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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Mechanical Vibrations
Chapter 4
Peter Avitabile
Mechanical Engineering Department
University of Massachusetts Lowell
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Impulse Excitation
Impulsive excitations are generally
considered to be a large magnitude
force that acts over a very short
duration time
The time integral of the force is
When the force is equal to unity and the time
approaches zero then the unit impulse exists and
the delta function has the property of
(4.1.1)

= dt ) t ( F F

( ) = t for 0 t
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Impulse Excitation
Integrated over all time, the delta function is
If this function is multiplied times any forcing
function then the product will result in only one
value at t= and zero elsewhere
(4.1.2)

< < =
0
0 1 dt ) t (

< < =
0
0 ) ( f dt ) t ( ) t ( f
(4.1.3)
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Impulse Excitation
Considering impact-momentum on the system, a
sudden change in velocity is equal to the actual
applied input divided by the force.
Recall that the free response due to initial
conditions is given by
t cos ) 0 ( x t sin
) 0 ( x
x
n n
n
+

=
&
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Impulse Excitation
Then the velocity initial condition yields
and it can be seen that the solution includes h(t)
(4.1.4)
(4.1.5)
) t ( h F

t sin
m
F

x
n
n
=

=
t sin
m
1
) t ( h
n
n

=
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Impulse Excitation
When damping is considered in the solution, the
free response is given as (x(0)=0)
which can be written as
or as
(4.16)
t sin
e ) 0 ( x
t 1 sin
1
e ) 0 ( x
x
d
d
t
2
n
2
n
t
n

=

=

& &
t 1 sin e
1 m
F

x
2
n
t
2
n
n

=

) t ( h F

t sin e
m
F

x
d
t
d
=

=

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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Arbitrary Excitation
Using the unit
impulse response
function, the
response due to
can be determined.
The arbitrary force
is considered to be
a series of impulses
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Arbitrary Excitation
Since the system is considered linear, then the
superposition of the responses of each individual
impulse can be obtained through numerical
integration
This is called the superposition integral. But it is
also referred to as the
Convolution Integral
or
Duhammels Integral
(4.2.1)

=
t
0
d ) t ( h ) ( f ) t ( x
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Step Excitation
Determine the indamped response due to a step.
For the undamped system,
which is substituted into (4.2.1) to give
(4.2.2)
t sin
m
1
) t ( h
n
n

=
( )

=

d t sin
m
F
) t ( x
t
0
n
n
0
( ) t cos 1
k
F
) t ( x
n
0
=
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Step Excitation
This implies that the peak response is twice the
statical displacement
(4.2.2)
( ) t cos 1
k
F
) t ( x
n
0
=
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
Time
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Dis placement vers us Time
Note: Force selected such that F/k ratio is 1.0
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Step Excitation
When damping is included in the equation, then
and
(4.2.2)
t 1 sin
1 m
e
) t ( h
2
n
2
n
t
n

=

(
(

=

t 1 cos
1 m
e
1
k
F
) t ( x
2
n
2
n
t
0
n
(4.2.3)
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Step Excitation
This can be simplified as
t sin
m
e
) t ( h
d
d
t

=

(

=

t cos
m
e
1
k
F
) t ( x
d
d
t
0
M=1 ; K=2
C=0
C=0.1
C=0.5
C=1.0
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Base Excitation
For base excitation,
the equation of motion is expressed as z=x-y and
will result in
Notice that the F/m term is replaced by the
negative of the base acceleration (ie, F=ma)
(3.5.1)
(4.2.4)
y z z 2 z
2
n n
& & & & & = + +
) y x ( c ) y x ( k x m & & & & =
y x z =
(3.5.2)
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Base Excitation
For and undamped system
initially at rest, the
solution for the relative
displacement is
(4.2.5)
( )

=

d t sin ) ( y
1
) t ( z
t
0
n
n
& &
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Ramp Excitation and Rise Time
This solution must always be considered in two
parts - the time less than and greater than t
1
The ramp of the force is
and h(t) for the convolution integral is
(4.4.1)
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
0
t
t
F ) t ( f
(4.4.1) t sin
k
t sin
m
1
) t ( h
n
n
n
n

=
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Ramp Excitation and Rise Time
The response for the first part of the ramp is
and the response of the step portion after t
1
is
(4.4.2)
1
1 n
n
1
0
n
t
0
1
0
n
t t
t
t sin
t
t
k
F
d ) t ( sin
t
F
k
) t ( x
< |
.
|

\
|

=

=

( )
1
1 n
1 n
1
1 0
t t
t
t t sin
t
t t
k
F
) t ( x > |
.
|

\
|

=
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Ramp Excitation and Rise Time
The superposition of the two pieces of the solution
gives the total response due to the force as
(4.4.3)
( )
1
1 n
1 n
1 n
n 0
t t
t
t t sin
t
t sin
1
k
F
) t ( x > |
.
|

\
|

=
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
Rectangular Pulse
The rectangular pulse is the sum of two different
step functions - one positive and one negative
shifted in time
Step Up
Step down
Combined
(4.4.4)
( )
1 n
0
t t t cos 1
F
) t ( kx
< =
(4.4.5)
(4.4.6)
( ) ( )
1 1 n
0
t t t t cos 1
F
) t ( kx
< =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 n n
0
t t t t cos 1 t cos 1
F
) t ( kx
< =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 n n
0
t t t t cos t cos
F
) t ( kx
< + =
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Time
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Dis placement vers us Time
MATLAB Examples - VTB3_1
VIBRATION TOOLBOX EXAMPLE 3_1
>> m=1; c=.1; k=2; tf=100; F0=1;
>> vtb3_1(m,c,k,F0,tf)
>>
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
0.5
1
Time
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Dis placement vers us Time
MATLAB Examples - VTB3_2
VIBRATION TOOLBOX EXAMPLE 3_2
>> m=1; c=.1; k=2; tf=100; F0=1;
>> VTB3_2(m,c,k,F0,tf)
>>
>>
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
MATLAB Examples - VTB1_4
VIBRATION TOOLBOX EXAMPLE 1_4 pulse
>> clear; p=1:1:1000; pp=p./p; ppp=[(p./p-p./p) pp (p./p-p./p) (p./p-p./p)];
>> x0=0; v0=0; m=1; d=.5; k=2; dt=.01; n=4000;
>> u=ppp; [x,xd]=VTB1_4(n,dt,x0,v0,m,d,k,u);
>> t=0:dt:n*dt; plot(t,x);plot(t,x);
>>
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
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Dr. Peter Avitabile
Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory
22.457 Mechanical Vibrations - Chapter 4
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
MATLAB Examples - VTB1_4
VIBRATION TOOLBOX EXAMPLE 1_4 ramp up (basically a static problem)
>> clear; x0=0; v0=0; m=1; d=.5; k=2; dt=.01; n=3000;
>> t=0:dt*100:n; u=t./3000; [x,xd]=VTB1_4(n,dt,x0,v0,m,d,k,u);
>> t=0:dt:n*dt; plot(t,x);
>>