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December 18, 2013

Fermentation I Fermentation is the process that converts the juice of fresh grapes into wine. By definition, it is the process of converting sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide caused by the metabolism of yeast



After the grapes are crushed, yeast is added to the juice. During fermentation, the yeast convert the sugar into four byproducts: . !thyl alcohol: "tays in the wine #. $arbon dioxide gas: !scapes %except in spar&ling wine' (. )eat energy: *emoved by refrigeration +. ,ater: "tays in the wine -his transformation ends only when the sugar is completely consumed. ,hite wines are fermented after the s&ins and seeds have been removed through pressing. *ed wines are fermented with seeds and s&ins to impart the color to the wine, and pressed after fermentation. -his fermentation ta&es place in either refrigerated stainless steel tan&s or oa& barrels. Fermenting in stainless steel, used for some whites and all reds, preserves the character of the grape. Fermenting in oa&, used for some $hardonnays and "auvignon Blancs, adds to the character of the grape. Fermentation II Fermentation gives red and blush wines their color. As the wine ferments and alcohol forms, the alcohol dissolves the red pigment from the s&ins. -he juice begins to turn pin&, then red, depending on how long the fermenting wine is left .on the s&ins.. *ed grape juice is pumped bac& over the s&ins multiple times during fermentation to extract maximum color and flavor from the s&in .cap..



December 18, 2013

A in -he aging of wine after fermentation is what distinguishes wine from almost every other beverage. ,hen a wine is allowed to age, significant changes occur which increase smoothness, complexity and value. *ed wines are pressed to remove s&ins and seeds before aging begins. -here are three methods of aging wine before bottling, and each imparts something to the wine/s character. 0 Aging in stainless steel preserves the fresh fruit character of the wine, adding no additional complexity. 0 Aging in oa& barrels adds wood aroma and flavor1 it can also add harsh wood tannins to the wine if barrels are new, but mellow the wine if barrels are old. 2any premium and super3premium wines are made li&e this. 0 -he third method is to age the wine in steel or oa& barrels with the yeast deposit still present. -his method, called .sur3lie. or .on the lees,. adds a toasty 4uality, ma&ing the wine smooth and complex. -he aging process, particularly in oa&, allows time for the short %harsh' molecular tannin chains to combine into longer %softer' tannin chains, ma&ing the wine smoother. Additional aging time for some wines after bottling will add further changes to wine, both red and white. 2ost white wines are crafted to be enjoyed young or with minimal bottle aging. For red wines, the varietal, grape source and winema&ing processes used generally determine whether the wine should be further bottle aged after release.



December 18, 2013

Sme!! an" Ta#te

)ave you ever tried desperately to detect flavour from a food or beverage when you had a terrible cold5 6ou probably tasted very little, if anything at all. *esearch indicates that 78 to 79: of what we taste is actually due to our sense of smell. "mell and taste go hand3in3hand when wine tasting . . . without your sense of smell you would be unable to detect the delicate flavours of chocolate, herbs or smo&e in your wine.

T$e t$ree #te%# in &ine ta#tin are' Loo() Sme!!) an" Ta#te*


6ou can tell much about a wine simply by studying its appearance. -he wine should be poured into a clear glass and held in front of a white bac&ground %a tablecloth or piece of paper will serve nicely' so that you can examine the colour. -he colour of wine varies tremendously. For example, white wines are not actually white1 they range from green to yellow to brown. 2ore colour in a white wine usually indicates more flavour and age, although a brown wine may have gone bad. *ed wines are not just red1 they range from a pale red to a deep brown red, usually becoming lighter in colour as they age. Rim +o!o,r: 6ou can guess the age of a red wine by observing its .rim.. -ilt the glass slightly and loo& at the edge of the wine. A purple tint may indicate youth while orange to brown indicates maturity %an older wine'. S&ir!in : "wirling the wine serves many purposes, but visually it allows you to observe the body of the wine. .;ood legs. %how the wine clings to the glass' may indicate a thic&er body and a higher alcohol content and<or sweetness level.


"wirl your wine. -his releases molecules in the wine allowing you to smell the aroma, also called the bou4uet or nose. -he two main techni4ues that wine tasters use are: .' -a&e a 4uic& whiff and formulate an initial impression, then ta&e a second deeper whiff or #.' -a&e only one deep whiff. $oncentrate only on what you smell. =t may be difficult to describe in words when you/re a novice, but after trying many wines you will notice similarities and differences. "ometimes a certain smell will be very strong with underlying hints of other smells. -a&e your time. By labelling an aroma you will probably remember it better. 6ou may even want to &eep a noteboo& of your impressions of wines.



December 18, 2013


-he most important 4uality of a wine is its balance between sweetness and acidity. -o get the full taste of a wine follow the following three steps: . Initia! ta#te %or first impression': -his is where the wine awa&ens your senses %your taste buds respond to sensations'. #. Ta#te: "losh the wine around and draw in some air. !xamine the body and texture of the wine. =s it light or rich5 "mooth or harsh5 (. A-terta#te: -he taste that remains in your mouth after you have swallowed the wine. )ow long did the taste last5 ,as it pleasant5 After tasting the wine, ta&e a moment to value its overall flavour and balance. =s the taste appropriate for that type of wine5 =f the wine is very dry, is it supposed to be5



December 18, 2013

-he temperature at which a wine is served has an immense impact on its taste. "erving wine cool will mas& some imperfections>good for young or cheap wine>while a warmer wine temperature allows expression of the wine/s characteristics>best with an older or more expensive wine. A bottle of wine will cool # ?$ %+ ?F' for every ten minutes in the refrigerator, and will warm at about this same rate when removed from the refrigerator and left at room temperature>the temperature of the room will affect the speed with which the wine warms up. =f you need to chill a bottle of wine in a hurry, (9 minutes in the free@er will do the tric&.

De+antin Wine

Decanting is pouring wine into a decorative container before serving. Decanting is typically only necessary for older wines or Aorts, which contain sediment that can add bitterness to the wine. ,ine decanters allow the wine to breathe and may improve the flavour of older red wines. 6ounger wines also benefit from the aeration and rest that decanting provides. But a wine decanter can also be used simply for aesthetic reasons. Before decanting a wine that contains sediment let the bottle rest upright allowing any sediment to sin& to the bottom. -hen slowing pour the wine into the decanter &eeping the bottle angled to prevent any sediment from ma&ing its way into the wine decanter. -he wine can be poured through cheesecloth to help filter out any wayward particles.

Po,rin Wine

"till wines should be poured towards the center of the glass, while spar&ling wines should be poured against the side to preserve bubbles. -o control drips, twist the bottle slightly as you tilt it upright. ,hen pouring wine, fill the glass no more than two3thirds. -his will allow your guests to swirl the wine, smell the bou4uet and chec& out the wine/s .legs.. A glass can always be refilled if desired. At a dinner party, serve wine to the women and older guests first, then the men and end with your own glass.



December 18, 2013

Wine G!a##e#

As important as wine serving temperatures is the type of wine glasses in which wines are served. -he shape of a wine glass can impact the taste of the wine, and for this reason different types of wine are served in different glasses. -he three main types of wine glasses are: 0 ,hite wine glasses: tulip shaped 0 *ed wine glasses: more rounded and have a larger bowl %allows more oxygen to mix with the wine and thus let the wine breath' 0 "par&ling wine flutes: tall and thin. A suitable all3purpose wine glass should hold 8 o@, be transparent to allow the taster to examine the colour of the wine and its body, and have a slight curve in at the top to hold in the bou4uet. ,hile an all3purpose wine glass is fine for serving a red wine, do not serve a white wine in a red wine glass.



December 18, 2013

Wine De-inition#

A+i"it.: Describes a tart or sour taste in the mouth when total acidity of the wine is high. .-art. and .twangy. are two descriptors for acidity. A-terta#te: -he taste or flavours that linger in the mouth after the wine is tasted, spit or swallowed. 2ay be .harsh,. .hot,. .soft,. .lingering,. .short,. .smooth,. or nonexistent. "ee also /Finish./ Aroma: Bsually refers to the particular smell of the grape variety, i.e., .appley,. .raisiny,. .fresh. or .tired.. Bo".: -he weight of wine in your mouth1 commonly expressed as full3bodied, medium3 bodied or medium3weight, or light3bodied. Bo,/,et: A tasting term used to describe the smell of the wine as it matures in the bottle. Fini#$: -he taste that remains in the mouth after swallowing. A long finish indicates a wine of good 4uality. Le #: -he viscous droplets that form and ease down the sides of the glass when the wine is swirled. Len t$: -he amount of time the sensations of taste and aroma persist after swallowing. 0o,t$-ee!: )ow a wine feels in the mouth and against the tongue. No#e: "ee /Aroma/ Pa!ate: -he feel and taste of wine in the mouth. 1,a--er: A wine to drin& %not sip'.

Wine De-inition#' C$ara+ter

A+ri": Describes a wine with overly pronounced acidity. -his is often apparent in cheap red wines. A##erti2e: Bpfront, forward. Attra+ti2e: A lighter style, fresh, easy to drin& wine. Ba!an+e": =ndicates that the fruit, acid, wood flavours are in the right proportion. A wine is well balanced when none of those characteristics dominates. ,ine not in balance may be .acidic,. .cloying,. .flat. or .harsh.. Bi : A wine that is full3bodied, rich and slightly alcoholic tasting. C$ara+ter: A wine with top3notch distinguishing 4ualities. Cri#%: Denotes a fresh, young, wine with good acidity. C,ttin E" e: "tylistic, hip. C!o#e": Describes wines that are concentrated and have character, but are shy in aroma or flavour. Com%!ete: A full3bodied wine rich in extracts with a pronounced finish. Com%!e3: Describes a wine that combines all flavour and taste components in almost miraculous harmony. De!i+ate: Bsed to describe light3 to medium3weight wines with good flavours. Den#e: Describes a wine that has concentrated aromas on the nose and palate, desirable in young wines.



December 18, 2013

De%t$: Describes the complexity and concentration of flavours in a wine. ;enerally refers to a 4uality wine with subtle layers of flavour that go .deep.. Cpposite of /"hallow./ De2e!o%e": *efers to the maturity of a wine. E!e ant: Describes a wine of grace, balance and beauty. Em%t.: Flavourless and uninteresting. Fa"in : Describes a wine that is losing colour, fruit or flavour, usually as a result of age. F!a44.: Dac&ing acidity on the palate. F!at: )aving low acidity1 the next stage after flabby1 or refers to a spar&ling wine that has lost its bubbles. F,!!5Bo"ie": Fills the mouth. Cpposite of /thin3bodied./ Gra+e-,!: Describes a wine that is subtly harmonious and pleasing. Ne,tra!: Describes a wine without outstanding characteristics, good or bad. Pe"e#trian: Alain. Potent: Describes a strong, intense, powerful wine. Ro4,#t: Describes a full3bodied, intense and vigorous wine1 possibly inflated. Ro,n": Describes a well3balanced wine in fruit, tannins and body. Se",+ti2e: A wine that is appealing. S$ort: Describes a wine that does not remain on the palate after swallowing. Sim%!e: Describes a wine with few characteristics that follow the initial impression. Eot necessarily unfavourable1 often describes an inexpensive, young wine. So-t: Describes a wine with low acid<tannin, or alcohol content with little impact on the palate. S,%%!e: Describes a wine with well3balanced tannins and fruit characteristics. T$in: Dac&ing body and depth.

Wine De-inition#' Ta#te".: "mell of farm animals. Eegative. Bite: A mar&ed degree of acidity or tannin. An acid grip in the finish should be more li&e a @estful tang and is tolerable only in a rich, full3bodied wine. Bitter: Cne of the four basic tastes. $onsidered a fault if the bitterness dominates the flavour or aftertaste. A trace in sweet wines may complement the flavours. =n young red wines it can be a warning signal, as bitterness doesn/t always dissipate with age. A fine, mature wine should not be bitter on the palate. B,tter.: =t refers to both flavour and texture or mouthfeel. C$e&.: Describes rich, heavy, tannic wines that are full3bodied. Cor(e": -he wine tastes of cor&, it is unpleasant to smell and taste, slightly musty. Dirt.: $overs any and all foul, ran&, off3putting smells that can occur in a wine, including those caused by bad barrels or cor&s. A sign of poor winema&ing. Eart$.: Describes a wine that tastes of soil, most common in red wines. $an be used both positively %pleasant, clean 4uality adding complexity to aroma and flavour' and negatively %barnyardy character bordering on dirtiness'. F!int.: Describe the aroma or taste of some white wines1 li&e the odour of flint stri&ing steel. Fr,it.: Describes any 4uality referring to the body and richness of a wine, i.e., .appley,. .berryli&e. or .herbaceous.. Bsually implies a little extra sweetness. Gra%e.: Describes simple flavours and aromas associated with fresh table grapes. Green: -asting of un3ripe fruit. Eot necessarily a bad thing, especially in a *iesling. Hea".: Bsed to describe the smell of a wine high in alcohol. Her4a+eo,#: -he taste and smell of herbs.



December 18, 2013

0,r(.: Dac&ing brightness, turbid or swampy. 0,#t.: )aving a mouldy smell. Oa(.: Describes the aroma and taste of oa&. O3i"i6e": Describes stale or /off/ wines. Pe%%er.: Describes the taste of pepper in a wine1 sharper than /"picy./ Per-,me": *efers to a delicate bou4uet. Smo(.: Describes a subtle wood3smo&e aroma. S%i+.: Describes the presence of spice flavours such as anise, cinnamon, cloves, mint and pepper, often present in complex wines. S&eet: Cne of the four basic tastes. Describes the presence of residual sugar and<or glycerine. Tannin: Describes a dry sensation, with flavours of leather and tea. Tart: "harp3tasting because of acidity. "ee also /Acidic./ Toa#t.: Describe a hint of the wooden barrel. Bsually associated with dry white wines. 7e!2et.: )aving rich flavour and a sil&y texture. 8e#t.: A wine that/s invigorating.

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December 18, 2013


!urope 3 Aortugal 3 "pain 3 France 3 =taly 3 $alifornia 3 $hile 3 Argentina 3 "outhern Australia 3 ,estern Australia 3 Eew Fealand 3 $hina 3 "outh Africa

Eorth America "outh America Australiasia

Asia Africa

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December 18, 2013

A!#a+e Bor"ea,3

,hite ;rapes : *iesling1 Ainot ;ris1 ;ewur@traminer1 2uscat Blac& ;rapes : $abernet "auvignon1 2erlot1 $abernet Franc
$abernet "auvignon $abernet "auvignon $abernet "auvignon

$hateau Damonthe #888 $hateau $omtesse du Aarc )aut32edoc GGG 2edoc $alvet GGH Iac4ues Boyd 2argaux GG7

$hateau Damonthe

,hite ;rapes : "avignon Blanc1 "emillon1 2uscadell "auternes J Famous for its exceptionally sweet wines
#88 "auvignon Blanc

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December 18, 2013

B,r ,n".

)ermitage la $hapelle Iaboulet

Blac& ;rape : Ainot Eoir ,hite ;rape : $hardonnay

GGG #888 #88 #888 #888 #88 $hardonnay $hardonnay $hardonnay $hardonnay

Aouilly Fuisse Douis Datour $hablis Aremier $ru Des Kaudevey Domain Daroche $hablis ;rand $ru Des Blanchots Domain Daroche $hardonnay Douis Datour $hardonnay $hateau $harton la Fleur Blanc

C$am%a ne

Billecart "almon Keuve $lic4uot Brut 2oet L $handon Brut Billecart "almon *ose Daurent Aerrier *ose 2oet L $handon $uvee Dom Aerignon

Blac& ;rape : Ainot Eoir1 Ainot 2eunier ,hite ;rape : $hardonnay


Ainot Eoir, Ainot 2eunier, $hardonnay Ainot Eoir, Ainot 2eunier, $hardonnay Ainot Eoir, Ainot 2eunier, $hardonnay Ainot Eoir, Ainot 2eunier, $hardonnay Ainot Eoir, Ainot 2eunier, $hardonnay Ainot Eoir, Ainot 2eunier, $hardonnay

Cote# ", R$one

Aarallel +9 Aaul Iaboulet $hateau -our -ermes Aouilly Fume Des $haumes

Blac& ;rape : $insaut %2ourvedre'1 ;renache1 "yrah

#888 GGG #88 $insaut,"yrah "yrah


$uvee )enry Fabre $hateau D/Aumerade 3 $ru $lasse

Blac& ;rape : ;renach1 "yrah

#88# #88

;renach,"yrah ;renach, "yrah

$uvee )enry Fabre

,hite ;rape : 2uscat %"weet'


"auvignon Blanc1 $hardonnay

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December 18, 2013


Fonte Al "ole *uffino Killa Antinori *eserva Killa Antinori $hianti *eserve

Blac& ;rapes : 2ontepulciano1 "angioveses

GGG GGH GGG Ainot Eoir $hianti 2otepulcianno

Killa Antinori Blanco#88 "av Blanc<$hard

,hite ;rapes : $hardonnay1 "auvignon Blanc


Blac& ;rapes : Eebbiolo

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December 18, 2013

SPAIN Cata!,n.a

-orres ;ran Kian "ol -orres $oronas -empranillo -orres ;ran $orona *eserva

#88 #888 #888 GGH

$hardonnay 2erlot1 $abernet "auvignon $abernet "auvignon.


2arino Blanco Berberana

2ateus *ose

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December 18, 2013

CALIFORNIA Na%a 7a!!e.

,oodbridge 2ondavi $abernet "auvignon GGG $abernet "auvignon. Beringer Finfandel GGH Finfandel Fet@er "auvignon Blanc =van -amas $hardonnay Beringer "auvignon Blanc #88 GGG #888 "auvignon Blanc $hardonnay "auvignon Blanc

Blac& ;rapes : $abernet "auvignon1 2erlot1 Ainot Eoir ,hite ;rape : $hardonnay1 "auvignon Blanc

Sonoma 7a!!e.

Blac& ;rapes : $abernet "auvignon1 2erlot1 Finfandel ,hite ;rape : $hardonnay Page 16


December 18, 2013

CHILE C,ri+o
Blac& ;rapes : $abernet "auvignon1 2erlot
2ontes 2erlot "pecial $uvee 2ontes $abernet "auvignon $aliterra $abernet "auvignon *eserva #88 GGG 2erlot $abernet "auvignon $abernet "auvignon

,hite ;rapes : $hardonnay1 "auvignon Blanc

2ontes "auvignon Blanc 2ontes $hardonnay Barrel Fermented #88# #88 "auvignon Blanc $hardonnay

Co!+$a ,a 7a!!e.
Blac& ;rapes : 2erlot1 "yrah Page 17


December 18, 2013

H,nter 7a!!e.

*osemount $abernet < "hira@ *osemount Aremium

Blac& ;rapes :"hira@

#88 #888

$abernet1 "hira@ "hira@

*osemount "emillon<$hardonnay *osemount "how *eserve $hardonnay

,hite ;rapes : $hardonnay1 "emillon

#88# #888

"emillon1 $hardonnay $hardonnay


"cotchman )ill Ainot Eoir

Blac& ;rapes : "hira@1 Ainot Eoir1 $abernet "auvignon

#88 Ainot Eoir

"cotchman )ill $hardonnay

,hite ;rapes : $hardonnay1 2uscat

#888 $hardonnay

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December 18, 2013

BLAC: ' Cor2ina; Petit 7er"ot; Tem%rani!!o; Ne44io!o; 0o,r2<"e; Gama.; Pinot 0e,nier; Ca4ernet Sa,2i non; Pinot Noir; S.ra$ (S$ira6); Grena+$e; Pinota e; 0a!4e+; 0er!ot; San io2e#e; 0onte%,!+iano; 8in-an"e! (Primiti2o) WHITE ' 7io nier; Tre44iano; Semi!!on; Ge&=r6traminer; 0,#+a"et; C$ar"onna.; 0,#+at; C$enin B!an+; Rie#!in ; Pinot Gri# (Pinot Gri io); Sa,2i non B!an+;

Ca4ernet Sa,2i non

Geo ra%$. Aroduced worldwide in almost every wine growing country. 2ost famous area is Bordeaux. 7arieta!>B!en" Cften blended with "hira@, 2erlot and $abernet Franc. F!a2o,r ? C$ara+ter Distinctive blac&curranty flavour with a hint of mint and cedar. St.!e ,ell rounded, high in tannin content and ages admirably. Bo".) Dr.>S&eet 2ellow1 ranges from medium bodied to heavier, full bodied Australian examples. Note# Ming of the //Eoble// grapes, famous for its use in Bordeaux $laret

Geo ra%$. )ome is Burgundy in France. Also grown in most wine producing countries world wide. 7arieta!>B!en" A fine varietal, it is also blended with Ainot Eoir and Ainot 2eunier to produce $hampagne. F!a2o,r ? C$ara+ter Buttery, lemon flavours, sometimes nutty flavoured, often with a strong hint of tropical fruit. St.!e "tyles vary from fresh, light unoa&ed wines produced in cooler regions to rich, tropical fruit wines from the Eew ,orld. Bo".) Dr.>S&eet 2ainly &nown for producing excellent full3bodied wines.

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December 18, 2013

Note# Arobably the world/s favourite white grape variety. Also &nown as, Aubaine, Beaunois and 2elon Blanc

Geo ra%$. ,idely planted throughout !urope, especially "pain. Also grown in Algeria, =srael, 2orocco, the B"A and Australia. 7arieta!>B!en" At its best blended, especially with "hira@. ,hen blended with -empranillo improves many *iojas. F!a2o,r ? C$ara+ter Bltra ripe, fruity flavours, predominantly strawberry, coupled with a fiery spiciness. St.!e *anges from good light styles to rich, strong, velvety textured wines. Bo".) Dr.>S&eet ,ide ranging from light bodied delicious, fruity rosNs to rich dessert and fortified wines. Eotable for producing warm, full bodied wines high in alcohol. Note# Famous as part of the $hOteauneuf3du3Aape and *ioja. -he grape is also &nown as ;arnacha in "pain

San io2e#e
Geo ra%$. -he grape of -uscany, =taly. Also found in $alifornia, Australia and Argentina. 7arieta!>B!en" *arely used as a single varietal. =t constitutes the bac&bone of most -uscan reds. F!a2o,r ? C$ara+ter Aredominant flavours of cherry and plum. St.!e )as a sweet<sour style. 2ost of it, ideal easy drin&ing and best drun& young and fresh. Bo".) Dr.>S&eet 2ainly light bodied wines for every day drin&ing. Also big, heayweight wines li&e Brunello Di 2ontalcino. Note# -he major constituent of $hianti. Best results on home territory but interesting examples emerging from $alifornia, Australia and Argentina

Pinot Noir
Geo ra%$. )ome is Burgundy, France. Also produced in $alifornia, Australia, Eew Fealand, ;ermany and !astern !urope. 7arieta!>B!en" Bsed in most red Burgundy wines. Also in the bul& of $hampagne production %white and pin&'. F!a2o,r ? C$ara+ter Aredominantly raspberry and strawberry, with a hint of game. St.!e Karies from complex and sil&y to plain and insipid. Bo".) Dr.>S&eet Karies from medium to light bodied wines.

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December 18, 2013

Note# Does not travel well. Cutside Burgundy, with a few exceptions, lac&s colour and depth. -here are some successful $alifornian Ainot Eoirs. Also &nown as "pPtburgunder in ;ermany and Ainot Eero in =taly

Geo ra%$. France, Aortugal, =srael, -unisia, Eew ,orld, especially the )unter Kalley region of Australia. 7arieta!>B!en" A traditional Bordeaux variety often blended with "auvignon Blanc. Famous for the part it plays in the production of "auternes. Bsed mostly as a varietal in Australia. F!a2o,r ? C$ara+ter -he best dry, oa&ed varieties have flavours of nectarine and lemon. "weeter versions, affected by //noble rot,// have delightful, waxy flavours of peaches, apricots and honey. St.!e Aroduces two star&ly different styles of dry and sweet wines. Bo".) Dr.>S&eet -ends to produce full bodied wines with good acidity. Di&e *iesling, it is capable of rotting nobly to ma&e luscious sweet wines. Note# -he )unter Kalley region of Australia put "Nmillon on the world wine map with its marvellous //botryti@ed// wood aged "Nmillon wines

Pinot Gri# > Pinot Gri io

Geo ra%$. Eorthern =taly, ;ermany, !astern !urope, 2exico, Australia, Eew Fealand. 7arieta!>B!en" "ometimes blended with *iesling or produced simply as a varietal. F!a2o,r ? C$ara+ter ,hether bone dry or rich and spicy, a hint of honey lends a common characteristic. St.!e Fairly neutral in =taly, richer and more intense in Alsace. Bo".) Dr.>S&eet =talian Ainot ;rigio is more lightweight and bland than its Alsace counterpart which is more rounded and aromatic. Note# Ainot ;ris is &nown as Ainot ;rigio in =taly

Pinot 0e,nier
Geo ra%$. France, particularly the $hampagne region. Also grown in limited 4uantities in other parts of the world. 7arieta!>B!en" Dends softness to $hampagne. =t is one of the ( grapes along with $hardonnay and Ainot Eoir that ma&e up the bul& of $hampagne. F!a2o,r ? C$ara+ter Dac&s the finesse of the other main grapes used for ma&ing $hampagne, but does contribute flavour. St.!e Eot noted for its individual style>rather as a desirable flavour constituent of $hampagne.

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December 18, 2013

Bo".) Dr.>S&eet =ts high acidity and light weight ma&e it an ideal grape for the production of $hampagne.

S.ra$ > S$ira6

Geo ra%$. 2ostly France and Australia and increasingly in $alifornia, Algeria and "outh Africa. 7arieta!>B!en" Although used for blending in $hOteauneuf3du3Aape, is capable of fine 4uality wine as a varietal. F!a2o,r ? C$ara+ter =ntense and complex sweet fruit flavoured, particularly blac&berry and raspberry, with a peppery overtone. St.!e =ntense, rich and tannic with a velvety texture. Bo".) Dr.>S&eet $apable of producing superb wines across the spectrum, but is at its best in full3bodied, intense, deep coloured wines. Aroduces superb full3bodied examples. Note# Mnown as "yrah in France and "hira@ in Australia and elsewhere

Geo ra%$. 2ainly "outhern France, Eorth !ast =taly, !astern !urope and Eew ,orld, especially $alifornia. 7arieta!>B!en" Bsed in Bordeaux and all over the world to soften $abernet "auvignon based wines. F!a2o,r ? C$ara+ter Iuicy, fruity flavours of blac&currant, blac& cherry and mint. St.!e "ubtle, soft and velvety. Dower in tannic bitterness and higher in alcohol than $abernet "auvignon. Bo".) Dr.>S&eet "oft, often complex texture. Note# ;reat wines of Aomerol and "t !milion in Bordeaux are based on 2erlot

Sa,2i non B!an+

Geo ra%$. France, Eew ,orld, especially Eew Fealand. 7arieta!>B!en" Found as a pure varietal in the Doire, but often blended with "Nmillon in Bordeaux and the Eew ,orld. F!a2o,r ? C$ara+ter "harp, tangy, gooseberry is the predominant flavour. Also has undertones of grass, nettles, elderflower and asparagus. St.!e Depends a lot on the country of origin, e.g., Eew Fealand "auvignon Blanc tends to be tangy and sharp1 $hile produces softer styles. Bo".) Dr.>S&eet )as a natural acidity. Bsed in dry, medium sweet and spar&ling wines.

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December 18, 2013

Note# France/s Doire region "auvignon Blanc has achieved the elevated status of //Eoble ;rape.//

For many years wine was sold from Eew 6or& to Eew Delhi with the name $hablis on the bottle 3 it was nothing of the sort. =t simply meant it was a dry white wine. =t as often as not was not even made from the $hablis grape 3 $hardonnay. -hrough much effort from the French it has gone the way of $hampagne and is now universally recognised as having to come from a strictly delimited area of northern Burgundy around the town of $hablis. $hablis is part of what was a huge wine growing region 3 the 6onne 3 situated just up the *iver "eine from Aaris.

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