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POWER

PLANT

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OPERATION

&

MECHANICAL

P a g e | 2 OPERATION & MECHANICAL JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR

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POWER PLANT

A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electricity. [1] Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes, for district heating, or for desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power. A large part of human CO 2 emissions comes from fossil fueled thermal power plants; efforts to reduce these outputs are various and widespread

RANKINE CYCLE

There are four processes in the Rankine cycle. These states are identified by numbers (in brown) in the above Ts diagram.

P a g e | 3 POWER PLANT A thermal power station is a <a href=power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electricity . Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes, for district heating, or for desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power. A large part of human CO emissions comes from fossil fueled thermal power plants; efforts to reduce these outputs are various and widespread RANKINE CYCLE There are four processes in the Rankine cycle. These states are identified by numbers (in brown) in the above Ts diagram.  Process 1-2 : The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As the fluid is a  liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy. Process 2-3 : The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant  pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor. Process 3-4 : The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power. This  decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur. Process 4-1 : The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant temperature to become a saturated liquid. JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-2-47" src="pdf-obj-2-47.jpg">

Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As the fluid is a

liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy. Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant

pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor. Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power. This

decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur. Process 4-1: The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant temperature to become a saturated liquid.

P a g e | 3 POWER PLANT A thermal power station is a <a href=power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electricity . Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes, for district heating, or for desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power. A large part of human CO emissions comes from fossil fueled thermal power plants; efforts to reduce these outputs are various and widespread RANKINE CYCLE There are four processes in the Rankine cycle. These states are identified by numbers (in brown) in the above Ts diagram.  Process 1-2 : The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As the fluid is a  liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy. Process 2-3 : The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant  pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor. Process 3-4 : The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power. This  decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur. Process 4-1 : The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant temperature to become a saturated liquid. JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-2-80" src="pdf-obj-2-80.jpg">

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DIAGRAM OF A TYPICAL COAL THERMAL POWER STATION:-

P a g e | 4 DIAGRAM OF A TYPICAL COAL THERMAL POWER STATION:- Typical diagramCooling tower 10. Steam Control valve 19. Superheater 2. Cooling water pump 11. High pressure steam turbine 20. Forced draught (draft) fan 3. transmission line (3-phase) 12. Deaerator 21. Reheater 4. Step-up transformer (3-phase) 13. Feedwater heater 22. Combustion air intake 5. Electrical generator (3-phase) 14. Coal conveyor 23. Economiser 6. Low pressure steam turbine 15. Coal hopper 24. Air preheater 7. 16. Coal pulverizer Condensate pump 25. Precipitator 8. 17. Boiler steam drum Surface condenser 26. Induced draught (draft) fan 9. Intermediate pressure steam 18. Bottom ash hopper 27. Flue gas stack JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-3-9" src="pdf-obj-3-9.jpg">

Typical diagram of a coal-fired thermal power station

10. Steam Control valve

  • 2. Cooling water pump

 

11. High pressure steam turbine

20. Forced draught (draft) fan

 

12. Deaerator

21. Reheater

22. Combustion air intake

 

15. Coal hopper

26. Induced draught (draft) fan

  • 9. Intermediate pressure steam

18. Bottom ash hopper

P a g e | 4 DIAGRAM OF A TYPICAL COAL THERMAL POWER STATION:- Typical diagramCooling tower 10. Steam Control valve 19. Superheater 2. Cooling water pump 11. High pressure steam turbine 20. Forced draught (draft) fan 3. transmission line (3-phase) 12. Deaerator 21. Reheater 4. Step-up transformer (3-phase) 13. Feedwater heater 22. Combustion air intake 5. Electrical generator (3-phase) 14. Coal conveyor 23. Economiser 6. Low pressure steam turbine 15. Coal hopper 24. Air preheater 7. 16. Coal pulverizer Condensate pump 25. Precipitator 8. 17. Boiler steam drum Surface condenser 26. Induced draught (draft) fan 9. Intermediate pressure steam 18. Bottom ash hopper 27. Flue gas stack JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-3-126" src="pdf-obj-3-126.jpg">

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BOILER

A boiler is used to generate steam at a desired pressure and temperature by transferring heat produced by burning fuel to water to change it to steam. Steam is used for the following purposes:

Power generation

Processing

Heating

REQUIREMENTS OF AN EFFICIENT BOILER

1) Should generate maximum amount of steam at a required pressure and temperature and quality with minimum fuel consumption. 2) Should be light in weight and should not occupy large space. 3) Should conform to safety regulations. 4) Should have low initial cost, installation cost and maintenance cost. 5) Should be able to cope with fluctuating demands of steam supply. 6) All parts and components should be easily accessible for inspection and repair.

TYPES OF BOILER

FIRE TUBE BOILER

In fire tube boiler, hot gases pass through the tubes and boiler feed water in the shell side is converted into steam. Fire tube boilers are generally used for relatively small steam capacities and low to medium steam pressures. Fire tube boilers are available for operation with oil, gas or

solid fuels. For economic reasons, most fire tube boilers are nowadays of ―packaged‖

construction (i.e. manufacturers shop erected) for all fuels.

WATER TUBE BOILER

In water tube boiler, boiler feed water flows through the tubes and enters the boiler drum. The circulated water is heated by the combustion gases and converted into steam at the vapour space in the drum. These boilers are selected when the steam demand as well as steam pressure requirements are high as in the case of process cum power boiler / power boilers

Many water tube boilers nowadays are of ―packaged‖ construction if oil and /or gas are to be

used as fuel. Solid fuel fired water tube designs are available but packaged designs are less common.

P a g e | 5 BOILER A boiler is used to generate steam at a

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The features of water tube boilers are:-

Forced, induced and balanced draft provisions help to improve combustion efficiency.

Less tolerance for water quality calls for water treatment plant.

Higher thermal efficiency shifts are possible

In JNIL we use water tube boiler.

ATMOSPHERIC FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION (AFBC) BOILER

Most operational boiler of this type is of the Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion. (AFBC). This involves little more than adding a fluidized bed combustor to a conventional shell boiler. Such systems have similarly being installed in conjunction with conventional water tube boiler.

Coal is crushed to a size of 1 10 mm depending on the rank of coal, type of fuel fed to the combustion chamber. The atmospheric air, which acts as both the fluidization and combustion air, is delivered at a pressure, after being preheated by the exhaust fuel gases. The in-bed tubes carrying water generally act as the evaporator. The gaseous products of combustion pass over the super heater sections of the boiler flow past the economizer, the dust collectors and the air preheater before being exhausted to atmosphere.

WASTE HEAT BOILER

Wherever the waste heat is available at medium or high temperatures, a waste heat boiler can be installed economically. Wherever the steam demand is more than the steam generated during waste heat, auxiliary fuel burners are also used. If there is no direct use of steam, the steam may be let down in a steam turbine-generator set and power produced from it. It is widely used in the heat recovery from exhaust gases from gas turbines and diesel engines

BOILER MOUNTINGS AND ACCESSORIES

Boilers are equipped with two categories of components: boiler mountings and boiler accessories. Boiler mountings are the machine components that are mounted over the body of the boiler itself for the safety of the boiler and for complete control of the process of steam generation. Boiler accessories are those components which are installed either inside or outside the boiler to increase the efficiency of the plant and to help in the proper working of the plant.

P a g e | 6 The features of water tube boilers are:-  Forced, induced

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Boiler Mountings

 

Function

1.Two safety valves

 

To permit the steam in the boiler to escape to atmosphere when pressure in the steam space exceeds a certain specified limit.

2.Two

water

level

To ascertain constantly and exactly the level of water in the boiler shell

indicators

3.

To record the pressure at which the steam is generated in the boiler

Pressure gauge

 

4.

To extinguish fire in the event of water level in the boiler shell falling

Fusible plug

 

below a certain specified limit.

5.

To shut off or regulate the flow of steam from the boiler to the steam pipe

Steam stop valve

 

or from the steam pipe to the engine

6.

i) To allow the feed water to pass into the boiler.

Feed check valve

 

ii) To prevent the back flow of water from the boiler in the event of the failure of the feed pump

7.

To drain out the water from the boiler for internal cleaning, inspection

Blow-off cock

 

or other purposes.

8.

To allow men to enter inside the boiler for inspection and repair.

Man and mud holes

P a g e | 7 Boiler Mountings Function 1. Two safety valves To permit the

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Boiler

Function

accessories

1.Air preheater

Waste heat recovery device in which the air to on its way to the furnace is heated utilizing the heat of exhaust gases

2.

To recover some of the heat being carried over by exhaust gases (This heat is

Economizer

used to raise the temperature of feedwater supplied to the boiler)

3.

To superheat the steam generated by boiler

Steam

superheater

4.

To raise the pressure of water and force it into the boiler

Feed pump

5.

To feed water in vertical and locomotive boilers

Injector

CONTROLLING DRAUGHT

Most boilers now depend on mechanical draught equipment rather than natural draught. This is because natural draught is subject to outside air conditions and temperature of flue gases leaving the furnace, as well as the chimney height. All these factors make proper draught hard to attain and therefore make mechanical draught equipment much more economical.

There are three types of mechanical draught:

INDUCED DRAUGHT: This is obtained one of three ways, the first being the "stack effect" of a heated chimney, in which the flue gas is less dense than the ambient air surrounding the boiler. The denser column of ambient air forces combustion air into and through the boiler. The second method is through use of a steam jet. The steam jet oriented in the direction of flue gas flow induces flue gasses into the stack and allows for a greater flue gas velocity increasing the overall draught in the furnace. This method was common on steam driven locomotives which could not have tall chimneys. The third method is by simply using an induced draught fan (ID fan) which removes flue gases from the furnace and forces the exhaust gas up the stack. Almost all induced draught furnaces operate with a slightly negative pressure.

FORCED DRAUGHT: Draught is obtained by forcing air into the furnace by means of a fan (FD fan) and ductwork. Air is often passed through an air heater; which, as the name suggests, heats the air going into the furnace in order to increase the overall efficiency of the boiler. Dampers are used to control the quantity of air admitted to the furnace. Forced draught furnaces usually have a positive pressure.

P a g e | 8 Boiler Function accessories 1.Air preheater Waste heat recovery device in

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BALANCED DRAUGHT: Balanced draught is obtained through use of both induced and forced draught. This is more common with larger boilers where the flue gases have to travel a long distance through many boiler passes. The induced draught fan works in conjunction with the forced draught fan allowing the furnace pressure to be maintained slightly below atmospheric.

DEAERATOR

A Deaerator is a device that is widely used for the removal of oxygen and other dissolved gases from the feedwater to steam-generating boilers. In particular, dissolved oxygen in boiler feedwaters will cause serious corrosion damage in steam systems by attaching to the walls of metal piping and other metallic equipment and forming oxides (rust). Dissolved carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid that causes further corrosion.

DESUPERHEATER

Desuperheater are designed to reduce the temperature of super heated steam to produce lower operating temperatures. desuperheater is used because Reduction and control of super heated steam, will not harm the product.

ECONOMIZER

Economizers are heat exchange devices that heat fluids, usually water, up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of that fluid. Economizers are so named because they can make use of the enthalpy in fluid streams that are hot, but not hot enough to be used in a boiler, thereby recovering more useful enthalpy and improving the boiler's efficiency. They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used to fill it (the feed water).

SUPERHEATER

A Superheater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet steam into dry steam used in TURBINE. Superheaters increase the thermal efficiency of the turbine, and have been widely adopted.

P a g e | 9  BALANCED DRAUGHT: Balanced draught is obtained through use ofgases from the feedwater to steam-generating boilers. In particular, dissolved oxygen in boiler feedwaters will cause serious corrosion damage in steam systems by attaching to the walls of metal piping and other metallic equipment and forming oxides (rust). Dissolved carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid that causes further corrosion. DESUPERHEATER Desuperheater are designed to reduce the temperature of super heated steam to produce lower operating temperatures. desuperheater is used because Reduction and control of super heated steam, will not harm the product. ECONOMIZER Economizers are heat exchange devices that heat fluids, usually water, up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of that fluid. Economizers are so named because they can make use of the enthalpy in fluid streams that are hot, but not hot enough to be used in a boiler, thereby recovering more useful enthalpy and improving the boiler's efficiency. They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used to fill it (the feed water ) . SUPERHEATER A Superheater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet steam into dry steam used in TURBINE. Superheaters increase the thermal efficiency of the turbine, and have been widely adopted . JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-8-60" src="pdf-obj-8-60.jpg">

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P a g e | 10 TURBINE A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extractsenergy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels. The Turbines are mechanical energy convert into electrical energy. In practice, modern turbine designs use both reaction and impulse concepts to varying degrees whenever possible. Like we use in JNIL plan. JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-9-7" src="pdf-obj-9-7.jpg">

TURBINE

A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels.The Turbines are mechanical energy convert into electrical energy. In practice, modern turbine designs use both reaction and impulse concepts to varying degrees whenever possible. Like we use in JNIL plan.

P a g e | 10 TURBINE A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extractsenergy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels. The Turbines are mechanical energy convert into electrical energy. In practice, modern turbine designs use both reaction and impulse concepts to varying degrees whenever possible. Like we use in JNIL plan. JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-9-27" src="pdf-obj-9-27.jpg">

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CONDENSER

P a g e | 11 CONDENSER In power plants, the primary purpose of a surfacecondense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water (referred to as steam condensate) so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water If the condenser can be made cooler, the pressure of the exhaust .. steam is reduced and efficiency of the cycle increases. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once- through water from a river, lake or ocean. The heat absorbed by the circulating cooling water in the condenser tubes must also be removed to maintain the ability of the water to cool as it circulates. The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. T he exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor- driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-10-9" src="pdf-obj-10-9.jpg">

In power plants, the primary purpose of a surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam

from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water (referred to as steam condensate) so that it may be reused in the steam generator

or boiler as boiler feed water

If the condenser can be made cooler, the pressure of the exhaust

.. steam is reduced and efficiency of the cycle increases. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once- through water from a river, lake or ocean. The heat absorbed by the circulating cooling water in the condenser tubes must also be removed to maintain the ability of the water to cool as it circulates. The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. T he exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum.

P a g e | 11 CONDENSER In power plants, the primary purpose of a surfacecondense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water (referred to as steam condensate) so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water If the condenser can be made cooler, the pressure of the exhaust .. steam is reduced and efficiency of the cycle increases. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once- through water from a river, lake or ocean. The heat absorbed by the circulating cooling water in the condenser tubes must also be removed to maintain the ability of the water to cool as it circulates. The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. T he exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor- driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-10-41" src="pdf-obj-10-41.jpg">

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COOLING TOWER

Thermal power plants use cooling towers to cool the circulating water used for condenser cooling. Since water resources are limited, power plants have no other option but to adopt the closed cooling system with cooling towers Cooling towers can be of two types.

NATURAL DRAFT- cooling tower with a large hyperbolic tower, which pulls in air due to the stack effect. Even though the capital costs are high, operating costs are less. This is because there is no fan to create the air flow.

MECHANICAL OR FORCED COOLING TOWER - A fan forces or sucks air through the cooling tower where the water falls through a packed heat transfer media. Operating costs are high for operating this, but they are simple and quick for construction.

P a g e | 12 COOLING TOWER Thermal power plants use cooling towers to cool

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WATER FLOW PATH

DEAERATOR

P a g e | 13 WATER FLOW PATH DEAERATOR BOILER FEED PUMP ECONOMIZER BOILER DRUM

BOILER FEED PUMP

P a g e | 13 WATER FLOW PATH DEAERATOR BOILER FEED PUMP ECONOMIZER BOILER DRUM

ECONOMIZER

P a g e | 13 WATER FLOW PATH DEAERATOR BOILER FEED PUMP ECONOMIZER BOILER DRUM

BOILER DRUM

MUD DRUM
MUD DRUM

PRIMARY SUPERHEATER

P a g e | 13 WATER FLOW PATH DEAERATOR BOILER FEED PUMP ECONOMIZER BOILER DRUM

SECONDARY SUPERHEATER

P a g e | 13 WATER FLOW PATH DEAERATOR BOILER FEED PUMP ECONOMIZER BOILER DRUM

TURBINE

P a g e | 13 WATER FLOW PATH DEAERATOR BOILER FEED PUMP ECONOMIZER BOILER DRUM

CONDENSER

P a g e | 13 WATER FLOW PATH DEAERATOR BOILER FEED PUMP ECONOMIZER BOILER DRUM

CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP ( CEP)

P a g e | 13 WATER FLOW PATH DEAERATOR BOILER FEED PUMP ECONOMIZER BOILER DRUM

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FLUE GAS PATH

FURNACE HEAT

P a g e | 14 FLUE GAS PATH FURNACE HEAT SECONDARY SUPERHEATER PRIMARY SUPERHEATER ECONOMIZER

SECONDARY SUPERHEATER

P a g e | 14 FLUE GAS PATH FURNACE HEAT SECONDARY SUPERHEATER PRIMARY SUPERHEATER ECONOMIZER

PRIMARY SUPERHEATER

P a g e | 14 FLUE GAS PATH FURNACE HEAT SECONDARY SUPERHEATER PRIMARY SUPERHEATER ECONOMIZER

ECONOMIZER

P a g e | 14 FLUE GAS PATH FURNACE HEAT SECONDARY SUPERHEATER PRIMARY SUPERHEATER ECONOMIZER

AIR PREHEATER

P a g e | 14 FLUE GAS PATH FURNACE HEAT SECONDARY SUPERHEATER PRIMARY SUPERHEATER ECONOMIZER

ELECTRO STATIC PRECIPITATOR ( ESP)

P a g e | 14 FLUE GAS PATH FURNACE HEAT SECONDARY SUPERHEATER PRIMARY SUPERHEATER ECONOMIZER

CHIMNEY

P a g e | 14 FLUE GAS PATH FURNACE HEAT SECONDARY SUPERHEATER PRIMARY SUPERHEATER ECONOMIZER

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WATER SOFTENING PATH

KHARUN DAM

P a g e | 15 WATER SOFTENING PATH KHARUN DAM STORAGE TANK SOFTENING PLANT BRINE

STORAGE TANK

P a g e | 15 WATER SOFTENING PATH KHARUN DAM STORAGE TANK SOFTENING PLANT BRINE

SOFTENING PLANT

P a g e | 15 WATER SOFTENING PATH KHARUN DAM STORAGE TANK SOFTENING PLANT BRINE

BRINE EXCHANGER

P a g e | 15 WATER SOFTENING PATH KHARUN DAM STORAGE TANK SOFTENING PLANT BRINE

DI-MEDIUM FILTER

P a g e | 15 WATER SOFTENING PATH KHARUN DAM STORAGE TANK SOFTENING PLANT BRINE

STORAGE TANK

P a g e | 15 WATER SOFTENING PATH KHARUN DAM STORAGE TANK SOFTENING PLANT BRINE

COOLING TOWER

P a g e | 15 WATER SOFTENING PATH KHARUN DAM STORAGE TANK SOFTENING PLANT BRINE

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DEMINERALISED PLANT

FILTER FEED TANK

P a g e | 16 DEMINERALISED PLANT FILTER FEED TANK DI- MEDIUM FILTER AQUOUS CARBON

DI- MEDIUM FILTER

P a g e | 16 DEMINERALISED PLANT FILTER FEED TANK DI- MEDIUM FILTER AQUOUS CARBON

AQUOUS CARBON FILTER

P a g e | 16 DEMINERALISED PLANT FILTER FEED TANK DI- MEDIUM FILTER AQUOUS CARBON

STRONG ANION CATION

P a g e | 16 DEMINERALISED PLANT FILTER FEED TANK DI- MEDIUM FILTER AQUOUS CARBON

DEGASSER TANK

P a g e | 16 DEMINERALISED PLANT FILTER FEED TANK DI- MEDIUM FILTER AQUOUS CARBON

STRONG BASE ANION

P a g e | 16 DEMINERALISED PLANT FILTER FEED TANK DI- MEDIUM FILTER AQUOUS CARBON

MIXED BED

P a g e | 16 DEMINERALISED PLANT FILTER FEED TANK DI- MEDIUM FILTER AQUOUS CARBON

STORAGE TAN

P a g e | 16 DEMINERALISED PLANT FILTER FEED TANK DI- MEDIUM FILTER AQUOUS CARBON

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ELECTRICAL

P a g e | 17 ELECTRICAL JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR

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SPECIFICATION (JNIL)

In our JNIL Plant we are having Five Power Plants, mentioned as:-

  • JNIL POWER PLANT

  • COKE OVEN POWER PLANT

  • ABHIJEET INFRASTRUCTURE LIMITED (AIL)

  • CORPORATE ISPAT AND ALLOY LIMITED (CIAL)

  • MAA USHA URJA LIMITED.(MUUL)

  • A. JNIL POWER PLANT:-

In JNIL POWER PLANT we generate 15 MW/H power as having four boilers and three Turbo- Generators. Three boilers are of WHRB type boilers and One boiler is of AFBC boilers. The complete specifications of boilers are as follows:-

Steam Generation Capacity = ( 3 Nos of Oil/ Gas fired boilers & 1 No of AFBC boiler).

OIL/GAS FIRED BOILERS = 30*3 TPH

AFBC BOILERS

= 30

TPH

Total Steam Generation

= 120 TPH

Parameters as follows:-

Steam Temperature = 440` C

Pressure

= 38.5 kg/cm 2

Parameters are same in both AFBC and WHRB boilers. The total power generation in our JNIL POWER PLANT is 15.5 MW/H.

Specifications of Turbo-Generators:-

  • TG#1 = 4 MW

Working Pressure = 35 kg/cm 2

Temperature = 440` C
Temperature
= 440` C

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Only TG#1 is running in Solo mode.

  • TG#2 = 4 MW

Working Pressure = 35 kg/cm 2

Temperature =

440` C

TG# 2 is running in Grid mode = 132 KV

  • TG#3 = 7.5 MW Working Pressure = 35.5 kg/cm 2 Temperature

=

440` C

  • B. COKE OVEN POWER PLANT:- In COKE OVEN POWER PLANT we generate 12 MW/H having two WHRB boilers of 21.8 TPH. Specifications of Turbine:-

    • Model N6 6.28

Power related

  • Inlet pressure -

  • Exhaust pressure -
    Rated speed -

  • -

Inlet temp

6 MW

6.28 Mpa

0.0098 MPa

3000 r/min

485` C

P a g e | 19 Only TG#1 is running in Solo mode.  TG#2 =

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  • C. ABHIJEET INFRASTRUTURE LIMITED:- In ABHIJEET INFRASTRUTRE LIMITED we generate 15 MW per hour having two boilers one AFBC & WHRB.

    • 1. AFBC BOILER CAPACITY OF

33 TPH.

  • 2. WHRB BOILER CAPACITY OF 38 TPH.

Specifications of turbo-generator:-

  • Working pressure -

62.8 kg/cm 2

  • Temperature -

490`C

  • RPM

-

3000

  • D. CORPORATE ISPAT ALLOY LIMITED:- In CORPORATE ISPAT ALLOY LIMITED we generate 15 MW PER HOUR having only one boiler of WHRB type boilers. WHRB BOILER HAVING CAPACITY OF 55 TPH. Specification of turbo-generators:-

    • Working pressure - 62.8 kg/cm 2

    • 490`C

Temperature

-

  • 3000

RPM

-

  • E. MAA USHA URJA LIMITED:- In MAA USHA URJA LIMITED we generate 7.5 MW PER HOUR having only one AFBC boiler of capacity 33 TPH.

    • 33 TPH.

Turbine -

  • T/G working pressure - 64 kg/cm 2

  • working pressure- 66kg/cm 2

Boiler

  • Steam temperature

  • Turbine RPM

- 495`C

- 3000

P a g e | 20 C. ABHIJEET INFRASTRUTURE LIMITED:- In ABHIJEET INFRASTRUTRE LIMITED we generate

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CAPACITIES OF POWER PLANT

JNIL P/P

-

15.5 MW

AIL

-

15 MW

CIAL

-

15 MW

MUUL

7.5 MW

- COKE OVEN P/P-

12 MW

DETAILS OF ALL CONNECTED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS

  • 1. CIRCUIT BREAKER.

  • 2. RELAY.

  • 3. CONTACTOR.

  • 4. ISOLATOR.

  • 5. LIGHTNING ARRESTER.

  • 6. CURRENT TRANSFORMER.

  • 7. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER.

  • 1. CIRCUIT BREAKER

    • A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation.

    • Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.

P a g e | 21 CAPACITIES OF POWER PLANT JNIL P/P - 15.5 MW AIL

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BASIC OPERATION OF CIRCUIT BREAKER

  • All circuit breakers have common features in their operation, although details vary substantially depending on the voltage class, current rating and type of the circuit breaker.

  • The circuit breaker must detect a fault condition; in low-voltage circuit breakers this is usually done within the breaker enclosure. Circuit breakers for large currents or high voltages are usually arranged with pilot devices to sense a fault current and to operate the trip opening mechanism. The trip solenoid that releases the latch is usually energized by a separate battery, although some high-voltage circuit breakers are self-contained with current transformers, protection relays, and an internal control power source.

  • Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit; some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the contacts, although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. Small circuit breakers may be manually operated; larger units have solenoids to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy to the springs.

  • The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heating, and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting (opening) the circuit. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys, silver alloys, and other highly conductive materials. Service life of the contacts is limited by the erosion of contact material due to arcing while interrupting the current. Miniature and molded case circuit breakers are usually discarded when the contacts have worn, but power circuit breakers and high- voltage circuit breakers have replaceable contacts.

  • When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated. This arc must be contained, cooled, and extinguished in a controlled way, so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Different circuit breakers use vacuum, air, insulating gas, or oil as the medium the arc forms in. Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc including:

    • 1. Lengthening / deflection of the arc

    • 2. Intensive cooling (in jet chambers)

    • 3. Division into partial arcs

    • 4. Zero point quenching (Contacts open at the zero current time crossing of the AC waveform, effectively breaking no load current at the time of opening. The zero crossing occurs at twice the line frequency i.e. 100 times per second for 50 Hz and 120 times per second for 60 Hz AC)

    • 5. Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits

      • Finally, once the fault condition has been cleared, the contacts must again be closed to restore power to the interrupted circuit.

P a g e | 22 BASIC OPERATION OF CIRCUIT BREAKER  All circuit breakers have

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TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER

1.

Air circuit breaker.

2.

Vacuum circuit breaker.

3.

Sf6 circuit breaker.

AIR CIRCUIT BREAKER:

Air circuit breakers may use compressed air to blow out the arc, or alternatively, the contacts are rapidly swung into a small sealed chamber, the escaping of the displaced air thus blowing out the arc.

The arc interruption in oil is due to the generation of hydrogen gas because of the decomposition of oil. This fact prompted the investigators to study the interruption in air. No doubt, arc interruption properties of hydrogen are much superior to air, but air has several advantages as an arc extinguishing medium as compared to oil. They are:

1.

Fire risk & maintenance associated with the use of oil are eliminated.

2.

Arcing product in air are generally completely removed whereas oil deteriorates with successive breaking operation .Therefore, the expense of regular oil replacement is avoided.

3.

Heavy mechanical stresses set up by gas pressure & oil movement are absent.

4.

Relatively inferior arc extinguishing properties of air may be offset by using various principles of arc control & operating air at high pressure .

P a g e | 23 TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER 1. Air circuit breaker. 2. Vacuum

Fig 1.3air circuit breaker

P a g e | 23 TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER 1. Air circuit breaker. 2. Vacuum

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This is why except for a certain medium range of voltages, air circuit breakers are widely used for the low voltage circuits as well as the highest transmission voltages. Simple air circuit breakers which do not incorporate any arc-control devices are used for low voltages, below 1kv. The oil C.Bs. are not used for heavy fault currents on low voltages due to carbonization of oil & unduly rapid current collapse.

These breakers usually have two pairs of contacts per phase. The main pair of contacts carries the current under normal operating conditions & is made of copper. The additional pair actually becomes the arcing electrode as the circuit breakers is opened & are made of carbon because the vaporization & distortion of the contacts due to the heat of the arc are confined to these contacts &, therefore, the material used for the contacts should be non- volatile.

The main contacts separate while the arcing pair is still in contact & the arc is, therefore, initiated only when the arcing pair separates.

VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER:

Vacuum circuit breakers have minimal arcing (as there is nothing to ionize other than the contact material), so the arc quenches when it is stretched a very small amount (<23 mm). Vacuum circuit breakers are frequently used in modern medium-voltage switchgear to 35,000 volts.

A vacuum system is one in which the pressure maintained is at a value below the atmospheric pressure & is measured in terms of mm of mercury. One standard atmospheric pressure at 0 degree c is equal to 760 mm of mercury. One mm of Hg pressure is also known as one torr after the name of Torricelli who was the first to obtain pressures below atmospheric, with the help of mercury barometer. sometimes 1/1000 torr is known as one micron. It is now possible to obtain pressure as low as 1/100000000 torr.

P a g e | 24  This is why except for a certain medium range

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P a g e | 25 Fig 1.4 – vacuum circuit breaker In a Townsend type

Fig 1.4vacuum circuit breaker

In a Townsend type of discharge, in a gas, the mean free path of the particles is small & electrons get multiplied due to various ionzation processes & an electron avalanche is fprmed.In a vacuum of the order of 1/100000 torr the mean free path is of the order of few metres & thus when the electrodes are separated by a few mm an electron crosses the gap without any collision.In this range of vacuum the breakdown strength is independent of the gas density & depends only on the gap length & upon the condition of electrode surface.

SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE CIRCUIT BREAKERS:

Sulfur hexafluoride circuit breakers sometimes stretch the arc using a magnetic field, and then rely upon the dielectric strength of the sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) to quench the stretched arc.

A circuit breaker in which the current carrying contacts operate in Sulphur Hexafluoride or SF6 gas is known as an SF6 Circuit Breaker.

SF6 has excellent insulating property. SF6 has high electro-negativity. That means it has high affinity of absorbing free electron. Whenever a free electron collides with the SF6 gas molecule, it is absorbed by that gas molecule and forms a negative ion.

P a g e | 25 Fig 1.4 – vacuum circuit breaker In a Townsend type

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The attachment of electron with SF6 gas molecules may occur in tow different ways,

1)SF 6 +e=SF 6 2) SF 6 + e = SF 5 - + F

-

These negative ions obviously much heavier than a free electron and therefore over all mobility of the charged particle in the SF6 gas is much less as compared other common gases. We know that mobility of charged particle is majorly responsible for conducting current through a gas.

P a g e | 26  The attachment of electron with SF6 gas molecules may

Fig 1.5- SF6 Circuit Breaker

Hence, for heavier and less mobile charged particles in SF6 gas, it acquires very high dielectric strength. Not only the gas has a good dielectric strength but also it has the unique property of fast recombination after the source energizing the spark is removed. The gas has also very good heat transfer property. Due to its low gaseous viscosity (because of less molecular mobility) SF6 gas can efficiently transfer heat by convection. So due to its high dielectric strength and high cooling effect SF6 gas is approximately 100 times more effective arc quenching media than air. Due to these unique properties of this gas SF6 Circuit Breaker is used in complete range of medium voltage and high voltage electrical power system. These circuit breakers are available for the voltage ranges from 33KV to 800KV and even more.

P a g e | 26  The attachment of electron with SF6 gas molecules may

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2.

RELAY

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

P a g e | 27 2. RELAY A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many

Fig 1.6 - RELAY

P a g e | 27 2. RELAY A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many

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BASIC OPERATION OF RELAY:

A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire wrapped around a soft iron core, an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable iron armature, and one or more sets of contacts (there are two in the relay pictured). The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to one or more sets of moving contacts. It is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed, and the other set is open. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function.

The relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature, and the circuit track on the printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke, which is soldered to the PCB. When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic field that activates the armature and the consequent movement of the movable contact either makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was de-energized, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low-voltage application this reduces noise; in a high voltage or current application it reduces arcing. When the coil is energized with direct current, a diode is often placed across the coil to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a voltage spike dangerous to semiconductor circuit components. Some automotive relays include a diode inside the relay case. Alternatively, a contact protection network consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series (snubber circuit) may absorb the surge. If the coil is designed to be energized with alternating current (AC), a small copper "shading ring" can be crimped to the end of the solenoid, creating a small out-of-phase current which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle.

P a g e | 28 BASIC OPERATION OF RELAY:   A simple electromagnetic relay

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TYPE OF RELAYS:-

Over voltage relay

Field failure relay

Earth fault relay.

Reverse fault relay.

Low forward relay.

Buchholz relay.

3.

ISOLATOR

 

In electrical engineering, a disconnected or isolator switch or disconnect switch is

used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely de-energized for service or maintenance. Such switches are often found in electrical distribution and industrial applications where machinery must have its source of driving power removed for adjustment or repair. High-voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of

apparatus such as circuit breakers and transformers, and transmission lines, for maintenance. Often the isolation switch is not intended for normal control of the circuit and is used only for isolation; in such a case, it functions as a second, usually physically distant master switch (wired in series with the primary one) that can independently disable the circuit even if the master switch used in everyday operation is turned on. Isolator switches have provisions for a padlock so that inadvertent operation is not

possible. In high voltage or complex systems, these padlocks may be part of a trapped-key interlock system to ensure proper sequence of operation. In some designs the isolator switch has the additional ability to earth the isolated

circuit thereby providing additional safety. Such an arrangement would apply to circuits which inter-connect power distribution systems where both end of the circuit need to be isolated. The major difference between an isolator and a circuit breaker is that an isolator is an

off-load device intended to be opened only after current has been interrupted by some other control device. Safety regulations of the utility must prevent any attempt to open the disconnected while it supplies a circuit. Standards in some countries for safety may require either local motor isolators or lockable overloads (which can be padlocked).

P a g e | 29 TYPE OF RELAYS:-  Over voltage relay  Field failure

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4.CONTACTOR :-

Contactor is an electrically controlled switch used for switching a power circuit, similar to a relay except with higher current ratings. A contactor is controlled by a circuit which has a much lower power level than the switched circuit.

 Contactor is an electrically controlled switch used for switching a power circuit, similar to a

Fig 1.7: CONTACTOR

Contactors come in many forms with varying capacities and features. Unlike a circuit breaker, a contractor is not intended to interrupt a short circuit current. Contactors range from those having a breaking current of several amperes to thousands of amperes and 24 V DC to many kilovolts. The physical size of contactors ranges from a device small enough to pick up with one hand, to large devices approximately a meter (yard) on a side. Contactors are used to control electric motors, lighting, heating, capacitor banks, and other electrical loads.

P a g e | 30 4. CONTACTOR :-  Contactor is an electrically controlled switch

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LIGHTENING ARRESTOR:-

A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems and telecommunications systems to protect the insulation and conductors of the system from the damaging effects of lightning. The typical lightning arrester has a high-voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a lightning surge (or switching surge, which is very similar) travels along the power line to the arrester, the current from the surge is diverted through the arrestor, in most cases to earth.

P a g e | 31 LIGHTENING ARRESTOR:- A lightning arrester is a device used on

o

Fig 1.8: LIGHTENING ARRESTOR

In telegraphy and telephony, a lightning arrestor is placed where wires enter a structure, preventing damage to electronic instruments within and ensuring the safety of individuals near them. Smaller versions of lightning arresters, also called surge protectors, are devices that are connected between each electrical conductor in power and communications systems and the Earth. These prevent the flow of the normal power or signal currents to ground, but provide a path over which high-voltage lightning current flows, bypassing the connected equipment. Their purpose is to limit the rise in voltage when a communications or power line is struck by lightning or is near to a lightning strike. If protection fails or is absent, lightning that strikes the electrical system introduces thousands of kilovolts that may damage the transmission lines, and can also cause severe damage to transformers and other electrical or electronic devices. Lightning-produced extreme voltage spikes in incoming power lines can damage electrical home appliances.

P a g e | 31 LIGHTENING ARRESTOR:- A lightning arrester is a device used on

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4.CURRENT TRANSFORMERS:-

P a g e | 32 4.CURRENT TRANSFORMERS:- Fig1.9 . Current transformers used in metering equipmentthree-phase 400 ampere electricity supply A current transformer (CT) is a measurement device designed to provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to the current flowing in its primary. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry where they allow safe measurement of large currents, often in the presence of high voltages. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an un-insulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. For example, a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. The secondary winding can be single ratio or have several tap points to provide a range of ratios. Care must be taken that the secondary winding is not disconnected from its load while current flows in the primary, as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer.  Specially constructed wideband CTs are also used, usually with an oscilloscope, to measure high frequency waveforms or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. One type provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current; another, called a Rogowski coil, requires an external integrator in order to provide a proportional output.    JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-31-9" src="pdf-obj-31-9.jpg">

Fig1.9 . Current transformers used in metering equipment for three-phase 400 ampere electricity supply

A current transformer (CT) is a measurement device designed to provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to the current flowing in its primary. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry where they allow safe measurement of large currents, often in the presence of high voltages. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an un-insulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. For example, a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. The secondary winding can be single ratio or have several tap points to provide a range of ratios. Care must be taken that the secondary winding is not disconnected from its load while current flows in the primary, as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. Specially constructed wideband CTs are also used, usually with an oscilloscope, to measure high frequency waveforms or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. One type provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current; another, called a Rogowski coil, requires an external integrator in order to provide a proportional output.

P a g e | 32 4.CURRENT TRANSFORMERS:- Fig1.9 . Current transformers used in metering equipmentthree-phase 400 ampere electricity supply A current transformer (CT) is a measurement device designed to provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to the current flowing in its primary. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry where they allow safe measurement of large currents, often in the presence of high voltages. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an un-insulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. For example, a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. The secondary winding can be single ratio or have several tap points to provide a range of ratios. Care must be taken that the secondary winding is not disconnected from its load while current flows in the primary, as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer.  Specially constructed wideband CTs are also used, usually with an oscilloscope, to measure high frequency waveforms or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. One type provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current; another, called a Rogowski coil, requires an external integrator in order to provide a proportional output.    JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-31-48" src="pdf-obj-31-48.jpg">

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CONSTRUCTION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER:

P a g e | 33 CONSTRUCTION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER: Fig 1.10- CONSTRUCTION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERtransformer, a current transformer has a primary winding, a magnetic core, and a secondary winding. The alternating current flowing in the primary produces a magnetic field in the core, which then induces a current in the secondary winding circuit. A primary objective of current transformer design is to ensure that the primary and secondary circuits are efficiently coupled, so that the secondary current bears an accurate relationship to the primary current. The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. The CT's primary circuit therefore consists of a single 'turn' of conductor, with a secondary of many tens or hundreds of turns.  The primary winding may be a permanent part of the current transformer, with a heavy copper bar to carry current through the magnetic core. Window-type current transformers (aka zero sequence current transformers, or ZSCT) are also common, which can have circuit cables run through the middle of an opening in the core to provide a single-turn primary winding. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) opening, slight inaccuracies may occur.   JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-32-9" src="pdf-obj-32-9.jpg">

Fig 1.10- CONSTRUCTION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Like any other transformer, a current transformer has a primary winding, a magnetic core, and a secondary winding. The alternating current flowing in the primary produces a magnetic field in the core, which then induces a current in the secondary winding circuit. A primary objective of current transformer design is to ensure that the primary and secondary circuits are efficiently coupled, so that the secondary current bears an accurate relationship to the primary current. The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. The CT's primary circuit therefore consists of a single 'turn' of conductor, with a secondary of many tens or hundreds of turns. The primary winding may be a permanent part of the current transformer, with a heavy copper bar to carry current through the magnetic core. Window-type current transformers (aka zero sequence current transformers, or ZSCT) are also common, which can have circuit cables run through the middle of an opening in the core to provide a single-turn primary winding. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) opening, slight inaccuracies may occur.

P a g e | 33 CONSTRUCTION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER: Fig 1.10- CONSTRUCTION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERtransformer, a current transformer has a primary winding, a magnetic core, and a secondary winding. The alternating current flowing in the primary produces a magnetic field in the core, which then induces a current in the secondary winding circuit. A primary objective of current transformer design is to ensure that the primary and secondary circuits are efficiently coupled, so that the secondary current bears an accurate relationship to the primary current. The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. The CT's primary circuit therefore consists of a single 'turn' of conductor, with a secondary of many tens or hundreds of turns.  The primary winding may be a permanent part of the current transformer, with a heavy copper bar to carry current through the magnetic core. Window-type current transformers (aka zero sequence current transformers, or ZSCT) are also common, which can have circuit cables run through the middle of an opening in the core to provide a single-turn primary winding. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) opening, slight inaccuracies may occur.   JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-32-27" src="pdf-obj-32-27.jpg">

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6. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS

Voltage transformers (VT) or potential transformers (PT) are another type of instrument transformer, used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 V or 120 V at rated primary voltage, to match the input ratings of protective relays. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labeled as H 1 , H 2 (sometimes H 0 if it is internally grounded) and X 1 , X2 and sometimes an X 3 tap may be present. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y 1 , Y 2 , Y 3 ) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground. The terminal identifications (H 1 , X 1 , Y 1 , etc.) are often referred to as polarity. This applies to current transformers as well. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protective relays. Some meters operate directly on the secondary service voltages at or below 600 V. VTs are typically used for higher voltages (for example, 765 kV for power transmission), or where isolation is desired between the meter and the measured circuit.

There are primarily three types of voltage transformers (VT):-

  • 1. Electromagnetic voltage transformer.

  • 2. Capacitor voltage transformer.

  • 3. Optical voltage transformer.

The electromagnetic voltage transformer is a wire-wound transformer.

The capacitor voltage transformer uses a capacitance potential divider and is primarily used at higher voltages due to a lower cost than an electromagnetic VT.

An optical

voltage transformer

exploits the electrical properties of optical

materials.

P a g e | 34 6. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS Voltage transformers (VT) or potential transformers (PT)power transmission) , or where isolation is desired between the meter and the measured circuit.    There are primarily three types of voltage transformers (VT):- 1. Electromagnetic voltage transformer. 2. Capacitor voltage transformer. 3. Optical voltage transformer.  The electromagnetic voltage transformer is a wire-wound transformer.  The capacitor voltage transformer uses a capacitance potential divider and is primarily used at higher voltages due to a lower cost than an electromagnetic VT.  An optical voltage transformer exploits the electrical properties of optical materials. JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-33-81" src="pdf-obj-33-81.jpg">

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MAJOR MOTOR DATA

JNIL POWER PLANT

P.A FAN - 45KW

F.D FAN 160 KW

ID FAN

- 75KW

CRUSHER - 45 KW

WATER PUMP - 110 KW

(T.G -1 ,T.G-2 ,T.G.-3) - 2.2 KW

PUMP HOUSE # 3

GROUP 3(5 MOTORS) - 265 KW

GROUP1(3 MOTORS) - 270 KW

GROUP 2(2 MOTORS) - 197 KW

1 EXTERNAL MOTOR - 350 KW

COOLING TOWER # 2 (FOR JNIL POWER PLANT)

CT FAN 1 - 37 KW

CT FAN 2 -37 KW

CT FAN 3 -37 KW

CT FAN 4 -37 KW

P a g e | 35 MAJOR MOTOR DATA JNIL POWER PLANT P.A FAN - 45KW

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CIAL POWER PLANT

EOP 75 kw *2

RCW PUMP - 132 KW *3

CT.CEP - 22 KW*2(cooling tower)

CT. FAN 22KW * 3

CEP - 45 KW *2

RSB - 0.18 KW*7

LRSB

- 1.1 KW *3

SBOP - 11KW (STANDBY OIL PUMP)

SOP - 110 KW (STARTING OIL PUMP)

JOP - 150 KW (JACKINH OIL PUMP)

TURNING GEAR - 5.5 KW

ROOT BLOWER I -7.5 KW

ROOT BLOWER II - 5.5 KW

P a g e | 36 CIAL POWER PLANT EOP – 75 kw *2 RCW PUMP

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MAA USHA POWER PLANT

BOILER FEED PUMP - 160 KW

FD FAN - 90 KW *2

ID FAN - 30 KW *2

PA FAN - 45 KW *1

CEP 30 KW

CT. FAN - 22 KW *2

ACW PUMP - 22 KW *2

RCW PUMP - 37 KW *2

COAL CRUSHER 45 KW

ASH COMPRESSOR - 75 KW

NOTE HERE abbreviations ARE:-

BFP - BOILER FEED PUMP

RCW - RECIRCULATING WATER PUMP

ACW AUXILLARY CIRCULATING PUMP

PA FAN- PRIMARY AIR FAN

ID FAN INDUSED DRAFT FAN

FD FAN FORCED DRAFT FAN

CEW - CONDENSATE EXTRACTED PUMP

C.T FAN - COOLING TOWER FAN

EOP - EMERGENCY OIL PUMP

CT COOLING TOWER

P a g e | 37 MAA USHA POWER PLANT BOILER FEED PUMP - 160 KW

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ESP (ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR)

An electrostatic precipitator is a large, industrial emission-control unit. It is designed to trap and remove dust particles from the exhaust gas stream of an industrial process. Precipitators are used in these industries:-

Power/Electric

Cement

Chemicals

Metals

Paper

In industrial plants, particulate matter created in the industrial process is carried as dust in the hot exhaust gases. These dust-laden gases pass through an electrostatic precipitator that collects most of the dust. Cleaned gas then passes out of the precipitator and through a stack to the atmosphere. Precipitators typically collect 99.9% or more of the dust from the gas stream. Precipitators function by electrostatically charging the dust particles in the gas stream. The charged particles are then attracted to and deposited on plates or other collection devices. When enough dust has accumulated, the collectors are shaken to dislodge the dust, causing it to fall with the force of gravity to hoppers below. The dust is then removed by a conveyor system for disposal or recycling of dust. Depending upon dust characteristics and the gas volume to be treated, there are many different sizes, types and designs of electrostatic precipitators.

P a g e | 38 ESP (ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR) An electrostatic precipitator is a large, industrial
P a g e | 38 ESP (ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR) An electrostatic precipitator is a large, industrial

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BASIC PRINCIPLES:-

Electrostatic precipitation removes particles from the exhaust gas stream of an industrial process. Often the process involves combustion, but it can be any industrial process that would otherwise emit particles to the atmosphere. Six activities typically take place:

Ionization - Charging of particles Migration - Transporting the charged particles to the collecting surfaces Collection - Precipitation of the charged particles onto the collecting surfaces Charge Dissipation - Neutralizing the charged particles on the collecting surfaces Particle Dislodging - Removing the particles from the collecting surface to the hopper Particle Removal - Conveying the particles from the hopper to a disposal point

P a g e | 39 BASIC PRINCIPLES :- Electrostatic precipitation removes particles from the exhaust

The major precipitator components that accomplish these activities are as follows:

Discharge Electrodes Collecting Electrodes Rapping Systems Electric Power Supply

P a g e | 39 BASIC PRINCIPLES :- Electrostatic precipitation removes particles from the exhaust

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DISCHARGE ELECTRODES:-

Discharge electrodes emit charging current and provide voltage that generates an electrical field between the discharge electrodes and the collecting plates. The electrical field forces dust particles in the gas stream to migrate toward the collecting plates. The particles then precipitate onto the collecting plates.

Discharge electrodes are typically supported from the upper discharge frame and are held in alignment between the upper and lower discharge frames. The upper discharge frame is in turn supported from the roof of the precipitator casing.The discharge electrodes are shown in the above Figure.

P a g e | 40 DISCHARGE ELECTRODES:- Discharge electrodes emit charging current and provide voltage

COLLECTING PLATES:-

Collecting plates are designed to receive and retain the precipitated particles until they are intentionally removed into the hopper. Collecting plates are also part of the electrical power circuit of the precipitator. Collecting plates are suspended from the precipitator casing and form the gas passages within the precipitator.

P a g e | 40 DISCHARGE ELECTRODES:- Discharge electrodes emit charging current and provide voltage

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While the design of the collecting plates varies by manufacturer, there are two commondesigns:

Plates supported from anvil beams at either end The anvil beam is also the point of impact for the collecting rapper. Plates supported with hooks directly from the precipitator casing Two or more collecting plates are connected at or near the center by rapper beams, which then serve as impact points for the rapping system

ELECRTIC POWER SUPPLY :-

The power supply system is designed to provide voltage to the electrical field (or bus section) at the highest possible level. The voltage must be controlled to avoid causing sustained arcing or sparking between the electrodes and the collecting plates. Electrically, a precipitator is divided into a grid, with electrical fields in series (in the direction of the gas flow) and one or more bus sections in parallel (cross-wise to the gas flow). When electrical fields are in series, the power supply for each field can be adjusted to optimize operation of that field. Likewise, having more than one electrical bus section in parallel allows adjustments to compensate for their differences, so that power input can be optimized. The power supply system has four basic components:

Automatic voltage control

Step-up transformer

High-voltage rectifier

Voltage control

The ideal automatic voltage control would produce the maximum collecting efficiency by holding the operating voltage of the precipitator at a level just below the spark-over voltage. However, this level cannot be achieved given that conditions change from moment to moment.

TRANSFORMER-RECTIFIERS

The transformer-rectifier rating should be matched to the load imposed by the electrical field or bus section. The power supply will perform best when the transformer-rectifiers operate at 70 - 90% of the rated capacity, without excessive sparking. This reduces the maximum continuous- load voltage and corona power inputs.

P a g e | 41 While the design of the collecting plates varies by manufacturer,

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RAPPING SYSTEM :-

Rappers are time-controlled systems provided for removing dust from the collecting plates and the discharge electrodes as well as for gas distribution devices (optional) and for hopper walls (optional). Rapping systems may be actuated by electrical or pneumatic power, or by mechanical means. Tumbling hammers may also be used to dislodge ash. Rapping methods include:-

Electric vibrators

Electric solenoid piston drop rappers

Tumbling hammers

In general, discharge electrodes should be kept as free as possible of accumulated particulate. The rapping system for the discharge electrodes should be operated on a continuous schedule with repeat times in the 2 - 4 minute range, depending on the size and inlet particulate loading of the precipitator.

The first electrical field generally collects about 60-80% of the inlet dust load. The first field plates should be rapped often enough so that their precipitated layer of particulate is about 3/8 - 1/2" thick. There is no advantage in rapping more often since the precipitated dust has not yet agglomerated to a sheet which requires a minimum layer thickness. Sheet formation is essential to make the dust drop into the precipitator hopper without re-entrainment into the gas stream. Rapping less frequently typically results in a deterioration of the electrical power input by adding an additional resistance into the power circuit.

The only rapping system requiring optimization is the collecting plate rapping system. The optimization should start with the Collecting Plate Rapping Schedule determined above. Next, the rapping frequency of the inlet field should be increased or decreased until the electrical power input of the inlet field remains constant. Next, the rapping frequency of the other fields should be adjusted in sequence until their electrical power inputs remain constant. If the stack opacity trace shows rapping spikes, the rapping intensity should be reduced while observing the electrical power input of the precipitator. The adjustment of the rapping system for optimum precipitator performance is a slow process. It requires a substantial amount of time for stabilization after each adjustment.

P a g e | 42 RAPPING SYSTEM :- Rappers are time-controlled systems provided for removing

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EXCITER

The exciter is the "backbone" of the generator control system. It is the power source that supplies the dc magnetizing current to the field windings of a synchronous generator thereby ultimately inducing ac voltage and current in the generator armature. Two basic kinds of excitors are:-

• Rotating (Brush and brushless) • Static exciters (Shunt and series)

ROTATING EXCITERS

Brushless: do not require slip-rings, commutators, brushes and are practically maintenance free. Brush Type: require slip-rings, commutators and brushes and require periodic maintenance

STATIC EXCITERS

Static excitation means no moving parts. It provides faster transient response than rotary exciters Shunt Type: operating field power from generator output voltage Series Type: operating field power from generator output voltage & current

ALTERNATE VOLTAGE REGULATOR

AVR is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.

P a g e | 43 EXCITER The exciter is the "backbone" of the generator controlvoltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-42-39" src="pdf-obj-42-39.jpg">

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GENERATOR

Equipment that converts mechanical

energy into electrical energy.

Essentially, there are two basic types of generators:

DC generators

AC generators

Asynchronous (Induction) generators

Synchronous generators

INDUCTION GENERATORS

The induction generator is nothing more than an induction motor driven above its synchronous speed by an amount not exceeding the full load slip the unit would have as a motor. Assuming a full load slip of 3%, a motor with a synchronous speed of 1200 rpm would have a full load speed of 1164 rpm. This unit could also be driven by an external prime mover at 1236 rpm for use as an induction generator.

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

Synchronous generators are used because they offer precise control of voltage, frequency, VARs and WATTs. This control is achieved through the use of voltage regulators and governors. A synchronous machine consists of a stationary armature winding (stator) with many wires connected in series or parallel to obtain the desired terminal voltage. The armature winding is placed into a slotted laminated steel core. A synchronous machine also consists of a revolving DC field - the rotor

P a g e | 44 GENERATOR Equipment that converts <a href=mechanical energy into electrical energy. Essentially, there are two basic types of generators:  DC generators  AC generators  Asynchronous (Induction) generators  Synchronous generators INDUCTION GENERATORS The induction generator is nothing more than an induction motor driven above its synchronous speed by an amount not exceeding the full load slip the unit would have as a motor. Assuming a full load slip of 3%, a motor with a synchronous speed of 1200 rpm would have a full load speed of 1164 rpm. This unit could also be driven by an external prime mover at 1236 rpm for use as an induction generator. SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS Synchronous generators are used because they offer precise control of voltage, frequency, VARs and WATTs. This control is achieved through the use of voltage regulators and governors. A synchronous machine consists of a stationary armature winding (stator) with many wires connected in series or parallel to obtain the desired terminal voltage. The armature winding is placed into a slotted laminated steel core. A synchronous machine also consists of a revolving DC field - the rotor JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-43-49" src="pdf-obj-43-49.jpg">

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P a g e | 45 JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR
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P a g e | 46 JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR
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P a g e | 47 JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR
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INSTRUMENTATION

P a g e | 48 INSTRUMENTATION JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR

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SPECIFICATION (JNIL/POWER PLANT)

In JNIL, for 1 boiler, 9 control valves, 11 power cylinder, 13 actuators,15 solenoid

valves,20 limit switches & 9 pressure switches are used. For measuring temperature, J & K type thermocouple are used as a temperature element & RTD (PT 100) are used. In AIL power plant, 1 WHRB boiler is used. In these boiler 3 types of control valves used which are followings-

Temperature control valve

Feed water control valve Shoot blower control valve

In boilers, k type thermocouple are used & totally there are 18 control valves & 2 shutoff valves in AIL. In CIAL, flue gas attemprator control valve is used as temperature control valve & shoot

blower is used for controlling air. Shoot blower is used at steam drum side.In WHRB boiler,1 pressure transmitter & 3 level transmitter are used which checks the level of drum & pressure in drum. In flue gas inlet, 1 temperature transmitter & 1 pressure transmitter are used. In steam, a flow transmitter is also used.2 indicator used in boiler which is steam drum level indicator & temperature indicator.

THERMOCOUPLE

A thermocouple consists of two conductors of different materials (usually metal alloys) that produce a voltage in the vicinity of the point where the two conductors are in contact. The voltage produced is dependent on, but not necessarily proportional to, the difference of temperature of the junction to other parts of those conducttrrs. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor for measurement and control and can also be used to convert a temperature gradient into electricity.

Commercial thermocouples are inexpensive, interchangeable, are supplied with standard connectors, and can measure a wide range of temperatures. In contrast to most other methods of temperature measurement, thermocouples are self powered and require no external form of excitation. The main limitation with thermocouples is accuracy; system errors of less than one degree Celsius (C) can be difficult to achieve.

P a g e | 49 SPECIFICATION (JNIL/POWER PLANT)  In JNIL, for 1 boiler, 9

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P a g e | 50 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION In 1821, the German – Estonian physicist

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

In 1821, the GermanEstonian physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered that when any conductor is subjected to a thermal gradient, it will generate a voltage. This is now known as the thermoelectric effect or Seebeck effect. Any attempt to measure this voltage necessarily involves connecting another conductor to the "hot" end. This additional conductor will then also experience the temperature gradient, and develop a voltage of its own which will oppose the original.

Fortunately, the magnitude of the effect depends on the metal in use. Using a dissimilar metal to complete the circuit creates a circuit in which the two legs generate different voltages, leaving a small difference in voltage available for measurement. That difference increases with temperature, and is between 1 and 70 microvolts per degree Celsius (µV/°C) for standard metal combinations.

P a g e | 50 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION In 1821, the German – Estonian physicist

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The voltage is not generated at the junction of the two metals of the thermocouple but rather along that portion of the length of the two dissimilar metals that is subjected to a temperature gradient. Because both lengths of dissimilar metals experience the same temperature gradient, the end result is a measurement of the difference in temperature between the thermocouple junction and the reference Types

TYPES OF THERMOCOUPLES

K -THERMOCOUPLE

Type K (chromel {90% nickel and 10% chromium}alumel {95% nickel, 2% manganese, 2%

aluminium and 1% silicon}) is the most common general purpose thermocouple with a sensitivity of approximately 41 µV/°C, chromel positive relative to alumel. [9] It is inexpensive, and a wide variety of probes are available in its −200 °C to +1250 °C / -330 °F to +2460 °F

range.

.Wire color standard is yellow (+) and red (-).

E- THERMOCOUPLE

Type E (chromelconstantan) [6] has a high output (68 µV/°C) which makes it well suited to cryogenic use. Additionally, it is non-magnetic. Wide range is -50 to 740 °C and Narrow range is -110 to 140 °C. Wire color standard is purple (+) and red (-).

J -THERMOCOUPLE

Type J (iron–constantan) has a more restricted range than type K (−40 to +750 °C), but higher sensitivity of about 55 µV/°C. ] The Curie point of the iron (770 °C) ] causes an abrupt change in the characteristic, which determines the upper temperature limit.

PLATINUM TYPES B, R, AND S THERMOCOUPLE

Types B, R, and S thermocouples use platinum or a platinumrhodium alloy for each conductor. These are among the most stable thermocouples, but have lower sensitivity than other types, approximately 10 µV/°C. Type B, R, and S thermocouples are usually used only for high temperature measurements due to their high cost and low sensitivity.

B -THERMOCOUPLE

Type B thermocouples use a platinumrhodium alloy for each conductor. One conductor contains 30% rhodium while the other conductor contains 6% rhodium. These thermocouples are suited for use at up to 1800 °C. Type B thermocouples produce the same output at 0 °C and 42 °C, limiting their use below about 50 °C.

P a g e | 51 The voltage is not generated at the junction of the( chromel {90% nickel and 10% chromium} alumel {95% nickel, 2% manganese, 2% aluminium and 1% silicon}) is the most common general purpose thermocouple with a sensitivity of approximately 41 µV/°C, chromel positive relative to alumel . It is inexpensive, and a wide variety of probes are available in its −200 °C to +1250 °C / -330 °F to +2460 °F range. .Wire color standard is yellow (+) and red (-). E- THERMOCOUPLE Type E (chromel – constantan ) has a high output (68 µV/°C) which makes it well suited to cryogenic use. Additionally, it is non-magnetic. Wide range is -50 to 740 °C and Narrow range is -110 to 140 °C. Wire color standard is purple (+) and red (-). J -THERMOCOUPLE Type J (iron –constantan) has a more restricted range than type K (−40 to +750 °C), but higher sensitivity of about 55 µV/°C. The Curie point of the iron (770 °C) causes an abrupt change in the characteristic, which determines the upper temperature limit. PLATINUM TYPES B, R, AND S THERMOCOUPLE Types B, R, and S thermocouples use platinum or a platinum – rhodium alloy for each conductor. These are among the most stable thermocouples, but have lower sensitivity than other types, approximately 10 µV/°C. Type B, R, and S thermocouples are usually used only for high temperature measurements due to their high cost and low sensitivity. B -THERMOCOUPLE Type B thermocouples use a platinum – rhodium alloy for each conductor. One conductor contains 30% rhodium while the other conductor contains 6% rhodium. These thermocouples are suited for use at up to 1800 °C. Type B thermocouples produce the same output at 0 °C and 42 °C, limiting their use below about 50 °C. JNIL, SPD, SILTARA,RAIPUR " id="pdf-obj-50-65" src="pdf-obj-50-65.jpg">

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R- THERMOCOUPLE

Type R thermocouples use a platinumrhodium alloy containing 13% rhodium for one conductor and pure platinum for the other conductor. Type R thermocouples are used up to 1600 °C.

S -THERMOCOUPLE

Type S thermocouples are constructed using one wire of 90% Platinum and 10% Rhodium (the positive or "+" wire) and a second wire of 100% platinum (the negative or "-" wire). Like type R, type S thermocouples are used up to 1600 °C. In particular, type S is used as the standard of calibration for the melting point of gold (1064.43 °C).

T -THERMOCOUPLE

Type T (copper constantan) thermocouples are suited for measurements in the −200 to 350 °C range. Often used as a differential measurement since only copper wire touches the probes. Since both conductors are non-magnetic, there is no Curie point and thus no abrupt change in characteristics. Type T thermocouples have a sensitivity of about 43 µV/°C.

C- THERMOCOUPLE

Type C (tungsten 5% rhenium tungsten 26% rhenium) thermocouples are suited for measurements in the 0 °C to 2320 °C range. This thermocouple is well-suited for vacuum furnaces at extremely high temperatures. It must never be used in the presence of oxygen at temperatures above 260 °C.

M- THERMOCOUPLE

Type M thermocouples use a nickel alloy for each wire. The positive wire (20 Alloy) contains

18%

molybdenum while the negative wire (19 Alloy) contains 0.8% cobalt. These

thermocouples are used in vacuum furnaces for the same reasons as with type C. Upper temperature is limited to 1400 °C. It is less commonly used than other types.

CHROMEL-GOLD/IRON THERMOCOUPLE

In chromel-gold/iron thermocouples, the positive wire is chromel and the negative wire is gold with a small fraction (0.030.15 atom percent) of iron. It can be used for cryogenic applications (1.2300 K and even up to 600 K). Both the sensitivity and the temperature range depends on the iron concentration. The sensitivity is typically around 15 µV/K at low temperatures and the lowest usable temperature varies between 1.2 and 4.2 K.

P a g e | 52 R- THERMOCOUPLE Type R thermocouples use a platinum – rhodium

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RTD (RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS)

Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature by correlating the resistance of the RTD element with temperature. Most RTD elements consist of a length of fine coiled wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core. The element is usually quite fragile, so it is often placed inside a sheathed probe to protect it.

The RTD element is made from a pure material, platinum, nickel or copper. The material has a predictable change in resistance as the temperature changes; it is this predictable change that is used to determine temperature. They are slowly replacing the use of thermocouples in many industrial applications below 600 °C, due to higher accuracy and repeatability.

FUNCTION

Resistance thermometers are constructed in a number of forms and offer greater stability, accuracy and repeatability in some cases than thermocouples. While thermocouples use the Seebeck effect to generate a voltage, resistance thermometers use electrical resistance and require a power source to operate. The resistance ideally varies linearly with temperature.

The platinum detecting wire needs to be kept free of contamination to remain stable. A platinum wire or film is supported on a former in such a way that it gets minimal differential expansion or other strains from its former, yet is reasonably resistant to vibration. RTD assemblies made from iron or copper are also used in some applications. Commercial platinum grades are produced which exhibit a temperature coefficient of resistance 0.00385/°C (0.385%/°C) (European Fundamental Interval). The sensor is usually made to have a resistance of 100 Ω at 0 °C.

Measurement of resistance requires a small current to be passed through the device under test. This can cause resistive heating, causing significant loss of accuracy if manufacturers' limits are not respected, or the design does not properly consider the heat path. Mechanical strain on the resistance thermometer can also cause inaccuracy.

Lead wire resistance can also be a factor; adopting three- and four-wire, instead of two-wire, connections can eliminate connection lead resistance effects from measurements .three-wire connection is sufficient for most purposes and almost universal industrial practice. Four-wire connections are used for the most precise applications.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS

The advantages of platinum resistance thermometers include:

    High accuracy Low drift Wide operating range Suitability for precision applications.
High accuracy
Low drift
Wide operating range
Suitability for precision applications.

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LIMITATIONS:

RTDs in industrial applications are rarely used above 660 °C. At temperatures above 660 °C it becomes increasingly difficult to prevent the platinum from becoming contaminated by impurities from the metal sheath of the thermometer. This is why laboratory standard thermometers replace the metal sheath with a glass construction. At very low temperatures, say below -270 °C (or 3 K), because there are very few phonons, the resistance of an RTD is mainly determined by impurities and boundary scattering and thus basically independent of temperature. As a result, the sensitivity of the RTD is essentially zero and therefore not useful.

Compared to thermistors, platinum RTDs are less sensitive to small temperature changes and have a slower response time. However, thermistors have a smaller temperature range and stability.

WIRING CONFIGURATIONS

two-wire configuration

P a g e | 54 LIMITATIONS: RTDs in industrial applications are rarely used above 660

The simplest resistance thermometer configuration uses two wires. It is only used when high accuracy is not required, as the resistance of the connecting wires is added to that of the sensor, leading to errors of measurement. This configuration allows use of 100 meters of cable. This applies equally to balanced bridge and fixed bridge system.

P a g e | 54 LIMITATIONS: RTDs in industrial applications are rarely used above 660

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three-wire configuration

P a g e | 55  three-wire configuration In order to minimize the effects of

In order to minimize the effects of the lead resistances, a three-wire configuration can be used. Using this method the two leads to the sensor are on adjoining arms. There is a lead resistance in each arm of the bridge so that the resistance is cancelled out, so long as the two lead resistances are accurately the same. This configuration allows up to 600 meters of cable.

four-wire configuration

P a g e | 55  three-wire configuration In order to minimize the effects of

The four-wire resistance thermometer configuration increases the accuracy and reliability of the resistance being measured: the resistance error due to lead wire resistance is zero. In the diagram above a standard two-terminal RTD is used with another pair of wires to form an additional loop that cancels out the lead resistance. The above Wheatstone bridge method uses a little more copper wire and is not a perfect solution. Below is a better configuration, four-wire Kelvin connection. It provides full cancellation of spurious effects; cable resistance of up to 15 Ω can be handled.

P a g e | 55  three-wire configuration In order to minimize the effects of
P a g e | 55  three-wire configuration In order to minimize the effects of

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CONTROL VALVES

Control valves are valves used to control conditions such as flow, pressure, temperature, and liquid level by fully or partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compare a "set point" to a "process variable" whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions.

The opening or closing of control valves is usually done automatically by electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic actuators. Positioners are used to control the opening or closing of the actuator based on electric, or pneumatic signals. These control signals, traditionally based on 3-15psi (0.2- 1.0bar), more common now are 4-20mA signals for industry, 0-10V for HVAC systems, and the introduction of "Smart" systems, HART, Fieldbus Foundation, and Profibus being the more common protocols.

Control valves come in two sorts: air to open; and air to close. Air to open valves are normally held closed by the spring and require air pressure (a control signal) to open them - they open progressively as the air pressure increases. Air to close valves are valves which are held open by the valve spring and require air pressure to move them towards the closed position. The reason for the two types of valves is to allow failsafe operation.

In the event of a plant instrument air failure it is important that all control valves fail in a safe position (e.g. an exothermic reactor's feed valves (or, perhaps, just one of the valves) should fail closed (air to open) and its coolant system valves fail open (air to close)). The type of valve used obviously impacts on what a controller has to do - changing the type of valve would mean that the controller would need to move the manipulation in the opposite direction.

TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER

A temperature transmitter works by connecting to it some form of temperature sensor. For example a RTD (Resistance temperature device) or Thermocouple. In the case of a RTD connected to the transmitter the transmitter measures a change in resistance of the RTD proportional to the change in temperature measured. The transmitter then derives a current output (generally 4-20mA) which can be measured by an instrument, such as a PLC, loop indicator etc. In the case of a thermocouple a milli voltage is produced at a junction of two dissimilar metals, this change in milli voltage again proportional to the change in temperature and the transmitter again derives a current output measurable by a instrument.

The transmitter will be ranged by a programming device, say for example an application where process temperatures need to be measured between 0-100 degrees, the transmitter will be ranged 0-100 degrees and thus give an output proportional to the temperature measured by the sensing element. 0 degrees = 4mA, 100 degrees = 20mA.

P a g e | 56 CONTROL VALVES Control valves are valves used to control conditions

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A excitation supply will be connected to the transmitter and the 4-20mA will flow in this loop back to the measuring instrument.It is necessary to use the correct type of sensor for the application to get the best accuracy when measuring. RTD's are generally used for measuring lower temperatures where as thermocouples are used for measuring higher temperatures.

There are several types of RTD's such as 2 wire, 3 wire and 4 wire and an even greater range of thermocouples depending on the temperatures and measuring environment.

PRESSURE TRANSMITTER

A pressure transmitter is a pressure sensor with a signal processing circuit so the pressure is transmitted as an electrical analogue of the pressure. This might be a 4-20mA current loop signal, where the current in mA is related to the pressure. Zero pressure would be 4mA, and fullscale would be 20mA. Loop up 4- 20mA current loop for more info. Some may have other outputs such as serial data digital outputs (RS232 signal), while others could have an analogue voltage, perhaps 0-10V.

The typical pressure sensor uses a diaphragm to convert pressure (units of force per unit area) to a force, which moves the diaphragm against a restoring force such as a spring, bellows or even electrically controlled force balance. The movement or the balancing force is measured as strain or displacement. The strain or displacement signal is proportional to pressure, and additional signal processing converts the signal to an electrical equivalent of pressure units that are transmitted by the analogue output.

Usually the diaphragm has a reference pressure on one side, so it actually measures the difference in pressure. This can be the atmosphere for gauge sensors, a vacuum for absolute sensors, or a second pressure port for differential sensors

FLOW METERS

Measuring the flow of liquids is a critical need in many industrial plants. In some operations, the ability to conduct accurate flow measurements is so important that it can make the difference between making a profit or taking a loss. In other cases, inaccurate flow measurements or failure to take measurements can cause serious (or even disastrous) results.

With most liquid flow measurement instruments, the flow rate is determined inferentially by measuring the liquid's velocity or the change in kinetic energy. Velocity depends on the pressure differential that is forcing the liquid through a pipe or conduit. Because the pipe's cross-sectional area is known and remains constant, the average velocity is an indication of the flow rate.

P a g e | 57 A excitation supply will be connected to the transmitter and

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The basic relationship for determining the liquid's flow rate in such cases is:

Q = V x A

where

Q = liquid flow through the pipe

V = average velocity of the flow

A = cross-sectional area of the pipe

Other factors that affect liquid flow rate include the liquid's viscosity and density, and the friction of the liquid in contact with the pipe.

Direct measurements of liquid flows can be made with positive-displacement flowmeters. These units divide the liquid into specific increments and move it on. The total flow is an accumulation of the measured increments, which can be counted by mechanical or electronic techniques.

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE METERS

The use of differential pressure as an inferred measurement of a liquid's rate of flow is well known. Differential pressure flow meters are, by far, the most common units in use today. Estimates are that over 50 percent of all liquid flow measurement applications use this type of unit.

The basic operating principle of differential pressure flow meters is based on the premise that the pressure drop across the meter is proportional to the square of the flow rate. The flow rate is obtained by measuring the pressure differential and extracting the square root.

Differential pressure flow meters, like most flow meters, have a primary and secondary element. The primary element causes a change in kinetic energy, which creates the differential pressure in the pipe. The unit must be properly matched to the pipe size, flow conditions, and the liquid's properties. And, the measurement accuracy of the element must be good over a reasonable range. The secondary element measures the differential pressure and provides the signal or read-out that is converted to the actual flow value.

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ORIFICES

Orifices are the most popular liquid flow meters in use today. An orifice is simply a flat piece of metal with a specific-sized hole bored in it. Most orifices are of the concentric type, but eccentric, conical (quadrant), and segmental designs are also available.

In practice, the orifice plate is installed in the pipe between two flanges. Acting as the primary device, the orifice constricts the flow of liquid to produce a differential pressure across the plate. Pressure taps on either side of the plate are used to detect the difference. Major advantages of orifices are that they have no moving parts and their cost does not increase significantly with pipe size.

Conical and quadrant orifices are relatively new. The units were developed primarily to measure liquids with low Reynolds numbers. Essentially constant flow coefficients can be maintained at R values below 5000. Conical orifice plates have an upstream bevel, the depth and angle of which must be calculated and machined for each application.

The segmental wedge is a variation of the segmental orifice. It is a restriction orifice primarily designed to measure the flow of liquids containing solids. The unit has the ability to measure flows at low Reynolds numbers and still maintain the desired square-root relationship. Its design is simple, and there is only one critical dimension the wedge gap. Pressure drop through the unit is only about half that of conventional orifices.

Integral wedge assemblies combine the wedge element and pressure taps into a one-piece pipe coupling bolted to a conventional pressure transmitter. No special piping or fittings are needed to install the device in a pipeline.

Metering accuracy of all orifice flow meters depends on the installation conditions, the orifice area ratio, and the physical properties of the liquid being measured.

Venturi tubes have the advantage of being able to handle large flow volumes at low pressure drops. A venturi tube is essentially a section of pipe with a tapered entrance and a straight throat. As liquid passes through the throat, its velocity increases, causing a pressure differential between the inlet and outlet regions.

The flowmeters have no moving parts. They can be installed in large diameter pipes using flanged, welded or threaded-end fittings. Four or more pressure taps are usually installed with the unit to average the measured pressure. Venturi tubes can be used with most liquids, including those having a high solids content.

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Flow tubes are somewhat similar to venturi tubes except that they do not have the entrance cone. They have a tapered throat, but the exit is elongated and smooth. The distance between the front face and the tip is approximately one-half the pipe diameter. Pressure taps are located about one- half pipe diameter downstream and one pipe diameter upstream.

Flow Nozzles, at high velocities, can handle approximately 60 percent greater liquid flow than orifice plates having the same pressure drop. Liquids with suspended solids can also be metered. However, use of the units is not recommended for highly viscous liquids or those containing large amounts of sticky solids.

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P a g e | 60 Flow tubes are somewhat similar to venturi tubes except that

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