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Beams and frames

Beams are slender members used for supporting transverse loading. Beams with cross sections symmetric with respect to loading are considered.
M = y I = / E d 2 v / dx 2 = M / EI

Potential energy approach


Strain energy in an element of length dx is
dU = 1 dAdx 2A

1 M2 2 y dA dx = 2 2 EI A
2 y dA is the moment of inertia I A

The total strain energy for the beam is given by-

1 2 2 U = EI d v / dx dx 20

Potential energy of the beam is then given by-

1 2 2 ' = EI d v / dx dx pvdx pm vm M k vk 20 m k 0
Where-p is the distributed load per unit length -pm is the point load at point m. -Mk is the moment of couple applied at point k -vm is the deflection at point m -vk is the slope at point k.

Galerkins Approach
p M V+dV M+dM V dx Here we start from equilibrium of an elemental length. dV/dx = p dM/dx =V
d 2 v / dx 2 = M / EI
2 d2 d v 2 p=0 EI dx dx 2

For approximate solution by Galerkins approach-

2 d d v EI 2 p dx = 0 2 dx dx

is an arbitrary function using same basic functions as v

Integrating the first term by parts and splitting the interval 0 to L to (0 to xm), (xm to xk) and (xk to L) we getd vd d d v EI 2 dx pdx + EI 2 2 dx dx dx dx 0 0 0
L 2 2 l 2 xm

d d v d v d d v d EI EI EI 2 2 2 dx dx dx dx dx dx x 0
2 2 2
m

xk

=0
xk

Further simplifying-

d 2v d 2 ' EI dx p dx p M m m k k =0 2 2 dx dx m k 0 0
L L

and M are zero at support..at xm shear force is pm and at xk Bending moment is -Mk

FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION Beam is divided in to elementseach node has two degrees of freedom. Degree of freedom of node j are Q2j-1 and Q2j Q2j-1 is transverse displacement and Q2j is slope or rotation. Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10

e1

e2

e3

e4

Q = [Q1, Q2 , Q3 KQ10 ]

Q is the global displacement vector.

Local coordinatesq1 q2 e q3 q4
T

q = [q1 , q2 , q3 , q4 ] = [v1 , v , v2 , v ]
' 1 ' 2

The shape functions for interpolating v on an element are defined in terms of from 1 to 1. The shape functions for beam elements differ from those defined earlier. Therefore, we define Hermite Shape Functions

Slope=0 1

H1
Slope=0 Slope=1 Slope=0

H2

Slope=0

H3

Slope=0

Slope=1

Slope=0

H4

Each Hermite shape function is of cubic order represented by-

H i = ai + bi + ci 2 + d i 3 K i = 1,2,3,4
The condition given in following table must be satisfied.

H1 =-1 1 =1 0

H1 H2 0 0 0 0

H2 H3 1 0 0 1

H3 H4 0 0 0 0

H4 0 1

Finding out values of coefficients and simplifying,

1 2 H1 = (1 ) (2 + ) 4 1 2 H 2 = (1 ) ( + 1) 4 1 2 H 3 = (1 + ) (2 + ) 4 1 2 H 4 = (1 + ) ( 1) 4

Hermite functions can be used to write v in the form-

dv v( ) = H1v1 + H 2 d

dv + H 3v3 + H 4 d 1

The coordinates transform by relationship1 1+ x= x1 + x2 2 2 x1 + x2 x2 x1 = + 2 2 le dx = d 2 (x2-x1) is the length of element le

dv le dv = d 2 dx Therefore, le le v( ) = H1q1 + H 2 q2 + H 3 q3 + H 4 q4 2 2 v = Hq where le le H = H1 , H 2 , H 3 , H 4 2 2

1 2 2 U e = EI d v / dx dx 2e dv 2 dv = dx le d
2

and

d v 4 d v = 2 dx le d 2
T

substituting in above equation d v T 16 d H =q 4 2 2 dx le d


2

Where-

d 2H d 2 q

d 2H d 2

3 1 + 3 le 3 1 + 3 le , , = 2 , 2 2 2 2 2

9 4 2 3 8 (1 + 3 )le 9 4 2 3 8 (1 + 3 )le 2 2 1 + 9 2 1 + 3 2 3 + ( 1 3 ) l l le e e 1 8 16 1 T 8 EI 4 d q Ue = q 3 2 le 1 symmetric 2 3 8 (1 + 3 )le 9 4 2 1 + 3 2 l e 4

Note that-

2 2 d = 3 1

d = 0 d = 2
1

This result can be written as1 T U e = q ke q 2

Where Ke is element stiffness matrix given by

12 6le 12 6le 2 2 EI 6le 4le 6le 2le ke = 3 le 12 6le 12 6le 2 2 6le 2le 6le 4le
It can be seen that it is a symmetric matrix.

Load vectorWe assume the uniformly distributed load p over the element.

ple 1 pvdx = 2 Hd q le 1
Substituting the value of H we get-

le

pvdx = f
e

eT

where ple pl ple pl f = , , , 12 2 12 2


2 e 2 e T

This is equivalent to the element shown belowp 1

le Ple/2 e 2

Ple/2 Ple
2/12

-Ple2/12

The point loads Pm and Mk are readily taken care of by introducing the nodes at the point of application.

Introducing local-global correspondence from potential energy approach we get-

And from Galerkins approach we get-

1 T = Q KQ QF 2
T T

KQ F = 0 where = admissible virtual displacement vector.

BOUNDARY CONSIDERATIONS Let Qr = a.single point BC Following Penalty approach, add 1/2C(Qr-a)2 to C represents stiffness which is large in comparison with beam stiffness terms. C is added to Krr and Ca is added to Fr to getKQ = F These equations are solved to get nodal displacements. Ca C Dof =(2i-1) C Ca Dof = 2i

Shear Force and Bending MomentWe have,


dM d 2v M = EI 2 V = dx dx and v = Hq

12 6le 12 6le q1 ple 2 R1 R pl 2 12 2 2 l l l l 6 4 6 2 q 2 EI e e e e e 2 + = 3 R q l l pl 2 12 6 12 6 l e e 3 e e 3 2 2 pl 2 12 q l l l l 6 2 6 4 4 R4 e e e e e

V1 = R1

V2 = -R3

M1 = -R2

M 2 = R4

Beams on elastic support


Shafts supported on ball, roller, journal bearings Large beams supported on elastic walls. Beam supported on soil (Winkler foundation). Stiffness of support contributes towards PE. Let s be the stiffness of support per unit length.

1 l 2 additional term = sv dx 2 0 v = Hq 1 = q T s H T H dx q 2 e e

1 = q T kes 2 e where kes is stiffness matrix for elastic foundation 156 22le 54 13le 2 2 sle 22le 4le 13le 3le s ke = 420 54 13le 156 22le 2 2 13 l 3 l 22 l 4 l e e e e

PLANE FRAMES
Plane structure with rigidly connected members. Similar to beams except that axial loads and deformations are present. We have 2 displacements and 1 rotation at each node. 3 dof at each node. q =[q1, q2, q3, q4, q5, q6]T

Global and local coordinate systems q5 q5 2 q4 q4

q6 (q6)
Y X

q2 q1 q1 q3 (q3)

q2

Y X

q =[q1, q2, q3, q4, q5, q6]

l,m are the direction cosines of local coordinate system. XY l = cos() m =sin() We can see from the figure thatq3 = q3 q3 = q6 which are rotations with respect to body.

q = Lq Where-

l m 0 L= 0 0 0

m 0 0 0 0 l 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 l m 0 0 0 m l 0 0 0 0 0 1

q2, q3,q5 and q6 are beam element dof while q1andq4 are like rod element dof.

Combining two stiffness and rearranging at proper locations we get element stiffness matrix as EA l e 0 0 k 'e = EA le 0 0 EA 0 le 6 EI le2 4 EI le 0 12 EI le3 0 0 0 EA le 6 EI le2 0 12 EI 6 EI 3 le le2 6 EI 2 EI 2 le le 0 0 12 EI 6 EI 0 2 3 le le 6 EI 4 EI 2 le le 0 0

0 12 EI le3 6 EI le2

6 EI le2

2 EI le

Strain energy of an element is given byUe = 1 T 'e q' k q' 2 1 = q T LT k 'e Lq 2 by Galerkin ' s approach , = T LT k 'e Lq

W e = 'T k 'e q '

Element stiffness matrix in global form can be written asK e = LT k 'e L

If there is distributed load on member, we haveq 'T f ' = q T LT f ' where

Y Y X

ple pl ple pl , ,0, , f ' = 0, 2 12 2 12 f = LT f ' In global form,


2 e 2 e

KQ = F