscles ipsilateral to the weakness. "hus the su lu$ation. When someone comes to #ou and sa#s how their right neck hurts and is so tight #ou should e thinking left cere ellar weakness. Since it is spinel we know it is midline cere ellum& so check the e#es or !esti ular s#stem for positi!e tests and then use that failed test as feed ack for therap# coupled with a coupled cer!ical adjustment pro a l# from the left. 0 miracle will e created and the the patient will think #ou are the smartest person in the world. Aspeciall# if #ou toss out words like pontomedular#reticular formation. 0gain testing comple$ mo!ements of the right hand is an output function of the left corte$ ut modulated # the right cere ellum to make it smooth. If it is not smooth& cere ellum. If it is o!er shoot or under shoot& cere ellum. If the# don't know where their nose is& not cere ellum "hat is corte$ specificall# parietal lo e of contralateral side. I hope this helps #our case studies. "he trick is& once #ou are doing it correctl#& is that #ou can't do it for * min. Onl# the people who do it wrong can hold * min. I know it is confusing& ut keep tr#ing with s6uat and one da# it will click in and #ou will understand. /ou gu#s. 0lwa#s tr#ing to get me to la# it all out for #ou. 0n#wa#s. Here is the stuff. So when #ou are doing an Iso e$teem #ou should e pulling into the position and using the muscle that #ou would normall# use to hold that position as the antagonist. I think that part makes sence. In the s6uat #ou should pull down with the hamstring and use the 6uad as the resistance ?antagonist@. 0s #our hamsting starts winning& #ou start sinking& and #our 6uad will start lengthing. One ecause of the position and two ecause of the antagonistic inha ition caused from the hamstring contraction. "his will stimulate the 0lpha 9amma loop talked a out m# =a# so much. So far so good.

1ow the harder part. If #ou are pulling properl# #ou should fatigue an#where from 3 to '( seconds. "hen #ou will e done. "hat time is important ecause that is the time to get to the 0ero ic energ# s#stem. 0t that point #ou should stop and use the aero ic energ# s#stem to reco!er the first two s#stems #ou just fatigued. /ou will know when #ou are reco!ered ecause #ou will naturall# take one deep reath and then start reathing normall#. 0t that point start again. "he total time should still e * min. of work. +ost poeple elie!e #ou should train the aero ic s#stem # running on a tredmil or doing some sort of aero ics. %ut that is onl# one wa# the energ# can work. It can also work to reco!er the other s#stems. %ut #ou ha!e to train it to do that. If #ou keep e$ercising then #ou will use the energ# from that s#stem to go towards the e$ercise and none will go to the reco!er#. So # stopping& the energ# produced will reco!er the anero ic and 0"8 energ# c#cles. "hen #ou start again. 0n#wa#s. Feep doing that. "hen as a test #ou will easil# e a le to hold the * min s6uat. =ust like the little kid. He has the reco!er# s#stem working like it should. So he can hold easil#. 8lus when #ou do the test of tr#ing for * min. #ou are just rela$ing in the position. 1ot pulling like cra.#. So that is the difference. A!entuall# #ou should e a le to c#cle through the energ# c#cles. ;sing the aero ic to hold #ou while it reco!ers the other two c#cles 6uicl# then #ou can switch ack to the 0"8 and 0naero ic while the aero ic reco!ers it self. OF. Lets hear the 6uestions...

I agree 7((E with 9iuseppe. If #ou are not out of #our comfort .one #ou are onl# creating adaptation towards eing slower and weaker. So what I mean is if #ou could pull down for ,( seconds. "hen #our training session should consist of pulling down for ,( seconds& staning up until reco!ered ?monitor # heart rate or reating rate@ then going again for 7* reps ?'(( seconds of work@ /ou must complete this entire workout for ,7 sessions in a row. 1ote I said sessions. /ou can do more then one session per da# or 7 session e!er# other da#. What e!er #ou like. 0fter ,7 session #ou should retest again& ? #ou should e closer to holdeing for '( seconds@ "hen di!ide that num er into '(( to find the num er of reps. So '( sec. for 7( reps. +ost people will test etween 3 and '( seconds. 0 highl# highl# highl# conditioned athlete ma# reach as high as )* seconds. 1ow after a while #ou will want to see how good #ou are doing. So then #ou need to test #ourself. /ou can do that # ma$ing on the s6uat& doing a running test& or tr#ing to hold the s6uat position normall# like a ' #ear old kid would do. In a rela$ed postion not pulling down hard. Hopefull# this makes sense. Let me know.

I will tr# to address some of the peripheral mechanisms underl#ing iso e$tremes and some points of contentionH6uestions I ha!e with the a o!e e$planation. ;ndou tedl# I'll miss some thoughts I had while reading the comments a o!e& ut hopefull# the#'ll come to me in su se6uent posts. 2irst& m# understanding of I0 and I% afferents is that I0& which are afferents from the muscle spindle& respond to oth magnitude of muscle stretch ?a solute muscle length@ and rate of stretch& oth ser!ing as e$citator# impulses to the agonist. <on!ersel#& I% afferents originate from the 9"O of the musculotendinous region& are most responsi!e to tension in the muscle ?though this is an o!ersimplification@& and inhi its the agonist. 0t the same time that muscle spindle acti!it# increases in a lengthened agonist& it inhi its motoneuronal e$cita ilit# to the antagonist. >elatedl#& if the I% afferent is e$cited& it inhi its the agonist while e$citing the antagonist. On a !er# elemental le!el& Ia and I afferents ha!e opposite effects. With this in mind& I elie!e that Ia afferents ?from muscle spindle@ are most acti!e during an isometric at long muscle lengthens ?think ADI@ or rapid and hea!# eccentrics. If the muscle is concentricall# contracting& the stretch on the muscle spindle is not as great as possi le& there # Ia afferent impulses are not at ma$ fre6uenc#. 2urthermore& if a desire of the iso e$treme is to rela$ the lengthened antagonist& is it counterproducti!e to ha!e this muscle at long muscle lengths& where Ia acti!it# ma# feed ack to the !entral horn to increase e$cita ilit#Second& I think there are se!eral mechanisms that can e$plain the inhi ition of a muscle following static stretching. It ma# e that the 9"O pla#s a role& I don't know. I also suspect that there are descending supraspinal inputs that reduce the central integrated state of that lower motoneuron. What I'm prett# sure ma# e happening& is that the actom#osin cross ridges of the actual muscle spindles are resetting to longer resting lengths during the stretch. Hence& when the stretch is stopped& there is inhi ited feed ack from the muscle spindle !ia the Ia afferents& there # lowering motoneuronal e$cita ilit# of that muscle. 0nother topic of interest is re!ealed during propiocepti!e neuromuscular facilitation ?812@& a t#pe of stretching similar to an iso e$treme& in which the agonist is contracted !oluntaril# at the e$treme angle in order to further lengthen the stretched antagonist. 1ow& in the past it was thought that due to reciprocal inhi ition& contracting the agonist would concurrentl# send an inhi itor# impulse to the lengthened antagonist. "his is similar to what Dr. = is proposing a o!e. %ut when looking at integrated A+9 readings& it was found that this !ariant of 812 actuall# increased motoneuronal e$cita ilit# of the antagonist4 "his suggests that the simple mechanism of reciprocal inhi ition is not e$plaining what is going on during 812& and this ma# ha!e applications to iso e$tremes. "hird& is a fatigued muscle just a shortened muscle- I must admit that I'm not entirel# well:read on the neural alterations that occur with fatigue& ut is the shortened state of the muscle e$plained just on a neural asis- "hat is& does the muscle shorten ecause of increased motoneuronal tone- Well& as an e$clusi!e mechanism& no. +uch of the reduction in force output& rate of force de!elopment& and rate of rela$ation of a fatigued muscle seems to occur in large part due to chances in the meta olic en!ironment of the muscle ?increased h#drogen ions& inorganic phosphate& potentiall# magnesium@. "he su se6uent shortening of muscle that occurs with DO+S seems to e attri uta le in large part to a loss of calcium homeostasis across the sacrolemma and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. With a constant& low le!el amount of calcium in the muscle& there is a chronic muscle tone...shortening the muscle. Interestingl#& atleast with e$ercise: induced muscle damage& and DO+S& there does not appear to e increased neural input into the muscle to e$plain the shortening& as an A+9 of a sore muscle shows little acti!it#. Show how can iso e$tremes help reco!er muscles- "his is speculation on m# part& ut I elie!e that the acti!it# ma# interact with neural factors as Dr. = proposed& ut that such acti!it# ma# also help restore <aI, homeostasis and some of these other meta olic im alances. 2urthermore& training the muscle at longer lengths can actuall# pre!ent soreness in , primar# wa#s& I elie!e. <reating high loads at long lengths will theoreticall# cause more sarcomeres to e added in series& and secondl#& the <aI, entering the cell ?through stretch acti!ated channels@ can 'prime' the adapti!e pathwa#s which guard against the o$idati!e damage that can occur during the inflammator# response which normall# occurs following e$ercise:induced muscle damage. 0lso& acti!ation of autonomic functions ma# help restore muscle function faster. So& if we can train in such a wa# that pre!ents muscle damage& we can train more fre6uentl# ?more than once e!er# , da#s or whate!er con!entional thought is@. 2ourth& I don't know how the aero ic pathwa#s and 0"8Hgl#col#tic pathwa#s can operate at separate times. When eginning an# muscle contraction& all energ# s#stems are utili.ed. "he intensit# of the e$ercise will determine which s#stem will predominantl# pro!ide energ#& ut all are acti!e. 0"8H8<r urns up in a out 7( seconds& gl#col#sis then ecomes the primar# energ# pro!ider of 0"8& then if acti!it# continues the aero ic s#stem will ecome primar#. %ut all s#stems are acti!e from the start. 1o dou t the aero ic s#stem will restore phosphagenHgl#col#tic capacities& ut I don't know how this can happen during continuous e$ercise if that e$ercise was just at a sufficient intensit# to deplete these faster energ# supplies. Instead& I would think that something has to gi!e...meta olites accumulate& force output decreases& all the while the aero ic s#stem is tr#ing to keep up. <#cling through the energ# s#stems seems impossi le to me unless a significant drop in intensit# occurs& as would e possi le during reak. %ut to sustain a ma$imal contraction for * minutes& while perhaps possi le from the neural commands standpoint ?though slight decrease in impulse fre6uenc# ala 'muscle wisdom'@& the force output of the muscle would undou tedl# decline as meta olites accumulate. Lastl#& wh# ,7 sessions- It would seem that such a num er must e an a!erage time course for the a!erage person to de!elop the appropriate trait. Is it just an issue of motor learning- 0s people come to training in different preparedness& it would also seem that there would e a good deal of !ariation around this norm. I welcome an# 6uestionsHcommentsHdisagreement

=oe& I understand #our point. I also think there is a lot of o!erlap etween the stimulation achie!ed # performing correct e$ercise and the stimulation achie!ed # the In:%alance techni6ue& so further discussion is warranted. "o get this going again& I'd like to touch on the first of %en's points. /ou mentioned& %en& that the 70 afferent of the antagonist ?lengthened muscle@ in iso e$treme position will send an e$citator# signal to tr# to acti!ate and shorten that same muscle ?to protect itself so it doesn't get too long and tear@. "o continue to lengthen the antagonist muscle& we therefore ha!e to work against this refle$ with conscious effort of the agonist. <an such effort reset the stretch refle$ to occur later& allowing the muscle to go to a greater length efore such protecti!e mechanisms occur"he 70 also pro!ides the greatest magnitude of afferent feed ack. Do #ou think another purpose of the ma$imall#:lengthened state might e to ma$imi.e afferent feed ack to the rain& so that those neural pathwa#s mature and the rain can communicate with that muscle more effecti!el#- I ha!e encountered in !arious places the notion that if the rain can control a muscle at its e$treme range& then it can control that muscle through its entire range. "his point seems oth rele!ant and important& and I'd appreciate an# further ela oration on the mechanics. 0lso& can #ou or Dr. = please clarif# the 5alpha:gamma loop5 in this conte$t- If the alpha motor neuron of the agonist fires ?in concentric contraction@& there will e slack on the muscle spindle and the gamma motor neuron of the same muscle will ha!e to fire to keep tension on the spindle. "hat seems like a positi!e feed ack loop :: as more alpha +1's fire& so too must more gamma +1's. Is that what Dr. = is referring to a o!e-

"raining& "his discussion is a out training& ut these opinions are mine alone. "his discussion sa#s nothing a out the thought& techni6ue& or has an# reflection of =a# Schroeder or Denis "hompson. If #ou want specific information a out their treatment or training protocols #ou should contact them directl# and ask. In training there are some principles that must e remem ered at all times and applied at all times. 7. "he first step in training an athlete is position. ,. "he second step in training an athlete is to a sor force in position. '. "he third step in training and athlete is to create force from the position. ). "he components of training are& 2orce& Jelocit#& Jelocit# Andurance& and Strength Andurance. *. A!er# stimulus creates a predicta le response. "he response ma# e good or ad& ut it is alwa#s predicta le. 6. "raining should alwa#s e done to the ma$imum& using !elocit# of mo!ement& length of time& amount of load. "raining an# less then ma$imum will onl# create a less then ma$imum response. So for training an athlete the first place to start is with the ISO A$treme training. We do this to teach position and to get the energ# s#stems working. In this phase of training there are a m#riad of poses one could choose. Some e$amples are the front deltoid raise& wall push off& standing glutHham& s6uat or wall s6uat& standing straight leg raise& upright row& push:up& and the Iso 0 s. "he components to a good position are a D(:degree angle from the lim into the ground or wall& pulling into position& the position should e the ma$imal down position ?with e$ceptions@& and the duration should last for '(( seconds or more. In the lunge the front leg ?shin@ should make a D(:degree angle with the floor at all times& no e$ceptions. With the wall push:off the forearm ?the part from the wrist to the el ow@ should make a D(:degree angle with the wall. In the standing straight leg raise the thigh ?the part etween the knee and hip@ should create a D(:degree angle with the od#. I hope # now #ou are getting the D(:degree rule. In the lunge the front leg should e pulling into position with the hamstring. "his is ecause we create force into the ground # pulling. If #ou are pushing into the ground with the 6uad of the front leg #ou are actuall# making a reaking step first& then #ou must pull with the hamstring ?as a normal mo!ement re6uires@ ut #ou must also pla# catch:up. What a waste of energ#& reaking and then pulling to catch:up. Wh# not just pull the whole time to create more forward action. +ostl# for this rule tr# to think of the direction #ou are tr#ing to go. Wall push:off& towards the wall& s6uat& towards the ground& front deltoid raise& towards the ground. 8ull 8ull 8ull. "he ma$imal downward position. "his rule is !er# important and often confused with the D(:degree rule. 2or e$ample& man# people think the lunge position should ha!e a D(:degree position of the knee& ut in actualit# the D(:degree rule is applied to the leg:ground relationship. It has nothing to do with the angle of the knee. 2or some people it will e a o!e D(:degrees and for some people it will e elow D(:degrees. 0s long as the person is as low as the# can possi l# go. 0nother good e$ample is the iso push:up. "he person should create the D(:degree angle etween the floor and the forearm& not at the el ow. "he person should e tr#ing to get as close to the floor as possi le. 8ulling towards the floor is the onl# wa# to acti!ate the appropriate muscles. If the personKs chest is hitting the floor& then some other de!ice needs to e used to allow the person to go e#ond the distance of the floor. In this case chairs can e used. '(( seconds L * minutes. Wh# this amount of time- 1o one knows. Some people might claim to know& ut the# wonKt tell #ou ecause the# donKt know. Some claim this is the amount of time for all of the energ# s#stems to rotate through. Some claim that after MresearchN the# found that after ' minutes of IsoKs we found gain 0& with * minutes we found gain %& and with 3 minutes we found gain <. When comparing the results the# found the amount of work in relation to the amount of time spent * minutes was the optimal amount of time for the amount of enefit. %ut this stud# doesnKt e$ist or to sa# in another wa# I ha!e ne!er seen it. %ut regardless a total work time of '(( seconds should tr# to e achie!ed per e$ercise. "his means when doing the right lunge #ou sta# with the right leg forward for as man# sets as it takes to reach '(( seconds. "hen and onl# then can #ou switch to the other leg forward. "his is a !er# common mistake to switch ack and forth. 1e!er do that. "he energ# s#stems are either anaero ic ?without o$#gen@& or 0ero ic ?with o$#gen@. "he anaero ic energ# s#stems can e further roken down into 0"8& 0"8 I <8& and I gl#cogen. "he aero ic energ# s#stems can e further roken down into 9l#cogen& Lactic acid& and 2att# 0cids. %ut asicall# it goes like this. We ha!e stored 0"8 in our muscles& which is read# for use at an# time. "his t#pe of energ# will onl# last a out 7:' seconds. Once the 0"8 runs out it is up to the rest of the energ# c#cles to produce 0"8 for energ#. <reatine phosphate can produce 0"8 for a out ):)* seconds& and gl#cogen from )*:7,( seconds& lactic acid from 7,(:,)( seconds& and finall# fatt# acids after ,)( seconds. So for e$ample the gl#cogen s#stem is a s#stem that will generate 0"8 for the muscle to use. Since this s#stem is slower at producing 0"8 than the <reatine 8hosphate s#stem the power output of the muscle will e less. "he rate:limiting factor is the a ilit# to regenerate 0"8. /ou can actuall# tell what energ# production s#stem is the most inefficient # watching the time it takes an athlete to fatigue. 0ll three energ# s#stems contri ute at the start of e$ercise ut the contri ution depends upon the indi!idual& the effort applied or on the rate at which energ# is used. 0s an e$ercise starts 0"8 stores which are in the muscle will e used first. 0fter a out , seconds the creatine phosphate ?also stored in the muscle@ will regenerate the roken down 0"8. 0"8 ?adenosine triphosphate@ forms 0D8 ?adenosine diphosphate@ which releases energ# the muscle can use. "he creatine phosphate just gi!es another phosphate group ack to

the 0D8 to form 0"8 again. "his process will continue until all of the creatine phosphate is used up ?a out 6 seconds@. Once all of the creatine phosphate stores are depleted the od# resorts to stored glucose to produce 0"8. "he reakdown of glucose in an anaero ic en!ironment is called anaero ic gl#col#sis and results in the production of p#ru!ate and h#dronium ions ?HI@. "he HI must e transported into the mitrochondria to e used in the Freps c#cle. 0s the e$ercise continues the HI ions start to uild up and create an acidic en!ironment inside of the muscle. "o pre!ent the uild up of HI ions p#ru!ic acid can accept the HI and carr# it out. "his com ination forms lactic acid. "he lactate diffuses into the lood and takes some of the HI with it. 0s the HI uilds up and the en!ironment ecomes more acidic the contraction of the muscle will e impaired. "he low pH ?acidic en!ironment@ will also stimulate the free ner!e endings in the muscle causing a urning sensation. Lactic acid is not responsi le for the urning sensation in the muscle when e$ercising !er# fast. "his sensation is due to the e$cess HI ions ecause the# cannot e remo!ed fast enough. Lactic acid is also not responsi le for DO+S ?dela#ed onset muscle soreness@. Lactic acid is also not a waste product. Once the lactic acid diffuses into the lood it e!entuall# arri!es in the li!er where it participates in the cori c#cle to form glucose again. "his glucose can e released ack into the lood to e used as energ#. "#picall# the process of mo!ing the lactic acid from the muscle to the li!er takes at least one hour. "he lactate can also e con!erted directl# to 0"8 in the muscle for immediate use or to gl#cogen for later energ#. Feep in mind that lactic acid is onl# formed when the en!ironment in the muscle is without o$#gen. During aero ic e$ercise there is enough o$#gen to allow 10D to properl# mo!e the HI ions into the electron transport chain in the mitochondria. "he goal of training is to create efficienc# of mo!ement of the HI ions out of the muscle into the mitochondria. "his can e done # increasing the micro!asculature in the muscle ?more O,@ and # increasing the stored amounts of the other meta olites. 0"8& the energ# of the muscle is also commonl# misunderstood. +an# people think this is the energ# for muscle contraction. 0ctuall#& this energ# causes muscle rela$ation and lengthening. "hink a out two common e$amples. When reaching #our threshold of work how does #our muscle feel- "ight or loose. 1ormall# it feels tight. "he other e$ample is a dead person. "he# ha!e muscles that are !er# stiff. >igor mortis is caused ecause there is no more 0"8 to cause muscle rela$ation. "his is important ecause in order for a muscle to contract it must first e rela$ed and lengthened. "his is where the first concepts come in. 0 lengthened muscle is a reco!ered muscle ?read# for contraction@ and a shortened muscle is a fatigued muscle ?not a le to contract and shorten ecause it is alread# short@. Iso metric training teaches the muscle to work in a lengthened position ecause as we work the muscle it will e shortening. Starting with a longer muscle will gi!e us more time to the full fatigue. Starting with a shorter muscle will gi!e us less time to reach full shortening& assuming oth muscles are shortening at the same rate. We also do Iso metric training to teach the od# what muscle to use to mo!e the lim into a particular position. "he ner!ous s#stem learns from repetition. 2i!e minutes of pulling into the same position is enough time to teach the ner!ous s#stem something. "he od# must also e a le to mo!e into the position under its own power. Doing as assisted mo!ement into a position will not create the same result as an unassisted mo!ement into the same position. "he rain must e a le to recogni.e the position and know how to use the muscles to mo!e into and out of the position. It can onl# do that though training. When a person mo!es a joint the muscles on either side of the joint alternate to support the joint. "he# do not turn on at the same time. "#picall# the muscles can alternate around 7* times per second. "he faster the joint mo!es the slower the alternation. %# holding a position we are creating the fastest alternation etween the fle$ors and e$tensors as possi le. We are teaching the muscles to communicate with each other and the rain a out joint position. "his communication onl# occurs when oth groups of muscles are eing contracted. What does this mean- While doing a Iso push:up the direction is down. So the athlete must e pulling down with the posterior muscles& ut at the same time he must e holding the position with the anterior muscles. One of the main reasons man# people use the iso training is to get awa# from stretching. "his is ecause we know that a muscle that is not contracting can not a sor force. "he force will transfer to the tendons and ligaments and make them ecome weaker and weaker o!er time. We also elie!e a longer muscle can contract faster and harder then a shortened muscle. So we train in a lengthened position. "here is not much of a difference etween stretching the pectoralis muscles andHor doing an iso push:up with out contracting the anterior muscles as well. "here is a small difference& ut oth will cause weakening of the tendons and ligaments of the anterior part. 0lso since holding the position causes the fastest possi le alternation of the two muscle groups it is similar to training at the fastest !elocit#. 0n# mo!ement other then an actual ma$imum !elocit# mo!ement will ha!e a slowing effect of these refle$es. When the proper refle$ is stimulated ?or an a normal refle$ for that matter@ the od# will tr# to make that pathwa# the preferred pathwa#. It will la# down m#elin and other proteins making the ner!es stronger and faster. %ecause other pathwa#s are not eing used the# will loose protein and m#elin. "hese refle$es can happen automaticall# when a person is put into an Iso e$ercise& ut the rain also has the a ilit# to modif#& and e!en o!erride all refle$es in the od#. It is !er# important to ha!e the rain focused on what is happening.

Iso e$treme training does all that I ha!e said a o!e. It causes the ma$imal firing of the proper refle$es for a prolonged duration causing neurological learning. It also is long enough duration to c#cle through all of the energ# s#stems& stimulating them to ecome more efficient. With contraction of large groups of muscles we also get more neuromuscular junction growth& which e6uals a larger recruitment of the num er of muscle fi ers& which means a stronger contraction. Longer looser muscles will also ha!e a higher a ilit# to increase the lood flow clearing the HI ions. Iso e$treme will also cause the actual growth of the muscle fi ers. Literall# the fi ers will ecome longer. "his means longer muscles and looser odies. How long do the Iso A$treme e$ercises ha!e to continue- Well for some people fore!er& for others one #ear or more& and for others a few months. It depends on man# factors like& how fast the personKs ner!ous s#stem adapts& how fast the energ# c#cles adapt& the amount of effort the athlete puts into the e$ercises. 2i!e minutes of doing the e$act same thing takes a tremendous amount of concentration. %ut e!entuall# #ou should reach a le!el where the athlete can hold all of the positions for * minutes without accumulating so man# HI ions the muscle 6uits& and ha!e efficient enough energ# s#stems to produce 0"8 fast enough to continue the rela$ation of the muscle. Onl# mo!e on to the second t#pe of training after all of the s#stems of the od# ?digestion& immune& energ#& neurological& cardiac& ect.@ ha!e full# adapted to the stimulus. "he proper wa# to do an Iso A$treme A$ercise& in m# opinion& is to constantl# pull down into position while also at the same time resist that mo!ement with the antagonist. "he position should e the closest position to the end range of motion as possi le& ut so that if the antagonist ?the lengthened muscle@ was to e rela$ed a noticea le downward mo!ement of less than one inch would occur. "he instruction people ha!e for the Iso e$ercises do not sa# this ecause this is a learning process that the athlete must figure out on his own. "he least amount of instruction to do an e$ercise is the est. ;ntil that da#& he will ha!e to sta# on the Iso e$ercise program. 1e!er rest against a rela$ed& stretched muscle group. Once the proper position has een achie!ed and the energ# s#stems are in place to support a high amount of work& the ne$t process is to teach the athlete to turn on at a high !elocit#. ;sing the rain of the athlete to turn on a muscle group is wa# to slow. We teach the athlete to turn on # causing a life or death situation where the od# reacts refle$i!el# with out using the rain initiall#. "hese life or death situations are not reall# life or death& ut it does a good jo at getting the od# to react. "his t#pe of e$ercise is called an altitude drop. 0 weight is dropped from a distance and the athlete is e$pected to stop the weight as a ruptl# as possi le while maintaining the position. "his can onl# e accomplished if all of the supporting muscles turn on as fast as possi le. 0n altitude drop can e done in an# position& s6uat& lunge& push:up& front deltoid raise& ecause the method can e applied in that position. "#picall# the athlete would start with a light weight and progress up to hea!ier weights as he was a le to a sor the force properl#. In the case where the weight can not e changed we can still !ar# the height of the drop. 0n e$ample of this is jumping down from the pl#ometric o$. In this e$ercise the weight ? od# weight@ is constant and we !ar# the height the athlete drops from. "he third step to training an athlete is to teach them to create force from the position. "his t#pe of e$ercise is called the re ound. "his e$ercise uses dropping weights& ut it is different. "he athlete starts in the eginning position& for e$ample el ow fle$ion of D( degrees for the iceps curl re ound. "he athlete lets go of the weight and mo!es from the start position into the Iso A$treme position then returns to the starting position. "he onl# catch is along the returning path the athlete will run into the falling weight. He must a sor the weight& plus create e$cess force to o!ercome the weight and return the weight to the starting position. "he full range of motion must e used for each repetition. "his t#pe of e$ercise also teaches the od# to mo!e into the e$treme position& ut at high !elocit#. In the Iso A$treme the muscle groups alternated ack and forth as fast as possi le. In the re ound each group fires just once. "his firing pattern is !er# powerful and actuall# stimulates the antagonist muscle group to rela$ properl#. 2or e$ample in the iceps curl re ound& the athlete is starting at a D( degree el ow fle$ion position. He lets go of the weight& full# e$tends his el ows then returns to the starting positions while catching the weight at the same time. Here we can see the triceps fires !er# powerfull# to e$tend the arm while acti!el# inhi iting the iceps. "he limit of the triceps to e$tend the arm is the a ilit# of the iceps to rela$. "his rela$ation is also important ecause rela$ation is lengthening& which is also reco!er#. "his t#pe of e$ercise teaches the muscle groups to stimulate reco!er# of the antagonist. ;nlike the altitude drop& where hea!ier weights are used& here we start with hea!ier weights and mo!e to lighter weights. Lighter weights are harder ecause the athlete must mo!e much faster. "here is a much greater le!el of coordination in!ol!ed to let go of the weight and catch it again. "here are also man# other !aria les and or wa#s to modif# or change the e$ercises. "his all depends on what result #ou are tr#ing to create. >emem er that with an# stimulation there will e a predicta le result. "hat means we know what we should see after an e$ercise. If we donKt see the result& the stimulus was wrong. Sometimes we gi!e the athlete a ad stimulus as a test to see how he copes with the stimulus. 2or e$ample& we ma# e$ercise a particular muscle group such as the latissimus dorsi to fatigue& then ha!e the athlete ma$ in the ench press. "he test is to see if the athlete is a le to hold position in the ench ?shoulders down& chest separated etc.@ It doesnKt matter if he can lift the weight as long as he doesnKt reak position he passes the test.

9reat 0rticles a o!e. I reall# enjo#ed the one a out h#po$ia with low le!el work. I don't think h#po$ia is causing death of the mitochondria. It would take hours to create enough h#po$ia in the area to produce cell death from training alone. 0lthough training ?maintaining a constant muscle contraction@ does cause mild h#po$ia there still is a small amount of lood flow. %ut this ma# help e$plain while doing Iso metric work causes faster changes in the strength of the muscle then regular training. I was thinking that in a h#po$ic situation the reak down of gl#cogen to p#ru!ate and then to lactic acid ma# cause such a high le!el of acid in the muscle that ma# e it could actuall# e damaging to the structure. %ut now I don't think that. I don't actuall# do !er# much of the training with m# team. +ostl# stick with the injuries. %ut I ha!e trained some other teams. ?"rack and field@. I used the Isometric work e!er# single da#. 0lthough the kids felt 5hea!#5 like #ou descri ed the# all ran faster& or could lift more each da#. I also found that after a rest period the kids would ha!e a super compensation. "heir a ilities were e!en more heightened. I would train them each da# with Isometrics& then switch the e$ercises a few da#s efore a ig track meet with the aim of super compensating on the da# of the track meet. It worked reall# well. %ut there were also man# track meets I didn't do this for. "he reason eing that the longer I could train them dail# the igger super compensation I got. If I super compensated them each week for the upcoming meet the difference was small. If I waited ,:' weeks& then there was a !er# large impro!ement. I also found following the track meet or game the athlete needed a reco!er# period efore eginning the training period. In Soccer it is different ecause e!er# game is !er# important. In order to ha!e the athletes read# to perform at the top #ou ma# need a different training c#cle. "r# to think of the training as the stimulus and the response occurs in the time following the training. I will tr# to talk with a few poeple at the team tomorrow and find their opinions. <iao <iao

Dr =.& I would like to discuss #our difference in opinion ?with =a#@ regarding how to properl# e$ecute iso e$tremes. I struggled with ?and perhaps continue to@ this issue m#self for a while now& as I think #ou know. /ou argue that one should pull ma$imall# into position ?agonist@ while still contracting the lengthened antagonist so that the athlete has appro$imatel# 75 to go efore hitting rock ottom. >ock ottom& #ou argue& would occur if performing a static stretch or just pulling into position without acti!ating the antagonist. "he pro lem I see with this approach is that as time proceeds& and one fatigues& there will e less and less pulling with agonist and more and more racing with the antagonist and one tries to maintain the position. "hat is& when using od#weight& I ma# e a le to pull !iolentl# with the agonist initiall#& as the 'fresh' antagonist can produce sufficient force to counteract the force of gra!it# and the contracting agonist. Howe!er& as meta olic #products accumulate& the force output of the antagonist will decrease& #et gra!it# remains the same. "hus& to maintain position without collapsing& one would ?perhaps unconsciousl#@ reduced the pulling force of the agonist. /ou could then argue& that at this point& one should cease the e$ercise& rest& and perform su se6uent sets as #ou'!e suggested. %ut such an approach lea!es a lot of room for guesswork& in m# opinion. When does one decide to cease the e$ercise- "hat is& m# position could still appear correct ?e.g. pushup : shoulders down& chest ele!ated& pecs separated from sternum& upper arm at )* degree angle relati!e to side& lower arm perpendicular to floor@& ut I'd now e doing purel# an isometric hold. ;nder such circumstances& where the agonist is no longer contracting or contracting much less than eginning& would not the 7* H. oscillation #ou descri ed as !ital to the power of iso e$tremes then e diminished1ow& I can see #our argument against not contracting the antagonist& assuming that if one did not !olitionall# contract the antagonist& he'd e transferring force into a passi!e muscle. In such a case& the force to keep #ou off the ground would ha!e to e supplied # the connecti!e tissue and specificall# the series elastic component ?SA< : tendons& fascia& titin& etc.@ "his could e ad& as #ou noted& as stretching not onl# can weaken connecti!e tissue ?creating joint la$it#& insta ilit#@& ut also can inhi it su se6uent powerHforce output of the muscle. /et this is how ja# suggests the# e performed& as I understand it...pull as hard as possi le into position with agonist& don't race at all with antagonist. +# own past confusion was seeded in the issue of alpha:gamma coacti!ation of the lengthened antagonist& and the claim that iso e$tremes are !er# high !elocit# contractions. /our idea of a 7* h. oscillation of antagonistic pairs seems like a feasi le mechanism to e$plain the 'high:!elocit# claim'& ut I'd still e interested to see what the action potential fre6uencies running down the motoneurons would e. Does sprinting producing higher impulse trains than iso e$tremes- What a out the impulse machine- If so& can iso e$tremes still trul# e considered high !elocit# training- 2urthermore& we need to distinguish etween speed:strength and ma$ !elocit# as the#'re not the same trait ?though perhaps a force:!elocit# spectrum is more appropriate than thinking of a force:!elocit# dichotom#@. %ut to get ack to m# point regarding alpha:gamma coacti!ation& it is o !ious that a lengthened muscle will ha!e the potential for greater afferent feed ack from the "#pe Ia ? ag@ and "#pe II ?chain@ intrafusal fi ers. %ecause iso e$tremes don't& howe!er& ha!e a d#namic stretch& the afferent feed ack would not e as great as sa# an altitude dropHre ound. 2urthermore& m# iggest point of contention was that without !olitional efferent dri!e to the motoneuron ?think ADI@& the afferent feed ack would still not e as great. "hus the alpha: gamma coacti!ation of a lengthened antagonist in iso e$tremes would e far less than when performing something like an ADI where there is a ma$imal !oluntar# contraction of the lengthened muscle. "his stud# is a potential resolution to the issue httpGHHwww.nc i.nlm.nih.go!Hpu medH')')6,D ?sorr#& don't know if full article is a!aila le online& ut it is in american journal of ph#sical medicine if #ou ha!e access. I also ha!e it in pdf file& so email #our email address if #ou want a cop#. m# email is en.rothrauffOgmail.com@ What I think the ig finding is that pulling with agonist actuall# increased A+9 acti!it# of stretched antagonist. So Sherrington's reciprocal inhi ition is not all that appropriate in this case& or rather the asic refle$es can't alwa#s e applied as directl# as has een done in the past@. If such an e$planation were applied to iso e$tremes& pulling ma$imall# would refle$i!el# increase firing of the antagonist& possi l# a!oiding some of the issues #ou suggested concerning stretching. %ut e6uall# important to note is that an A+9 signal of **E ?relati!e to A+9 during ma$ !oluntar# contraction of antagonist@ was attained when ma$imall# contracting agonist to stretch antagonist. So m# contention of su ma$imal alpha:gamma coacti!ation during iso e$tremes appears !alid& at least for untrained su jects& as used in this stud#. Who knows what would e happening in elite athletes. +a# e there's a stud#. 0n#one& feel free to comment. I could keep t#ping& ut this is long enough& and hopefull# some 6uestions will allow me to focus m# contri ution to the con!ersation. I also ha!e some 6uestionsHthoughts a out altitude dropsHre ounds& ut that can wait. +isa : I will check out #our man# articles o!er the ne$t few da#s& though I'!e read man# of them. "hanks for #our efforts. 0s a side note& I'm %en> on the W92 forum. I don't comment a lot& ut follow the threads.

%en& 0s #ou know& =a# gi!es the athlete the least amount of information a out how to do an e$ercise properl#. "hen he lets them struggle with the e$ercise for months or e!en #ears tr#ing to MfeelN the e$ercise. %ecause of this no one reall# knows how to do an# of the e$ercises. %ut through discussions with some of the athletes who ha!e actuall# MfeltN the training I ha!e also reached m# understanding. I think #our conclusion of when #ou feel the agonist stop pulling #ou need to stop the e$ercise& rest& then repeat until the total time of '(( seconds is reached. Sure there is some su jecti!e parameters in!ol!ed& ut that is where the athletes participation comes into it. Sitting there in a position for * minutes using the wrong muscles is not the participation needed. "he athlete canKt rel# on the coach to tell him when to stop& he must feel it on his own. So what happens/ou pull ma$imall#& #ou get tired& #ou stop& rest& then repeat. A!entuall# #our are a le to do #our 7( sets of '( seconds& ut then something happens. What is it- /ou pull down into position and then #ou notice that #ou canKt go '( seconds an#more. Wh#- %ecause #ou are pulling now with a much greater force then #ou were efore. So #ou fatigue 6uicker. So now #ou start again. Sets of '(:second reps 7( times. A!entuall# #ou finall# get to the point where #ou can do it& ut then am. /ou turn on e!en harder and #ou reali.e #ou canKt do it an#more. "his is the secret. "urning on as hard a possi le. /ou will ne!er e a le to turn on as hard a possi le for * minutes ecause #ou run out of energ#. %ut #ou will e a le to turn on harder and harder for a shorter time. "his is the athlete participation. Who alwa#s wins& the fast. 1ot the one who can hold the longest. "o e fast #ou need to turn on harder. I also read the article #ou posted. "he goal of using the Iso e$treme position is not to create an inhi ition of the antagonist muscle. "he goal is to teach the muscles to work together to sta ili.e the joint. "his can onl# occur if all the muscles are contracting. >emem er that the position is the end >O+ ?almost@& couple that with a feeling& the rain does the rest automaticall#. +eaning that it will alwa#s know what muscles to use to get to the end >O+& no matter the eginning position.

=oe& Sorr# for the !er# !er# !er# slow repl#. 0n#wa#s. <1S 2atigue. 9ood 6uestion. With <1S fatigue #ou need to differentiate muscle fatigue signs and s#mptoms from <1S fatigue. "he ig difference is that with a muscle& the asic principle is to work the muscle to full fatigue& then the muscle will respond to meet the demand in the future # growing stronger. "his is how we train muscles. 0n# training which does not take the muscle to the 5end5 will not ha!e a high enough stimulus to cause the muscle to grow. It will actuall# ha!e the opposite effect of allowing the muscle to degenerate. With <1S fatigue it is different. When #ou stimulate a neuron or group of neurons #ou need to make sure there is fuel. 9lucose and o$#gen. With plent# of fuel #ou can start to create a stimulus& ut the stimulus must e within the range of fre6uenc# the neuron can handle& not more. 0s a neuron fires it will start to replicate protein and slowl# get stronger and stronger. "his will allow it to slowl# handle more and more stimulation. If a neuron is stimulated e#ond its le!el it will swell with water and e$plode& D#ing permanentl#. Or& if it is stimulated within its fre6uenc#& ut runs out of fuel& the same thing will happen. So normall# while looking for <1S fatigue #ou need to tr# to look at pools of neurons that loose their function& or are fatiguing !er# 6uickl#. "#picall# I look at the e#es. Since the ner!ous s#stem can fatigue in just one little area an eas# thing to do is look at pupil si.e. One e#e igger then the other could e a sign. It is reall# difficult to sa# 5signs of ner!ous s#stem fatigue5 ecause there are so man# other !aria les. 2or e$ample& if the corte$ fatigues& there will e a loss of s#mpathetic inhi itor# signals& which would e noted # an increase in s#mpathetic function. "#picall# goose umps& or flushing of the skin. So in this case& we get a h#per function& caused # fatigue of another area rather then a loss of function. 1ormall# training ?muscles@ will not e a le to cause a high enough stimulus to cause ner!ous s#stem fatigue. "he muscle fatigue would e the limiting factor& and the ner!ous s#stem would ha!e the a ilit# to go e#ond that. "his is in a normal person& a person with a compromised ner!ous s#stem could ha!e ner!ous s#stem fatigue just # mo!ing their e#es into the wrong position. "raining with the 0>8 can cause enough ner!ous stimulation to cause fatigue. "his would e noted the ne$t da# as 7. feeling the 0>8 on (H,(& ,. not eing a le to progress past ,.( power. '. 0 manic or depressi!e mood. "his is wh# it is onl# recommended # me to use the 0>8 for reco!er#& preparation& and short training sessions. ;sing the 0>8 on (H,( is a good wa# to help the reco!er# of the neurons though. "hat is wh# treatments and training are followed # *:7( min of (H,(. OF. Well I hope I answered #our 6uestions. If not& let me know and I will tr# again.

=erome& I full# elie!e that a * min. lunge done correctl# is impossi le ecause as #ou progress e#ond )* seconds the t#pe of fuel a!aila le for muscle contraction is produced too slowl#. "he num er of contractions per second drops off& which also means the intensit# of the contractions decreases drasticall#. So now no matter how hard the athlete tries to pull& the contractions will not e ma$imum. I think to see that the athlete is doing it correctl#& the# should fatigue around '( seconds. If the# maintain the position the# are fakers. One nice thing a out eing human is the a ilit# to control and modif# our refle$es. "hat is wh# the mental participation is necessar#. A!en with !er# powerful co:contraction& com ining with mental participation& e6uals an#thing #ou want to do. "he options are limitless. I think it is etter to corticall# modulate our refle$es to ser!e us& rather then e a refle$i!e eing.

=oe& I think #ou ha!e hit the nail on the head. "he comments a out o!er thinking the e$ercises are so true. A!er#one wants to anal#.e e!er# aspect of the e$ercise until it's not e!en an e$ercise an# more. "hat is a huge pro lem. 8eople don't need to know wh# it works& or if the e$act position is caused from what muscles pulling. =ust picture #our end& while #ou are in the position and ?like #ou said@ the rain does e!er#thing else. I will tell #ou though& concentrating on the 8I8AS& like #ou should& is more e$hausting then doing the stupid lunge. "hinking a out #our position takes awa# from 8I8AS& which decreases the effecti!eness of the training. I'm glad someone finall# commented on the seminar. I was waiting. n that position& #ou're s6uee.ing #our a s. Scapula are retracted ?down and ack towards #our hips@ per the correct position for most iso's& and the# should raise off the ground in the crunch. /ou should e crunching as high as possi le while maintaining the correct leg position ?thighs perpendicular to ground. shins parallel@. I'm glad to hear #ou made some good progress with #our iso's. It's also ama.ing to me how man# pla#ers actuall# do stagnate or get slower during college. "hose are #ears when #ou can make some huge gains& and it seems like the#'re wasted. /our emphasis on pulling is good tooP that's the whole ke#. +ost people get so side:tracked on the * minutes thing that the# just fight through it and ne!er get the enefit of doing right. '( seconds correct is much etter than '(( seconds wrong. /ou can certainl# do iso's for those fi!e weeks and make progress. =ust ear in mind that iso's aren't the end. "he#'re meant to train #ou to ecome efficient so that #ou can e$press all of the strength that #ou ha!e inside of #ou. 2or that reason& we ha!e to constantl# monitor to e sure that the adaptations from the iso's are transferring to useful endea!ors. /our sprint times& for e$ample. 0nother wa# to monitor how #ou're progressing is to introduce other forms of training& like altitude drops. If #ou're iso's are working& #ou should e a le to perform altitude drops more effecti!el# ?pulling aggressi!el#& stopping 6uickl# and in perfect position@. When #ou ha!e achie!ed some degree of proficienc# in #our e$treme iso positions& and that means different things to different people& I would start adding in altitude drops. 0lso& here is the se6uence of iso e$tremes as taught # =a#. I recommend sticking relati!el# close to this order& as man# of the e$ercises help #our od# reco!er from the pre!ious e$ercises or potentiate for the following one. :Lunge :Standing Hamstring :Wall S6uat :7 Leg S6uat :8ush:up :8reacher <url :Scapular 8ull:up It is important to do all of them& ecause #our od# works as a unit and muscles on oth sides of all #our major joints need to know how to work together for sta ilit# and efficient mo ilit#. 2or what it's worthG If #ou were training with me during that period and demonstrated proficienc# in #our iso's in the first two weeks& I'd switch to a alt drop:iso hold methodic. 2or e$ample& pull #ourself aggressi!el# into a push:up altitude drop st#le& iso e$treme for 7( seconds& then push up and repeat. Ste!en& I ha!e een coaching track and field for o!er C #ears now. I ne!er use m# 0>8 machines with the team. +ostl# ecause of the lia ilit# of using it on school grounds. 0n#wa#s. I do * min of ISO push:up& followed # * min lunge on each leg. "hen we do a normal practice. 0t the end of the practice I ha!e e!er# one do * min. of Standing glutHham. "hat is it& and I ha!e ne!er had a muscle related injur# in the whole C #ears. Dr. =. Ste!en& 9o do a leg e$tension test for a 7 rep ma$. "hen do a Leg curl for a 7 rep ma$. 0fter those two tests& #ou will know wh# there isn't much effort put on the 6uad. Aspeciall# when the keep to speed and power is the hamstring. When I do the Standing glut ham ?right or wrong@ I pull down with the a s and hip fle$ors& and then use the glut's and hamstring to pull the feet into the ground like if I was tr#ing to pull m# feet ackwards like a standing long jump. Quad contraction comes from the standing straight leg raise. What a east of an e$ercise.

Standing on one foot and keeping the spine and pel!is in an aligned and neutral position& fle$ the other hip to D( degrees of hip fle$ion with the knee also at D( degrees of fle$ion. 1e$t tr# to e$tend the knee as much as possi le while simultaneousl# maintain the D( degrees of hip fle$ion. Hold the position. 0s fatigue sets in the lower leg should slowl# mo!e ack to the original position of D( hip& D( knee. "r# to fight this mo!ement. 0t no time should the thigh e mo!ed up or down. It is critical that it maintains the position of D( degree hip fle$ion. When D( degrees of knee fle$ion is finall# reached #ou ma# stop the e$ercise. It is !er# uncomforta le and difficult. Ha!e fun. Let me know what #ou e$perience. Dr. =.