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Chapter six

6.1.CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUIDISED SYSTEMS 6.1.1. ceneralbehaviour ol gassolidsandliquidsolidssystems



fim*w*$**Emgff {'i,,"*i*fl,jJ ;*f


En9ineeing Processes 179Chemical

the Leanor bubble phase.The ffuidisation is then sald ro be aggrceatiie. At much higher velocities. the bubbles tend to break down a feature that leads to a much more chaotic structure.When gasbubblespassthrcugha relalively high-densily fluidised bed the system closelyresembles a boiling liquid, with the lean phase concsponding to the vapourand phase is the denseor continuous conespondingto th liquid. The bed then often refered to as a boilinq bed, as oppose.d to ti,e quiescentbed usually formed at low flowrates. gas As the flowrate is increased,the velocity relative to the particles in the densephase does noi change appreciably, and streanline flow may persist even at very high overall rates of flow becausea high proportion of the total flow is then in the form of bubbles. At high flowrates in deepbeds,coalescence of rhe bubblestakesplace,and in nanow gas the whole cross-section may be produced. Theseslugs vesscls, slugsof occupying of gasaltematcwith slugsof iluidisedsolidsthat are carriedupwardsand subsequently collapse, releasing the solidswhich fall back. In an early attempt to differendare between the condiaionsleading to particqlate or suggested using the value of the Froude aggregativeffuidisation, WTLHELM and KwAUK(rr number(ri,/gd) as a criterion,wherel over the whole cross-section !,,r is tbe minimum velocityof ltow, calculated rakesplace, of the which fluidisarion / i. lhc diameler ol fie parti,e'. an, is the accelenlion due to gravity. I At valuesof a Froude group of lessthan unity, particulatefluidisation normaliy occursand, fluidisation takesplace.Much lower valuesof the Froude al highervalues,aggregative number are encounteredwith liquids becausethe ninimum velocity required to produce fluidisation is less. A theoretical justification for using lhe Froude group as a means of distinguishing betweenpaticuiate and aggregativefluidisation has been provided by JAcKsoNe) and MuRRAy(r)_ Although the possibjlityof fonning fluidisedbedshad beenknown for many years, the subject remainedof academicinrerestuntil the adoption of fluidised catalystsby the pefoleumindustryfor the crackingof heavyhydroca$ons and for the synlhesis of fue]s gar monoxide and hydrogen. In manyways,lhe fluidised from natural or from carbon bed behavcs as a singlefluid of a densityequalto thatofthe mixtureof solidsandfluid. Such a bed will flow, it is capableof tansmilting hyd.ostatic forces, and solid objects with densitlesless than that of the bed will float at the surface.Intimate mixing occurs within are the bed and heat tansfer rutes are very high with the result that uniform temperatures quicHy attained0roughout the system.The easyconlrol of temperature feature is fte fhat where unifonnity has led to the use of fluidised solids for highly exothermic processes, of temperaturcis imporlant. In order to understandthe propeties of .r fluidised system,it is necessaryto study the flow patiems of both the solids and tbe fluid. Thc mode of formation and behaviour oI theseusuallyaccount for the flow of a fluid bubbles is of particular importance because high proportion of the ilujd in a gas solidssystem. In any study of the properties of a fluidisedsystem, it is necessary 10 seleclconditions whicb are reproducible and the lack of agrcement betweenthe resullsof many workers, paticularly thoserelating to heat largely alldbulable to the exislence conditions wirhin the bed.The fluidisation shouldbe of of widely differentuncontrolled

goodqudiiry,rhatis ro say,rhatthebcd should be treefrom iffegu]ariries andchannellins. Many solids,parricularly thoseof appreciably non_isometric shapeanrtthosethat havi a tendency to form agglomerates will neverflLridise readily in a gas.Furrtrermore, rhe fluid nust be evenlydisrribured at rhe botromof the bcti and ;t;i**ffy t" providc a dirrib or Jcro., $hict-rhepre..ure "";""rary drop r. cqLalro ar te,.r itur acro..'rtre Deo.t nrcconJrt,on r- -,nuch r.lore reJdil)Jche\cJ ir a .mi liboralory ippar.rar. lhar rn trrge-sccte lndu\ifl at equlDmenr As already indicated, wbena liquid is thefiuidisingagenr, substanrially uniformcondi_ . lion5pe^ade n lhe bed. although w'th r g... buDbtc formJliun .end,,oo,.r,"r..or u, !ery low Jlurd.5inp \elocir'e'. In dn renpl ro irplore Lhe ref,,oducrbiliD of cordirjon. wrlnrnd ocd.muchot thc earlier re.earch worl $i.1 gJ. Jl.riJi,eo.y.tems $J. (rlried out at gas velocities sufficienrly low for bubbjefomation ro be abse;a. h recentyears! however, ir hasbcenrecognised thatbrbblesnormallytendro form in such.y,t".., tfrui tneyexct an imponanL influence on the flow patremof both gasand solids,aDdrharrhe behaviour of individualbubbles canoften be predictecl with rcasonable accuracv.

6.1.2.Effect ol fluid velocityon pressuregradientand pressuredrop

\\hcn a FLrid_Jlou,r,,ou,y I psnrJ. rtroJghd bed or \ery trnepa iclesrhe flo$ i. slrcamlile anda line]Jr, ,r on e\i,1.betheen prc.,rfe grudrent rno Uoqrate . .. . . .. . S e . t o n 1 . 2 .I af r t e p r e - I c C r J d , e n r , i , Ap r . p l o n er dg n n , r h e . L r p e f _ . arl0 jv -r.e ,, .u , .c | |r), . ' nrc r.rnd t o g d n r hc rn cu_oroilJre r ,r.r r i g t r t i no e, u n i r, t o p e i,obLai;ed, d. .how1 in l-igrrre b.l. A, rnc .uperficiJt \c L,cy rDpfodc.e. ,t. .i,;-r. |],id;.;; 'clociD rr.r l. thc beo.un5 ro c\pa10lnd uhen rte pfirctcj areno longcr in phl.icj contactwrth one aDorher thebed is fuidiseLt..lher|]esswe ercdient rt,"n te" io*"r beczuse ol lhc \ oidage and. con.eqr errl). rhe$ eigt. o. panicle. unilheiphL Der ot bedr. qmaller Thi, ta| conrinue. u rt ,hc\etoci) i.t-ighenolghtor ri.r,r.pon otine nilericl.loralc placc. rrd |ncpre,sure rhe :lartsto inc,eE.c aga.n becduse .he Incl,onlldrcgof tl-eluid J, lhe wall. ot rhetrbe .Llj-. to,ignificarr. When lhe -very bed is composed of lareparlicles, the flow witt be larninar only ar low veloclties and the sloper of rhe lower par of rhe curve wilt be . il _a _"u $eater ti . " "oi

{: t-1-9

Figure6.1, Presuregradienr withio a bed as r f0nctionoi nujd velocfu

181Chem lEngineering Processes

I a

(bedol narimumporosily)

los(,J beds Figue 6,2, Pfe$ur! drcp oler lixed andRuidised

parlicularlyjf thereis a prog.essive change in ffow regimeas thc velocity be constant, gradicntis ploltedagainst across the wholebed instead of the pressure If the prcssure velocily,also using logarirhnic coordinates as shownin Figure6.2, a linear relationis of thc bcd startsto take place (A), again oblainedup to the point where expansion as the bed expands and its althoughthe slope of the curve then graduallydiminishes porosityincredses. the pressurc drop passes through As the velocityis furtherincreased, an approximately constant value a maximrm value(B) andthenfalls slightlyand attains again,the that is independent of the fiuid velocity(CD). Ii lhc lluid velocityis reduced until ir reaches the conditionwhere thc parliclesare just restingon one bed contracts (E). The porosirythenhasthe lnaxilnumslablevaluewhich canoccurfor a fixed another ll the velocity is further decreased, lhe struclureof the bed then bed of the particles. providedthat the bed is not subjecied to vibration. The pressure drop remains unaffecled (EF) acrossthis reformedfixed bed al any lluid velocityis then less than tha! belore fluidisation. If the velocityis now inueasedagain,it might be expected that the curve (FE) would be retraced and that the slope would suddenly changefrom I to 0 at the however. because the bed tends fluidisingpoinl. This conditionis difficult to reproduce, In thc absence againunless it is complereLy free from vibration. to bccomcconsolidated it is the shape andsizeof rhe pafticles that determinc both the naximum of channclling, pressure given porosityand the drop across a heightof fluidisedbed of a given depth. pressure In an idedl fluidised bed thc drop correspondingto ECD is equal to the buoyant per unit area.In praclice, il may devialeappreciably from this value weight of particles and the effecl oI particlewall frictlon. Point B lies above as a result of channelling the particles have to be overcome beforebed CD because the liiclional forcesbetween rearrangement can take place. experinentally by neasuring Theminimumfluidisingvelocity,L./, maybe deterrnined anddecreasing velocities andplotting the pressure dropacross lbc bedfor bothincreasing linesarethen&awn through the the results asshowniDFigurc6.2.The two 'best'straight pointsandthe vclocilyal theirpoint ofintersection is takenas the minlmum expedmental fluidisingvelocity.Linearratherthanlogarithnicplots are generally uscd,although it is plots if the plot of pressure gradient against velocily in the necessary to uselogarithmic fixed bed is no! linear.

Thetheoreticat valueof theminimum fluidising velociry nuy be calculaled tionrrhe cqurlr)ns ,t tor rherelation si\crr il {-tllLir.f U"**" p.".** a-f t;; frxed pdcked bed. $i,h prcs,ure rhe ";;;i";i;; drop rh,uush rr,. ua p"i.q,1ii"l. ,pffi i.l;ri

fl ix;.lli::,"',

-"". and .er rhe porosirl a,rhe n1\mum rrrrc rhar funbe:.rainer

tn a fiuidisedbed, rhc total frictionalforce on rhe panicles nrusrequalthe effective weishr of rhebed. l-15. in r beoL,runirc,^.*.cc,i*"i a"pii i ;'';;: iddironalpre..rredroprcju,. the bedarlribluble """. "ia-;;;;".;; ro rhc laloui *.igt,, p_.1.. ,h. r . e : \ e nb t : ", -^P=(I-e)(p:-p)ts (6.1) whcre: I is rhe acceleration due ro gravity and p" and p are rhe densities of rheparticles and the lluid


Thi.rcluIol apptie. tromIneiniriat irpan,ior ot rhcbedLI{-trran.por , of.orid, uie\ phce. TheremiJ be ,omcd..crepa1() bcrwecn rtc cd,c,rta.ed ard mer\ured minirnu.l1 veiocilies-fbr fluidisatjon. This may be arlributable 10 channelting, as the drag force.acting on rhe bed is rccluced, ",.r"f, ro the acrionof elecirosiarj" f"r"., ''""i!v-fr.i i" ;;;; ol.Ba-eou. flu,disadonpsfli.LtJrJ) i,npondnr in rhe.!.eo, *"a, _:" ,'-' qh:ch i. oJtelcon.iJeruble $ irh .nalt pui.rte5. or to tricr.on Uer*een rne nt,ia ana rne $ d ' 1 ,o l r h e . o n . d , n i n g s e t .T l r ; .t a . rf : t r u r , , o r g r c J r e . t re n N n a i c e\ r i r hb e d .o r smalldiameiers. LEvAral.ra)introduced atenn. (GF _ Gl)/Gr,' s" rl"ri""l"" efficiency, in which cF is the minimumtiowri Iruid.'ion cndc/ ,5,hc 'e,equi,ed ,o proJuce Lhe ,",,,, ",,r,;:il:'':ro..|.:loouce l, flo$ conditiol.l\r'hin hc lhere.?.ion bcl{ecnpLid ve,ocrt\ /.. r e a p , J n d drop, \ o i d r s ei . g i v e n . for o"a.r9i.".,i o --"" '- " , f r J . d'dmerer.1. ", , , . a rarc, b) rheCarnan-K1,,,e1) eqJarion,a.t2dl "i $hrch rh; Io;l

,": o!05. (Jr)



o' *.'n"u*' ffii!ffi1lfiji'_'t?i:il:fi :il:ffiffi ";i,,"i,"#ilio!li;::o


ihe fiuid. asin sedimertarion andfluidisarion, rhcequarions foriressuredropi" n}r.a fr.i. o.r'erestimate the values whe.eihe parricles can .choose. tncir orieltat;on. ,i;;t;";;;.;; rdlher'\an 5 for rheCcinxn-Ko,/en) connsnr is In cto..r *,o,a The(oethcienr "i.f,.'.p..tlni","t "u,,. :n equcrion h.JLnea tJk.. on .hehigher \JtLcot0.00xq i;";;p;;;;;i evidence is limiied ro a few measurenents h er and equation 6.3, wirh its possible rnaccurucies. is usedhere

ft"i:'l,liliH1. :,:Jil,,:il ;i;"il::i:.i." ;:illiT:fff rq::,!Jili.:,:;:

183Chemical Engineerins Prc@sses

6,1"3, Minimumtluidisingvelocity
As the upward velocity of flow of ffuid through a packed bed of uniform spheresis increased, the point ofir?cipkntfu lisation isrc chedwhen the particlesarejusr supported in.he fluid. The corresponding valu.e of the nititnun fuidisin| .relocirJ(",,,r) is $en obtained by substituting e,,t into equalion 6.3 to give:

r,-,- o.oos: I

/ . 1''"' \ - r , ^

lu !:-tE


Sinceequation 6.4 is based on the Carman-Kozeny equation, it applies oniy to conditions of laminarflow, and hence1olow valuesof the Reynolds numberfor flow in the bed. ln practice, this restricrs its appiication to fine particles. The value ofzar will be a function of the shape,size distribution and surfaceproF,erties of the particles. Substituting a typical value of 0.4 for enf in equation 6.4 gives:

(,.r)",/:0.4 : o.ooose ( 4+^)


When the flow regime at the point of incipient fluidisation is oulside the range over which the Carman-Kozenyequationis applicable,it is necessaryto use one of the more generalequationsfor the pressuregradient in the bed, such as the Ergun equation given in equation 4.20 as:

(#).,,, (+) (+) # :,,(q#)

pr3-lsOf ' r, - " 4 f r .i_, \
/ )\ /., \


where d is the diameter of the sphere with the same volume:surfacearea fttio as the parlicles. Substituting = ?nf at the incipientfiuidisadon point and for -AP from equation 6.1, equation 6.6 is thenapplicable at the minimumfluidisalion velocitylldt, and gives:
/_..2 \

t t - c " . t' t p ,

l{ir"l'r )+ t.7s(" ."'"1['""'I ei,,t /\d /\d. \

I (6.1)

MuLtipiying both srdesby -, i:!'t I

e n , iI

ln equation 6.8: d3p(p" - p)e whereGd is the 'Calileonumber'. and:



'f =*"'''''


Ftuidi2ation 184

whereRe,,f is the Reynolds numberat rheminimumfiuidisingvelocityandequarion 6.8

Fora typical value of ,rit= 0.4:

\ rn,,, - ,ro .,.,, / r'7) 1t'-;,,.1o , ", \a:,) ",,, |

Ga = 1406Re;f +27 3Re':r

(6.1l )

(6.12) (6.13) (6.14)

Thus: and:

_ o.O366Ga:0 Re':J+51.4Re:,J

8e',1)s"o:6 a = 25.7 {J(t +5.53 x l0-5cd) _ l} and, similarly for r,n, = 0 45: (Re:,)",r=a45:23.61J(1 + 9.39 x r0 5Gd)_rl
By definirion:

(6.14a) (6.15)


i. ;1,il: :ii,T:,:'.f;::T: ;'nH:'[,]#':f "q,,"-1.' fl ;tJj:[';.*u,e,"

Thus: d :6v,/At, and4 : 6vt,/1t)1/3 (6.16)

It is probablethat the Ergun equation,like the Carman_Kozeny equaaion. atso overpredicts pressure drop fof fluidisedsysrems, arthough no expenmentar evidence is avairabre on rhe,ba\is of wh;c-h rhevrtues ot rhccoetficinr.maybe amendcd. wE\ lnd yu" ha\e e\amined lhe ret.rion.hip ber$een voiJcgcat lhe minimum fluidi'ing velocl).p.,,.andpanicte \hape. whi.r, i, a.nn.a,r. d.. rr"?urio oii;_;j;.;.;

:;ff H:ill

jt""J:[ff Ij"':it:i!i{5hlTi"':ili:,H"flil:.",T:1.'i,ffiiJ;T"1"* : - -***'r'"p*i"i"'".i";;";;;; j:*:':i?';:;*:

i';:":'$"i:*::J#lin "r "i*'""'l H:':ii1l"**1"13::' give reasonablv good coneralons between ?u

| -o a", ^ *"*. * l*,#l 6expresslons

Hfiili#*:: ::$:&!il!t,l!*'iu*J';:J,J#?:"ffi:,i'Jl#l#l#:; }ifif ;ir.,:}:it#it',?r.iltl; ,til:,3t, l,.ji.!jj';,T!:Tl1"l{n:H:i:f p*r"r" *ia''*e"


(6.17) (6.18)


185Chemical Engineenns Prcesses

:. g0








Figue 6.3. Relation betwn ,,/ ffd 4i

NrveNo)discusses the significance groupsin oquations of &e two dimensionless 6.17 and 6.18, and also suggests that d and.u-t in equations 6.8, 6.9 and 6.10 are more appropriatelyreplacedby a meanlinear dimersion of the poresard the meanpore velocity at the poini of incipient fiuidisation. d; U.ingequalion b.lo ro sunrrirure lor for /i rn equalron 6.6 Sives: ap

u"t\ , l . c d l , ( r,.rl8 - rso /1r "'r "\ (


"i,/ J\o:d,'zI

, ( !- "-\ *"i* , r -\,),,


Substituting from equations 6.1?and 6.18: Glp:

t+4 = (+)he?).,,' (#) "" W)

- o.0408cap: O Re':tu+ 67.3Re^Jp

(150x 11)Re^Jt+O.75 x lqR;:Jl \vhere Gar and Renfr are the calileo number and the particle Reynolds number at rhe point of incipient fluidisation, in both caseswith the linear dimensior of the particles expressedas d,,. Thus:


= 33.651J0 Re^Jp + 6.18x to-5cl]p)- 1l

(6.19) (6.20)

Example 6.1

A bed consistsof unifom sphericalpanicles of diameter3 Im and densiry 4200 kg/nr. What will be the minimum fluidisjng velocity in a liquid of viscosity 3 rnNvn'? and densiry 1i00 kg/ ?

By definirion: catiteo amtf,r, Ga = dt p(p, _ p\e/p2 = (3 x rO{f x lt00 x (4200 _ I00) x 9.81)/(3 x l0-3), = 1.003 x 10r Assuming a vrlue o10.4 tor,r",.equalion o.l4gi\er: . R4,r = 2s.jIJO + 6.53 x t0-)(1.003 x t0)) _ tl = 40 and: 4-l:(40x3x 10-r)/(3 xl0 3x lt00)= 0.0364 nrls or 36:1,ry4

Oil, of densiry900 lShl and \ iccosiry J rNvmr. is p6sed venicr ] Lp$dd\ throlsh a bed of catal) srconsisrin8 ofappro\imlety sphericatpaJticle\ of dmeler 0. I nu mddensiruioOOi"iJ Ar approxrmaret) wharmass mteoi flow per Lnir areaof bedwi ra, ffuidjsrlioD. anAO, *ipon of particles occur?

(a) Equations 4.9 and 6.1 nlay be used to determiDethe fluidising vetociry, ,,r.



= (1 / K')(e3 / (st(r _ ortl / p)t_^p / t)

= (1 - e)(p, - p)t8 (equarion 6.t)

wnere s = surfacearca/volume,which, for a sphere,= n .t, (r d3 / 16) = 6/d. Substituting r" = 5, S:6 /d and -Lp /t fiom e,ln^rion 6_t into equation 4.9 Sives: Henc: u,,! : o.$5s(e3/(1 _ e))(d,(p" , d0 / p G_r: pu = (0.0o5sei /(t _ e))(tt2(p,_ Ddlp

In fiis problem,A = 2600kg/m1p = 900 kgmr, p = 3_0x 10 r NVm, and I = 0.1 nnn = L0 x 10-4m no valu of the voidage is availabte.e wilt be estinated by considding eight closety packed .As spheresof dianeter d in a cube of side 2d. Thus: volufte of sphers: 8(r/6U3 volun of the enclosure= (2d)r = 8dr and hence: rhus I voidase, e = I8l3 _ s(z/6)d3ll8tr = 0.478, say,0.48. c;r : 0.0055(0.4s)3 0 0+),((900 x 1700)x 9.81)/(t _0.48) x 3 x l0 r = 0.059kg/m,s

i87 chemical Englneering Processes

(b) Tnnsport of the particls will occur when the fluid velocjly js equal to the terminal faling velociiy of the paficle. UsingStokes law: uo= d1eb, d/18tt (equation 3 z)

= ( ( 1 0 - 4 ) 'x 1 9 . 8 1x 1 ? 0 0 ) / ( 1 8 x 3 x l0-3) :0.0031 nts iumber: ((10 a x 0.0031x 900)/(3 x 10 i) :0 093 and hence Stokes' law The Reynolds appltes. flow: The required mass (0.003t x 900)= 2.?8 kg/m'zs An altemative aplmach is to lnalG use of Figure 3.6 and equation 3.35, (R/ puz) Re'z = 2d1 p s(p" - p) /3 px - ( 2 x ( l 0 r ) r x ( 9 0 0x 9 . 8 1 )x 1 7 0 0 ) / ( 3 (x 3 l0r)1 : 1.11 From FiguE 3.6, ,Re= 0.09 Hence:

pd = (O.$ x 3 x l0-r)/(900x l0+) = 0.003 m/s uo: ReQtl x 900)= 2.7kg/m'?s G' : (0.003

6.1.4.Minimumlluidising velocityin terms of terminalfailing velocity

The minimum fluidising velocity, u,,r, may be expressedin tems of rhe free-falling (equalion 6.11)relatesthe velocityuo of the parliclesin the fluid. The Ergun equation Calileo number Gd to the Reynolds number R4l jn lerms of the voidage s,t at the incipienr fl uidisation point. of Re6(xodp/p),theparticle In Chrplcr4,relations aregivcnthatpermitthecalculation its terminal falling velocity uo, also as a functionof Roynoldsnumberfor a sphereal possible to express Rs;/ in termsof ReiJand r,J in terms Galileonumber. Thus, it is in terms of the Galileo For a sphencalparticle the Reynolds numbcr R6 is expressed number G/' by equation 3.40 which covers the whole range of values of R?' of itterest. This takes the fbrm: 13 I - 1.53cd-0'0r6) Rei,: Q.33caa0t3 6.21)

affected by the walls Equation 6.21 applieswhen thc partlclemolion is not significantly is when d/4 tends to zero. of the container,that from equation 6.21and R;f from Thus,for any valueof Ga, Re6may be calculaled equation 6.11 for a given vdrc of e./. The ratio ReLlRe'-re uo/u-I) may then be plotted against Gd with ,rf as the parameter.Such a plot is given in Figure 6.4 which includes some experimentaldata- Somescatteris ovident, largely attdbutable to the fact that the diameterof the vessel(4) was not alwayslarge comparedwith that of the particle. it is seenthat the expenmentalresults straddlethe curves covering a range Nevertheless,


124 110 100 t \^' ud, tor spheres trom o o o 6 e Fow(8) Roweand Parrddgs(e) Pinchblckand Popper(1o) B.chardson and Zakitjl) Wlholm a n dK w a u k ( l )

I codad andHichadson(1r)

20 10 0



1o2 103 1d Galileo (Ga) number


FiguF 6.4. Rarioof iominat riiting votocilyto nininum fluidisinsvetocity, asa fu.ction of Catilm nunber

of_valuesof e,t from abour 0_38ro 0.42. The agreemenlberweenthe experimentaland crlculaled vxlues is quire good. cspec.a in view ot Lhe uncenainry ) ;;;"i ;tr;: . or ?,r/ In the erpenmental work.andthefaclthaltheErgun "f,+ notnecesranlv cquadon docs


or pressure drop in a fixed bed' especiallv near th";;ip#

, i\dsopossibte Loe\press Rco in rerns otGd by means ^.1'"1 lia,.,ol:, or rnfte:,1 srmpte equatrons. each coverinS a lirniled rangc of value\ ot Oa
Ca:18Re' (Ga < 3.6) (6.22) (6.23) (6.24)

G a : r BR e '+ o z _R i ;;637 (3.6=Ga=105) c" = :R"? (cd > ca.105)

It is convenienr to useequarions 6.22and 6.24 as thescenablevery simplerelations for R6lRe;f to be obtained at borh Iow andhigh vatues of ca. Taling vaiue of s,/ of 0.4, the relarion beNeen Re; and Ga is given -a_typical by equaaion 6.13. For low va.lues of Rz;J(<0.003) andof cd(<3.6), thefi$t termmay be neglecred andj

R4r = 0-000'7t2ca
Equation 6.22gives: = 9.65566r Re'o

(6.25) (6.26)

189 Chemil Engiree.ingPro@sses

equarions 6.25and 6.26: Combining





Again,for high valuesof Re',,y'>- 2OO) and Ga(>los). cquation 6.13 gives: :0.l9lGat/z Re',,, (6.28)

Equation 6.24gives:
Re'o: |;l32catt2 (6.29) (6.30)


n"'o: l L : g . t n"',,5

This shows that o/r,if is much larger for low valuesof Ga, generallyobtained fluidisation with liquids,fte with small particles, than with high values. For particulale rangeof fiuidisingvelocities is fron a minimumol t/,,,/to a maximumof tlo. theoretical possiblein the streamline rangeof velocities It is thus senthat thereis a far greater greatlyin excess to achieve flow velocities of u0 ffow region.In praclice,it is possible ol the gascan passthroughthe bed as bubbles and for gases, because a high proportion the particles. effectively by-pass

6.2, LIQUID-SOLIDS SYSTEMS 6.2.1.Bed expansion

are generally characterised by the rcgularexpansion of the bed Liquid-fluidised systems from the minimum fluidisationvelocity to that lakes place as the velocity increases the terminal falling velocjly of the particles. The generalrelation between velocily and volumetric concentrationor voidage is found to be similar to that belween sedimentation for particles in a suspension. The two systems are hydrodyvelocityand concentralion bed rhe particles undergo no net movement and namicallysimilarin lha! in the fluidised in the sedimenting are maintained in suspension by the upwardfiow of liquid, whereas the paticles movedownwards andthe only flow of liquid is the upwardflow suspension p$Licles b) rheserrling R..hARD.oN andZqxtrlrr oho*ed or lhar|quid $ hi, h i\ dr.p.aced that,for sedimentation or fiuidisalion of uniformpanicles:

velocityor the emptytubefluidisation where:2.. is the obseNed sedimentation ,i e C n is the conesponding velocityat infinite dilution, is the voidagc of lhe system, is the volumetric fractional concentrutionof solids, and is an index,

(6.3 r)

The existence of a rclationship of rheform ofequarion 6.31hadbeen estabtished six years earlierby WTLHELM and KwAUK(rr who fiuidisedparricles of glass,sand and lead shot wjth water.On plottingparticleReynolds numberagainst bed voidage usingIogarithmic good slraightlincs wereobtained scales, over rhe rangeof conditions for which the bed was flxidised.

index l, range from 2.4 ro 4_8and are the sane for sedimentarionand for ffuidisation at a given vaiue of the calileo numbercd. Thesemay be calcuiated fron equation 6.32.

-,) (4.8 @ - 2.4)



RrcfiARDsoN and Zaxlrl) found rhali cofiespondcd closelyro u0, rhe free settlins veloc;r) or r in an infiritencdjrm, tor !,ork on .edimcnLalion 'r , -- ,Chxf[r 5. although &j wassomewhat lessrhanu0 in fluidisalion. The fo]lowins eouation fbr tluidisation was presented:

log,o re : tog,o u;+


The differcnceis likely to be aftribuledro the facr lhat Ll/.l, \|as \efl small in rhe icJimenta.iol \4oierccently. c^perinenr.. Kl]A\ ar,l R.H^pDs.! a'have propo.e.d rt-c lbllu$inp reldrto n rc.odlt uilheefe(lof.newat.uflheve"sc lo l fluia in scrion:

1 1= , _ , , , ( ; ) . .


If logarithnicco-ordinales are used!o plot lhc voidage e ol the bed against the supeF ficial velocity l'," (Figure6.5), the resulringcurvecan be represcnted approxinarely by two straightlines joined by a shorrlransitional curve.Ar low velociriesthe voidase remuin\ con\rr1l corre\ponding ro rhdroflhe h\ed bcJ, d "or rhefl.rd:seJ slale.he;c is a linearrelationberween log ,. and log ?. The curvc shownrefcrsto rhe fluidisarion of stelspheres in water-11shouldbe notedtharwhercas. in rhe absence of channellins. thepie.sure droparrc5c a bedot a gi!en erprn.ioni. direcrly proporLiondt to ils depr;, rhefluid.inp\elocir)r. indeperdenl otdeprh. An altemativeway of calculating thl3index n in equation 6.31 for rhe cxDansion of paniculatety fluidisedsystems is now considered. Neglccting effects due ro rhe conrainer wall lhen: u, _ Re',, (6.35) uo Rei) whereR4 is the Reynolds numbcr!.lplrr. Takinglogarilhms: log(n./ftu) -tog(Rel,/R.ll roge loga (6.36)


191ChemicalEnginee ng Prosses






FiguE 6.5. Relarion betweenduid velocity (,.) fld voidage (z) for the duidharion of 6.4 nn steet spheres i. water

On th assumption thatequation 6.31may be applied at thepoint ofincipient ffuidisaiion:

loe(u.r/ud _ -tog(ieL/Re;r)
)ogc.J loq e..f


For a t'?ical value_oJ 4J of 0.4, Re;, is given by equarion 6.14.Fudremore, R?6is givenby equa.ion 6.21.Subsriturion inro equarion 6.37thengjves:

' -


l.2cl?-00ldr131| l1l.8JGa00 'oe . "' 5 5 r c : r 6 ,_ ,r i l-?-



Equation 6.38 which applies to low values of d/4 is ploned in Figure 6.6, togerier with expenmentalpoints from the liiemture, annotatedaccording to tho d/4 range which is applicable(ra) The scatter and the low experimental valuei of n, are aitribuitableoartlv ro rhe widef fi:e ot l/4 valuescoveredanJ rto inaccuracirs in rle exoerimenral meaeuremenLs which are obtatnedfrom lhe resullsof a numberol workers.For r., _ 0.43, the calculated values of, are virtually unchangedover the range l0 < c/' < 1b5. An altemative methodof calculating the value of R?; , (and hence,,, /) is to substitute fbr R6ftom equation 6.21into equation 6.35,andto put rhe voidage e equalto its value nJ at the minimumffuidisingvetocity. 3er In dis way: - 1.53cata01113 Re;J = Q.33Gatrotg (6.39) wherer is given by equation 6.J2.

(sedimeniation) o<0.001 x0.001-0.01 (lluidisation) (fluidisalion) +0.01-0.1

Gallleonumber(6a) Fienre6.6. Conpuho. of laluesof the indexn calculated from equalion 6.37 with exp.rimenLll data

The same procedure may be adopte.dfor calcularing the minimum fluidising for a shcar-thinDingnon-Newtonian fluid whicb extnbirspo\rer-tot! behaviour, atthough ir is necessary to usethelnodilicdReylrokls numiler(r?.,r.1,i Coxtlorl(60),equation 4.28. For ineiastic fluidsexhibitingpowerlaw behaviour, the bedexpansion which occurs as the velocjly is increasedabove the minimum fluidising velocily follows a sjmilar panem to thatobtained with a Newlonian liquid, with the exponent in equarion 6.31differingby no more than abour 10 per cent. There is someevidencc,however, rhat with viscoelastic polymersolutions the exponent may be considerably higher Reference may be madeto work by SRrNrvAs and CHHABRA(15) for fufher details.

Glasspanicles of 4 mm diameter arc fluidised by wlrer at a velocity of 0.25 nts. What will be ihe 'lhe dens;!) ol Ela$ 2500k8/m'. ,he den.iry ot r'rer t000 k8/n, , Jnd rhe vi\co.jb of

t 'tp - ote Calileo number.or pJrri.le. n wdrer C4 - :--I:/] ( 4 x 1 0 - r ) rx 1 0 0 0 x 1 5 0 0x 9 . 8 1 ( 1x i 0 ) , (equation 6.9)

193Chemical Engireering Pfocesses

Reynolds number.qei at teminal falling velociryis givenby equation 6.211 Re; = (.2.33Ga0013l.53ca 0016)rr'r


,u : 1800

(u l

03 - 000 )

= oo, .r.,

The valueof n in equation 6.31is givenby equation 6.32for smal valuesof d/4 as: (48-n'

-\4 - 2.4t


o o.r.lcnu'


n =2.42

Thevoidage z at a velocity of 0.25nts is rhen given by equarion 6.31asl 0.25 e = 0.784

Regular andcvenexpansion ofthc beddoesnot alwaysoocurwhenparticles are fluidised by a liquid- This js pafticularlyso for solids of high densiries, and non-unifomiries are most markedwith deepbedsof small parricles. In such cases, rhereare significant deviations from rherelationberween bedvoidage andvelocirypredidedby equation 6.31. (referred SrEwARr ro in SrDwARr andDAvrDsoN(r6)) hasshownthatwell-deinedbubbles of liquid and slugsare formedwhentungsrcn (densiry19,300 beads kg/m3,and parricle sizes776 and 930 pm) are fluidisedwith water. SrMpsoN and RoocER(17), H,*nrsoN dtcl.(13), LAWTHER andBERCLTN(|9) andRJcHARDsoN andSMnH(2o) haveobserved thatlead shotfluidisedbywatergivesriseto non-uniform Ruidised beds. ANDERSoN andJAcKsoN@r) havshownthatthis syslem wouldbe expecled to be ransitionalin behaviour_ HAssErr(22) andLAwsoN and HassErr(23) havealso noed instabilities and non-uniformities in liouid.olrds:)iem\. pJniculirl)ir beJso. narro$diameler. S mitrr obsenations havealso beenmade by CARNs and PR^usNrrz(24), by Kmvrrs et a1.t25) andby ReurmG6). who photographs havepublished ol bubbles in liquid solidssystems. Crsrr-,\Ro er at.Pl have madeexperimental measurements of one dimcnsjonal wavesin tiquid-soiids fluidised beds. Bqrrrv23 hr.,rudiedrle tluidisdrion ofteadrhoruirhqarerind hasreporred lhe occurrence of non-uniformities, thoughnot of welldefinedbubbles. He hasshownthatrhe plots of voidageagairstvelocityare no longerlinearand that the deviations logarithmic from the line givenby equation 6.31increase with: (a) increasein bed weight per unit area, (b) decrcase in particlesize. The deviationpasses througha ma\irnum as lhc velociryis incrcased, as shown in Figure6.7. The importance ofpanicle densiry in delermining rhenatureof fluidised systems is well established, and increase in densitygenerally resultsin a less uniform fluidisedsystem.

bed givesl 6.31 to eachffuidised Applying equation



that/t,Irvelocityt. is lhe samein eachcase,andassuming Noting ihat the superficial e= ' r _lq ul _ eH '"'


\ u o L)

of both bedsincreases, the voidages incrcased, As the fiuidisingvelocityis progressively considered: rate Two cases are generally the same not at althougb 6 424 ^nd 6.42b'pbh> pht from cquations 6.43, ?n < z, and therefore, From equation will alwaysform the boltomlayer. d., and the heavyparlicles at all fluidisingveloc;lies more rapidly than tf, with increasein velocity, the density of the upper zone decreases relative orientation ll the the samc will maintain rha! oI the bottom zone, lhe two beds of the two where lhe densities i/rNv may be a velocity situationapplies,therc reverse place. taking the two species mixing of complele with virtually layen becomeequa1, to invert' as shown the bcds ,rNv then causes velocity above in Any fudher increase in Fig re 6.8(d). diagrammaiically



:...:i. o^o ou^ x^'o


iluldvelocily Increaslng

Figue 6.8. Bed invesion t

conPlete sgEgation (l) Conplele md pafiial sccFgation('?e)

velocityis increased change asthefluidising rates at which thebeddensities Therelative to u.' and 6 424 and 6'12, wilh respect equations may be obtainedby difterentiating dividing to give:
| _:t

lp,u /



-t (Pt


\| "






Engineedng Prcesses 195Chemical

of fluidising As ett > et utd p"a > pr, then from equation 6.44, r, which is independent velociry, must be greaterthan unity. It is thus the bed of heavy particles which expands and which must thereforebe foming the bottom more rapidly as the velocify is increased, layer at low velocities if inveIsion is possible. That is, it is the small heavy panicles which move from the lower to the upper layer, and vice versa,as the veloity is increased and Ad,fnr(3o) have analysedthe range beyond the inversion velocity &tw. RTcHARDsoN of conditions over which segregationof spherical pa{icles can occur, and have shown thesedia$ammatically in Figure 6.9 for the Stokes' law region (a) and for tbe Newton's la\r reg.ion fr). It has been observedby seveml workers, including by MoRntiMr er dl.(ze)and EpsrEIN ihat a sharp transition between two mono-compbnentlayers does not ald PnuoeN(3|), always occur and that, on each side of the ransition point, there may be a condition where the lower zone consistsof a mixtwe of both speciesof pa$icles, the Foportion of heavy particlesbecomingpro$essively smaller as the velocity is increased.This situation, depicted in Figure 6.80, can adse when, at a given fluidising velocity, there is a stable two-componentbed which has a higher density than a bed composedof either of the two shows specieson its owlt. Figure 6.10, taken ftom the work of EpsrEINand PRUDEN(3j), layels changeas fte liquid velocity is how tlrc bed densitiesfor the two mono-componeni inffeased, with point C then defining the inversion point when complete segregationcan take placo. Between points A and D (conespondingto velocities ,.A and r.B), however, by curve ABD) nay be formed which has a density a two-componentbed (represented mono-component bed over this velocity range.In moving along than that of eilhr $eater this cwve ftom A to D, the proportior of light particles in the lower layer decroases progressivelyftom unity to zero, as shown on the top scaleof the diagram.This proportion


: I



0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1,00 (prpYlpu-p) lncreasing iluid veloclt 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 (prdtba-p) Incrcasing fluid vel@ity (D)


Figue 6.9. The posibility ot invesioi (a) Sotes law Eeio. (r) Nevton s lav Esion(r)

cLKcL+ cH) 0 0.2 0,4 0.6 0.8

V o L m eh c l r o n r r - C e ' C d - C r r - O . a i r L

padicles (copperrH=8800 Smallhea$/ kgr'm3 d=0.135mm) Large ighloancle (z s , r o n ro a. - 3 0 0 k 9 m'.d-0.7 rm) F u , d in s q i q u d( w a r e r l o o dr , 9 / n 3 /= /=r mNs/m1
CLlrC! Cr 0.6


FLuldising velocityuc(nts) Fieurc6,10, Bed densities as a funciionofnuidisingvelocity,showingthe mixed plrlicle reionl)

is equalto thatin the total mix ofsolids al poini B, wherethe wholebedis rheof uniform composition, and the velocityxrB tbcrefore represcnts the effective inversionvelocitv. lf lhe llo$ of nLidising lrquidLo a comptclely segregarcd bed is.urtJenll .ropped. the particles will all then start to settleat a velocityequalto that at which they have beenlluidised,because equaiion 6.31 is equaityapplicabte 1()sedimenrarion and fluidisThus, sincethe voidages of rhe lwo bedswilt borh be greatcrat higher Uuidisation velocilics,the subsequenr particlesin sedimenlalion velocity will then also be grearer. both bedswill setrlear the samevelocityandse$egarion will be mairtained. Eventually, two packedbedswill be formed,one abovethe other.Thus,if the Ituidisinsvelocitvis le.. lfan lhe rrJn.i on relocil).a pc(ked bedot l1lgeliglt par cle. ui tormaboier bed of smalldense particles, and conversely, if rhe fluidisingvelocityis greater thanthe inversionvelociry.Thus.fluidisaiion followedby sedimenrarion can providea means of \egrcg ed Inono lorming rqo complelei) cornpo-rent bed..lhe reldtive confiAuralion ol uhich depend. $lel, on rl-eliquid\e.ocir)cl shich he p licle.farc beeq Rurdi.ed.

6-2,4.Liquid and solids mixing

Ka*nns etal.(25)havesrudiedlongirudinal dispersiorin the tiquid in a fluidisedbed composedolglas..phere.of0.5mmardlnxndrancler.A-ep(hrngewa\inrroduced

1 9 7C h e m i c aE n g i n e e i n q Pfoesses

by feeding a nornal solution of potassiumchloride into the system.The concentrationat the top of the bed was measured as a functionof tirneby means of a smallconductivity cell. On the assunplionthat the flow pattern could be regarded as longitudinal diffusion on piston flow, an eddy longiludjnaldiffusivily $,ascalculated. supedmposed This was found to rangefrom l0 4 to 10 3 m2ls,indeasingwith both voidage and particlesize. The movement ofindividual paficlesin a liquid-solid fluidised bedhasbeenmeasured and LArrFFt. In all cases,the mcthod involved by HANDLEY e/ !zl.(32) CARLos(33.31), parficles fluidisingtransparent in a liquid of the samerefradiveindex so that the whole The movemenlof colouredtracer particles,whose other systembecametransparentphysicalproperlies were identicalto thoseof lhe bed particles, could then be follolved phorographically. Handleyfluidisedsodaglassparticlesusing methyl benzoare, and obtaineddata on the flow patternof lhe solids and the distibution of vertical velocity components of lt was found that a bulk cnculationof solids was superimposed on their the particles. randommovement. Particles normallylendedto move upwardsin lhe cenheof the bed at the walls, following a circulationpatten which was less markedin and downwards regions remotc from the distribulor. Carlos and Latif both fluidisedglass particlesin dimclhyl phlhalale.Dala on the mo\,ement of tbe facel the form of spatialco-ordinates as a function of prcgnmmedto calculate vertical,ndial, time, were usedas dircct input !o a computer tangential and radial velocitiesof the particleas a functionof location.When plotted was found to bc of the samcfo.m as that as a histogram, fie tolal velocitydistribulion predictedby the kinetic lheory Ior lbe molecules in a ges. A lypical rcsull is shown in FiglLrc 6.11(33). Effectivediffusionor mixing coefficients for the particleswere then calculated from the productof the mean velocnyand meanfree path of the particles, usingthe simplekinetic lheoly.

0.03 E E

e o.o2 .9
6 0,001
Panicle speed(mnvs) FiCuF 6.11. Distribution oi p:trliclespeeds in nuidised bed(]|)

Solidsnixing wasalsostudied by CaRl-os(rar in the same apparatus, staningwlth abed pafiicles particles composed ofrransparent anda layerof tracer at ihe base of the bed.The concentration of particles in a controlzonewasthendetermined at various intervals of time

ailer thecommencemenr of liuidisation. Ther

\'r,i,:$ff fl ;;T[1rr*;:i,3::#;'':ii:!i:.ii::'"1;1"*"i:"
t a vclocitvof lwice the minimumfluidising verocrry. LArrF(rs)represenredthe circulation currer

the values ofmixing coefficienr oblained bv 1l

type equation. rhis was then """0,";r";,#iiljo"ilii'r':.ilf"#f ll,.Xrlllt:lT;

j:''il: smt:#*[:ti:#?fu:1":":r;r.i$r'6"Hi:ff ','ll"T

ff:"H:'""X Jfl1il:#:jfl :'#f:t$H$i;Xt"ly;:n:":tr;: :**;*t ",,il";,"j1 ffi':'af i*".'.'J:#fi TX5:i".J,;TJi;i:i:j# m;; ;;"d;;;

pa.ern over onry aradia, * *.*". ,,.ilTJ*iJ';'"1#;:i::*::f ";.

:trI,",fj ijjrTi'fi'}ffr:': :; ;?xd$[ii]:'1,,'l "ii!Hi;:i:xF:'1,ffi ;'"",,}i:l:




0.800 i.000

199ChemielEnqineenng Processes

Later wo* on axial dispersion of particles has been carried oRt by DoRcELoer al (36) who used an random-walk apFoach.

6.3. GAS-SOLTDSSYSTEMS 6-3,1,Generalbehaviour

In general,the behaviour of gas-fluidisedsystemsis considerablymore complex than tiat of liquid-fluidised systemswhich exhibit a gradual transition from fixed bed ro fluidised bed followed by paflicle transport, without a series of transition regions, and with bed expansior and pressuredrop coniorming reasonablyclosely to valuescalculatedfor ideal systems. Pafi of the complication with gas-solid systemsarises from the fact that the purely hydrodynamicforces acting on the particles are relatively small comparedwith frictional forces betweenpafticles, electrostaticforces and surfacforces which play a much more dominant role when the particles are vcry fine. As the gas velocity in a fluidised bed is increased, the systemlends10go throughvadousstages: (a) Fixed bed ]n which thc pa(icles rcmain in contactwith one anotherand the stnrcture of the bed remains stable unail the velocity is increased to the point lrhere the pressuredrcp is equal to the weight per unit areaof the particles. (b) Pa,liculate ^nd rcgrlar predictableexpansionover a limited rangeof gasvelocities. (c) A babbling region characterised by a high proportion of th gas passingthrough the bed as bubbles which causerapid mixing in the denseparticulate phase. (d) A turbulent chaoldcrcgion in which the gasbubblestend to coalesceand lose their identity(e) A region where the dominant pattem is one of .refticallJ upwa l tmnsport of par"ticler, essentiallygas-solids transporl or pneumaticconveying. This condition, sometimesreferred !o asjtst fuidisation, lies o\ttside the range of Fue fluidisation.

Although fine particles generaliy form ffuidised beds more readily than coarseparticles, surface-related forces tend to predominatewith very fine particles. It is very difficuh ro fluidise some very fine partjcles as they tend to form large stable conglommeratesthat are almost enthely by-passedby the gas. In some extremecases,particularly with small diameter beds,the whole of the particulate massmay be lifted as a solid 'piston'.The uniformity of the fluidised bed is often critically inlluenced by the characteristicsof the gas distributor or bed suppo.t. Fine mesh distributors are generally to be prefered ro a seriesof nozzles at the base of lhe bed, although the former fie generally more dilficult to install in larger beds becausethey are less robust. Good distribution of gasover the whole cross-section of the bed may often be dilficult to achieve, although this is enhancedby ensuring that the pressure drop across the distributor is large comparedwith that acrossthe bed of parricles-In general,the quality of gas distribution improves with increasedflowmte because the pressuredrop acrossthe

bed when it is ltuidised is, theoreticalty, independenrof the flowrare. The Dressure drcD acros. rhedislribulor will increa\c. howerer. app1sr,rnr,.1, In pjoporlion io de .quxr; of lhe floumre.and rherelore lhe ljrclion of the roralpresruie rtropinaroccr,. ,.ro.i ih; disriburor increa.e.rapidl] a, the flourdle increase.. Apartfrom the non-uniformiries whichcharacterise manygas solid fluidised beds,itis in the low fiuidising-vetociry region thar rhe behavjourof itri gas sotid and liquirt_solid beds dre most similar. At low gas rates the bed may exhibir ; regular expunrion u, tt," llo\ rare incjease\. $ iLi rheret ronberwecn,rg wro.iD nnJ,oi,jagitoflo"ine;. lormol equarion o.JL atrhough. ,n genera'. vatui,of rh.".rpo"."r ,-*. hieh;;:h;; Lhe those for liquid-solids systemspartiy becauseparticles have a tendency to fo"nn small agglomerates thereby increasing the effective particle size. The range oi velocities over which paniculaie expansion occurs is, bowever, quirenarrowin moit cases.

The region of paniculate Uuidisdt on u,ua ] come\lo ar abrupt cnd a5 lhe're, sa5\elocih r jncrea.ed. \aitl.rhetormarion ofga. bLrbbler. These bubbti.are usur l ponv tte ror the no!\ ol atmollalt of lhe gdsin e\ce.. ol thalUoningal rheminimum fluidi.inA velocity.If bcd expansion har occurred beforebubblingcommerces, the e*c."" gasnuiii be transferredto rhe bubbles whilst the conmuous pnase reverrs to rrs voidaAe at rhe minimrmfluid,sing !eloci.]and. in rhi"sa). ir conirdcri Thu..lhe e\prnded bc; aDoears {o be In a meta-rable condilion uhich i. rnalogoL\ ro rnzrot a .upir.aruraret .otu|on revertmg to rts sarurated concenrration whenfed with smallseed crystals, with rheexcess solutebeingdeposited on to rhe seedcrystals which thcn indcasein size as a result. ,pp., limir of ga5 !eloci') tor panrculare e\pan.ionis r.tmedhe nininun . Jl: bubbttnq \etoc|y.urb. Determrning thiscrn prc\ent dilficult.cs r\,1\ \alur ma) depend on the nature of th distribuaor,on the presence of even tiny obskuctions in tfr"i.O, evenon the immediate pre-history ""a of the bed.The latlo uftb/ui, whjch Eives a measure of the degreof expansionwhich may bc effected,usuatty has i trign vatue for fine liqhr particles and a low valucfor largedense parricies. F9r crac^ker caTllsl (d:55 p.m,densiry = 950 ks/m3) fluidisedby air, vatuesof arl,7,,,r ofup lo 2.8havebecn forndb) D{vrfsandR, FqRDsoJ\',-,. Ou;ng rte cour,e ol firs \ oik ir uas loundlharrhere t a minimurn !/e ol bubbte whichi.;ble. Smatt bubtles injected into a non-bubbling bed tend ro becomeassimilatedin the a"nr" of,*". whilst, on the other hand, larger bubbles tend to grow ar the expenseof the gas fl'ow in the dense phase. If a bubblelargerthanthe cdtical sizejs injected into an exp;ded bed, the bed_willinirially expandby an amountequalto the voiumeof rhe i";"i"a U"U-Uf"l men, however, the bubble breaks rhe surface, the bed will faI back biow the tevel existingbeforeinjeciionandwill therefore haveacquired a reduced voidage. Thus, the bubblingregion,which is an importanrfeatureof beds op-erating at gas velocities in excess of rhc minimumffuidisingvetociry, is usuallychara;erisdby ;;; phases-a conrinuous emulsion phasewirh a voidageapproximatety equatto tfraiof a bedal it. minimum fluidr\ing !etociL). anda d;sconrinou. or brbble pt,o.. rtrcr lo"r mort ol lhe e\cc.5 flo\^ ol ga.. Tht .r sometimec ".counr. reterred lo as .hi rlra-phrs" thco\


201ChemilEngineering Proesses

The bubbles exert a very strong influence on the flow pattem in the bed and provide the mechanisimfor the high degreeof mixing of solialswhich occurs.The pmpertiesand behaviourof the bubbles are describeIater in this Section. When rhe gas flowrate is increasedto a level at which the bubbles berome very large and unstable, the bubbles tend to lose their identity and the flow pattem changesto a chaotic form without well-defined regions of high and low concentraiionsof particles. This is commonly described. as the turbulent rcgion which has, until fairly recently, been the subiect of relativelv few studies.

Categorisati on of Sol ids

The easewith which a powder can be fluidisedby a gas is highly dependent on the ploperlies just how a givenpowder of the parlicles. Whilst il is not possible to forecasr will fluidisewilhout carryingout testson a sample, it is possible to indicate sometrends. ln general,fire low density particles fluidise more evenly than large denseones,provided that they are not so small that the London-van der Waals ailractive forces are great enoughfor the particlesto adheretogetherstrongly. For very fine particles, thesealtractive forces can be dree or more orders of magnitudegreaterthan their weight. cenerally, $e more nearly spherical the particles then the beller they will fluidise. In this respect,long particles are lhe most difficult to fiuidise. Particles of mixed sizes will needle-shaped usually ffuidise more evenly than those of a uniform size. Furthermore,the presence of a small proportion of fines will frequently aid the fluidisation of coarseparticles by coating them with a 'lubricating'Iayer. particles In classifying into four groups, GELDART(a6) hasusedthe lollowing criteda: (a) Whether or not, as the gas flowrate is increase4 the fluidised bed will expand significantly before bubbling takes place. This property may be quantified by the ratlo unh/u,nJ, \vhercuh, is the minimumvelocityat which bubblingoccurs. This assessment can only be qualitative as the value of Il,, is very c.itically dependent on the conditions under which it is measured. (b) Whether the risingvelocityof the majorityof thebubbles, is grearer or lessrhanthe gasvelocity. interstitial The significance ofthis factoris discussed in Seclion6.3.5. (c) Whether the adhesive forces between particles are so $eat that the bed tends to channel rather than to fluidise. Channolling dependson a number of factors, including the degree to which rhe bed has consolidatedand the condition of the surfaceof the particlesat the time. With powdersthat channelbadly, it is sometimes possibleto initiate fluidisation by mechaoicalstirring, as discussed in Section 6.3.4. The classesinto which powders are grcuped are given in Table 6.1, which is ta*en from the work of GELDART(33), and in Figure 6.13. In they are located apFoximately on a particle density particle size chart.

TheEffect of Prcssure
The effect of pressureon the behaviour of the bed is impotant becausenany industrial processes, includingfluidisedbed combustion which is discussed in Section6.8.4.,arc

ftble 6.1. Cltegonsadon of Powdersil Relation b Fluidisarion Cbaacteristica{33)

30 100

P liculate dlansion of bed sienincdt velocity range. Snall padicle sir rd

GrcUp B

t00 800

Bnbbling occus a! vebcny >r l, Most blbbles have velociries grearer velocity. No evidenceof naxinum bubble size. diffcuh to fluidne and Hdily forn chahnels. All but ldgst bubbles rise interstirial g6 vetocity. spouEd bds, Panjcles

20 r000

7000 6000 5000 4000 3000

i 31ooo
I 6

E soo






Meai padicle siz6 (pm) l-rguF 6.lJ


rs, Poqdd ( a\ihcarion diogro tor fludFadon b) air ar rnoienr condrliotu

203Chemical Engineering Pfoesses

crmied out at elevated pressures,Several workers have reported measurements of bed

Becauseminimum fluidising velocity is not very sensitive to the pressurein the bed, much geater massflowrates of gas may be obtainedby increasingrhe operatingpressurc. The influence of pressure,over rhe range 100-1600 kN/m2, on the fluidisation of three gradesof sand in rhe particle size range 0.3 to I mm has been studied by OLowsoN and AI-MsrEDr(421 and it was showedthat the minimum fluidising velocity becane less as the pressurewas increased.The effect, most markedwith tbe coarsesoliis, was in asreement vr'ithrhaLpredicledby slandard relanons such as equirion0.14. For frne pard:les.the minimumfluidisingvelocir) is independenL of ga5deDsity tequadon 6.5 uirh p" > > p1. and honceof pressule,

when verv much hisher varues :I'#':ilfr :,'l#'ff ,aiii,'.'i138.fff"n**"*s


The calculation of coeflicients for the rransferof heai or nass bctween the particles and theffuid_stream requires a knowledge ofthe hearormassffow,lhe inrertacial ;rca, andthe driving force expressed either as a temperature or a concentralionilifference. Many early investigations are unsatisfactory in tharonc or mo.e pf rhesevariables was inacclratel; determired. This applies particularly to the driving force,which wasfrequently based on complelely eroneousassunptions abourrhenatureof the flow in the bed. One difficulty in m.Lking measuremenrs ot transfe.coefficients is thar equilibriumis rapidty attained belweenparricles and fluidisingmcdium.This ha.s in somecases been obviated by rhe useof very addirion. in measwements of massrransfer, lhe methods ofanalysishavebeeninaccurale, andthe particles usedhavefrequently been of sucha naturethat it hasnot beenpossible to obtaii Ruidisation of good quality.

6.4.2.Mass transfer betweenfluid and particles

BAKHIARIaS) adsorbed roluene andiso,octanc vapours from a vapour-laden air stream on tothc surface ofsynthcticalumjna microspheres andfollowedrhtchangeof concentration of the outlergaswiih Lime, usjnga sonicgasanalyser. It wasfbundrh;r equitibrium was attained between outlelgasandsolidsin all cascs, andthcrefore transfer coefficicnrs could notbe (clculdred lheproSrcs,otlhe adrorption proci* $a. n:ll to,.o$eo, ho$ever. 5,, xrL\ "' modjfied lhe .y.lem .o lharequilibr,rm $a, nol Jcl icveddt .ne outlel. Thin bedsandlow concenrralions of vapourwereused,so thatrheslopeof theadsorDtion rsotherm was 8]eater_ Parlicles of charcoai of different porc structures, and of sjlc; gel, werelluidisedby means of air or hydrogen containing a known concenrration of carior reiuchlo dre o r w a l e!ra p o u fA . n n J l g ' a , , J p p d a l u " wu : .. e d . o l h a . rcuu,d ocreadil\ dFrnan.led. Jnd Ine od.orpdon proce..\"c, fo osed b) $eigh,rg-he oeda. irrervats. The inle! concenlration was known and the ouilet concertration was deiermined as a lunctionof time liom a matcrialbalance, usjngtheinformation obtained fiom thepcriodic weighings. The driving fo.ce was thenobrained at lhe inlet and the outletof the bed,on ine assumption rhat ihe solids were completly mixed and rhat the partial pressure of vapourat their sur{acc wasgiven by the adsorption isotherm. At any heighr. abovelhe boltom of the bed,lhe masstransfcrrareper unit time, on the assumption of pirr.rrlJ4ri,ofgas, is givenby: dNs:11o66o'6' whcrc.r' is the rransfer areaper unit heightof bed. Integrating over the wholedepthof rhebed grves:


N^ hDa'Jr a cd:


205Chemical Engineer ig Processes

The integraionmay be canied out only if thc varialionof driving force throughout the depthof the bed may be estimaled. I1 was nol possibleto nake measurements of rhe profileswithin the bed,althoughas the valuc of AC did not vary greatly concentration from the inlet 1{) ihe outle!.no scious errorwasintroduced by usingthe loga.ifimic mean value ACh.



Valuesof masstransfercoefficients were calculated using equation 6.47, and it was progressively found that the coefficient becamcless a! cachexpciment prcceeded and as the solids becamesaturated. This effect was attributedto the gradudlbuild up of the resistance to lransferin the solids.In al1cases the transfercoefficient was plotted against the relative saturatronof the bed, and the values were extrapola.edback to zero relative saturation, coffesponding to the commencementof the test. These mr\imum extrapolated values were then coffelatedby plotting the co esponding value of the (Sn' = /rDdlD) asainst Sherwoodnunber theparticle Reynolds number(R?: = ltdplp) to give two lines as shownin Figure6.i4, which could be represented by the followjng equalions: (0.1< R"; < 15)

l!! : 51, :6.31p"".,

h"d 1 {a sl -:.0 n

(6.48) (6.49)

Lr5 R.



providedthai the initial Thesecorelalionsare applicable 10 all the syslems cmployed, maximum valuesof thc transfercocfficicnlsare uscd.Tbis suggcsts ihai the extrapolalion givcsthe lrue gas-fi]mcoefficienl. This is bomeoul by the fact thtr!the coefficient pcriod whcn lhe poreswerc large.thoughit fe11 remained unchanged for a considerablc off extremely rapidly wirh solidswith a fine porestructurelt was not possible, to .eiatl3 the behaviour of ihe systemquantitatively to the pofe sizedistribuiion however. The valuesoI Sherwood numberfall below the theoretical minimum value of 2 for particleandthis indicaLcs masstransfer Io a spherical lhal thc assumption of pistonflow of gases is not valid at low valuesof the Reynolds numberIn orderto obtainrcalistic values in this region,information on the axial disperslon coefficient is required. A studyof masstransfer between a liquid anda panicleformingpart of an assemblage ), who subjecteda sphereof benzoic of particles was nade by MULLN and TRTLEAVEN(45 acid to the actionof a stream of water.For a 6xed sphere, free to circulale or a sphe.e wasgiven.for 50 < Re| < 700, by: in the liquid, the masstransler coefficient sh' : o.g4Re',|12st1/3


The presence of adjacent spheres caused an increase ir the coefficient because the turbuprogressively greater lencewasthereby increased. The effectbecame asthe concentration increased, althoughthe resultswere not influenced by whetheror not the surounding pafticles were free to move. This suggeslsihat the transfer coefficient was the sane in a fixed or a fluidisedbed.


E 0.1 o charcoall2sAir-CC[ o Charcoa't 156-AirCCt4 ' chafoatJS6-H, CCt4





""t."* ***""; {=f )

Figure 6.14. Sheqood nunber as a functior of Reynotds number for adsorption experimenB(q )

The resulrs of earlier work by CHU.KALTL, and WEmrnonr(46) suggestedthat transfer coelficienrs uere \imitar in fi\ed andfluidised beds. Apparen( di|fercn;s al to$ Revnotd\ numben were probabt)due ro rhe facr rharrherecouja be ;;_.i;1;;'; fluid in the fluidisedbed. "pp,..trbi;

In a fluidised bed, riftr'ocranevapour is adsorbedfrom d air srreamon ro the surface of arumina microspheres. The nole fncrjon of do octane in rheinlet gasis 1.442x t0_, andth.n;;;"; iD the outlet gas is found to vary wit| rime as fo ows: Mole ftactionin outler s a s( x 1 0 , )

(s) 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000

0.223 0.601 0.857 1.04 1.20/ 1.287 r.338 1.373


*;:Ir,TridilI:::*F;:'#ffi:'J# F:!tq'r"r##iti:i$"fif
isothdm ta'r'**ru"'* a" ii" *'"r* q.;"lii l"-J?oretheidsorytion

207ChemielEngineedng Processes

A rnassbalanceover a bed of particles at dy time , after the stan of the experiment,givesr

G-Oo - )) =


G," is lhe molai ffowrate of gas, W is the massof solids in the bed, F is the nurnberof noles of vapour a&orbed on unit nass of soiid. and )0. ) is the mole fmdion of lapour in the inlet and ourle, respe.rirely. "tream r the adsorptionisotherm is linear. and if equilibriun is r;ched betweenthe outlet gas and the solids ard if none of the gas bypasses the bed, then a is Biven by: F=J+h! where / and , de the iniercept md slope of the jsotherm respectively. Combining theseequationsand iniegrating gives:

- r/ri = -Gn/wb)t tn(1

If the ssumptionsoutlinedpreviouslyare valid, a plot of ln(l -:y//o) againsr I shouldyield a sh'aight line of slole -G,,,/ WD.As )o : 0-01442, the followirg lablemay be producedl

rime G)
250 500 750 1000 t250 1500 1750 2000 o.00223 0.00601 0.00857 0.0106 0.0121 0.0129 0.0134 0.0137 0.155 0.41'1 0.594 0.'736 0.837 0.893 o928 o952

I - (r/)o)
0.845 0.583 0.406 o.263 0.163 o.107 o.072 0.048

lntl - 0/)tur)
-0.r68 -0.539 -0.902 -1.33 l.8l -2.23 -2.63 -3.04




Y s -2.0

sror".ol **'ption.\

FiSure 6.15. Adsorption isorherm for Exnple 64

Thse data are plotted-in Figore 6.tS ard a shaighrtine is obtained, with a slope of _0.00r67/s If G,, = 0.679x t0 6 kmoysand W = 4.66 e.-the,:

-0.001 67= (-0.61 9 x tO-\ / 4.66b = b a73 x 10 6kmoy8 or 0.0873 knol/kg

6.4.3.Heattransler betweenlluid and particles

In meas-uring heat rransfer coefficients, many *o.k k fuil"d fo measue any temperaturc djtfcrence ber\^een gas dnd .otid in a Jiuidised bed. F*qr.",ty, r" i;;";.,;;^

*ri# elerlwheiein a fluidised bed.excepr wirhinc ,hr" r"y., i,;Ji";-]; disrdbutor, fuTTr\RING. MoNor-nqtro. and Svnn,?,and H"ERTJ. ""b*;'je;;. s rna V.f,"",nr,fl, measured heat transfercoefficients for the evaporationot water from panicte" .f A_rrfr" or silica gel ffuidised by hearedair. In rhe former in"""ttg"ti.", it i, piJ"ti" tf,"t erable erors arose from the conaluctionof """"iaa{ure grrdienl \aarconfined to lhe bolom pan ot lhe brd. A ,r.,i"" ,h";;;;i;;;. useoror measunng gcs temperdlures. cllhoughthi. probablycauced tome a;surtanc" to the flow pattern r fte bed. FRANz(4e ) has reviewed many .f ft" ;;;Jil;;-;; this field. used a sready-state system in which spherical particles were fluidised in a 1**'l. ] rectangllar bed by meansof hot air. A continuousflow of solids was mai"trt; ;;;;

for transfer wasassumed, since ir wasnotappreciared rharrh;"r irqriirii".

used for measurins,he r..,l;1#:"$,,[ri";i$,n*.ilT":i*T s4\,empera,ure.

coored aird then '"tu,n"a to*'" i1".'i:#"*:Tff"fi;i'1ffi'f,JT"y*'were -i",,".J

constantan. Therhermo-junction leads werehJd in unopp.iiro:t"ry t"oi}t;;_;il;;; minimise theeflectof heatconduction. Aftel

asseTbrv; yp " ;i*'r.,

Jf.,J;ff::r:;:%1r:""?5 ;,11""t""'#::"#;

i, !,a. found,r.",,r,.,".p.oi,,.g,uil;i;:'::lr'""J ij:-Ij;l"ij:";T*,1

lhan2.5 mm decp at lhe boromot ine UeO t,newhere. rhelemperatur. *r, ;;,;";;;

i"o;t'lo#11 ffl'"u
l* t"rl,lt'" *"

o"*eenthe and the solids 'l tvpicat eas t".p",utr'."p.o;i; j;"ffi;

or complete mixineor thesolids and /,r ,;";, i";;l;; ""umPtion
dQ = h\Ia'dz

At any height z abovethe bottom of rhe bed, the heatrransfer rate betweenthe particres

(6.s1) (6.s2)

Integrating gives:

Q = ha' ^rdz Jo
In equation 6.52, C may be obtained from rir



Pro@sses 209ChemielEngineenng

340 338
p !


0 2.O 3-0 1.0 (rnm) Heighi above bedsuppod

Figure 6.16. vertical temperatutegradient in fllidised bed(50)

if the solids were completely mixed, their temperaturewould be the sane as that of the gas in the upper portion of the bed. The resultsfor the heattransfercoefficientwere satisfactorilycorrelatedby equation6.53 in ihe solidcouldbe neglected to heattransfer in Figure6.17.Sinctheresistance asshown comparedwilh thai in the gas,the coefficientswhich were calculatedwere gas-film coef6_ cients, conelated by:

dn1 '-ooro1n" , r , ,- - 1 1 . o . o s o l t l 1r"

| \(t'/ \, /


10 wilhair Glass lluidised .0.114 v0.137 o 0.165 . 0.231 o0.838 o 1.55

:- 1,0 E 3 0.1

Seedlluidised wllhair wlthait Lsadfluidised d 0.96mm fluidised withCO, Glass + 0.37mm

o.o2 0.1


10 l


do\ Feynords numbr Fe;/el=fr-l

FiguE 6.1?. Coffelation of erperinental @sllts for bear transfer to particles in ! Rui.tisedbed($ )

Taking an average vatue of 0.57 for the voidage of the bed. this equation may be = 0.llRe:rr3 ?.r'2r,


notat lowvalues.of theReynotds number (< a) at*r,iir, m" l"*J

Th: e.qua,tion wds found to be appticabtc tor \atuer ot R?; trom 0.25 ro t8. As In (llecaie of ma\. ran\[er.thea5\umption of pi.t;n flo\ais not valid,cenainl\

thefheorerical minimum valueof 2. This question ""_t".ii is discussed furrher at th; ;;J;;;


Cold panicles of gtass balotini are flui.lised with heatedair in a bed in which a constantflow of ptrticles is mainiai'ed in a horizontat direcrion. when s,"dy ;;;; ;""d.';; recorded by a bare rhermocoupleimmerxedin the"..,litt.,, bed are as foltows Distance abovebe.dsuppor (lml Temlerature (K)

0 o.64 |.27 l.9l 3.81

339.5 337.7 335.0 333.6 333.3 333.2

Calculate the coefficient for hear ftnsfer blween the gas and the particles. and the corre_ spondingvaluesof the particle Reynotdsand Nussettn"*t"". C..rn*, i" J" ,..rr, ;";; The ga\ frowrate i\ 0.2 kg/r',. rhe specifichearor iir n 0.88 UAg K. rhe \i,co.iry ot air L 0.0t5 n\s/m,. rhepd.jcje djdeltr i,0.25 mm andrher*_"r*"0*f,,i,y O.ol wi. ri. "i,ir;_

Forrhe system desoibed in rhis p.oblem, the rate of heat rransferbetween lhe particles dd the nuid js given by: d Q : h a ' ^ Td z (equatron 6.51) (equalion 6.52)

a: ha ^r dz la

where 0 is tbe hear transferred,ll is the tEat hansfer coefncient. z, is the area for rransfer/unit heighrol bed.and A? rs rhe rerperdrLre d,fference ar hei8hrz. r r o m m ed a t a g r l e n .A r m a ) b ep l o e d a g l i n s r . a . s h o u ni n f i g u _ e O t 8 w h e Fg e d e a u n d e r , the curvegivesrhe valueofrhe integralas 8.82mm K


H e u t t r a o s f e m d : 0 . 2. 0 . 8 8 1 i 3 9 . 5 3 i 2 2 )

= Ll1 kwn'zof bedcross-secrion.

211ChemilEnsineeins Processes

6.0 5.0 g 40 - 30 2,0 1.0 1.0 2_O 3.0 4.0 Area undercurve=8,82 mmK

Height above bed suppo {mm) Fieue6.18.'remp.raturc riseasa function of bedheight for Eranple6-5

If the bed voidage = 0.57, and a bed I m'zx I m high, is consideredwith a volBne = 1 nr, then: Volune of particles = (l - 0 57) x 1 : 0.43 mr. volune of I panicle= (r/6)(0.25 x l0 1tr = 8.18x 10-''zmr. jumber of padicles = 0.43l(8.18x 10-'1 : 5.26 x l0r0 per m3. Thus Aea of particles a' =5.:26x l]to x (1t /4)\O.X x 10 )'z= 1.032x lO4m?/mr. Substituting in equation 6.52 gives:

= i1x (1.03 11tJ0 x loa x 8.82x 10-r) h = r2.2w/m'K Fron equation 6.69:Nr:0.11Rer'3 Re= G'd/p = (O.2 x O.25 x 10-)/@.015 x 10-) = 3.33 Thus: : 0.513 lra = 0.11x (3.33)r'z3
, ( 0 5 i J . 0 . 0 1 V { 0 . 2y 5 l0 ) = 6l.o $/m7 K

Ballotini particles, 0.25 lM jn diameter, are fluidised by hor an flowing at r]le raie of 0.2 kg/n, s to give a bed of voidage 0.5 and a cross-flow of parricles is mairrained ro rmove the heat. Under steady stateconditions, a small bd thermocoupleimmersedin the hd gives the following

Distance above bed support

0 0-625 L25 1.875 2.5 3.75
Assuming plug flow of the gas and comtrletemixir

66.3 64.5 61.8 60.4 60.! 60.0

339.5 337.7 335.0 333.6

:H;!'."1ii",?jil":f fi f,:'*:,1,n';:l ll"+::l*rn';*j ii:Hilt,?fu"Hfi ff:t;""',!T"irT [T;Iffi::f :i$,;mm:*,krnil*!;ffi iillr:il}ifi

vaporisationof water is 2.6 MJ/kg.

tllxi:if;r'T,tr;lff T:,.#mirud:l;fuH*n::rii**F

Solution ffil:t"ili Hffii:$ted withvoidaee e ano a mass nowrate c', rhen a heat 6arance over
G', CFT = hS(t - e.) dz (TP_ TJ wherq : specific heat (Jftg K) parricle ienperature, (K) = 4 s(l - ) = surface aiervolune of bed (mrlm,l = hear transfer coefficient (w/m, K) tr Cp

hs(l- e)z

c'c,u = nsg - 4 170 ' 711" l"

U,{(l,,*tro. nay be fourd from a plo! of the experinental data shownin FisuE 6.19 as


- e) - 6(1- o.s) /(0.2sx t0-) = 1.2x 104/m

G, = 0.2kglm,s, cp = 850rkCK Hence: (0.2 x 850x 6.3):11x (12x loax6.31x l0-3) atrd: h=14.1W/m,K

Pro@sses 213Chemicl Engineeing


23 Hoighiabovebd supportz {mm) 6.6 Figurc 6.19. AZ asa function of Exanple lf the evaporationrate is 0.1 kg/s at a temperaturedifference, AZ = 50 deCK the heatflow: (0.1 x 2.6 x 106)= 2.6 x ld w If the etrective dea of th bed is ,4 thenl (14.1x ,4 x 50) = 2.6 x 105and A = 369m'z dea of the bed = (1.2 x loa x 0.1) = 1200n'? The surface = 0.31or 3l ler cent Hence,the fractionof bed which is used: (369/1200)

6.4.4.Analysisof resultsfor heat and masstransferto particles

A comparisonof equations6.48 and 6.54 showsthai similar forms of equationsdescribe the prccesses ofheat and masstransfer.The valuesof the coefficientsarc howeverdifferent in the two cases,largely to the fact that the averagevalue lor lhe Prandtl number, Pr", in the heat transfer work was lower than the value of the Schmidt number, 'S., in the mass transfor tests. It is convenientto exprcssresultsfor testson heattransferand masstransferto Partiles in the form of j-factors. If the concentrationof the diffusing componentis snall, then the l-factor for masstransfer may be defined by:

i', : !25,oat


where: ir is the mdsstransfer coefficienr, t. is the fluidisingvelocity, Sd is the Schmidr number(!,/pD), p is the fluid viscosiry, p is the fluid densiry, and D is the diffusivity of the transfered componentin rhe fluid. The corresponding rclilion for heartransfer i,:

il: =L p,oui
where: , is the heat transfer coefficient, Cp is rhe specific heat of rbe ffuid at consrantpressure, P/ is the prandrlnumber(Ct,tr/k), and i is the thermal conduclivity of the flujd.


Thc sisrili..ntceof I,facto's is dtscusle(l in dc]ail Coutson(j9) Reaffanging equarions 6_49,6.50, and6.55in rheform of6.55,and6.56andsubsriruring meanvaluesof 2.0 and 0.7 respecrivety for Sc and pr, gives: ( 0 . 1< R " : < 15)



sco':o.:7Re',02sc-otz = 6.2sp"'oz 05sc 033 =z.olRrf : 159p"'-os





_ _''" . p"ud_0 f t R..

I t R p . o 2 3 p r0 1 , _ 0 _ t . t R p . o . 2 3


Theserelations are plotted in Figure 6.20 as lines A, B and C resDectivelv. tu (\rcK and whrrrrT2 fluid,sed nEphrhalene crysrat\ ot fiv;.Iffe;r si,,eranger . (1elween.1000 and 250 pm) in air, hydrogen, and carbondioxide at u temp".arure-of 298 K. Th_gaswas passedrhrcugh a sinrered disc, which seNed as rhe bid support, at rates of between0.01 and 1.5 kg/m, s. Because of the natureof the surface'ani of the shape of the particles, uneven fluialisarion would have been oblained. The ftte of vaporisation was determined by a gravimerric analysis of rhe outlet gas, and mass transfercoefficierts were calculared.Thesewere expressed as ;_facrorsandllotted against Reynolds nurnberRe:(: u,tlp/tt) in Fievre6.21.Ir may be seentt,ut,wt it"t sei*ate cuNes were obtained for each size fraction of particles, each curve was of the same geneml shape,showing a maximum in rhe fluidisation regjon, roughly at the iransition betwenbubbling and slugging con{]itions.

215Chemical Engineering Processes

.E E



1 r0 100 nevnoros numoer ndI ' - \i= @ 4



Figurc 6.20, Hat od mas tRnsfer resllrs expsed as j-tacios

o 500 v 250





'Bubbling Slugglng Fixed bd i reqon Llluldisation fluidisallon

12 51020 RCL

Figure 6.2l.

) .r, lor tbe lransfer of naphtbalenevapour to an in fi xed and fluidis.d bedsFr

) obrainedan improved quality offfujdisation by coating and wETrERorn(46 CHU,KALTL, parlicles naphthalene, although it is probable that some attrition occured. spherical with particles ranging in size from 0.75 to 12.5 mm ard voidages Testswere carried out with used. Again, it was found thal particle size was an from 0.25 to 0.97. Fixed bedswere also parameter relation beiwen important in the i-factor and Reynolds number.When plotted a modified Relrolds number Reil: (u.Ap/0 - e)LL)1, as shownin Figure6.22 against ln however, a single correlation was obtained. addition, it was possible to representwith a single curve the results of a number of workers, obtained in fixed and fluidised beds as the fluidisingmedia.A rangeo10.6-1400for the Scbmidt with both liquids andgases

6 g =

@ o . @ + x A

Naphthalene-an 2-naphtbol waler Isoburyt atcohol rarer Methyl ethyt kelo.e-warer Salicyliclcid-benzene Succinic acid-, butyl alcohol Succinic aid acetone

2.57 0.60 1400 866 176 368 690

l17 t23 t24 125 t25 t26 t26 126

Figurc 6.22. j factor Ji, for ffxed and nuidjsed beds(46 )

number was may be noted thar rhe resutts for fiuidisealsystems are confineal to value.sobtainedat relarively high vatuesof rhe Reynolds number: The ."."" _;t-;; represented approximatelyby the equarions: (l<Rei<30)

(30< Rri < 5000)

jit: s.1Rei-ot3 j'a:l.'|tnei oAa

(6.60) (6.61)

Thesetwo relations are atso shown as curve D in Figurc 6.20 for a voidage of 0.5. A numter of other workers have measured mass tmnsfer rates, McCuNE and I studjedrrrnster Wr.HerNrr5r bc(ween naphlhol pdrlicle.and u ar., i" r,^"t u"j noiai..j Deos, nsJ and Mor(rAD')o, ab.orbcd cdrbon tetrachtoride vapour on acti\ared carbon particles in very shaltow beds which were somerimesless than one parricle aiameter

217Cheni@lEnsineer ns Prcesses

) dried Celite parlicles (size range approximately 3-19 mm) deep.WrLKEand HoucEN(52 in a fixed be.d by meansof a steam of air, and found that tbeir results were reFesentedby: (s0 < Rc: < 250) a5l i'u: t.82Re', a1 .i'd: a.99Re';o (6.62) (6.63)

(Re'" > 3s0)

Theserelations are plotted as cu e E in Figure 6.20. It may be seenthat the general trend of the results of differenr workers is similar but thatthe agreemenl is not good.In mostcases a directcomparison ofresultsis not possible becausothe expedmentaldata arc not available in the required form. The importanceof the flow patternon the experimenul data is clearly apparent,and the reasonsfor discrepancies betweenthe results of diffcrcnt wotkers are largely attributable to the rather different charactersof the ffuidised systems.It is of particular interest to note 6at, ai high values of the Reynolds number when the effects of back-mixing are unimportant, similarresultsareobtained in nxedand fluidised beds.This conclusion was ) in their tests with models. also reachedby MULLTN and ThELEAVEN(45 There is apparendyan inherent anomaly in the heat ard mass transfer results in ihat, at low Reynoldsnunbers,the Nusseltand Sherwood numbers(Figures.6.17 and 6.14) are very low, and substantially below the theoretical minimum value of 2 for transferby thernal conduction or molecular diffusion to a sphedcalpfiticle when the driving force is spreadover an infirite djstance.The most probableexplanationis that at low Reynolds numbe$ there is appreciableback-lnixing of gas associaiedwith the circulation ofthe solids.ffthis is represented as a diffusionaltype of process with a longitudinal djffusivity ot D/. lhe ba\icequarion for rhehear rransfei proce.s i.:




u,c,,p.- - halT -7,) =o oz



Equalion 6.79 may be obtainedin a similar mannerto equation4.34, but with the addition of the last term which reprcsentsthe transfer of sensibleheat from the gas to the solids. processis considered. The time derivative is zero becausea steady-state On integration, equation 6.79gives a relationbetween h aqd DL, andh may only be evaluated if D, is known.lf it is assunedthat at low Reynolds numbercthe value of the Nussellor Sherwood numbers approaches the theoretical minimum valueof 2, it is possible to estimate the valuesof D, at low Reynolds numbers, and rhento extrapolare thesevalues over the whole range of Reynoldsnumbers used.This provides a meansof recalculating all the resultsusingequation 6.?9.It is thenfound that the results for low Reynoldsnumbers are substantiallymodified and the anomaly is eliminated, whereasthe ) of Nusselt number for effect at high Reynolds numbersis small. Recalculatedvalues(aa 50 I hear tranrferrers ar-e sho$n in Figureb.21. ) and SZEKELY(4 ) Recalculated valuesof J; and ji obtainedfrom rheresults of AyERs(so arc shownin Figure6.32 as curvesF and G. It will be seenthat the curvesB, D, E, F, and G follow the sametrend.

- Ayreoabisind


Fenoro, nu.bqFe:

,fLl {

) has zABRoDsKy(5s also discussed thera,,""r"ii[ii;[r1i;;X".yse]t


' 'dj'f y"'"'".TJi r,*:: il:n'ffi i:it[i{#:t*tt,";ifr H:J*'"kili* i' **nv..e*aJ*'r"',i*l# l"''
Conusn(57) consideredthe ninimum possi

Figure 6.23. Recalcuiar,ed vatues oI NNselt nunher, tatine account rhe ellecls of bac! nin.gl4r

number applies.


of, fluidisedsystems.arc rncreasrns ar a very high ra.e, :1t: -lr:_ii. i: ":.".:iandins a\ a hunJred pape,s appeanng in gi\en anJ ",I i.'*.") )car.

''"'.s"jf :'"i:'"T":: :l'li,,i,"li; liii {,,iiji:iiim xl,,iij Jt*lr"m+i:

r,T,'.?:ffr l'""Hfi L'j",:#*:*f:;l'i"lJlt:ls*HtT ::,:.1'}:.}3tilf

hr.*fu#.:,:riiT1li*" * r$'*i ;1gpxi1r"ru

free falling vetociries. In partjcut;re fluidisaric

j#jbiql:;ff #ff ?;J ii ;*il,.'flJ:ir-r#*:ti;ft "{ "TsT:$

f:;f: fl: ;: *;:i,*f:l,"j *;::J ilT,f,1,.T$l:: ",';:'Hx.i::'fiifi

219Chemical En9ineering Proesses

is the pattem normally encountere.d with gas-solids systems. Bubbles tend to form at gas rates above the minimum fluidising rate and grow as lhey rise through the bed. The bubbles grow becausethe hydrostaiic pless re is falling, as a result of coalescence with other bubbles, and by flow of gas from the continuous to the bubbie phase.The rate of rise of the bubble is approximately Foportional to the one-sixth power of ils volume. If the rising velocity of the bubble excedsthe free-falling velocity of the palticles, it q,ill tend 10 draw in particles at its wake and to deslroy itsell There is therefore a maximum stable bubble size in a given system. If this exceedsabout l0 particle diameters, the bobblewill be obviousand aggregative tluidisation will exist;this is the usualcondition with a gas-solidssystem. Otherwise, the bubblewill'not be observable and paniculate fluidisation will occur.In aggregative ffuidisation, the flow of the fluid in the continuous phaseis predominantly streamline. In a gas solids syslem, the gas distnbutes ilself between the bubble phase and the continuous phase which generally has a voidage a lilde grealer than at the point of incipienr fluidisation. lf tbe rising velocity of the bubbles is less than that of the gas in the continuousphase,it behavesas a ris;ng void through which the gas will tend to flow Feferentially. lf the rising velocity exceedsthe velocity h the continuous phase-and recycledthrougha cloud this is the usualcase the gas in the bubbteis continuously Partialby-passing therefbeoccurs andthe gascomes into contact surrounding thebubble. with only a limiled quantity of solids. The gascloud surroundingthe bubble detaches itself from time to time, howcvcr. The bubbles appear to be rcsponsible for a large amount of mixing of the solids. A a wakeof particles dsing bubbledrawsup a spoutof panicles behindit andcarries equal to aboui one-third of the volume of the bubble and wake together. This wal(e deiaches itself at intervals. The pattem in a bed containing a large number of bubblesis, of coune, very much more complex. One of the most important properties of fte fluidised bed is its good heat transfer For a liquid solids system,the presence characteristics. of thc particles may increasethe coefficient by a factor of 2 or 3. In a gas-solids syslem, the factor may be about two orders of magnitude, with the coefficient being raised by the presencof the particles, from a value for the gas to one normally associate.d with a liquid. The improved heat transfer is associatedwith the movemeDtof the particles betweenthe main body of the bed and the heattransfer surface.The particlesact as healtransfeffing elementsand bring material at the bulk temperatue in close proximity to the heat transfer surface,A rapid circulation therelore gives a high heat lransfer coefficient. In a gas-solids system, the amountof bubblingwithin the bed shouldbe sufficient 10give adequate mixing, and at blanketingof tho heat the sametime should not be sufficientto causean appreciable transfer suface by gas.

Ftridization 220


lr*jtt;li1*i4i':"i:li[:;,r:fi'f::li:;,,^^j;t ;i nrl..u;;:i,,J;.r. un...

:" "" f:lfi ;;,:i.;'ii;..:1iiljiii-ij''i if; p"1 r;r.,:; ;;rir f*,J;i,jr;[gi;1^,..." 1 ; i1 ;qr "" ",. .,.


j.;illiijrii'.!ffi:;;1i:,,,2j#"'r-;#1.:,:rr:xri [,,i:,q

'#":i11$ltl:rl{#;*1ff#i'ill;:l*,:,::, qi;il,i::.,,.,,,,,

ii'.^ffi #l*;ffi,i1;;i\'^:"!+i*,[];i*i,**,,

" iil*.i*tilli 'liff-ijil'i;:'"",*.:,.i"1,i;:l

n l"i',hl;i;lll

r:r;'," ;;-.i'im'ri;+,,,i,",ff ;1,;i';1,i il:!;i;;i lir? :ii':r'iji'*:;::ir*ili:\'e*:r"';;':r*"

i ; l j f ' f . , 8 , . r''u r o "4 8 s e a , e 1 , . , o n : ' d , i L d ,
B.a.:.Daas. rast. cheh. Ens.43 rrj?. .{nx ray fle6r) srudy orbubbrcs "^-,^,"".,

pLkd un dudised bcLt! ^ ror nurdaow Ln r.r'. 1....,a" Ea, ro,,ohl,. s DJB,.rc-..,.h\da,,cmodc,o,:F,idi.e! " i:J-,1,"',i

::l.:f*-"rii"" iii: 13;:6id iii:jii';i:r,j;:i *:*n,;"1 *,ifui

221Chemical Engineering Proesses

10. PINCMECK, P. H. md PoppF, F.: Cheh. EE. Sci. 6 (1956) 57. Cntical and terninal velocniesin I r. RrcHARDsoN. J. F. rnd zA(t, w. N.. Ttuns, Inst Cheti Ens.12 ( 1954) 35 Sedinenration andfluidisation. 12. CoD^RD.K E. and RrctsARDsoN. J. l.: Clen, E B. S.i 2,1( | qi9) 363. Codelation of data for mininun Ruidising velociry.nd bed exprnsion in pa.ricnldtely nuidised beds. 13. LEw6, E, W. andBowERM aN,E. W .-.Chn. Ens. Pros.48 ( 1952)603. Fluidizalion of solidparlicles in 14. KH^N,A. R. a.d RrcHARDsoN, J. F,: Cli.,r, E g, C.'iz!r.78 {1989) l1l. Fluid pariicleinrerrctions and Ro* chracle.istics ofnnidized bedsnnd settling suspetrsions of spheicalpaniclcs, 15. SRtNIvAs, B. K. and CHSABRA, R.P.: Crcn. En8 .t Ptucessing 29 11991)l2l l3l. A. experime.tal sludyof non-Nellonianfluid flow in fluidised beds ninnnun fluidhationvelocityandbed expansio.. 16. SlEwARr, P. S. B. and DAvrDsoN, J. F.: P,"dcr ftcn. I (1967)61. Slug now in fluidised beds. l?. SrMpsoN, H. C. lnd RoDcER. B. W.: Clcu. t B. ,S.i t6 (1961)153.The nuidization of liehl solidsby gases underpressure andheavysolidsby qlter, D,, DAvJDsoN, I 8. HARRrsoN. J, F. andDEKoc(, J, w.: Ifdnr, Inst,Chen, Ens.39 (.1961) 2O2. On the naturc of agercgalive and pariicularc flnidhation 19. LAWTHER, K. P. and BERGLTN, C L. W.: United KingdomAtomic EncreyAutnorityReport,A.E,R.E., CE,R 2360al95?).Fhidisationol leadshotwnh warer. 20.RrcHARDsoN,J.F.andSMtrH,l.W.:Trans.lnsr.ChetlEnB.40(1962)l3Hedransfertoliquidfluidkcd systens!|d $ suspensions ol coa6epafiicles in vefiicalfiansport, 21. ANDERSoN, T. B. andJAcKsoN, R.:Cle,,. Ens. S.': 19 (196.1) 509.Tbe nlture of aggEgative andpafiic22. HAssm. N. J.: a/r, Che,,,E?rs. 6 (1961)777.The nechanGnof flui{iizarion. 23. LAwsoN, A. md HAssEn,N. l.: Pra.. tki. Stftp. an,,, Nethedands Univ. Press, Eindhoven. (1967) 113.Disconrinuities and flow pattems in liquid fluidized beds. 24. CAros, E. J. andPRAlsNm, LM.: A.l.Ch.E. Jl.61.1960) 400. Lonsitudinal niing in fluidization. 25. Kn^MERs, H., WESTERM^\N, M. D., DE CRoor,J, H. and Dr.rfr:)Nr. F. A. A,: Thnd Congress oi the Eurcpean Federation of ChenicalEDgineering ft, /,n.ractiohbetwen Fluith ah.l Pdni.let 114, 11962). The longnudinal dispe$ionofliquid in a fruidised bed. 26. REmR. H.: Cnen '],g. PDg 8,,/. SulirsNo.62 (1966)92. On thc naturcof bubbles i. gasandliquid 27. CrBrLARo. L. G., d F LrcE. R.. HossArN,I. and FoscoLo,P,V.: Chan. Ens. Sci.44\ 1989)l0l. The expernncntal detdmination of onc dimcnsional wavevelocities in liquid nlidized beds. 24. BatLE\. C.t Pnvak Colununicatiot. 29, MotrrJDM, H,, YAMAcrsHr, T, and CHTBA, T.: Chem.EnE. Sci.41 (1986) 297. Prediction of conplete nixing ofliquid fluidized binary solidlinicles. 30. RrcHAnDso"_, J, F. and Ant an;t, E.: T & S 9th Intematio4al Ca feren.e an Solirt Pa icles(2 5 September, 1997,Crakow,Poland) 486. Fluidisation andsedimentltion of ni{tuFs of prrricles. 31. EpsrElN, N. and PRUDEN, B.B: ChenLEt1E. Sci.54 (1999)401. Liquid fluidkalion of binary pliricle nixtures IIL Strddficatim bv sizeandElatedtoDic.. D., DoRArsAMy, 32. HANDr..v, A,, BlrcHrR, K. L., andFRANnTN, N. L.: Traa .1,r. Cr.rn. D1s.44 (1966) T260.A studyof the fluid andpaiticlenechanics in Iiquid fluidised beds, 33. CARLos, C. R and RrcH^RDsoN.l. F.r cheht.Ehg. Sci.22 (.1961) 705.Pdticle speed disdburion in a 34. CARLos, C. R.: Univehi!, ofwlles, Ph.D,fiesis (i96?). Solidsnixins in fluidisedbeds. paltems 35. LArrF,B, A, J. a.d RrcHARDsoN. J. F.: Cr.?n,Eig. ,5.i 27 (1972)1933, Cnculalion andvelocitt dhiributions for padiclcsnr a liqnid duidised bed. E. ,\, H,, vANDERMEER, 36, DoRaELo, A, P, and wEssELlNoH, J. A.: Chen. Ens. S.i 40 (1985) 2105. Mersure neni oi tbe axialdispesionof pafticles in a liquid nuidized bedapllling a mndoDwalk netlod, 37. DAvrs, L. and RrcHARDso\,1. F.: Tmns.Inst. Chen. Ens. 44 (1966)T293. CN interchange betwecn bubbles and &e continuous Dhase in ! liuidhedbed. 38. CELDART, D.: Povdcr ft.nnobsr 7 (19?3)285.Typesof fluidization.

Ftuidization 222

r F.:r c,rc'.e ,ivp,ri!- s,ri.r No. 30(re68) 126. rhebehaviour "9rTiT;5J.1,:5,*ft::DsoN. 4 0 . L | \ a , , L S . U n i \ r r " r qo , C 1 m b . : d g p eh . . D r t e . r . , t o o t , g L D b t ei.n R J r d , , eo dls . rs,ce\pbi.ionand - ' # " H l ; ; i I " J ; T * 3 r i / : 4 / " E J t r i ' r q 8 7 ' r o q 8 H i e h p F " r c p dd re n u t * ffil';r?,f,.ilX*J;i;"' iiii'1ff,i,,);,ii.i,lli"l^kHraR' a E ' ( " " . r , s r ' i 4 0 ' r q o r ' b 1I/n ' u p n l e po ers . u r o n r i e A o:rroB /nrr c'?u d's 36(ie5s) 28i.Ma$'amrdbetween


44, RTGARDSoN, J, F. and Szrcd, !.1 TruN. r6t. Chen_ Eng, 19 (t96i) 212, Ma$ ransfer in a nuidised

" )1*ii.i");,::.1j:t;"'iT.;?,1,,'ll,'ijtiil%,i:5ih':iff,j:::,.;:::liff:i;'#
C-J<^L|L, J., and WEtrERoH,tV. A,1 ChM, Eng. prcs.49 (i953) i4l. Mass rnnsfer in a 47. k EmNRrNc, K. N.. M^NDER@LD, E. L., and SMrr!, J. M.: Chen. Eng. png. 46 (1950) 139, Heat add nass transfer in nuidi2ed srsiens. 48. HEsrEs, P, M. and McKrBBrNs, S. W.i Cheh. Eng. Sci.S (1956) t6t, The partiatcoenicien! of heat transfer in a dryins duidizedbed. 46. CH!,J

13 ffiK,],X.,3:i.1"*if5ill::i"::.*#;:;:11?,,:"d,,T'ffi.i',.itil:xT"l;:
in systems ofgas nd 52. WrL(E,C. R, andHoucEN.O.A.: Tans. An. tlst, Cheh. ns. 4l (1945)445. Mlss tlesfer in rhenow r.., sotid. errerded ro ow mod,ned R"ynotd"Nr mbo .. :lsj.e. qoygh ud a gasin a fiuidised bed. 51. RsNcK, W 6d WHrE,R. R,. Cheh, Eng. pros. 45 (1949) 37?. Massilznsfer


, e_: Chen. she, prce. 45 (t9q9) 517. Mas n.sfer in Row of liqnidsthroueh



r20.M,$rM.,erf omp..{ins ooss,. iJill';"'.,i;1,,9-t;;l i.lfrli,;ff:.42,ro5o,

CoRNsH, A R. H. Tron\.tn!. Ch.m Ens. 43 ll<.

*1",*".n*,* _- !M!{ mn 1 \prMe

59 60

* r..lli'"'ij'z

\ok q m'rnun po"ibre r'k of hea

JM. JF Richardson. JR Blackhurst, JH Harker. Chenicat Engineedie, Vot.t. ,Coulson 4lh d. New York: Pe.samon prc$, 1991. Coulson JM, JF Rjcha.dson, JR Bt!ckhu61, JH Harker. Chenicat Ensin*rins, Vol.2 41h ed. New York: perganon press, 1991.

Engineering Proesses 223Chmical

Sl Systen M,\L,T,d,A L2 L2 L-l L

Afta of heat tmsfd



AEa for hadfer per unit vobme of bed Area for mnsfer pr unii highi of bed Frrctional yolunetric concentraaonof


Driving force expressedas a nolar concentrationdifference Loeditbnic nean value of C Specinc heat of gas at constmt pBsure Speific het of solid particle tangitudinal diff usieiry Psrticle didnerer or diameter of spheE with sane sudeeiwaas particle Dianeter of spheF of samevolune as



L2'r to I L2.t-20-1 Lz"t I L2"t-l L L L L L

F&tor /d2lr

for cenEifugal fluidised bed

Voidag coftsponding to mininun Fr&tion of nuid passingihrough chmhels

Mass noarate of nBid Mss noqrate of ffuid 10cause inilial Mass nowrate of duid to initiate fluidisarion Mass flowr.te of iuid pe. nnir rea Acceldalion due rl) gravirt Heat tonsfer coeincienr Mass t msfer coefncient Heat transfe. c@fficient lbr liquid alone a1 sane nte as in bed j-facro. for nrss fansfer to panicles j-facror for h*! tansfer to panicls Distance navelled by bubble lo incrase its volDme by a facror e Themal conduclivity of fluid Depth of nuidised bed constmt in equanon6.53 lndex or (L - r) in equation 6.55 Molf rale of trdsfer of diftusing Indexof, i! equation 6.31 Prssurc drcp acrcssbed due to the

MT-l MTt Mr-l i!tr--2T 1

ul-z Mt-rd-r !T-r Mr3o-t

L MLT 3o-r L


Ntr-rT-2 lff-zT 3 If-2T rA

Ratio of mles of changeof bed densiry with velocity for two species

Rare of tmsfer of near

Fluidjzarion 224


Specinc surfaceof panict$



TmperatuE dnviog fore Velociry of rise of bubble Slpericial velocilyof nuid (openrube) Value of rc ar infnile dilur'on Mininum valle of,c a! whichbubbli.g Mininlm valueof 4 ar whicn F.e-falling velociry of panicte in injiniie

K K K K deg K I]T I Lrl


LI-I t!fl,2T_rALi

v vr

voitase apdied ro ehment

VolMe lilction of spheEs Mol. fncrion of vapour in gas sllen Mole fiactionof vapourin inlet sas Mole fmction of vapou. in qliti'briun

Lr M

Height above bottom of bd Ratio of gas velocides in bubbte and




Particle stiean fDndion Ratioof diaheterof rhe sane spcifc sn.r&e ss panicles to ihar of same volumc(equation 6.16) Angular spedof olltion Galil@ nunbe. [lrr(p" p)8/r1] Galileo number at oioinun fluidisirg





Rlo R"!a


Nuselr nunher it4lt) Nu$eit nnnber (rlln) Prandd number (crplt) ftbe Reynolds nMbn (r.4pl/.) Panicle Rey.olds number (!c&/&) Particle Reynolds nuDber al ninimun nuidisinevelocity(an.plll!) Panicle Reynoids nlnbei Rcl ar niniDun nuidisingvelociqt Bed Reynolds nunber (!.r/Jr.(l e)) Pailicle Reynolds nunber with I, as ch@cle.isricdirmerer l?"r for po*erlav nuid Particle Reynolds number (ro4lp) ?anicle Reynolds numbef scnnidt numls (//rD) sheryoodnumbr (rDllD)

225 ChemicalEnglneering Processes PROBLEMS 6,1. Oil, of densiit 9l]Olg/nr and viscosity3iNVn2, is passed upqards tbrougha bed of catalystconsistineof approximarely pafilclesoi diaderer 0.1 nr and density 2600kg/nr. At spherical approximatelt what massrareof flo{ per nnit areaof bcd wilt (a) fluidisation, and (b) uanspoitoi pdricles

6.2. Calculate the nininum velocityal which spherical paniclesof densily 1600kg/nr md of dianerer 1.5 mm will be fiuidisedby waternr a tube of diamerer l0 mm. Discuss tnc uncenainrj* in this cal.nlalion. Tbe viscosilyof qater is I nN s/m2and Kozent s consrant is 5, 6,3. I. , lluidiscdbcd, rx, ocrane vapouris adsorbed lron a0 air stean onlo rhe surface of aluminrnicrcsphes.Tne nole ftactionof iso octanein the inlet easis 1.442x to-r and rhe nole ftactionin rbe outtet gasis found to lary with tine as followsi Tine ion stan Gl 254 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1?50 2000 Molc fracriod in ourlergas (x tor) 0.223 0.60r 0.85? 1.062 |.201 1.287 t.338 t.3?3

Show tbat the Fsults may b. inter-pEted on the assDmptions thai rhe sotids!E conptctety nixed, tbat the gN leavesnr equiiibriun wirh rhe solids i[d tbat tbe adsorpiion isorhem is Iined over the range considered. Jftb flownte ofAasis 0.6?9x lO 6 knol^ andthe nrss ofsolids in the bcd h,1.66 g, cllculate the slope oi rhe dsorption hotherm.wha! evidence do rhe resulh provideconcernins rhe dos Faftern oi 6.4. Cold ptrriclesorglassballoriniue fluidised wi$ heated airin I bednr wbich r co.stantnow ofpdticles is nrintainedin r horizontal diecrion,when steady conditions havebeeneached,the temlcraruescoded by a bde democouple innefsed in thc bed !.ei Distocc above bed supporr (nn) 0 064 1.21 l.9t 2.s1 3.81 Tenpcrarure (() 339.5 3311 3 3 50 333.6 333.3 333.2

Calculate thc coefhcient ior heatfimsfer betwccn the gasand $e pdicles. md the coresponding ratuesot the pmicle Reynold:and Nusselt nunbeto.Comnenron tne resutBand on any Nsumptions made.The gas flowmteis 0.2 kennr s, rhespecinc hear capacirtof an is 0.88kIAg K, lhe vkcosiryof air is 0.0t5 mN s/m2, lhe parriclo dianreter is 0.25 nn md the thermal conducriviry of air 0.03 w/mK, 6.5. The htion between bed voidagc e andnuid velociry!. fo. particulaenlidisadonof lniform parricles whicb de sdall compred wirh $e dianerer of rhe conrainnreac$el is givei by: l: ,,r Nhereuo is the rreeiallins velociry. Dhcussdrc vdarion ofthe indeM Nith flow.ondnions, indicaring why rhisis nrdependeir oitheReynolds nunber n.with rcspcct to thepanicleat very low andlery high laluesof R.. Whenarclppeciabledeviarions rron dis lelalionobscncd wilh llquid lluidised systcms, For panicles of Class ballodniwilh iFe fdling velociries or l0 and20 nrnts the indexr hasa ralue of2.39, If a mixtureof equallolumes of rhe rpo ptrrichs n fluidised, wharis the relationberween rhe loidage and nDidvelocityif it is assumed tharconpletesegEgdtion is oblained?

t;::::,t::;,:'-:"6.6. a ehdonship for rhe ratio of rbc ,.nninlt fahrs .obrain r".r.," ," .n" velcny for a bed of sinile parlictcs, it nay be assuned that Stokes; ", " ;nd lhe "",""," Laq Carnln i";;;;;;;;; whar is the vat@ or rhc 6rio if rhebcd loidag" ,r," ,i"i.". n.i,i"i,g " ""i."rl,;";-, 6 . 7 . A b c d c , n . . o r t r , t J a . p h e r n r , o : " h eo r o . m e l , r , , f a n J a . r . r J . 4 . O l ] t e , m , . w h : r q , o r *' rhe.niq,L1fluid.n,6\..o.,,\i,a.,qtrd r rD .nu...,_o,oa...i.yi.ooi-;;, " \ .o \o 6,8. Ballodri prticles,0.25Dm in diameter. are Rridisedby hot an flowine at the rare of 0.2 kg/n2 crc$-scrion or bed !o gile a bed of voidage 0.5 and a cros,-lrow p*i.hs i; .ai;;i;;,;_;;;" heat. Under $eady srarecondirions.a smait bde rhcmocoupte imme$; "f ii rhe bed eives ttr. r.,rJ"g J"i", Dislance above bcd suppon (nn, 0 0.02) 1.25 t.875 2.5 3.15 Tempemtue (K) Cc) 66.3 339.5 J'-./ 6t.lj 335.0 6A.4 333.6 60.1 133.3 60.0 333.2

Assunins phg now .f the gas and conpkrc frixing of lhc sotids, calcutare de coetficienr for heariransfer m r \ T n r h ep . c l e \ r d r t ? 9 d . .T , . p e c i t cn e a r . a p d r J o r d . rI 0 8 . i J h J ( . v o l ' b,l . 0., ''c,r airnB rp .Jm pr .r .,, i? driTo JrJ 1 p p , . \Ird r c t y u'rom tempeturur of 42J K bv exremar heding. dnd a dflute aqueous sorution ar 375 K i, rii to tr," r,"i at ir iare of 0.1 kg6 $ that the ,ar* is .omplccty evapo.atedar ahnospbericp.essure.If the heat ransfcr o i | h e c \ l p o r o n .T ' r t J r e n , n . d r o . : o o . . . . . r o r ,q ob t1..2.^V,tE. 6.9, An etedicalt hated elc,Ent of surfacc ser 12cmz is inrmcnedso rhai it is in directcotrtact wirh a nuidisedbcd. Tne resisiance of rhc etemenl n mcasured Las a tunclion'f the roltase appliedlo it 8iling the rolowing darar Potential (V) Resisrance (oh,is) 1 t5.47 2 15.63 I 15.91 + t6.32 5 1683 6 17.48

Tl. reh.ion D c/ ! n r e i 1 1 , c e F . a n o e n p e . . r

/, r.

- 0.0e2 + =0.00ar"
Bhere n0. the resisunce of tbe wie at 273 K, k t4 oh L h e ^ \ J l lo r r rl. l? r u.,Ier r o.rLr, r{nt r,qh)rrc.ed:ip ,.or.<to,Dottr,.on,c^.."p,,trc..,rJ.,.pcn.rnrre.,.,.e."!rhe .m.eniior rm.T.a tdenrir) " r o , u r p , .p o . . U t . . o . o , , , , ( ! b . 4 u . t i i , . i n ! o t v e d . .r, rt"nie. "nJ d .ffc.e !r - . , I r \ - , y , I o d j1 _ n i. ot. \d.mer np.u.f(n.ionof,rrror, p , i c l e . , r d r _ r f l e n l n j d d d o e d. , r t e d r p r , f t e " r r h e b qI r . _ r ' ' A h q r i d n ' i d i l e J b e o . o 1 . i . r , " t e d - J . \ o t , r r .."p orr c r p d r c , e . 0 r r , , " n J O I n i r . l . n e t e r . Thc bd s fluidisedandconplctesesrceadon ot$e rwo sFecies o;cus. when rhc liquid no; t, il;:; pdrrcres 6euleto iomr a sgregared rwolayer bed.The liqlid no* s rr,ensr.tea Wr,e" ;. ffi;;, suchlha! de largerpar{icics "ga'" are at rheir inciDiertfini.ti\ pornr what' apffoximaterv' wirr berhe voidage


n"iai,"o !".p*"i;iil;"iiilil"]::;'""""

wh{e.R0, tic ristmce of ihe wne !1273 K, is t4 ohms lnd 4, ts in K. Esrinrare ttretredtefrpemture and e yalueof &e heal tunster.oeficienr betwcen rhesurface and rhc bed. wheF R0, rhe rcsisr ce of the wne at 273 K, is 14 ohn rhc varueof rhehearn.rnsier c**."* *,.*" *. .;'.:xl,i, isin K Eslimre the bed renpe.rure and

g Processes 227 ChemjcalEnginerir

under$e iree falling .ond'tio.s is It nry be asJumed lhai thc drag loEe I' ol the nlid on ihe particles e. for pafiicles of relocily x. andvoidage, givenby Sroket law atrdthatthe reladon beNeenthc frnidhation teminll velocily.,o, is gilen b!: t'./4 = e-' is givenby F:3tt.lao, For StokeJ ]aw, the ibrce F on the particles /u is rhe liscosily of rhe liquid. rlhered is lhe Panicledlameler and

'fhe Elation betreen the concenration lclocity is ofthe ofa suspension and ils seditEnration 6,U, nr a fluidised bed.Explain$is in tcnnsofthe hyd.odyDanics fom as rhalbetwee.velociryandconcentation pariiclesin a liquid is allowedto sedc and, $hcD the sedinenlation of unifom spherical A suspcnsion the followingesults are obtained: velociryis nea$nd N a functionof conccntration,

(C) Ffftionalvohnerric concentradon 0.35 025 0.15 0.05

Sedinentation velocny(!" nh)

Lr0 2,19
399 6lJ2

dra!Stokeshv the teminal fllling velocily,0 of &e puliclesatnrfnite dilulion.On the assunplion Esrinarc is applicable. c.lcuhte the panicledimeler L le/n3 and tnc liqnid viscosity, The pdnicle.lcnsity,r. :2600 kg/Br, lhe liqDid dcnsily., = 1Ol]O /1 = thatthe forceon a sphe.ical Siokei hw slarcs Wnarwill be the minnnun fluidhingvelociq of dresystem?

of dimelers 0.75 and 1.5mn is dridised bt i liquid and 6,12. A nixturc of two sizesol elr$ sphcfcs thc Dlper consrituting of paniclesoccls, qith the sn.ller panicles conpleresesrcsaiion or the two species poftionof theled a.d thc largerpanicles in the loqer poftion.Whentbe toidageof lhe lowerbcd is 0.6.*hat of the upperbed? will be the voidage The Iiquid velocity is incrclsed until ric mallef prrricles are conrpletely tansporled fron the bed. \rhat is will occur? oi the Iowerbed at which this Pbenomenon the ninimum voiduge may be crlculated ftum Slokes law oibolh panicles h 'nat be assuned thdt |he teminxl falling velocities telocity r andlhe lied voidagce is giten by: and thai $c ielrtionshipbel{*n ihe nuidisarion =c" lue/uo) in nater of Cla$ Particles of dia'neter12 nnr md density lne teunrd falling velocilies 6,11.(a) CalcDlab kg/m3. ofdiametcf L5 mD anddensily?5OO 25Ol] kg/nr, andof netal panicles thc friction factor, n'lplr is are sphcrical and thl't, in both cases, ft nay be assnnedthat the particles arcaol the Panicle,r is lhr liuid ar 022, where R' is the forcc on tbe pulicle pei unn ol prcjectcd consiant relaive !o $e lluid. dcnsirymd , fie velocitt ol re particle in thc suspension is high? (b) \{ly is drc sednrcntalion relocity lower shen the Parlicleconcenraiion ofpa.ticlesseltlingundergravitt in a liquid with tbat ofthe concentdted slspcnsion CompaEthe behaviour ol a flrLidised bed ofihc samepa.ticles. Ar whar water velocirywill fllidised bedsol $e glassand ntal pa icles have the srne densitiesl G) velocnyx" eminal velocitt !0 md bed loidage z is given for bolh Thc rclationbetsccn drc lluidisalion

are oui{iised by qald at a velocityequalto o.e half of their terminalfalline velocnies 6.14. class spheres (a) thc dcnsiryof rhc nuidised bed, (b) rhe pEssuregndienri. $c bedatuibutable to tbe pEsence oflhe pafricles. are 2 nm in di.nreterrnd hlve a dcnsityof2500 kg/mr. The densnyand viscosilyof walerare The pafticles ll]0l] kg/nr and I mN s/nr2FspectivelJ'.