Sie sind auf Seite 1von 54

Psychology

The scientific study of

behavior and mental process and how they are affected by an organisms physical state, mental state, and external environment.

Goals of psychology
1-Describe 2-Understand 3-Predict 4-Controle and modify

behavior and mental process

F nctionalism
!illiam "ames#

According to Functionalism Psychology is the study of the adaptive properties of consciousness and behavior. The school of Functionalism studied topics such as thinking, memory, consciousness, learning and motivation.

$ehaviorism
"ohn $% !atson#

According to ehaviorism psychology is the science of overt behavior. They limited psychology to the study of the observable response given by an organism to a stimulus.

Gestalt Psychology
!ax "ertheimer# An approach to psychology that emphasi$es the perception, learning, and mental manipulation of whole units rather than their analysis into parts.

Psychoanalysis
&igm nd Fre d#

Psychoanalysis an approach to psychology that emphasi$es unconscious motives and conflicts. it encompasses both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy.

C rrent 'pproaches to the &t dy of Psychology


$iological 'pproach#
There are biological explanations of motivation, personality, social behavior, memory, and abnormal behavior.

( manistic 'pproach#
%uman potential

Psychoanalytic 'pproach#
&nconscious !otivation

Cognitive 'pproach#
!ental Process

$ehavioral 'pproach#
Fundamental causes of behavior

& bfields of psychology


Clinical Psychology#
work in clinical settings.

Co nseling Psychology#
%elp people to ad'ust to emotional or personal problems that are less severe than those treated by the clinical psychologist.

&chool psychology# they administer and interpret intelligence and aptitude tests. )d cational Psychology#
They study and test the effectiveness of textbooks, classroom organi$ation, methods of teaching, and the design of tests. They also conduct researches.

&ocial psychology#
they interested in how people influence other people in areas such as attitudes, aggression, helping and pre'udice.

Developmental Psychology#
they study development from a life span approaches.

*)G'* P&+C(,*,G+
Forensic psychologist work in

police department, courts, and prisons to detect and prevent crime and to assess and rehabilitate those convicted of criminal behavior.

Police department
Psychologist are involved in

selecting- training and co nseling police officers, and in helping to detect and prevent crime.

1-&)*)C./,0
The method of testing, observation, and interview can be helpful in selecting capable police officers.

2-.raining
Teaching police officers about motivation, personality, social interactions, pre'udice, aggression, stress management, abnormal behavior, and various kinds of treatment.

3-Prevention and detection of crime#


They compile criminal profiles. they advise on the techni(ues for interviewing suspects, on ways to deal with public, and on methods of handling dangerous situations.

C,U1.&
Psychologists share their

expertise in areas such as identification techni(ues, interpretation of memory, identification of perception or motivation ,personality and intelligence test.

P1/&,0&
Psychologist evaluate

and counsel prisoners. they help in rehabilitation of prisoners.

/nd strial and organi2ational psychology


)ndustrial and organi$ational

psychology includes personnel psychology, organi$ational psychology, engineering psychology and consumer psychology.

Personnel psychology
)nvolves employee selection, training, and evaluation. )mployee &election# There are numerous indicators involved in the process of employee selection but the most common include application blanks, references, test and interviews.

'pplication blan3
)s initial step in the selection process. re(uire routine biographical information, work experience, (ualification, and sometimes personal information *from finance to hobbies+.

1eferences
Applicant re(uire to submit names of several references who can testify to the applicants abilities, or provide several letters of recommendation.

.est
,election process includes tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, motor ability, and personality. these test help the employer match the applicant with a particular 'ob.

/ntervie4

.raining

Training program serve to inform the employee about the organi$ation and to modify employee attitudes and develop employee loyalty.
Three types of training program#

1-,rientation training
-esigned to develop 'ob skills and provide knowledge of the organi$ation.

./

,n-the-5ob training is

handled by a supervisor who teaches an employee how to improve 'ob performance.


0/

,ff-the-5ob training is a

professional type of instruction and consist of lectures, and social and psychological skills training.

)val ation
1valuation of performance is routine in most organi$ations. in evaluating 'ob performance ,employers try to determine areas where the employee can be coached to improve performance.

,rgani2ational psychology
)ncludes all industrial psychology and all

aspects of behavior of people in organi$ations. 2rgani$ation psychology concerned with management functions and their implications for an organi$ation. 1mployee motivation is the one of the key area of organi$ational psychology.

)ngineering psychology or h man factor psychology


)s concerned with how work is

performed, the design of e(uipment, and the work environment. The ideal ob'ective is to design a 'ob so that anybody could perform it.

They involve in technological

pro'ects such as nuclear power plants. they play important role in designing e(uipment to prevent 3human error4. they also work with 5A,A on new space shuttle program.

Cons mer psychology


-eals with the behavior of the

consumer when he she goes out to purchase a product. it includes advertising, research on consumers, packaging, and psychological factors such as memory and perception.

'dvertising
Advertising is a reflection of peoples needs. )mportance of pictures versus words in

advertising. The use of color and repetition is also effective in getting people to remember a product. Advertisers put too much information in to an ad 6alled 3information overload4.

Cons mer p rchase process%


There are many reasons we buy something .)n

order to understand consumer behavior we must first examine individuals, social and cultural variables. &i6 stages the consumer goes through to reach the purchase stage#

1-a4areness

#learn that a product exist.

2-3no4ledge#learn what the product offers.


0-li3ing#develop favorable attitudes toward the
product.

4-preference#begins to prefer the product. 7-conviction# believes that purchase of the product would be wise. 8-p rchase# buys the product.

Cons mer behavior research%


%ow do people decide where to shop7 8esearches and surveys studies shows that people feel secure

in buying a name rand. a ,urvey of 9:: people found that 9:; depend upon advertisements for information.

Psychology of pac3ing An important part of advertising is the package a product comes in. Psychology sells many products. the shopper who understands how advertisers use psychology can become a wiser consumer.

)nvironmental psychology
1nvironmental psychologists are

interested in discovering how the environment influences human behavior. 1nvironmental influences include pollution, noise, crowding, and weather.

Personal distance
People surround themselves with a 3bubble4 of personal space that they claim as their own, and they tend to become stressed when other people invade their 3bubble4.

)nterpersonal distance.
Four interpersonal distances are important in our

social interaction

1-/ntimate distance is from : to <.9


feet.

2-Personal distance is from about <.9


feet to around = feet.

3-&ocial distance e6tends from


approximately = to <. feet. This distance is often utili$ed in business for example, in interviewing new applicants for employment or negotiating for a raise.

4-P blic distance includes distance

greater than <. feet. after .9 feet interpersonal interaction is not possible.

Cro4ding
6rowding is the psychological

feeling of not having enough space available. researches shows that crowding automatically leads to aggression, violence, and crime.

0oise and behavior


8esearches show that people living in a noisy

neighborhood tended to make more mistakes in simple tasks, forget common things and dropped things more often.

2ther studies have shown

that people living in noisy neighborhoods have fewer social interactions, are more aggressive and tend to dislike their neighbors more.

,P28T, P,>6%2?2@>
,ports psychology is the

application of the principles of psychology to sports activities. it involves the coach, the team members, the particular sport, the ability of the athletes, as well as personality and motivational factors.

Psychological 1esearch
Psychological research is

typically used for the following# ,tudy development and external factors and the role they play on individualsA mental health ,tudy people with specific psychological disorders, symptoms, or characteristics

-evelop tests to measure specific psychological

phenomenon ,tudy psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives *e.g., brands, products+ %ow marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

!ethods of research
1-Naturalistic observation
2bserving behavior in their natural environment.

2-.he intervie4 method


in an interview the sub'ect interacts with the psychologist by responding to verbal (uestion. Two types of interview# a/ structured b/ unstructured

0/The ,urvey !ethod


and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes ,or opinions.
Questionnaires

4-.he .esting 9ethod#


use to collect and compare information about peoples behavior. psychologist use many types of test to measure peoples abilities, interests, personalities and intelligence.

7-.he Case st dy
6ase studies especially useful

to clinical psychologist who need to evaluate a clients problem and then decide upon an appropriate treatment.

8-.he )6periment
Psychologist can conduct an

experiment in which conditions can be carefully manipulated and controlled.

:-Correlation 1esearch
The relationship between two variables.
The purpose of a correlational study is to determine if a relationship exists, what direction the relationship is, and how strong it is.

)thical Considerations in 1esearch


)nformed consent The researcher has the

ethical responsibility of protecting sub'ects from mental and physical harm.

15-