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# Syllabus of AISSCE 2010 and Question paper pattern Unit wise frequently asked questions in AISSCE.

. Unit wise questions of last four years AISSCE Exa I portant !u eri"al Assi#n ents.

Master

## cards for frequent \$ qui"k re%ision.

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COURSE

STRUCTURE

Class XII (Theory) PHYSICS -2010 One Paper Time: 3 Hours 0nit & Electrostatics 0nit && Current Electricit 0nit &&& /agnetic effect of current 4 /agnetism 0nit &\$ Electromagnetic &nduction and alternating current 0nit \$ Electromagnetic (aves 0nit \$& %ptics 0nit \$&& #ual 8ature of /atter 0nit \$&&& ,toms and 8uclei 0nit &: Electronic #evices 0nit : Communication + stems To!al 12 13 12 12 15 67 17 19 13 1; (0 mar)s

ni! I: "le#!ros!a!i#s Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulombs law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gausss theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitel long straight wire, uniforml charged infinite plane sheet and uniforml charged thin spherical shell !field inside and outside". Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and s stem of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energ of a s stem of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. #ielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energ stored in a capacitor. \$an de Graaff generator. ni! II: Curren! "le#!ri#i!y Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocit , mobilit and their relation with electric current; %hms law, electrical resistance, \$-& characteristics !linear and non-linear", electrical energ and power, electrical resistivit and conductivit . Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. &nternal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. 'irchhoffs laws and simple applications. (heatstone bridge, metre bridge. )otentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell. ni! III: \$a%ne!i# "&&e#!s o& Curren! an' \$a%ne!ism Concept of magnetic field, %ersteds experiment. *iot - +avart law and its application to current carr ing circular loop. ,mperes law and it applications to infinitel long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. -orce on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. C clotron. -orce on a current-carr ing conductor in a uniform magnetic field. -orce between two parallel current-carr ing conductors-definition of ampere. .orque experienced b a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivit and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. /agnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. /agnetic field intensit due to a magnetic dipole !bar magnet" along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. .orque on a magnetic dipole !bar magnet" in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earths magnetic field and magnetic elements. )ara-, dia- and ferro -

magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. )ermanent magnets.

ni! I*: "le#!roma%ne!i# In'u#!ion an' +l!erna!in% Curren!s Electromagnetic induction; -arada s law, induced emf and current; <en=s <aw, Edd currents. +elf and mutual inductance. 8eed for displacement current. ,lternating currents, pea> and rms value of alternating current?voltage; reactance and impedance; <C oscillations !qualitative treatment onl ", <C@ series circuit, resonance; power in ,C circuits, wattless current. ,C generator and transformer. ni! *: "le#!roma%ne!i# ,a-es Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics !qualitative ideas onl ". .ransverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum !radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, :ra s, gamma ra s" including elementar facts about their uses. ni! *I: Op!i#s @eflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. @efraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-ma>ers formula. /agnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. @efraction and dispersion of light through a prism. +cattering of light - blue colour of the s> and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. %ptical instrumentsA Buman e e, image formation and accommodation, correction of e e defects !m opia, h permetropia, presb opia and astigmatism" using lenses. /icroscopes and astronomical telescopes !reflecting and refracting" and their magnif ing powers. (ave opticsA wave front and Bu gens principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. )roof of laws of reflection and refraction using Bu gens principle. &nterference, Coungs double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. #iffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. @esolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. )olarisation, plane polarised light; *rewsters law, uses of plane polarised light and )olaroids. ni! *II: .ual /a!ure o& \$a!!er an' 0a'ia!ion #ual nature of radiation. )hotoelectric effect, Bert= and <enards observations; Einsteins photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. /atter waves-wave nature of particles, de *roglie relation. #avisson-Germer experiment. ni! *III: +!oms 1 /u#lei ,lpha-particle scattering experiment; @utherfords model of atom; *ohr model, energ levels, h drogen spectrum.Composition and si=e of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. @adioactivit alpha, beta and gamma particles?ra s and their properties; radioactive deca law. /ass-energ relation, mass defect; binding energ per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion. ni! IX: "le#!roni# .e-i#es +emiconductors; semiconductor diode D &-\$ characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; &-\$ characteristics of <E#, photodiode, solar cell, and Eener diode; Eener diode as a voltage regulator. Function transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier !common emitter configuration" and oscillator. <ogic gates !%@, ,8#, 8%., 8,8# and 8%@". .ransistor as a switch. ni! X: Communi#a!ion Sys!ems : Elements of a communication s stem !bloc> diagram onl "; bandwidth of signals !speech, .\$ and digital data"; bandwidth of transmission medium. )ropagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, s> and space wave propagation. 8eed for modulation. )roduction and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.

## XII (PHYSICS)- Theory paper (70 mar s)

1. 8ei#1ta#e to 9earnin# 5ut"o es. S.!o. 5b-e"ti%e ,arks &er"enta#e 1 Knowledge 21 30 2 Understanding 35 50 3 Application 14 20 /otal :0 100 8ei#1ta#e to for of questions. There will be no overall option. Internal choices (either or t!pe" on a ver! selective basis has been given in #ive \$%estions. This internal choice will be given in an! one \$%estion o# 2 &ar's( an! one \$%estion o# 3 &ar's and all \$%estions o# 5 &ar's weightage. S.!o. 1 2 3 4 <. >. 6or of Questions ,arks for ea"1 5 3 2 1 ; !o. of Questions 3 + 10 . <0 ,arks 15 2, 20 0. :0

2.

A wei#1ta#e of 1=;20

## arks in total 1as been assi#ned to nu eri"als.

8ei#1ta#e to diffi"ulty le%el of questions. S.!o. Esti ated (iffi"ulty 9e%el &er"enta#e 1 /as! 15 2 Average ,0 3 0i##ic%lt 15 ?5/S+ 20 @ wei#1ta#e to ?i#1er 5rder /1inkin# Skills questions introdu"ed fro year.

t1is

## Scheme o! pract"ca# (\$0 Mar s)

/ver! st%dent will per#or& 10 e1peri&ent (#ive #ro& each section" and eight activities #ro& the list given b! 23*/ d%ring the acade&ic !ear. Two demonstration experiments must be performed by the teacher with participation of students. The students will maintain a record of these demonstration experiments .

## %& E'a#(at"o) Scheme !or Pract"ca# E*am")at"o)+

1. 2. #.

One experiment from any one section Two activities (one from each section (!"! \$ractical record (experiments % activities

## 8 Marks 8 Marks & Marks 4

'ecord of demonstration experiments % (iva based on these experiments # Marks ). (iva on experiments % activities ) Marks Mar s Tota# \$0
!.

U!I/AI E9EC/'5S/A/ICS

0B arks2

SYLLABUS : Electric charges; conservation of charge ; Coulombs law- forces between two oint charges !"orces between multi le electric charges: Su er osition rinci le an# continuous charge #istribution\$ Electric fiel#! Electric fiel# #ue to a oint charge! electric fiel# lines; Electric #i ole ! electric fiel# #ue to #i ole ; tor%ue on #i ole in uniform electric fiel#\$ Electric flu&! statement of 'ausss theorem an# its a lications to fin# fiel# #ue to infinitel( long straight wire! uniforml( charge# infinite lane sheet an# uniforml( charge# thin s herical shell )fiel# insi#e an# outsi#e\$* Electric otential + otential #ifference! Electric otential #ue to oint charge !a #i ole an# s(stem of charges ;e%ui otential surfaces !electrical otential energ( of a s(stem of two oint charges an# of electric #i ole in an electrostatic fiel#\$ Con#uctors an# insulators !free charges an# boun# charges insi#e a con#uctor\$ ,ielectrics an# electric olari-ation! Ca acitors an# ca acitance! combination of ca acitors in series an# arallel! ca acitance of a arallel late ca acitor with an# without #ielectric me#ium between the lates! energ( store# in a ca acitor\$ .an #e'raff generator\$

## 1. Explain briefly 0i2 "1ar#e quantiCation 0ii2 "onser%ation of "1ar#e.

2. 8rite %e"tor for of "oulo bDs law. ?ow for"e depends on inter%enin# ediu . <. (efine Ele"tri" field intensity and ele"tri" potential due to a point "1ar#e. .i%e t1eir S.I.units. >. (eri%e expression for ele"tri" potential due to a point "1ar#e. =. (efine Ele"tri" dipole o ent and #i%e its unit and dire"tion. E. 6ind expression for ele"tri" field intensity on axial and equatorial line of a ele"tri" dipole. :. State .aussD t1eore . Cal"ulate ele"tri" flux due to surfa"e en"losin# "1ar#e of 1C. B. 5btain t1e expression for t1e ele"tri" field intensity E due to infinite plane s1eet of "1ar#e . F. (eri%e t1e expression for t1e E at any point outside and inside a unifor ly "1ar#ed sp1eri"al s1ell. 10. (eri%e an expression for t1e E at a point near an infinitely lon# G t1in Gunifor ly "1ar#ed strai#1t wire. 11.6ind expression for torque on ele"tri" dipole in unifor ele"tri" field. .i%e its equilibriu state. 12. (eri%e expression for "apa"itan"e of a parallel plate "apa"itor i2wit1out diele"tri" ii2wit1 diele"tri" slab. 1<.(eri%e expression for ener#y stored and ener#y density 0HI JE22 of a "1ar#ed "apa"itor. 1>.?ow 4olta#eG "1ar#e G "apa"ity Gener#y and ele"tri" field "1an#es w1en diele"tri" is introdu"ed between t1e plates of "apa"itor i2wit1 battery "onne"ted and ii2wit1out battery. 1=. (raw lines of for"es for i2 qK0 ii2qL0 .81y lines are not dis"ontinuous and ne%er interse"t . 1E. 81at is equipotential surfa"eM 6ind work done on o%in# "1ar#e on su"1 surfa"e. 1:..i%e prin"iple G"onstru"tionG workin# and labeled dia#ra of a 4ande #raff #enerator. ?ow "1ar#e leaka#e is pre%ented. 1B. 6ind "1ar#e and %olta#e on ea"1 "apa"itor 0"onne"ted to <042 in #i%en "ir"uits. N O 1=P6 0i2 NO NO 0ii2 NO 10P6 =P6 10P6 N O 10P6 1F. A "1ar#e q is pla"ed at t1e "entre of line -oinin# two equal "1ar#es Q. S1ow t1at t1e syste t1ree "1ar#es will be in equilibriu if q Q ;QR>. of

20. /wo point "1ar#es <PC and ;<PC are lo"ated 20" apart in %a"uu . 6ind ele"tri" field and ele"tri" potential at idpoint of line. Also find for"e and its dire"tion experien"ed by "1ar#e 1.=nC kept at idpoint. 21. A 10P6 "apa"itor is "1ar#ed by a <04 d.". and t1en "onne"ted a"ross an un"1ar#ed =0P6 "apa"itor. Cal"ulate 0i2 t1e final potential differen"e of t1e "o binationG and 0ii2 t1e initial and final ener#ies. ?ow will you a""ount for t1e differen"e in ener#yM 22. An ele"tri" dipole of len#t1 >" G w1en pla"ed wit1 its axis akin# an an#le of E0 o wit1 unifor ele"tri" field experien"es a torque of > R<! . Cal"ulate t1e 0i2 a#nitude of ele"tri" fieldG 0ii2t1e potential ener#y of dipole Gif t1e dipole 1as "1ar#es of SBnC. 444444444444444444444

## U!I/AII CU''E!/ E9EC/'CI/*

SYLLABUS:

0: arks2

Electric current! flow of electric charges in a metallic con#uctor! #rift velocit(! mobilit( an# their relation with electric current; /hms law! electrical resistance! .-0 characteristics )linear an# non-linear*! electrical energ( an# ower! electrical resistivit( an# con#uctivit(\$ Carbon resistors! colour co#e for carbon resistors; series an# arallel combinations of resistors; tem erature #e en#ence of resistance\$0nternal resistance of a cell! otential #ifference an# emf of a cell! combination of cells in series an# in arallel\$ 1irchhoffs laws an# sim le a lications\$ 2heatstone bri#ge! metre bri#ge\$ 3otentiometer - rinci le an# its a lications to measure otential #ifference an# for com aring emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell\$

1. 2. <. >. =.

.i%e state ent of 51 Ds law. 81at are o1 i" and non o1 i" "ondu"torsM )riefly ention effe"t of te perature on "ondu"torG se i"ondu"tor and insulators. (efine t1e ter re"epti%ity or spe"ifi" resistan"e. .i%e its S.I. unit. S1ow t1at resistan"e ' of a "ondu"tor is #i%en by lR0ne2TA2G w1ere sy bols 1a%e t1eir usual eanin#s. 5ut of two te peratures /1G and /2 w1i"1 one is #reater in fi# 0a2. 81i"1 of t1e #rap1 in 0b2 represents series "o bination.

(a"

I 4

(b"

I 4

## E. :. B. F. 10. 11. 12.

?ow is resistan"e and resisti%ity affe"ted if len#t1 of t1e wire is doubledM (eri%e i QneA4d and Also pro%e 7 Q U E 0o1 Ds law2. State 3ir"1offDs laws for ele"tri"al network. (istin#uis1 between e f and ter inal potential differen"e and also relate t1e wit1 internal resistan"e r for 0i2 "1ar#in# and 0ii2 dis"1ar#in# of a "ell. (raw "olour "odin# for "arbon resistors 1a%in# followin# %alues of resistan"es. 0i2 >:00S10@V 0ii2 =ES20@ ,V 0iii2 0.=S20@V 0i%2 100S=@V 81at is 81eatstone brid#e. (eri%e "ondition for balan"ed w1eastone brid#e. ?ow null point #ets affe"ted on inter"1an#in# position of #al%ano eter and battery in balan"ed w1etstone brid#e. .i%e prin"ipleG "onstru"tionG "ir"uit and ne"essary at1e ati"al relation used to deter ine t1e %alue of an unknown resistan"e and resisti%ity of aterial of wire usin# eter brid#e. 81en is eter brid#e ost sensiti%eM 5

## 1<. 1>. 1=. 1E.

81at is prin"iple of &otentio eterM .i%e "onstru"tionG "ir"uit and ne"essary for ula to 0i2 "o pare t1e e fDs of two "ells 0ii2deter ine internal resistan"e of a "ell. ?ow do position of null point in potentio eter "1an#es wit10i2 in"rease in len#t1 of potentio eter wire0ii2in"rease in "urrent in pri ary "ir"uit. .i%e two reasons for one sided defle"tion in potentio eter. 6ind t1e "urrent in external "ir"uit w1en n "ells ea"1 of e f E and internal resistan"e r are "onne"ted in 0i2 series and 0ii2 parallel G to external resistan"e '. 6ind net resistan"e between points A and ) in followin# "ir"uits and "urrent t1rou#1 %arious resistan"es. 44444444444444444444 U!I/AIII ,A.!E/IC E66EC/S 56 CU''E!/ A!( ,A.!E/IS,
SYLLABUS: Conce t of magnetic fiel#! /erste#s e& eriment\$ Biot - Savart law an# its a lication to current carr(ing circular loo \$Am eres law an# its a lications to infinitel( long straight wire! straight an# toroi#al solenoi#s\$ "orce on a moving charge in uniform magnetic an# electric fiel#s\$ C(clotron\$ "orce on a currentcarr(ing con#uctor in a uniform magnetic fiel#\$ "orce between two arallel current-carr(ing con#uctors-#efinition of am ere\$ 4or%ue e& erience# b( a current loo in uniform magnetic fiel#; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivit( an# conversion to ammeter an# voltmeter\$ Current loo as a magnetic #i ole an# its magnetic #i ole moment\$ 5agnetic #i ole moment of a revolving electron\$ 5agnetic fiel# intensit( #ue to a magnetic #i ole )bar magnet* along its a&is an# er en#icular to its a&is\$ 4or%ue on a magnetic #i ole )bar magnet* in a uniform magnetic fiel#; bar magnet as an e%uivalent solenoi#! magnetic fiel# lines; Earths magnetic fiel# an# magnetic elements\$ 3ara-! #ia- an# ferro - magnetic substances! with e&am les\$ Electromagnets an# factors affecting their strengths\$ 3ermanent magnets\$

0B arks2

1. 2. <. >. =. E. :. B. F. 10. 11. 12. 1<. 1>. 1=. 1E. 1:. 1B.

State )iot; Sa%art law and its %e"tor for . (eri%e expression for a#neti" field at "enter and on axis of "urrent "arryin# "ir"ular loop. Also draw t1e a#neti" field lines due to a "ir"ular "urrent "arrin# loop. State A pereDs "ir"uital law. Usin# A pereDs "ir"uital lawG (eri%e t1e expression for a#neti" field due to 0i2 infinitely lon# strai#1t wire 0ii2 strai#1t solenoid 0iii2 toroidal solenoid. 81at is 9orentC for"e. .i%e its expression. 81at is differen"e between for"e a"tin# on "1ar#ed parti"le in a#neti" field and in ele"tri" fieldM State &rin"ipleG "onstru"tion G workin# and labeled dia#ra of a "y"lotron. .i%e its appli"ation and deri%e expression for "y"lotron frequen"y and axi u ener#y. 8rite expression for for"e on "urrent;"arryin# "ondu"tor in unifor a#neti" field .?ow is t1e dire"tion of for"e deter ined M (eri%e t1e expression for for"e between two parallel "urrent;"arryin# "ondu"tors and 1en"e #i%e definition of a pere. (raw dia#ra representin# dire"tion of for"e for "urrent in sa e dire"tion. (eri%e t1e expression for torque experien"ed by a "urrent loop in a unifor a#neti" field. .i%e prin"ipleG "onstru"tionG workin# and labeled dia#ra of a o%in# "oil #al%ano eter. 6ind t1e expression for its "urrent sensiti%ity. ?ow a #al%ano eter be "on%erted into a eter and %olt eter 81i"1 one of t1e twoG an a eter or a illia eterG 1as a 1i#1er resistan"e and w1yM 81at is resistan"e of ideal a eter and ideal %olt eterM (eri%e e%rR2 for re%ol%in# ele"tron. 81at are ele ents of eart1Ds a#neti" fieldM (eri%e relation between t1e . (istin#uis1 between &ara a#neti"G (i a#neti" and 6erro a#neti" substan"es. ?ow t1e len#t1 of sprin# #ets affe"ted on passin# "urrent. A parti"le of ass W D and "1ar#e WqD o%in# wit1 speed W%D G nor al to a unifor a#neti" field W)D des"ribes a "ir"ular pat1 of radius WrD. (eri%e expressions for t1e 0i2 ti e period of re%olution and 0ii2 kineti" ener#y of t1e parti"le. ,

1F. 20.

Steel is preferred for akin# per anent a#nets w1ereas soft iron is preferred for akin# ele"tro a#nets. .i%e one reason. An ele"tron is o%in# at 10E Rs in t1e dire"tion parallel to "urrent of =A t1rou#1 a lon# wire separated by a distan"e of 10 " . Cal"ulate a#nitude of for"e. 44444444444444444444444

## U!I/ A >. Electromagnetic in#uction an# Alternating currents 0B arks2

SYLLABUS:

Electromagnetic in#uction; "ara#a(s law! in#uce# emf an# current: Len-s law! E##( currents\$ Self an# mutual in#uctance\$ 6ee# for #is lacement current\$ Alternating currents! ea7 an# rms value of alternating current8voltage: reactance an# im e#ance ; LC oscillations )%ualitative treatment onl(*! LC9 series circuit! resonance; ower in AC circuits! wattles current\$ AC generator an# transformer\$

1. State 6aradayDs laws of ele"tro a#neti" indu"tion. 2. State 9enCDs law . S1ow t1at it is in a""ordan"e to law of "onser%ation of ener#y. 81at is t1e %alue of a""eleration due to #ra%ity W#D for a#net fallin# inside a "oilM <. (istin#uis1 between W,a#neti" 6luxD and W,a#neti" 6lux densityD. .i%e t1eir S.I. and ".#.s units. >. 81at are Eddy "urrentsM 8rite its two appli"ations. ?ow eddy "urrents "an be ini isedM =. (efine self and utual indu"tion. 5n w1i"1 fa"tors do utual indu"tan"e between two "oils dependsM E. 81at is displa"e ent "urrentM :. .i%e &rin"iple G"onstru"tion G workin# and t1eory of 0i2 /ransfor er 0ii2 AC .enerator B. 81at are %arious losses in transfor er and 1ow "an t1ey be ini isedM F. (istin#uis1 between resistan"eG rea"tan"e and i pedan"eM ?ow t1ey %ary wit1 frequen"y of a." M 10. ?ow t1e "urrent in a" "ir"uit "1an#e on insertin# 0i2 iron rod in indu"tor 0ii2 diele"tri" slab in "apa"itorM 11. )riefly explain 9C os"illations. 12. (eri%e expression for peak and r s %alue of alternatin# "urrentR%olta#e . 1<. S1ow t1at t1ere is p1ase differen"e of F00 between a" "urrent and %olta#e for pure "apa"iti%e or pure indu"ti%e "ir"uit. 1>. Usin# p1asor dia#ra deri%e expression for i pedan"e G p1ase an#le for series 9C' "ir"uit. 1=. 81at is "ondition for resonan"e. (eri%e expression for resonant frequen"y. 1E. S1ow t1at power "onsu ed by ideal indu"tor or "apa"itor is Cero. 81at is wattles "urrent M 1:. A 2=,6 "apa"itorG0.1? indu"tor and a 2= o1 resistor atre "onne"ted in series wit1 an a.". sour"e w1ose e f is #i%en by E Q <10 sin <1>t. 6ind 0i2 peak %alue G r s %alueG frequen"y of e f 0ii2rea"tan"e of t1e "ir"uit 0iii2 i pedan"e 0i%2 "urrent 0%2resonant frequen"y for "ir"uit. 1B. Cal"ulate "urrent drawn by pri ary of a transfor er Gw1i"1 steps down 2004 to 204 to operate a de%i"e of 10o1 . .i%en effi"ien"y of transfor er is =0@. 1F. ?ow t1e bri#1tness of a bulb in series 9C' "ir"uit "1an#es w1en 0i2 soft iron rod is inserted in indu"tor 0ii2 diele"tri" slab is inserted between t1e plates . 20. An B04 GB008 1eater is to be operated on a 1004 G=0?C supply. Cal"ulate t1e indu"tan"e of C1oke required . 00.01F?2

## 444444444444444 U!I/ A=. Electromagnetic 2aves 0 < arks2

SYLLABUS:

Electromagnetic waves an# their characteristics)%ualitative i#eas onl(*\$ 4ransverse nature of electromagnetic waves\$

Electromagnetic s ectrum )ra#io waves! microwaves! infrare#! visible! ultraviolet! :ra(s! gamma ra(s* inclu#ing elementar( facts about their uses\$

1. ,ention properties of ele"tro a#neti" wa%es. 2. !a e t1e p1eno ena w1i"1 pro%es trans%erse nature of e. <. (es"ribe properties Guses Gappli"ation of E. spe"tru . 444444444444

. wa%es.

## U!I/ A E. Opt"cs 01>

arks2

SYLLABUS: Re!#ect"o) o! #"-ht. spher"ca# m"rrors. m"rror !orm(#a& Re!ract"o) o! #"-ht. tota# ")ter)a# re!#ect"o) a)d "ts app#"cat"o)s. opt"ca# !"/res. re!ract"o) at spher"ca# s(r!aces. #e)ses. th") #e)s !orm(#a. #e)s-ma er0s !orm(#a& Ma-)"!"cat"o). po1er o! a #e)s. com/")at"o) o! th") #e)ses ") co)tact & Re!ract"o) a)d d"spers"o) o! #"-ht thro(-h a pr"sm& Scatter")- o! #"-ht - /#(e co#o(r o! the s y a)d redd"sh appeara)ce o! the s() at s()r"se a)d s()set& Opt"ca# ")str(me)ts+ H(ma) eye. "ma-e !ormat"o) a)d accommodat"o). correct"o) o! eye de!ects (myop"a. hypermetrop"a. pres/yop"a a)d ast"-mat"sm) (s")- #e)ses& M"croscopes a)d astro)om"ca# te#escopes (re!#ect")- a)d re!ract")-) a)d the"r ma-)"!y")- po1ers& 2a'e opt"cs+ 1a'e !ro)t a)d H(y-e)s0 pr")c"p#e. re!#ect"o) a)d re!ract"o) o! p#a)e 1a'e at a p#a)e s(r!ace (s")- 1a'e !ro)ts& Proo! o! #a1s o! re!#ect"o) a)d re!ract"o) (s")H(y-e)s0pr")c"p#e& I)ter!ere)ce. Yo()-0s do(/#e s#"t e*per"me)t a)d e*press"o) !or !r")-e 1"dth. cohere)t so(rces a)d s(sta")ed ")ter!ere)ce o! #"-ht& 3"!!ract"o) d(e to a s")-#e s#"t. 1"dth o! ce)tra# ma*"m(m& Reso#'")- po1er o! m"croscopes a)d astro)om"ca# te#escopes& Po#ar"sat"o).p#a)e po#ar"4ed #"-ht5 %re1ster0s #a1. (ses o! p#a)e po#ar"4ed #"-ht a)d Po#aro"ds&

'A* 5&/ICS 1. (eri%e irror for ula and expression for a#nifi"ation in ter s of u and f. 2. 81at is total internal refle"tion two "onditions required for it. ,ention its appli"ations. <. (eri%e relation between P uG% and ' for a sp1eri"al surfa"e and 1en"e deri%e lens aker for ula. >. (eri%e t1in lens for ula. Explain ,a#nifi"ation and &ower of a lens. =. (eri%e expression for fo"al len#t1 for "o bination of t1in lenses in "onta"t. E. (eri%e pris for ula. Also s1ow #rap1i"ally %ariation of an#le of de%iation wit1 an#le of in"iden"e. :. (efine an#ular dispersion and dispersi%e power . B. 81y 0i2 sky appears blue 0ii2 sun appears reddis1 at sunrise and at sun set 0iii2 dan#ers si#nals are red.

F. (raw neat labeled dia#ra of 1u an eye and explain power of a""o odation. 10. ,ention %arious defe"ts in ?u an eyeG t1eir "auses and "orre"tion usin# lenses. 11. (raw ray dia#ra of "o pound i"ros"ope to s1ow i a#e for ation in nor al and far point position. (eri%e expression for a#nifyin# power also. 12.(raw ray dia#ra for nor al ad-ust ent of a astrono i"al teles"ope in and deri%e expression for a#nifyin# power also. 1<. (raw ray dia#ra for i a#e for ation by refle"tin# teles"ope. .i%e t1ree erits of refle"tin# teles"ope. 8A4E 5&/ICS 1>. ?ow t1e 'esol%in# power of i"ros"opes and astrono i"al teles"opes "1an#es wit1 0i2 aperture 0ii2 frequen"y of li#1t. 1=. State ?uy#ensD prin"iple and pro%e laws of refle"tion and refra"tion of plane wa%e on its basis . 1E.(raw t1e s1ape of wa%e front 0i2 "on%er#in# to a point 0ii2 di%er#in# fro a point 0iii2 produ"ed fro a point sour"e 0i%2 at far distan"e 0%2 refle"ted fro plane irror 0%i2 refra"ted fro "on%ex lens 0 for parallel in"iden"e2 . 1:. (es"ribe *oun#Ds double slit experi ent. 8rite "onditions required for sustained interferen"e of li#1t. 81at are "o1erent sour"esM 1B. (eri%e expression for frin#e widt1 in double slit experi ent. 1F. 81at is diffra"tion of li#1tM 8rite t1e "ondition required and deri%e expression for widt1 of "entral +

axi u in sin#le slit diffra"tion. 20. 81i"1 p1eno enon pro%es trans%erse nature of li#1tM 21. (efine plane of polariCation and plane of polariCation. 22. State and pro%e )rewsterDs 9aw. If P QX< G find an#le of polariCation. 2<. 81at are &olaroids M ,ention two uses of plane polariCed li#1t . 4444444444444444444444

## U!I/ A :. ,ual 6ature of 5atter an# 9a#iation 0>

SYLLABUS:

arks2

,ual nature of ra#iation\$ 3hotoelectric effect! hotoelectric e%uation- article nature of light\$

## ;ert- an# Lenar#s observations; Einsteins

5atter waves-wave nature of articles! #e Broglie relation\$ ,avisson- 'ermer e& eriment\$

1. 81at is &1oto ele"tri" effe"t M 8rite laws of p1otoele"tri" e ission. 2. Explain t1e ter s 0i2stoppin# potential 0ii2 /1res1old frequen"y 0iii2 t1res1old ener#y. <. S1ow %ariation of p1oto "urrent wit1 frequen"y and intensity of in"ident li#1t. >. (eri%e t1e Einsteins hotoelectric e%uation\$ =. (raw a labeled dia#ra of p1oto "ell and explain its workin#. ,ention its two appli"ations. E. 81at are atter wa%esM (eri%e expression for (e bro#lie wa%elen#t1 of an ele"tron in ele"tri" field. :. )riefly des"ribe (a%ission and .er er experi ent to s1ow existen"e of atter wa%es. B. 9i#1t of 8a%elen#t1 =000A0 falls on a etal surfa"e of work fun"tion 1.Fe4. 6ind 0a2 ener#y of p1otons in e4 0b2 3.E of p1otoele"trons and 0"2 stoppin# potential. 4444444444444444444444 U!I/ A B. Atoms an# 6uclei 0E
SYLLABUS:

arks2

Al ha- article scattering e& eriment; 9utherfor#s mo#el of atom; Bohr mo#el! energ( levels ! h(#rogen s ectrum\$ Com osition an# si-e of nucleus! atomic masses! isoto es! isobars; isotones\$ 9a#ioactivit(-al ha! beta an# gamma articles8ra(s an# their ro erties; ra#ioactive #eca( law\$ 5ass-energ( relation! mass #efect; bin#ing energ( er nucleon an# its variation with mass number; nuclear fission an# fusion\$

1. Explain Alp1a;parti"le s"atterin# experi ent and ention i portant inferen"es of it. 2. .i%e ain postulates of 'ut1erfordDs odel of ato . .i%e its erits and de erits. <. 81at is )o1rDs odel of ato . Explain ?ydro#en spe"tru . >. (eri%e relation between Ato i" !o. and radius of a nu"leus. =. Explain wit1 exa ples A 0i2 isotopesG 0ii2 isobars 0iii2 isotones. E. Co pare t1e properties of al ha! beta an# gamma articles\$ :. 8rite t1e radioa"ti%e de"ay laws and deri%e expression to s1ow t1at radioa"ti%e de"ay is lo#arit1 i". B. State ,ass ener#y relation and "on%ert 1 e4 into 7oules. F. 81at is ass defe"t and )indin# ener#yM S1ow #rap1i"ally %ariation in bindin# ener#y per nu"leon wit1 ass nu ber. State inferen"es fro #rap1. 10. (istin#uis1 between !u"lear fission and nu"lear fusion. 10

11. Cal"ulate t1e bindin# ener#y per nu"leon of 20 Ca nu"leus. .i%en + 0 20 Ca 2 Q<F.FE2=BF.u G n Q 1.00BEE=u p Q 1.00:B2=u 12. A neutron is absorbed by a <9iE nu"leus wit1 subsequent e ission of an alp1a parti"le. 8rite t1e
"orrespondin# nu"lear rea"tion and Cal"ulate t1e ener#y released in t1is rea"tion in ,e4. .i%en ,0<9iE2 QE.01=12Ea. .u G ,02?e>2 Q >.002E0>> a. .u ,00n12 Q 1.00BEE=> a. .u G < ,01? 2 Q <.01E0>F a. .u

40

40

YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY

U!I/ A F.
SYLLABUS:

Electronic ,evices

0:

arks2

Semicon#uctors; semicon#uctor #io#e + 0-. characteristics in forwar# an# reverse bias! #io#e as a rectifier; 0-. characteristics of LE,! hoto#io#e! solar cell! an# <ener #io#e;<ener #io#e as a voltage regulator\$ =unction transistor! transistor action! characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an am lifier )common emitter configuration* an# oscillator\$ Logic gates )/9! A6,! 6/4! 6A6, an# 6/9*\$ 4ransistor as a switch\$

1. (ifferentiate between pure and i pure se i"ondu"tors . (eri%e expression for "ondu"ti%ity of a pure se i"ondu"tor. 2. (ifferentiate between & type and ! type se i"ondu"tors . <. 81at is &! -un"tionM Explain i2 depletion layer ii2 barrier potential >. 81at is 6orward and 'e%erse biasin# of a diode. 81at is an ideal diodeM =. (raw "1ara"teristi"s "ur%e of &! -un"tion for forward and re%erse biasin#. E. ?ow does widt1 of depletion layer "1an#es wit1 forward and re%erse biasin#. :. 81at is re"tifi"ationM .i%e prin"ipleG "ir"uit dia#ra G "onstru"tionG workin# and input output wa%efor s for 0i2 1alf wa%e re"tifier 0ii2 full wa%e re"tifier B. 81at is Zener diode and 1ow is it used as a %olta#e stabiliCerM F. (es"ribe briefly 0i2 9E( 0ii2 p1oto diode 0iii2 solar "ell 10. 81at is a -un"tion transistor M Explain transistor a"tion. 11. 8it1 t1e 1elp of labeled "ir"uit dia#ra explain 1ow an npn transistor "an be used as an a plifier in "o on e itter "onfi#uration. Explain 1ow t1e input and output %olta#es are out of p1as by 1B00 for a "o on e itter transistor a plifier. 12. 8it1 t1e 1elp of a "ir"uit dia#ra explain t1e workin# of transistor as os"illator. 1<. Explain 1ow a transistor works as an swit"1 M 1>. 81at are basi" and uni%ersal lo#i" #ates M .i%e t1eir sy bol G )oolean expression G trut1 table . 1=. Explain w1y !A!( #ate and !5' #ate are "alled Uni%ersal lo#i" #atesM U!I/ A 10.
SYLLABUS:

## YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY Communication S(stems 0 =

arks2

Elements of a communication s(stem )bloc7 #iagram onl(*; ban#wi#th of signals ) s eech! 4. an# #igital #ata*; ban#wi#th of transmission me#ium\$ 3ro agation of electromagnetic waves in the atmos here! s7( an# s ace wave ro agation\$ 6ee# for mo#ulation\$ 3ro#uction an# #etection of an am litu#e-mo#ulate# wave\$

1..i%e t1e blo"k dia#ra of a basi" "o uni"ation syste . 2. 81at is band widt1M <. .i%e band widt1 for spee"1G usi" G/4 0%ideo2G and di#ital data . >. 81at is eant by bandwidt1 of trans ission ediu . =. Explain &ropa#ation of ele"tro a#neti" wa%es in t1e at osp1ere as #round G sky and spa"e 11

wa%e propa#ation . E. 81at is odulation and w1y is it required M :. (eri%e expression for a plitude odulated wa%e. B. (raw a "ir"uit dia#ra of a odulator. F. 81at is (e odulation. (raw a "ir"uit dia#ra of a de odulator. 10. (raw blo"k dia#ra of a trans itter and a re"ei%er. YYYYYYYYYY

12

## *ear wise questions

U!I/ AI E9EC/'5S/A/ICS 0B arks2 C)SE 200F+ 1.6hat is electrostatic potential d%e to electric dipole at an e\$%atorial point 7
1 2.0raw 3 e\$%ipotential s%r#aces corresponding to a #ield that %ni#or&l! increases in &agnit%de b%t re&ains constant along 8 direction. 2 9ow are these s%r#aces di##erent #ro& that o# a constant electric #ield along 8: direction7 3. 0e#ine /lectric #l%1. 6rit its *.I. %nit. A charge \$ is enclosed b! a spherical s%r#ace o# radi%s ;. I# the radi%s is red%ced to hal#( how 2 wo%ld the electric #l%1 thro%gh the s%r#ace change7 4.A <\$ point charge is 'ept in the vicinit! o# an %ncharged cond%cting plate. *'etch electric #ield lines originating #ro& the point on the 3 s%r#ace o# the plate. 0erive the e1pressioo=n #or the electric #ield at the s%r#ace o# a charged cond%ctor. >;

A parallel plate capacitor is charged b! a batter!. A#ter so&e ti&e batter! is disconnected and dielectric slab (K" is inserted between the plates. 9ow wo%ld (i"capacitance(ii" electric #ield (iii" energ! stored be a##ected7 ?%sti#! !o%r answer.

C)SE 200B+
1.6hich orientation o# an electric dipole in a %ni#or& electric #ield wo%ld correspond to stable e\$%ilibri%&. 1 (*et:II" I# the radi%s o# @a%ssian s%r#ace enclosing a charge is halved( how does the electric #l%1 thro%gh the @a%ssian s%r#ace change7 (*et:III"0e#ine the ter& electric dipole &o&ent o# a dipole. *tate its *.I. %nit. 2. Two point charges 10110:.2 and :2110:.2 are separated b! a distance o# 50c& in air. (i"Aind at what distance #ro& #irst charge( the electric potential is Bero. (ii" Also calc%late the electrostatic potential energ! o# the s!ste&. 5' 2 Two point charges 4C and C are separated b! 1& in air. At what point on the line =oining the two charges is the electric #ield intensit!l Bero 7 Also calc%late the electrostatic potential energ! o# the s!ste& o# charges( ta'ing the val%e o# charge( CD 2110 :,2. <. 0erive an e1pression #or the energ! stored in a parallel plate capacitor. >n charging a parallel plate capacitor to potential - ( the spacing between the plates is halved( and a dielectric &edi%& o# KD10 is introd%ced between the plates( witho%t disconnecting the d.c so%rce. /1plain %sing s%itable e1pressions( how the (i" capacitance((ii"electric #ield and (ii" energ! densit! o# the capacitor change. 5' = (a" 0e#ine electric #l%1. 6rite its *.I. %nits. (b" The electric #ield co&ponents d%e to a charge inside the c%be o# side 0.1& are as shownE /1D a1 ( where aD500F 2:& /! D0 ( /BD 0 ! 2alc%late (i" the #l%1 thro%gh the c%be( and (ii" the charge inside the c%be. 0.1&

C C)SE 200:+
0.1

1. Two point charges 4G2 and :2G2 are separated b! a distance o# 1& in air. 2alc%late at what point on the line =oining the two charges is the electric potential Bero. 2 2. *tate @a%ssH theore& . Appl! this theore& to derive an e1pression #or the electric #ield intensit! at a point near an in#initel! long ( thin (%ni#or&l! charged straight wire. setII %ni#or&l! charged spherical shell. < 3./1plain the %nderl!ing principle o# wor'ing o# a parallel plate capacitor. I# two si&ilar plates( each o# area A having s%r#ace charge densities < and : are separated b! a distance d in air ( write e1pressions #or i"electric #ield at points between the plates. < ii" p.d. between the plates iii" capacitance o# capacitor so #or&ed.

C)SE 200E+
1.0e#ine electric dipole &o&ent. Is it a scalar or a vector \$%antit!7 2.A point charge I\$H is placed at > as shown in the #ig%re. Is -p J -C positive or negative when (i"\$ K0 ((ii" \$L 07 > MMMMMMMNMMMMC ?%sti#! !o%r answer. 3.Two capacitors o# capacitance 5GA and 12GA are connected in series with a batter!. The voltage across the 5GA is 2 2o&p%te the total batter! voltage. >; A parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates has a capacitance o# .GA.The separation between the plates is now red%ced b! hal# and the space is #illed with KD5. 2alc%late the val%e o# capacitance in the second case. 4. Using @a%ssHs theore&( show &athe&aticall! that #or an! point o%tside the shell( the #ield d%e to a %ni#or&l! charged thin shell is the sa&e as i# the entire charge o# the shell is concentrated at the centre. 6h! do !o% e1pect the electric #ield inside the shell to be Bero according to this theore&. 1 2 2 <

## C)SE 200=+ 1.(setI"An electrostatic #ield line cannot be discontin%o%s. 6h!7

1 (set II" 9ow does the co%lo&b #orce between two charges depend on intervening &edi%&7 (setIII" Two electric lines never intersect each other. 6h!7 2.0e#ine /lectric #ield intensit!. 6rite its *I %nit.6rite the &agnit%de and direction o# / d%e to dipole o# length 2a at the &idpoint o# line =oining two charges. 2 3.(setI"A parallel plate capacitor is to be designed with voltage rating 1'- %sing a &aterial o# KD3 and dielectric strength 10,- &.Aor sa#et! we wo%ld li'e the #ield never to e1ceed sa!( 10O o# 2 the dipole strength. 6hat &ini&%& area o# the plates is re\$%ired to have a capacitance o# 50pA7 (setII" A charge \$ is placed at the centre o# line =oining two e\$%al charges C. *how that the s!ste& o# three chages will be in e\$%ilibri%& i# \$ D :C 4. (setIII" Two #i1ed charges <4e and <e are separated b! a distance IaH. 6here sho%ld the third point charge be placed #or it to be in

13

e\$%ilibri%&7 5' A 4PA capacitor is charged b! a 200- s%ppl!. The s%ppl! is then disconnected and the charged capacitor is connected to another %ncharged 2PA capacitor. 9ow &%ch electrostatic energ! o# the #irst capacitor is lost in the process o# attaining the stead! sit%ation7 4.*tate @a%ssH theore& . Appl! this theore& to obtain the e1pression #or the electric #ield < intensit! at a point d%e to in#initel! long ( thin (%ni#or&l! charged straight wire.

C)SE 200>+
1.An electric dipole o# length 4c&( when placed with its a1is &a'ing an angle o# 50o with %ni#or& electric #ield e1periences a 2 tor\$%e o# 4 3F&. 2alc%late the (i" &agnit%de o# electric #ield( (ii"the potential energ! o# dipole (i# the dipole has charges o# <.n2. 2.A 10PA capacitor is charged b! a 30- d.c. and then connected across an %ncharged 50PA capacitor. 2alc%late (i" the #inal potential di##erence o# the co&bination( and (ii"the initial and #inal energies. 9ow will !o% acco%nt #or the di##erence in energ!7 < 3.(setI(II" *tate @a%ssH theore& . Using this theore& to obtain the e1pression #or the < electric #ield intensit! d%e to in#inite plane sheet o# charge o# charge densit! 2 &2. (setIII" *tate @a%ssH theore& . Use this theore& to obtain the e1pression #or the / at an! point o%tside a %ni#or&l! charged spherical shell.

## U!I/ AII C)SE 200B+

CU''E!/ E9EC/'ICI/*

0: arks2

1. Two &etallic wires o# the sa&e &aterial have the sa&e length b%t cross:sectional area is in the ratio 1E2. The! are connected (i"in series (ii" parallel. 2o&pare the dri#t velocities o# electrons in the two wires in both the cases (i" and (ii". 2 2. 0erive an e1pression #or the resistivit! o# a good cond%ctor (in ter&s o# the rela1ation ti&e o# electrons. 2
(set II" Using the &athe&atical e1pression #or the cond%ctivit! o# a &aterial ( e1plain how itb varies with te&perat%re #or (i0 se&icond%ctors ((ii" good cond%ctors (*et III" 0erive an e1pression #or the c%rrent densit! o# a cond%ctor (in ter&s o# dri#t speed o# electrons.

<. (i" 2alc%late the e\$%ivalent resistance o# the given electrical networ' between points A and 3. (ii" Also calc%late the c%rrent thro%gh 20 and A23@( i# a 10- d.c. so%rce is connected between A and 3( and the val%e o# ; is ass%&ed as 2P.

<

C)SE 200:+
1.A voltage o# 30- is applied across a carbon resistor with #irst( second and third rings o# bl%e( blac' and !ellow colors respectivel!. 2alc%late the val%e o# c%rrent( in &A( thro%gh the resistor. 2 2. Aor the potentio&eter circ%it shown in the given #ig%re(a"( points Q and R represent the two ter&inals o# an %n'nown e&# /H. A st%dent observed that when the =oc'e! is &oved #ro& the end A to the end 3 o# the potentio&eter wire( the de#lection in galvano&eter re&ains in sa&e direction. 6hat &a! be the two possible #a%lts in the circ%it that co%ld res%lt in this observation7 I# the galvano&eter de#lection at the end 3 is (i" &ore( (ii" less ( than that at the end A( which o# the two #a%lts ( listed above( wo%ld be there in the circ%it7 @ive reasons in s%pport o# !o%r answer in each case. <

>; The given #ig. ( b" (6heat stone bridge" shows a networ' o# resistances ; 1( ;2( ;3 and ;4. Using Kircho##Hs laws( establish the balance condition #or the networ'. <. 6hat is *eebac' e##ect7 <

C)SE 200E+
1.The variation o# p.d - with length l in case o# two potentio&eter N and C is as shown. 6hich one o# these two will !o% pre#er #or co&paring e&#s o# two pri&ar! cells7 N 1 C 2. 0raw a circ%it diagra& %sing &eter bridge and write the necessar! &athe&atical 2
relation %sed to deter&ine the val%e o# an %n'nown resistance. 6h! cannot s%ch an arrange&ent be %sed #or &eas%ring ver! low resistances7

<. Ro% are given InH resistors( each o# val%es IrH. These are #irst connected to get &ini&%& possible resistance. In the second case( these are again connected di##erentl! to get &a1i&%& possible resistance. 2o&p%te the ratio between the &ini&%& and &a1i&%& val%es o# resistance so obtained. >. *tate Aarada!Hs laws o# electrol!sis <

C)SE 200=+ 1.9ow does the resistivit! o# (i" cond%ctor and (ii" se&icond%ctor var! with te&perat%re7 @ive reason #or each case
0setII2 /stablish a relation between c%rrent and dri#t velocit!. 0set III2 9ow do !o% convert galvano&eter into a&&eter7 6h! is a&&eter alwa!s connected in series 7 2. Two cells o# e&# 1.5- and internal resistance 1oh& and 2 oh& respectivel! are connected in parallel to pass a c%rrent in the sa&e direction thro%gh an e1ternal resistance o# 5 oh&.(a" 0raw the circ%it diagra&. (b" Using Kircho##Hs laws(calc%late the c%rrent thro%gh each branch o# the circ%it and pd across 5 oh& resistor. 0SetIII" A series batter! o# 5 lead acc%&%lators o# e&#2.0- and internal resistance 0.5oh& is charged b! 100- d.c. s%ppl!. 6hat series resistance sho%ld be %sed in the charging circ%it in order to li&it the c%rrent to .A7 Using the re\$%ired resistor( obtain (i" power s%pplied b! the d.c.so%rce (ii" the power dissipated as heat. <. 6hat is *eebac' e##ect7 Nlot a graph showing the variation o# ther&o e&# with the te&perat%re o# hot =%nction ('eeping cold =%nction at 002" o# a ther&oco%ple. 9ow will the (a" ne%tral te&perat%re and (b" inversion te&perat%re o# the ther&oco%ple change when the te&perat%re o# the hot =%nction is increased7

<

<

C)SE 200>+
1./1plain how does the resistivit! o# a cond%ctor depend %pon (i" n%&ber densit! InH o# #ree 2

14

electrons( and (ii" rela1ation ti&e. 0SetII2 /1plain (with help o# graph ( the variation o# cond%ctivit! with the te&perat%re #or a &etallic cond%ctor. 2 .0e#ine the ter& Ielectroche&ical e\$%ivalentH. 0ed%ce the relation connecting electroche&ical e\$%ivalent (che&ical e\$%ivalent and Aarada! < <.The circ%it diagra& shows the %se o# potentio&eter to &eas%re s&all e&# prod%ced b! ther&oco%ple connected between Q and R. The cell 2( o# e&# 2- has negligible internal resistance. The potentio&eter wire NC is 1& long and has resistance 5 . The balance point * is #o%nd t0 be 400&& #ro& N. 2alc%late the val%e o# e&# -( generated b! the ther&oco%ple. < 0Set III2Notentio&eter wire (NC o# length 1& is connected to standard cell /1. Another cell( /2D1.02- is connected as shown 6ith switch * open (n%ll point is obtained at 51c& #ro& N. 2alc%late (i" Notential gradient o# wire( (ii" e&# o# /1. (iii" 6hen switch * is closed ( will the n%ll point &ove towards C7 @ive reason #or !o%r answer. 4444444444444444444

15

## ,A.!E/IC E66EC/S 56 CU''E!/ \$ ,A.!E/IS,

0B arks2
1 3 I A

1.6h! sho%ld the spring s%spension wire in a &oving coil galvano&eter have low torsional constant7 2. The #ig%re shows variation o# intensit! o# &agnetiBation vers%s the applied &agnetic #ield intensit! (9 Aor two &agnetic &aterials A and 3 E (a" Identi#! the &aterials A and 3.

(b" 6h! does the &aterial 3( have a larger s%sceptibilit! than A( #or a given #ield at constant te&perat%re 7

?
<. Using A&pereHs circ%ital )aw( obtain an e1pression #or the &agnetic #ield along the a1is o# a c%rrent carr!ing solenoid o# length l and having F n%&ber o# t%rns. 2

>. A circ%lar coil o# 200 t%rns and radi%s 10 c& is placed in a %ni#or& &agnetic #ield o# 0.5T (nor&al to the plane o# the coil. I# the c%rrent < In the coil is 3.0 A ( calc%late the (a" total tor\$%e on the coil (b" total #orce on the coil (c" average #orce on each electron in the coil ( d%e to &agnetic #ield. Ass%&e the area o# cross Jsection o# the wire to be 10 :5 &2 and the #ree electron densit! is 102+ &3 .

C)SE 200:+
1. An electron is &oving along <ve 1:a1is in the presence o# %ni#or& &agnetic #ield along <ve ! Ja1is. 6hat is the direction o# the #orce acting on it7 1 2. A galvano&eter has a resistance o# 30P . It gives #%ll scale de#lection with a c%rrent o# 2&A. 2alc%late the val%e o# the resistance needed to 2 convert it into an a&&eter o# range 0 : 0.3 A. <. /1plain with help o# a labeled diagra&( the principle and constr%ction o# a c!clotron. 0ed%ce an e1pression #or the c!clotron #re\$%enc! and show that it does not depend %pon the speed o# the charged particle. 5' = 0isting%ish the &agnetic properties o# dia:( para: and #erro:&agnetic s%bstances in ter&s o# (i" s%sceptibilit! ( (ii" &agnetic per&eabilit! and (iii" 2oercivit! . @ive one e1a&ple o# each o# these &atrials. 0raw the #ield lines d%e to an e1ternal &agnetic #ield near a (i" dia&agnetic ( (ii" para&agnetic s%bstance.

C)SE 200E+
1.*teel is pre#erred #or &a'ing per&anent &agnets whereas so#t iron is pre#erred #or &a'ing electro&agnets. @ive one reason . 1 2.6hich one o# the two( an a&&eter or a &illia&&eter ( has a higher resistance and wh! 7 2 <.0raw a neat and labeled diagra& o# a c!clotron. *tate the %nderl!ing principle and e1plain how a positivel! charged particle gets accelerated in this &achine. *how &athe&aticall! that the c!clotron #re\$%enc! does not depend %pon the speed o# the particle. 5' = *tate the 3iot: *avart law #or the &agnetic #ield d%e to a c%rrent carr!ing ele&ent. Use this law to obtain a #or&%la #or &agnetic #ield at the centre o# a circ%lar loop o# radi%s ; carr!ing a stead! c%rrent I. *'etch the &agnetic #ield lines #or a c%rrent loop clearl! indicating the direction o# the #ield.

C)SE 200=+
1.Two wires o# e\$%al lengths are bent in the #or& o# two loops. >ne o# the loops is a s\$%are shaped while other is circ%lar. These are s%spended in a %ni#or& &agnetic #ield and the sa&e c%rrent is passed thro%gh the&. 6hich loop will e1perience greater tor\$%e 7 @ive reasons. 1 (setII" Under what condition does an electron &oving in &agnetic #ield e1perience &a1i&%&. Aorce. (setIII" S. e1perience &ini&%&. Aorce . 1 2. 6rite two characteristic properties to disting%ish between dia&agnetic and para&agnetic &aterials. 2 (set III" 9ow will !o% convert a galvano&eter into an a&&eter7 6h! is an a&&eter alwa!s connected in series 7 <. /1plain the principle and wor'ing o# a c!clotron with the help o# a labeled diagra&. A c!clotronHs oscillator #re\$%enc! is 10T9B. 6hat sho%ld be the operating &agnetic Aield #or accelerating protons 7 I# the radi%s o# its dees is 50 c&( what is the 'inetic energ! o# the proton bea& prod%ced b! the accelerator7 /1press !o%r answer in %nits o# Te-. (e D 1.51 10 :1+2 (&p D1.5, 110:2,'g ( 1Te- D 1.502 110:13 ? " 5' = 0epict the &agnetic #ield lines d%e to two straight( long( parallel cond%ctors carr!ing c%rrents I 1 and I2 in the sa&e direction. 9ence ded%ce an e1pression #or the #orce acting per %nit length .Is this #orce attractive or rep%lsive7 Aig shows rectang%lar loop placed 2c& awa! #ro& a long( straight (c%rrent carr!ing cond%ctor. 6hat is direction and &agnit%de o# the net #orce acting on the loop7 10 c& 25A 25c& 2c&

C)SE 200>+

1=A

1.Two long parallel straight wires Q and R separated b! a distance o# 5c& in air carr! c%rrents o# 10A and 5A respectivel! in opposite directions. 2 2alc%late the &agnit%de and direction o# the #orce on a 20c& length o# the wire R. 2.Using 3iot:*avart law( ded%ce an e1pression #or the &agnetic #ield on the a1is o# a circ%lar c%rrent loop. 0raw the &agnetic #ield lines d%e to a circ%lar c%rrent carr!ing loop. 5' < A h!drogen ion o# &ass I&H and charge I\$H travels with a speed IvH in a circle o# radi%s IrH in a &agnetic #ield I3H. 6rite the e\$%ation in ter&s o# these \$%antities onl! ( relating the #orce on the ion to the re\$%ired centripetal #orce. 9ence derive an e1pression #or its ti&e period. (set II" Using A&pereHs circ%ital law( derive an e1pression #or the &agnetic #ield along the a1is o# a toroid. 5' A particle o# &ass I&H and charge I\$H &oving with a speed IvH(nor&al to a %ni#or& &agnetic #ield I3H describes a circ%lar path o# radi%s IrH. 0erive e1pressions #or the (i" ti&e period o# revol%tion and (ii" K./. o# the particle. 6rite the e\$%ation in ter&s o# these \$%antities onl! ( relating the #orce on the ion to the re\$%ired centripetal #orce. <. A %ni#or& &agnetic #ield gets &odi#ied as shown below (when two speci&ens Q and R are placed in it. < (i" Identi#! the two speci&ens Q and R (ii" *tate the reason #or the behavior o# the #ield lines in Q and R.

YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY

## U!I/ AI4 E9EC/'5,A.!E/IC I!(UC/I5! \$ A9/E'!A/I!. CU''E!/ 0B arks2

C)SE 200B+ 1. The instantaneo%s voltage and c%rrent o# an a.c circ%it are given b! v D 200sin 300t - and iD10sin300t A . 6hat is the power 1 dissipation in the circ%it7 2. The circ%it arrange&ent o# two coils 'ept near b! shows that c%rrent in coil 3 #lows when a.c passes thro%gh the coil A. 2
(a" state the principle involved (b" &ention two #actors on which the c%rrent prod%ced in coil 3 depends. <. An a.c. voltage -D-&sinUt is connected to capacitor o# capacitance 2. Aind the e1pression #or c%rrent and plot a graph o# - and I vers%s Ut to show that c%rrent is V 2 ahead o# voltage. A resistor o# 200 P and a capacitor o# 15.0GA are connected in series to a 220 - (509B a.c. so%rce. 2alc%late the c%rrent in the circ%it and the r&s voltage across the ; and 2. Is the algebraic s%& o# these two voltages &ore than the so%rce voltage 7 I# !es ( resolve the parado1. 5' /1plain brie#l! (with help o# a labeled diagra&( basic principle o# the wor'ing o# an a.c. generator. In an a.c generator ( coil o# F t%rns and area A is rotated at v revol%tions per second in a %ni#or& &agnetic #ield 3. 6rite e1pression #or e&# prod%ced. A 100 t%rn coil o# area 0.1&2 rotates at hal# a revol%tion per second. It is placed in a &agnetic #ield 0.01T perpendic%lar to the a1is o# rotation o# the coil. 2alc%late the &a1i&%& voltage generated in the coil. =

C)SE 200:+ 1. In a series )2; circ%it( the voltage across an ind%ctor( a capacitor and a resistor are 30-( 30- and 50respectivel!. 6hat is the phase di##erence between the applied voltage and the c%rrent in the circ%it. 2. 2alc%late the c%rrent drawn b! the pri&ar! o# a trans#or&er which steps down 200- to 20- to operate a device o# resistance 20P . Ass%&e the e##icienc! o# the trans#or&er to be .0O. (*et II"An a.c voltage o# 100-( 509B is connected across a 20 oh& resistor and 2&9 ind%ctor in series. 2alc%late (i" i&pedance o# the circ%it ( (ii" r&s c%rrent in the circ%it. <. /1plain the ter& Icapacitive reactanceH. *how graphicall! variation o# capacitive reactance with #re\$%enc! o# the applied A.2 voltage. An a.c. voltage /D/osinUt is applied across a p%re capacitor o# capacitance 2. *how &athe&aticall! that the c%rrent #lowing thro%gh it leads the applied voltage b! a phase angle o# V 2 . >; /1plain the ter& Iind%ctive reactanceH. *how graphicall! variation o# ind%ctive reactance with #re\$%enc! o# the applied A.2 voltage. An a.c. voltage /D/osinUt is applied across a p%re ind%ctor o# ind%ctance ). *how &athe&aticall! that the c%rrent #lowing thro%gh it lags behind the applied voltage b! a phase angle o# V 2 C)SE 200E+ 1. An a.c voltage o# #re\$%enc! # is applied across a series )2; circ%it. )et # r be the resonance #re\$%enc! #or the circ%it . 6ill the c%rrent in the circ%it lag ( lead or re&ain in phase with the applied voltage when (i" # K# r (ii" #L #r 7 /1plain !o%r answer in each case. 2.6hat are edd! c%rrents7 9ow are the! prod%ced7 In what sense are edd! c%rrents considered %ndesirable in a trans#or&er and how are these red%ced in s%ch a device7 <.6hen an ind%ctor ) and a resistor ; in series are connected across a 12-( 509B s%ppl! ( a c%rrent o# 0.5A #lows in the circ%it. The c%rrent di##ers in phase #ro& applied voltage b! V 3 radian. 2alc%late the val%e o# ;. 1 2 =

2 < <

5' A 0.5& long &etal rod NC co&pletes the circ%it as shown in the #ig%re. The area o# the circ%it is perpendic%lar to the &agnetic #ield o# #l%1 densit! 0.15T. I# the resistance o# the total circ%it is 3P ( calc%late the #orce needed

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

to &ove the rod in the direction as indicated with a constant speed o# 2 &s:1.

&

1
1 2
2

C)SE 200=+ 1.A b%lb and a capacitor are connected in series to an a.c so%rce o# variable #re\$%enc! . 9ow will the brightness o# the b%lb change on increasing the #re\$%enc! o# the a.c. so%rce7 @ive reason. 2.A circ%lar coil o# radi%s .c& and 20 t%rns rotates abo%t its vertical dia&eter with an ang%lar speed o# 50s:1 in a %ni#or& horiBontal &agnetic #ield o# &agnit%de 3110:2 T. Aind the &a1i&%& and average val%e o# the e&# ind%ced in the coil. <. *tate the condition %nder which the pheno&enon o# resonance occ%rs in a series )2; circ%it. Nlot a graph showing variation o# c%rrent with
#re\$%enc! o# a.c. so%rce in a series )2; circ%it. 0Set II2 Tention the #actors on which the resonant #re\$%enc! o# a series )2; circ%it depends. Nlot a graph showing variation o# i&pedance with #re\$%enc! o# a.c. so%rce in a series )2; circ%it. >. 0e#ine sel#:ind%ctance and give its *.I. %nit. 0erive an e1pression #or sel# Jind%ctance o# a long( air:cored solenoid

<

o# length l( radi%s r( and having F n%&ber o# t%rns. 0Set II 2 0e#ine &%t%al:ind%ctance and give its *.I. %nit. 0erive an e1pression #or the T%t%al:ind%ctance #or two long coa1ial solenoids o# sa&e length wo%nd over the other. C)SE 200>+ 1. A solenoid with an iron core and a b%lb are connected to a d.c. so%rce. 9ow does the brightness o# the b%lb change( when the iron core is re&oved #ro& the solenoid 7 &agnet pd &2. Nea' val%e o# e&# o# an a.c so%rce is /o . 6hat is the r.&.s val%e 7 <. A bar &agnet T is dropped so that it #alls verticall! thro%gh the coil 2. coil The graph obtained #or voltage prod%ced across the coil vs. ti&e is shown in #ig%re. (i"/1plain the shape o# the graph. (ii" 6h! is negative pea' longer than the positive pea'7 >. 6hat is ind%ced e&#7 6rite Aarada!Hs law o# electro&agnetic ind%ction . /1press it &athe&aticall!.
A cond%cting rod o# length l( with one end pivoted is rotated with a %ni#or& ang%lar speed U in a vertical plane( nor&al to a %ni#or& &agnetic #ield 3. 0ed%ce an e1pression #or the e&# ind%ced in this rod.

1 2 Ti&e &s

1,

In India( do&estic power s%ppl! is at 220-( 509B ( while in U*A it is 110-( 509B. @ive one advantage and one disadvantage o# 220- s%ppl! over 110 - s%ppl

U!I/ A4

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C)SE 200F+ 1. !a e t1e E, wa%es used for studyin# "rystal stru"ture of solids.81at is its frequen"y ran#e M 1 2. 0a2 5pti"al and radio teles"opes are built on t1e #round w1ile [;ray astrono y is possible 2 only fro t1e satellites orbitin# t1e eart1. 81yM 0b2 /1e s all oCone layer on top of t1e stratosp1ere is "rui"ial for 1u an sur%i%al. 81yM

C)SE 200B+ 1. Identify t1e followin# ele"tro a#neti" radiations as per t1e wa%elen#t1s #i%en below. 8rite one appli"ation of ea"1. 0a2 10 ;< n 0b210 ;< 0"2 1n C)SE 200:+ 1. !a e t1e followin# "onstituent radiations of ele"tro a#neti" spe"tru w1i"1 0i2 produ"es intense 1eatin# effe"t 0ii2 is absorbed by oCone layer in at osp1ere 0iii2 is used for studyin# "rystal stru"ture. 8rite one ore appli"ation for ea"1 of t1ese radiations. C)SE 200E+ 1. 8rite t1e order of frequen"y ran#e and one use of ea"1 of t1e followin# ele"tro a#neti" radiations+ 0i2 ,i"rowa%es 0ii2 Ultra;%iolet rays 0iii2 .a a rays

< <

<

C)SE 200=+ 1. !a e t1e "onstituent radiation of ele"tro a#neti" spe"tru w1i"1 0a2 is used in satellite "o uni"ation 0b2 is used for studyin# "rystal stru"ture. 0"2 is si ilar to t1e radiations e itted durin# de"ay of radioa"ti%e nu"lei. 0d2 1as its wa%elen#t1 ran#e between <F0n and ::0n . 0e2 is absorbed fro sunli#1t by oCone layer. 0f2 produ"es intense 1eatin# effe"t. C)SE 200>+ 1. Explain briefly t1e prin"iple of trans ittin# si#nals usin# a satellite. State two ain ad%anta#es of usin# a satellite for trans ittin# si#nals. 0set III2 81y is #round wa%e trans ission of si#nals restri"ted to a frequen"y of 1=00k?C.

<

< 1

1.

YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY

## U!I/ A4I 5&/ICS

C)SE 200F+ C)SE 200B+

## 0'ay opti"s 10S8a%e opti"s > Q 1> arks2

1.9ow does the angle o# &ini&%& deviation o# a glass pris& var! (i# the incident violet light is replaced with red light 7 2.6h! does the bl%ish colo%r predo&inate in a clear s'!7 <.0raw a labeled ra! diagra& o# an astrono&ical telescope in the near point position. 6rite the e1pression #or its &agni#!ing power. >. *tate one #eat%re b! which the pheno&enon o# inter#erence can be disting%ished #ro& that o# di##raction. A parallel bea& o# light o# wavelength 500n& is incident nor&all! on a slit o# width IaH. I# the distance between the slits and the screen Is 0..& and the distance o# 2 nd order &a1i&%& #ro& the center o# screen is 15&& ( calc%late the width o# the slit. =. 0isting%ish between %npolarised and plane polariBed light. An %npolarised light is incident on the bo%ndr! between two transparent &edia. *tate the condition when the re#lected wave is totall! plane polariBed. Aind o%t the e1pression #or the angle o# incidence in this case. E. 0erive the lens #or&%la ( 1 # D 1 v J 1 % #or a concave lens( %sing the necessar! ra! diagra&. Two lenses o# power 100 and :5 0 are placed in contact . (i" 2alc%late the power o# the new lens. (ii" 6here sho%ld an ob=ect be held #ro& the lens ( so as to obtain a virt%al i&age o# &agni#ication 2 7 5' (a" 6hat are coherent so%rces o# light7 Two slits in Ro%ngHs do%ble slit e1p are ill%&inated b! two di##erent sodi%& la&ps e&itting light o# the sa&e 6avelength. 6h! is no inter#erence pattern observed7 (b" >btain the condition #or getting dar' and bright #ringes in Ro%ngHs e1p. 9ence write the e1pression #or #ringe width. (c " I# s is the siBe o# the so%rce and d its distance #ro& the plane o# the two slits ( what sho%ld be the criterion #or the inter#erence #ringes to be seen 7

1 1 2 2 < =

C)SE 200:+
1.0e#ine resolving power o# a co&po%nd &icroscope. 9ow does the ;.N. o# a co&po%nd &icroscope change when (i" re#ractive inde1 o# the &edi%& between ob=ect and ob=ective lens increases7 (ii" wavelength o# radiation %sed is increased 7 (*et II" 0e#ine resolving power o# a telescope. 9ow does it get a##ected on (i" increasing the apert%re o# ob=ective lens (ii" increasing the #ocal length o# ob=ective lens7 2. A do%ble conve1 lens o# glass o# re#ractive inde1 1.5 has its both s%r#aces o# e\$%al radii o# c%rvat%re o# 30 c& each. An ob=ect o# height 5c& is placed at a distance o# 12.5c& #ro& the lens. 2alc%late the siBe o# the i&age #or&ed. 3. *tate the essential condition #or di##raction o# light to ta'e place. Use 9%!gensH principle to e1plain di##raction o# light d%e to a narrow single slit and the #or&ation o# a pattern o# #ringes obtained on the *creen. *'etch the pattern o# #ringes #or&ed d%e to di##raction at a single slit showing variation o# intensit! with angle W . >; 6hat are coherent so%rces o# light7 6h! are coherent so%rces re\$%ired to obtain s%stained inter#erence pattern7 *tate three characteristics #eat%res which disting%ish the inter#erence pattern d%e to two coherentl! ill%&inated so%rces as co&pared to that observed in a di##raction pattern d%e to a single slit. 2

< =

C)SE 200E+
1. 0raw a labeled ra! diagra& to show the i&age #or&ation in a re#racting t!pe astrono&ical telescope. 6h! sho%ld the dia&eter o# a telescope be large7 2. A bea& o# light converges to a point N. A lens is placed in the path o# the convergent bea& 12 c& #ro& N. At what point does the bea& converge i# the lens is (a" a conve1 lens o# # D20c& (b" a concave lens o# # D 15 c& 7 0o the re\$%ired calc%lations. 3. 6hat are coherent so%rces o# light7 *tate two conditions #or two light so%rces to be coherent. 0erive a &athe&atical e1pression #or the width o# inter#erence #ringes obtained in Ro%ngHs do%ble slit e1peri&ent with the help o# a s%itable diagra&. >; *tate 9%!gensH principle. Using the geo&etrical constr%ction o# secondar! wavelets( e1plain the re#raction o# a plane wave #ront incident at a plane s%r#ace . 9ence veri#! *nellHs law o# re#raction. Ill%strate with the help o# diagra&s the action o# (i" conve1 lens and (ii" concave &irror on a plane wave #ront incident on it. 2 <

C)SE 200=+ 1. A right angled ( angle 3 D +00"crown glass pris& with critical angle 410 is placed be#ore an ob=ect( NC ( in two positions as shown. Trace the paths o# the ra!s #ro& N and C passing thro%gh the pris&s in the two cases. A N N A (i" 3 (ii" C 2 C 3 2 2. 0raw a labeled ra! diagra& to show the i&age #or&ation b! a co&po%nd &icroscope. 6rite the e1pression #or its &agni#!ing power.
9ow does the resolving power o# a co&po%nd &icroscope change ( when (i" re#ractive inde1 o# the &edi%& between the ob=ect and the ob=ective lens increases X and (ii" wavelength o# the radiation %sed is increased 7 (*/T:II" A do%ble conve1 lens &ade o# glass o# re#ractive inde1 1.5 has its both s%r#aces o# e\$%al radii o# c%rvat%re o# 30 c& each.An ob=ect o# 5c& height is placed at a distance o# 12.5c& #ro& the lens. Aind the position( nat%re and siBe o# the i&age. 3. Using 9%!gensH principle (draw a diagra& to show propagation o# a wave #ront originating #ro& a &onochro&atic point so%rce. 0escribe di##raction o# light d%e to a single slit. /1plain #or&ation o# a pattern o# #ringes obtained on the screen and plot showing variation o# intensit! with angle W in single slit di##raction. >; 6hat is &eant b! a linearl! polariBed light 7 6hich t!pe o# waves can be polariBed 7 3rie#l! e1plain a &ethod #or prod%cing polariBed light. Two polaroids are placed at +0o to each other and the intensit! o# trans&itted light is Bero. 6hat will be the intensit! o# trans&itted light when one &ore polaroid is placed between these two bisecting the angle between the&7 Ta'e intensit! o# %npolarised light as Io.

<

C)SE 200>+
1. 0raw a ra! diagra& o# an astrono&ical telescope in the nor&al ad=%st&ent R0SE/ II2 near point position. 6rite down the e1pression #or its &agni#!ing power. 0SE/ III" length o# telescope in nor&al ad=%st&ent. 2.Two narrow slits are ill%&inated b! a single &onochro&atic so%rce. Fa&e the pattern obtained on the screen. >ne o# the slits is now co&pletel! covered . 6hat is the na&e o# the pattern now obtained on the screen7 0raw intensit! pattern obtained in the two cases. Also write two di##erences between the patterns obtained in the above two cases. 2 <

1+

<.A spherical s%r#ace o# radi%s o# c%rvat%re ;( separates a rarer and a denser &edi%& as shown in the #ig%re. 2o&plete the path o# the incident ra! o# light( showing the #or&ation o# real i&age. 9ence derive the relation connecting %( v( ; and re#ractive indices n1 and n2 o# the two &edia.

3rie#l! e1plain ( how the #ocal length o# a conve1 lens changes( with increase in wavelength o# light.
44444444444444444444

;arer &edi%&

0enser &edi%&

1.

## (UA9 !A/U'E 56 ,A//E' \$ 'A(IA/I5!S 0> arks2

axi u 3.E of p1otoele"trons e ittedM 1 1 A

## /1e stopin# potential is 1.=4. 81at is

C)SE 200B+ 1. Two lines( A and 3 ( in the plot given below show the variation o# de 3roglie wavelength( vers%s 1 Y- ( where
- is the accelerating potential di##erence (#or two particles carr!ing the sa&e charge. 6hich one o# two represent a particle o# s&aller &ass7 3

1 YQ -o
R 15 :1 s "

2. The #ollowing graph shows the variation o# stopping potential -0 with the #re\$%enc! Z o# the

## Incident radiation #or two photosensitive &etals Q and RE

(i" 6hich o# the &etals has larger threshold wavelength7 6h! 7 (ii" /1plain (giving reason( which &etal gives electrons( having larger 'inetic energ!( #or the sa&e wavelength o# incident radiation. (iii" I# the distance between the light so%rce and &etal Q is halved ( how will the Kinetic energ! o# electrons e&itted #ro& it change 7 @ive reason.

<

0.5

1.0

( 110

C)SE 200:+ 1. Ultraviolet radiations o# di##erent #re\$%encies [1 and [2 are incident on two photosensitive &aterials having wor' #%nctions 61 and 2.
62. (61 K62".The 'inetic energ! o# the e&itted electrons is sa&e in both the cases. 6hich one o# the two radiations will be o# higher #re\$%enc!7 1 0raw a sche&atic diagra& o# the e1peri&ental arrange&ent %sed b! 0avisson and @er&er to establish the wave nat%re o# electrons. /1plain brie#l! how the de:3roglie relation was e1peri&entall! veri#ied in case o# elect rons. 3 (*et II" 0raw a sche&atic diagra& o# the e1peri&ental arrange&ent %sed b! 0avisson and @er&er to establish the wave nat%re o# electrons. /1press the de:3roglie wavelength associated with an electron in tr&s o# the accelerating voltage -. de 3roglie wavelength associated with an electron accelerated thro%gh a potential di##erence - is . 6hat will be its wavelength when the accelerating potential is increased to 4-. 1 *'etch a graph between #re\$%enc! o# incident radiations and stopping potential #or a given photosensitive &aterial. 6hat in#or&ation can be obtained #ro& the val%e o# the intercept on the potential a1is 7 A so%rce o# light o# #re\$%enc! greater than the threshold #re\$%enc! is placed at a distance o# 1& #ro& the cathode o# a photocell. The stopping potential is #o%nd to be -. I# the distance o# The light so%rce #ro& the cathode is red%ced ( e1plain giving reasons( what change will !o% observe in the (i" photoelectric c%rrent ( (ii" stopping Notential. <

C)SE 200E+
1. 2.

C)SE 200=+ 1. Ultraviolet light is incident on two photosensitive &aterials having wor' #%nctions 61 and 62. (61 K62". In which case will the
'inetic energ! o# the e&itted electrons be greater 7 6h! 7 (set II" *how graphicall! how the stopping potential #or a given photosensitive s%r#ace varies
1

with the #re\$%enc! o# the incident radiation. (set III" In an e1peri&ent on photoelectric e##ect( the #ollowing graphs
were obtained between the photoelectric c%rrent (I" and the anode potential (-". Fa&e the characteristic o# the incident radiation that was 'ept constant in this e1peri&ent. 2.

Tention the signi#icance o# 0avission J@er&er e1peri&ent. An particle and a proton are accelerated #ro& rest thro%gh the sa&e potential di##erence -. Aind the ratio o# de:3roglie wavelengths associated with the&. < Two &etals A and 3 have wor' #%nctions 2e- and 5e- respectivel!. 6hich &etal has lower threshold wavelength 7 (set II" Two &etals A and 3 have wor' #%nctions 4e- and 10e- respectivel!. 6hich &etal has higher threshold wavelength (set III" lower threshold wavelength 7 1

C)SE 200>+
1.

20

2. ;ed light (however bright it is ( cannot prod%ce the e&ission o# electrons #ro& a clean Binc s%r#ace. 3%t even wea' %ltraviolet radiations can do so . 6h! 7 Q:ra!s o# wavelength I H #all on a photosensitive s%r#ace ( e&itting electrons. Ass%&ing that the wor' #%nction o# the s%r#ace can be neglected ( prove that the de:3 roglie wavelength o# electrons e&itted will be

<

h 2 &c .

## YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY U!I/ A4III A/5,IC !UC9EUS 0E arks2 C)SE 200F+

1. Two n%clei have &ass n%&bers in ratio 1E..6hat is the ratio o# their n%clear radii 7 1 2.0raw a sche&atic arrange&ent o# the @eiger J Tarsden e1peri&ent. 9ow did the scattering o# \: particles b! a thin #oil o# gold provide an i&portant wa! to deter&ine an %pper li&it on the siBe o# the n%cle%s7 /1plain brie#l!. < 3.0raw a plot showing the variation in binding energ! per n%cleon vers%s the &ass n%&ber A. /1plain with the < help o# this plot the release o# energ! in the processes o# n%clear #ission and #%sion 4(a" The &ass o# a n%cle%s in its gro%nd state is alwa!s less than the total &ass o# its constit%ents:ne%trons and protons./1plain. (b"Nlot a graph showing the variation o# potential energ! o# a pair o# n%cleons as a #%nction o# their separation. 2

C)SE 200B+
1.*tate two characteristics properties o# n%clear #orce . 2. 2alc%late the energ! released in Te- in the #ollowing n%clear reactionE
Tass o#
23. +2

1
23. +2

U ]

234 +0

Th <

4 2

He < C
2

U D23..050,+ % ( Tass o#

234 +0

Th D 23..050,+ % ( Tass o#

4 2

## He D23..050,+ %( 1% D +31.5 Te- c

<. The gro%nd state energ! o# h!drogen ato& is :13.5e-. (i" 6hat is the 'inetic energ! o# an electron in 2nd e1cited state7 <
(ii" I# the electron =%&ps to the gro%nd state #ro& the 2nd e1cited state ( calc%late the wavelength o# the spectral line e&itted .

C)SE 200:+
1. 0e#ine the ter& Iactivit!H o# a radion%clide. 6rite its *.I. %nits. 1 2. 0raw a graph showing the variation o# potential energ! between a pair o# n%cleons as a #%nction o# their separation. Indicate the regions in which the n%clear #orce is (i" attractive ( (ii" rep%lsive. 2 <. 0raw the graph to show the binding energ! per n%cleon with the &ass n%&ber . 2alc%late the binding energ! per 40 40 n%cleon o# 20 Ca n%cle%s. @iven E &( 20 Ca " D3+.+525.+.% (&n D 1.00.555% &p D 1.00,.25% 0setII2I# the n%cleons o# a n%cle%s are separated #ar apart #ro& each other( the s%& o# &asses o# all these n%cleons is larger than the &ass o# the n%cle%s. 6here does this &ass di##erence co&e #ro&7 < 2alc%late the energ! released i# 23.U n%cle%s e&its an alpha particle. @ivenE Ato&ic &ass o# 23.U D23..050.% ( Ato&ic &ass o# 234Th D234.04353% ( Ato&ic &ass o# \ D4.00250% and 1% D +31 Te- 22 .

C)SE 200E+
1. A ne%tron is absorbed b! a 3)i5 n%cle%s with s%bse\$%ent e&ission o# an alpha particle. 6rite the corresponding n%clear reaction and 2alc%late the energ! released in this reaction in Te-. @iven T(3)i5" D5.015125a.&.% ( T(29e4" D 4.0025044 a.&.% T(0n1" D 1.00.5554 a.&.% ( T(193" D 3.01504+ a.&.% 2. 0e#ine the ter&s hal# li#e and deca! constant o# a radioactive s%bstance. 6rite their *.I. %nits. /stablish the relationship between the two. < <

## C)SE 200= + 1. 0a2 0raw

the energ! level diagra& showing the e&ission o# ^: particles #ollowed b! _ Jra!s b! a

50 2,

Co n%cle%s.

< <

0b2 Nlot the distrib%tion o# 'inetic energ! o# ^: particles and state wh! the energ! spectr%& is contin%o%s. 11 2. A radioactive sa&ple contains 2.2&g o# p%re 5 C which has hal# li#e period o# 1224 seconds. 2alc%late (i" the no. o# the ato&s present initiall! . (ii" activit! when 5`g o# the sa&ple will be le#t. 23. 23. 0Set III2 The hal# li#e o# +2U against \ :deca! is 4.5110+ !ears .2alc%late the activit! o# 1 g sa&ple o# +2U

C)SE 200>+
1.0e#ine the ter&s Ihal# li#e periodH and Ideca! constantH o# a radioactive sa&ple. 0erive the relation between these ter&s. 5 2.6hen a de%teron o# &ass 2.0141 % and negligible 'inetic energ! is absorbed b! a )ithi%&( 3 Li " <

21

n%cle%s o# &ass 5.0155% ( the co&po%nd n%cle%s disintegrates spontaneo%sl! into two alpha particles ( each o# &ass 4.0025%. 2alc%late the energ! in =o%les carried b! each alpha particle . (1% D 1.55110:2,'g". < 40 40 (Set II22alc%late the binding energ! per n%cleon o# 20 Ca n%cle%s. @iven E &( 20 Ca " D3+.+525.+.% ( &n D 1.00.555% &p D 1.00,.25% . 55 55 0 Set III22alc%late the binding energ! per n%cleon o# 25 Fe n%cle%s. @iven E &( 25 Fe " D55.+34+3+.% ( &n D 1.00.555% &p D 1.00,.25% .

## YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY U!I/ AI[ C)SE 200F+

1.@ive the logic s!&bol o# F>; gate. 1 2. 6ith the help o# a s%itable diagra& ( e1plain the #or&ation o# depletion region in p:n =%nction. 9ow does its width change when the =%nction is (i" Aorward biased ( and (ii" reverse biased 7 3 3.@ive a circ%it diagra& o# a 2/ a&pli#ier %sing an npn transistor. 0raw the inp%t and o%tp%t wave#or&s o# the signal. 6rite the e1pression #or its voltage gain. 3

## S59I(S A!( SE,IC5!(UC/5' (E4ICES 0: arks2

C)SE 200B+
1. *tate the reason wh! @aAs is &ost co&&onl! %sed in &a'ing o# a solar cell. 1 2.0raw the labeled circ%it diagra& o# a co&&on Je&itter transistor a&pli#ier. /1plain clearl! how the inp%t and o%tp%t signals are in opposite phase. 5' < *tate brie#l! the %nderl!ing principle o# a transistor oscillator. 0raw a circ%it diagra& showing how the #eedbac' is acco&plished b! ind%ctive co%pling . /1plain the oscillator action. <. The inp%ts A and 3 are inverted b! %sing two F>T gates and their o%tp%ts are #ed to the F>; gate as shown below. < Anal!se the action o# the gates (1" and (2" and identi#! the logic gate o# the co&plete circ%it so obtained. @ive its s!&bol and the tr%th table.

C)SE 200:+ 1. Two se&icond%ctor &aterials Q and R in #ig%re are &ade b! doping @e cr!stal with indi%& and arsenic

2 respectivel!. The two are =oined end to end and connected to a batter! as shown. R Q (i"6ill the =%nction be #orward biased or reverse biased7 (ii" *'etch a -:I graph #or this arrange&ent. 2. 0raw the circ%it diagra& o# a co&&on e&itter a&pli#ier %sing npn transistor. 6hat is the phase di##erence between the < inp%t signal and o%tp%t voltage7 *tate two reasons wh! a co&&on e&itter a&pli#ier is pre#erred to a co&&on base a&pli#ier. (*et II" 0raw the circ%it diagra& to st%d! the characteristics o# an npn transistor in 2/ con#ig%ration. *'etch t!pical (i" inp%t characteristics (ii" o%tp%t characteristics. /1plain how the c%rrent gain o# the transistor can be calc%lated #ro& o%tp%t characteristics. <. /1plain the #or&ation o# energ! band in solids. 0raw energ! band diagra& #or (i" a cond%ctor ((ii" an intrinsic se&icond%ctor. <

C)SE 200E+
1. /1plain (i" #orward biasing( (ii" reverse biasing o# a N:F =%nction diode. 6ith the help o# a circ%it diagra&(
e1plain the %se o# this device as a hal# wave recti#ier. 2.6hat are energ! bands 7 9ow are these #or&ed 7 0isting%ish between a cond%ctor( an ins%lator and a se&icond%ctor on the basis o# energ! band diagra&. >; /1plain the #%nction o# base region o# a transistor . 6h! is this region &ade thin and lightl! doped7 0raw the circ%it diagra& to st%d! the inp%t and o%tp%t characteristics o# an npn transistor in 2/ con#ig%ration. *how these characteristics graphicall!. /1plain how c%rrent a&pli#ication #actor o# the transistor is calc%lated %sing o%tp%t characteristics . < =

C)SE 200=+ 1. >n the basis o# energ! band diagra&s disting%ish between a &etals ( ins%lators and se&icond%ctors.
2. (a"6ith the help o# a circ%it diagra& e1plain the wor'ing o# transistor as oscillator. (b" 0raw a circ%it diagra& o# a two inp%t >; gate and e1plain its wor'ing with the help o# inp%t ( o%tp%t wave#or&s. 5' (a" /1plain brie#l! with the help o# circ%it diagra& how -:I characteristics o# p:n =%nction diode are obtained in (i" #orward bias ( and (ii" reverse bias . (b" A photo diode is #abricated #ro& a se&icond%ctor with a band gap o# 2.. e-. 2an it detect wavelength o# 5000n&7 ?%sti#!.

< =

## C)SE 200>+ 1.0raw the voltage:c%rrent characteristics o# a Bener diode.

2.@ive the logic s!&bol #or an >; gate (set II " AF0 gate. 0raw the o%tp%t wave #or& #or inp%t wave#or&s A and 3 #or this gate .

2 22

A (Inp%ts"

<. 6ith the help o# labeled circ%it diagra& e1plain how an npn transistor can be %sed as an a&pli#ier in 2/
0

= con#ig%ration. /1plain how the inp%t and o%tp%t voltages are o%t o# phase b! 1.0 #or a co&&on e&itter transistor a&pli#ier. 5' Aor an npn transistor in the co&&on Je&itter con#ig%ration ( draw a labeled circ%it diagra& o# an arrange&ent #or &eas%ring the collector c%rrent as a #%nction o# collector: e&itter voltage #or at least two di##erent val%es o# base c%rrent. 0raw the shape o# the c%rves obtained. 0e#ine the ter&s E (i" o%tp%t resistance and (ii" c%rrent a&pli#ication #actor.

YYYYYYYYYYYYYY YYYYYYYYYYYYYY

## U!I/ A[ &'I!CI&9ES 56 C5,,U!ICA/I5! 0= arks2 C)SE 200F+

1. 2. 8rite t1e fun"tion of 0i2 /ransdu"er and 0ii2 'epeater in t1e "ontext of "o uni"ation syste . 5' 8rite two fa"tors -ustifyin# t1e need of odulation for trans ission of a si#nal. (istin#uis1 between sky wa%e and spa"e wa%e propa#ation . .i%e a brief des"ription wit1 t1e 1elp of a suitable dia#ra s indi"atin# 1ow t1ese wa%es are propa#ated . 2 <

C)SE 200B+
1.(raw a blo"k dia#ra of a si ple a plitude odulation. Explain briefly 1ow a plitude odulation 2. Explain G w1y 1i#1 frequen"y "arrier wa%es are needed for effe"ti%e trans ission of si#nals. A essa#e si#nal of 12 k?C and peak %olta#e 204 is used to odulate a "arrier wa%e of frequen"y 12,?C and peak %olta#e <04 . Cal"ulate t1e 0i2 odulation index 0ii2 side Aband frequen"ies. is a"1ie%ed . 2 <

C)SE 200:+
1. 81at s1ould be t1e len#t1 of dipole antenna for a "arrier wa%e of frequen"y Ex10B?CM 2. 81at is ,odulation M Explain t1e need of odulatin# a low frequen"y infor ation si#nal. 8it1 t1e 1elp of dia#ra sG differentiate between &A, and &(,. <. 8rite t1e a"rony 9ASE' in expanded for . State any four reasons for preferrin# diode lasers as li#1t sour"es in opti"al "o uni"ation links. 1 < <

C)SE 200E+
1. .i%e one differen"e between 6A[ and e; ail. 2. (istin#uis1 between 6, and A,. 81y is 6, si#nal less sus"eptible to noise t1an A, si#nalM <.Consider an opti"al "o uni"ation syste operatin# at = B00n . Suppose only 1@ of sour"e frequen"y is a%ailable "1annel widt1 for opti"al "o uni"ation .?ow any "1annels "an be a""o odated for trans ittin# 0a2 audio si#nals requirin# band widt1 of B3?C 0b24ideo /4 si#nals requirin# approxi ate band widt1 of >0= ,?C. Support your answer wit1 suitable "al"ulations. 1 < <

C)SE 200=+
1.81at is fun"tion of "laddin# in typi"al opti"al fibreM 2. (istin#uis1 between analo# and di#ital "o uni"ation. 8rite any two odulation te"1niques e ployed for di#ital data. (es"ribe briefly any one of t1e te"1nique. <. A .round re"ei%er station is re"ei%in# a si#nal at 0a2=,?C and 0b2100,?C trans itted fro #round trans itter at t1e 1ei#1t of <00 lo"ated at t1e distan"e of 100k . Identify w1et1er it is "o in# %ia spa"e wa%e or sky wa%e or satellite transponder. 0'adius of Eart1 Q E>00k G ,ax. ele"tron density ! ax Q1012 R < 1 <

<

C)SE 200>+
1.81y is s1ort band used for lon# distan"e radio broad "astM 2. A /4 tower 1as a 1ei#1t of >00 . Cal"ulate its "o%era#e ran#e if radius of eart1 is E>00k . <.81at is re ote sensin#M )riefly explain 1ow it is "arried outM ,ention any two appli"ations of it. >. 81at is opti"al dete"torM State its t1ree essential "1ara"teristi"s. !a e t1e fa"tor w1i"1 de"ides 1ow #ood a dete"tor is. 1 2 < <

23

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24