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CONTENT UPDATE: CHEMISTRY I. Matter and Its Classification 1. Che istr!

is a physical science that deals with the study of matter its properties, its composition, its structure, its changes and the energy accompanying such changes. 2. There are two distinguishing characteristics of matter: (1) it has mass, and (2) it occupies the space. The space that matter occupies is referred to as volume. 3. The properties or characteristics of matter may e classified as physical or chemical. Ph!sical "ro"erties are perceived y the senses or measured y chemical means. !olor, mass, and odor are some e"amples. #n the other hand, che ical "ro"erties are $ualities that can only e o served if the material undergoes a change that results to an alteration in its composition. %lamma ility and inertness are some e"amples. &. Ph!sical chan#e involves a change in phase, si'e and shape and other physical characteristics or matter ut there is certainly no alteration in its composition. (. )ll phase changes namely: evaporation, condensation, melting, free'ing, deposition and su limation are physical changes. *. Che ical chan#e involves the formation of a new su stance or su stances with different physical and chemical characteristics. Thus this type of change results to the alteration in the composition of matter. +. ,vidences of chemical change include formation of u les, formation of precipitate, production of heat and light and in change of colors. -. .atter may e"ist as solid, li$uid or gas. The gas particles are widely separated whereas the particles in solid phase are closely pac/ed. The particles in the li$uid phase are neither too far nor too near with each other. The arrangement of the particles of the different phases of matter account for the differences in their characteristics. 0. .atter and its classification:

11. There are ma2or groupings of matter pure su stances and mi"tures. 11. P$re s$%stances (or simply su stances) are homogeneous. They are composed of one /ind of matter which has definite chemical composition. They definite melting and oiling points. 12. 3omogeneous system is characteri'ed y one phase system whose characteristics are uniform throughout. 13. 4u stances are further grouped into elements and compounds. 1&. Ele ents are the simplest form of matter since hey cannot e decomposed further even through chemical means. To date, there are already 11* /nown elements. .ost of these elements are naturally occurring or can e found in nature. 1(. ,lements are further classified into metal, non5metal, and metalloid. 1*. 6elow are some characteristics of metal. i. They posses luster. ii. They are mallea le and ductile. iii. They have high tensile strength. iv. They are good conductors of heat and electricity. 1+. 7hereas, the following are characteristics of non5metals i. They are pure conductors (thus, ma/ing them good insulators) of heat and electricity ii. They are neither mallea le nor ductile. iii. They are rittle. (if in solid phase) 1-. Co "o$nds are pure su stances that are composed of two elements, which are chemically com ined in a definite ratio y mass. 10. There are two ways of grouping compounds as organic or inorganic8 and as acid, ase or neutral. 21. 6asically, car on5containing compounds are organic. 4ugar, acetone, acetic acid, methane, ethylene, alcohol are organic compounds. 3owever, car ides, car onates, icar onates, cyanides, car on dio"ide and car on mono"ides are e"emptions. 21. Inor#anic co "o$nds are those compounds that do not contain car on. 4alt, lye and water are e"amples. 22. )cids when dissolved in water yield (39) whiled ases yield hydro"ide ions (#3). 23. Acids are usually distinguished from ases through the use of indicators. Indicators are most cases wea/ organic acids or ases that change color over a range of ph values. :itmus is a common indicator. 2&. )cid turns the color of lue litmus to red while ase turns red to lue. 2(. ;nli/e acids and ases, neutral compounds do not change the color of indicators.

2*. Mi&t$re is made up of two or more pure su stances that are physically com ined. <t may e homogeneous or heterogeneous. 2+. Hetero#eneo$s s!ste is characteri'ed y the presence of two or more distinct phases, which have different properties. 2-. Sol$tion is the only homogeneous mi"ture. !olloids and suspensions are heterogeneous. 20. #f the three types of mi"tures, only colloids e&hi%it T!ndall effect. Tyndall effect is the scattering of light. 31. !omponents of mi"tures can e separated y ordinary "h!sical "rocesses. The choice of separation techni$ue is dependent on the type of mi"ture and the characteristics of its components. II. Historical De'elo" ent of the Ato ic Str$ct$re 1. De ocrit$s was a =ree/ philosopher who first introduced the concept of atoms. 3e elieved that matter is comprises of tiny indivisi le particles /now as atomos. (. Dalton)s Ato ic Theor! i. )ll matter is made up of indivisi le particles /nown as atoms. ii. )ll atoms of the same elements are ali/e. iii. !ompounds are formed when atoms of different elements com ine in certain proportions. iv. )toms are only rearranged ut neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. 3. *a+ of definite "ro"ortion a given compound always contains the same elements in e"actly the same proportion y mass. &. *a+ of $lti"le "ro"ortions when two elements can com ine to form more than one type of compound, the masses of one element that com ine with a fi"ed mass of the other element are in a ratio of small whole num ers. H!"othesis in Dalton)s Ato ic Theor! *a+ of Che ical Co %ination Ill$strati'e E&a "les

1. ,lements consist of e"tremely small particles called atoms. )ll atoms of a given element have identical si'e, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements.

*a+ of Definite Pro"ortions states that different samples of the same compound always contain its constituent element in the same proportion y mass.

053 atoms 35@ atoms

053 atoms A 353 atoms 35@ atoms 15@ atoms Re"resentation of 2 olec$les a onia

2. !ompounds are composed of atoms of more than one element which are com ined in simple ratios.

*a+ of M$lti"le Pro"ortions states that if two elements can com ine to form more than one compound, the mass of one element that com ines with a fi"ed mass of the other elements is in ratios of small whole num ers.

115@ atoms 115# atoms 15@ atom 15# atom

115@ atoms 215# atoms 15@ atom 25# atoms

The ratio of N to O 1:1 1:2

3. ) chemical reaction does not result to the destruction of the atom. ,ven the atom separates, com ines or rearranges to or with other atoms8 its identity remains the same.

@2 9 3 32 2 @33
*a+ of Conser'ation of Mass states that matter can neither e created nor destroyed. +g 9 3g A 1+ g

(. The discovery of the different su 5atomic particles: i. ,. ,. Tho "son determined the charge to mass ratio of the electron using a cathode ray tu e. ii. Ernest R$therford discovered the e"istence of the nucleus through his alpha scattering e"periment. iii. E$#en -oldstein discovered the proton with his e"periment using a gas discharge tu e. iv. ,a es Chad+ic. discovered the neutron. v. Ro%ert was a le to determine the charge of a single electron. *. The )tomic and .ass num ers i. Ato ic n$ %er /01 of an element refers to the num er of protons it has. ii. Mass n$ %er /A1 of an element refers to the num er of protons and neutrons it has.

>? where > refers to the chemical sym ol of the element

+. Isoto"es refer to atoms of the same elements having the same atomic num er ut different mass num ers. The three isotopes of hydrogen are protium, deuterium, and tritium. 3. The 4$ant$ N$ %ers i. n /"rinci"al 5$ant$ n$ %er1 identifies the main energy level ii. l /an#$lar o ent$ 6 a7i $thal 5$ant$ n$ %er1 indicates the shape of the or itals elonging to the same su shell. iii. a#netic 5$ant$ n$ %er1 tells the orientation of the or itals in space l / iv. n$ %er1 indicates the direction of the electronBs spin on its a"is s /s"in 5$ant$ 0. 6elow is a ta le that summari'es the relationship of the $uantum num ers

11. ,ach or ital can accommodate two electrons only. Therefore, for an ener#! le'el n, there are n( or%itals and (n( electrons that can e accommodated. 11. The electron confi#$ration of the elements refers to the description of the way electrons are arranged in the different energy levels and or ital in an atom. <t predicts the physical and chemical properties of the element. 12. The following are the rules to e followed in writing the electron configuration: i. @o two electrons in the same atom can have the same four $uantum num ers /Pa$li)s E&cl$sion Princi"le1 ii. The most sta le arrangement of electrons in a su shell is the one that has the greatest num er of parallel spins /H$nd)s R$le1 iii. The A$f%a$ Princi"le provides the guideline for uilding up the elements which states that electrons are filled up in the or itals according to increasing energies sCpCdCf. 13. )toms with one or more unpaired electrons are paramagnetic. )toms in which all electrons are paired are dia a#netic. III. The Periodic Ta%le 1. The "eriodic ta%le is a ta ular arrangement or classification of the elements according to their atomic num er. 2. The hori'ontal rows in the periodic ta le are called periods or series and the vertical columns are the groups or families. The periodic ta le has 1* vertical columns and + hori'ontal rows. 3. -ro$" A elements are referred to as the re"resentati'e ele ents and #ro$" 8 elements are referred to as the transition ele ents. Inner transition ele ents consist of the lanthanides and the actinides. &. The heavy 'ig'ag line, starting from oron and running diagonally down to astatine, separates the metals (located at the left of the line) from the non5metals (located at the right of the line), e"cept the group -a elements. The elements ordering the 'ig'ag line are the etalloids. (. The figure elow shows the modern periodic ta le.

*. The period num er gives the num er of main energy levels or the highest occupied main energy level in an atom of an element. ,lements elonging the same period have the same num er of energy levels. +. The group num er of representative element indicates the num er of valence electrons in an atom. ,lements elonging to the same group have the same num er of valence electrons8 hence, they have similar chemical properties. -. The periodic ta le may e divided into four loc/s ased on the su 5levelD or ital to which the differentiating electron is added. These loc/s are the s loc/ (consisting of groups 1) and 2) elements)8 p loc/ (consisting of groups 3) to -) elements)8 d loc/ (consisting of the transition metals)8 and f loc/ (consisting of the inner transition metals that include the lanthanides and the actinides) 0. The periodic law states that the physical and chemical properties are periodic functions of their atomic num ers. 11. )tomic radius and metallic property decrease form left to right in a period and increase from top to ottom in a group. <oni'ation energy and electronegativity (of representative elements only) increase across a period and decrease down a group.


Che ical :or $la and Che ical E5$ations 1. )n organi'ation of chemists popularly /nown as the <nternational ;nion of Eure and )pplied !hemistry (<;E)!) has developed a system of naming compounds. 2. The more positive part of a compound, which could e a metal, a positive polyatomic ion, a hydrogen ion, or the less electronegative portion, is always written and named first. 3. 6inary compounds always ta/e an ide ending. &. 7hen two non5metals com ine to form 2ust one compound, the compound is eing named y simply naming the first non5metal and then changing the ending of the second nonmetal to ide. ,"ample: 324(g) hydrogen sulfide

(. 7hen the com ination of two non5metals forms more than one compound. =ree/ prefi"es are utili'ed. @um er =ree/ prefi" 1 mono 2 di 3 tri & tetra ( penta @um er=ree/ prefi" * + 0 nona 11 he"a hepta octa deca

,"amples: !# car on mono"ide

@2#&5 dinitrogen tetro"ide

*. 7hen a metal with a fi"ed o"idation num er com ines with a nonmetal, the rule is the same in naming a inary compound. (=ree/ prefi"es are not used) ,"ample: .g29 #25 .g2#2 .g# A magnesium o"ide +. 7hen a metal of varia le o"idation num er com ines with a nonmetal, the compound may e named through the classical system or the stoc/ system. -. =enerally, the classical system ma/es use of a :atin name of the element. ,lement !opper <ron Tin :ead 4ym ol !u %e 4n E :atin @ame !uprum %errum 4tannum Elum um

0. The ending of the :atin name is eing changed ased on the o"idation num er of the metal of the compound. <f the metal has a lower o"idation num er, the ending of the :atin name is eing changed into ous. <f the metal has the higher o"idation num er, the ending is eing changed into ic. Ion Traditional Stoc. or S!ste atic

Na e !r39 !r29 !o39 !o29 !u29 !u9 %e39 %e29 E E


Na e !hromium(<<<) !hromium(<<) !o alt(<<<) !o alt(<<)

!hromic !hromous

!upric !uprous %erric %errous

!opper(<<) !opper(<) <ron(<<<) <ron(<<) :ead(<F) :ead(<<)


3g29 3g
2+ 2

.ercuric .ercurous 4tannic 4tannous

.ercury(<<) .ercury(<) Tin(<F) Tin(<<)

4n&9 4n29

11. The stoc/ system ma/es use of the actual o"idation num er of the metal, which is indicated y a Goman numeral in parenthesis written immediately after the name of the metal. ,"ample: %e39!l5 %e!l3 A ferric chloride or iron(<<<) chloride 11. Ternary !ompounds contain 3 elements. Eolyatomic ions are covalently onded atoms that ehave as a group with the net charge distri uted evenly. :or $la @3 + 4 !@ !l# !l#

na e )mmonium !yanide hypochlorite !hlorite !hlorate Eerchlorate @itrate @itrite Eero"ide 3ydro"ide acetate

:or $la !# 3

Na e !ar onate 6icar onate !hromate Hichromate Eermanganate Ehosphite Ehosphate Hihydrogenphosphate 4ulfite 4ulfate

3!# 3

!r# 2 4

!r2#+ .n#&

!l# 3 !l#

E#3 3 E#& 3 32E#& 4#325 4#&25 34#&

@# 3 @# #225

#3 !33!##


ternary compounds that contain metal (cation) 9 polyatomic ion (anion) polyatomic cation 9 monoatomic anion polyatomic cation 9 polyatomic anion

@ame the cation ion and anion as it is.

,"amples: !u29 4#&25 !u4#& A cupric sulfate or copper (<<) sulfate

5 @3 + 4 !l @3&!l A ammonium chloride

@3 + 4 !# 3

(@3&)2!#3 A ammonium car onate

12. 6inary acids contain one or more 3 atoms plus an anion ending in ide (may e"ist in a$ueous or gaseous form) ,"amples: 3!l (g) hydrogen chloride 3!l (a$) hydrochloric acid 13. #"yacids are acids that contain more than two elements and are most cases composed of o"ygen and hydrogen. The name of the o"yacid is ased on the name of the polyatomic ion. @ote that when naming o"yacid, the ate ending of the polyatomic ion is eing changed to ic whereas if the ending of the ion is ite, it is eing changed to ous. 1&. )n ic acid forms an ate ion. ,"ample: 3!l#3(g) hydrogen chlorate 1(. )n ous acid forms an ite ion. ,"ample: 3!l#2(g) hydrogen chlorite 3!l#3(a$) chloric acid 3!l#3(a$) chlorous acid

1*. ) per5 5ic acid forms from the addition of one # to the ate ion. ,"ample: 3!l#&(g) hydrogen perchlorate 3!l#3(a$) perchloric acid

1+. ) hypo5 5ous acid forms from the removal of one # to the ite ion. ,"ample: 3!l# (g) hydrogen hypochlorite 3!l#3(a$)hypochlorous acid

1-. 6ases contain the polyatomic anion #3 at the end of the formula. <n naming, name the cation first then the hydro"ide. ,"ample: .g(#3)2 magnesium hydro"ide 10. !ommon names of some compounds !a!#3 !#2 .g(#3)2 3!la$ 3!233#2 32#2 @a3!#3 @2# @a!#3 @a#3 calcium car onate car on dio"ide magnesium hydro"ide hydrochloric acid acetic acid hydrogen pero"ide sodium icar onate dinitrogen mono"ide sodium car onate sodium hydro"ide limestone dry ice mil/ of magnesia muriatic acid vinegar agua o"igenada a/ing soda laughing gas washing soda caustic soda

21. !hemical e$uation is a shorthand notation that descri es the course of a chemical reaction. %ormation of u les, change in color, formation of precipitate, production of heat and light are some evidences of a chemical change or chemical reaction. 21. ) alanced chemical e$uation is one in which the num er of atoms of each element on one side of the e$uation is e$ual to the num er of atoms on the other side. 22. ) alanced chemical e$uation shows the nature and the relative $uantities of each reactant and product. The relative $uantities are derived from the coefficients in the alanced e$uation. 23. There are four asic reaction types com ustion, decomposition, single replacement, and dou le replacement. Co %ination (synthesis) reactions give one product from simple com ination of reactants (elementDcompound) generally represented as: ) 9 6 !. =eneral chemical reactions of these types are given on the ne"t page. Reactant Prod$ct 6inary compound Imetallic o"ideD sulfide Dhalides asic anhydrideJ E&a "le


.etal 9 nonmetal

@a (s) 9 !l2 (g) 2 @a!l (s)

ii. iii. iv. v.

@onmetal 9 #"ygen gas .etal o"ide 9 water @onmetal water o"ide 9 9

@onmetal o"ide (acid anhydride) .etal hydro"ide ( ase) #"yacid 4alt

! (s) 9 #2 (g) !#2 (g) .g# (s) 9 32# (l) .g(#3)2 (aq) 4#2 (g) 932# (l) 324#3 (aq) !a# (s) 9 !#2 (g) !a!#3 (s)

.etal o"ide nonmetal o"ide

Co %$stion reactions happen when o"ygen in e"cess com ines with organic compounds (car on, hydrogen, and o"ygen) to produce car on dio"ide and water as the sole product. ,"ample: 2 ! 23* (g) 9 + #2 (g) & !#2 (g) 9 * 32# (g)

Deco "osition reactions start with a single reactant and transform y heat or electricity into two or more products with a general representation as: ! ) 9 6 Reactant Prod$ct 7ater 9 anhydrous salt !hlorides 9 o"ygen gas .etal 9 o"ygen gas .etal o"ide 9 car on dio"ide (grp .etal o"ide9 car on dio"ide 9 water 3ydrogen gas 9 o"ygen gas E&a "le !u4#& K(32#(s) !u4#& (s) 9 ( 32#(l) 2 L!l#3 (s) L!l (s) 9 3 #2 (g) 2 3g# (s) 2 3g (l) 9 #2 (g) !a!#3 (s) !a# (s) + !#2 (g) @a3!#3 (s) @a2!#3 (s)9!#2 (g) 9 32#(g) 2 32#(l) elec 2 32 (g) 9 #2 (g)

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

3ydrate !hlorate .etal o"ides !ar onates 6icar onate <)M) 7ater

Geplacement or displacement reactions form products as atoms or ions e"change. 6elow are its types: Sin#le re"lace ent reactions show a more active element replacing a less active one in a compound, with the general representation as: ) 9 6! )! 9 6. .ost of these reactions go with 3 su categories which are guided y an acti'it! series. These are: hydrogen displacement, metal displacement and halogen displacement. The activity series of metals: The metals are arranged according to their a ility to displace 3ydrogen from an acid or water. :i is the most active metal, and )u is the least reactive. *i ; 8a Ca Na M# Al 0n Cr :e Cd Co Ni Sn P% H C$ H# A# Pt A$ Reactant Prod$ct 4alt 9 hydrogen gas :ess active metal 9 compound :ess active halogen gas 9 salt E&a "le ?n (s) 9 2 3!l (aq) ?n!l2 (aq) 9 32(g) %e (s) 9 !u4#& (aq) %e4#& (aq) 9 !u (s)

i. ii.

.etal 9 acid reactive metal 9 metal in compounds 3alogen gas 9 halogen containing compound

iii .

!l2 (g) 9 2L6r (aq) 2 L!l (aq) 9 6r2 (g)

Do$%le re"lace ent / etathesis1 reactions occur commonly for ionic reactions in aqueous solutions where the dissociated ions of the reactants e"change or replace one another. The general representation is: )6 9 !H )H 9 !6. This type of reaction includes: o Preci"itation reactions result in the formation of an insolu le solid product that separates from the solution ("reci"itate). The solu ility rules elow determine which compounds are solu le and which are insolu le.

Sol$%le Co "o$nds !ompounds containing al/ali metal ions and @3&9 @itrates (@#35), icar onates (3!#35, and 5 chlorates (!l#3 ) 3alides (!l 5, 6r 5, < 5) 4ulfates (4#&25) Insol$%le Co "o$nds !ar onates (!#325), phosphates chromates (!r#&25), sulfides (425) 3ydro"ides (#3 5) (E#&35),


3alides of )g9, 3g229, and E 29 4ulfates of )g9, !a29, 4r29, 6a29, 3g29, and E 29 E&ce"tions !ompounds containing al/ali metal ions and @3&9 !ompounds containing al/ali metal ions and the 6a29 ion

E&a "le: E (@#3)2 (aq) 9 2 L< (aq) E <2 (s) N 9 2 L@#3 (aq) o Ne$trali7ation reactions is a reaction etween an acid and a base under a$ueous to produce water and salt (ionic compound).

E&a "le: @a#3 (aq) 9 3!l (aq) @a!l (aq) 9 32# (l) The a ove reactions can e classified under one type of reaction that is . . . RedO& reactions (#"idation5Geduction), which are considered as electron5transfer reactions. The reaction can e separated to form half reactions, namely, o&idation reaction (loss of electrons) and red$ction reaction (gain of electrons). The reactant that undergoes o"idation is the red$cin# a#ent (:,#G)) and the one that goes through the reduction is the o&idi7in# a#ent (=,G#)). ,lectrons in redo" reaction are trac/ed through the change in the o&idation n$ %er of an atom. The given e"ample elow shows that ?n is the reducing agent and o"ygen is the o"idi'ing reagent.

E&a "le:

2&. )n element undergoes o"idation if it loses electrons and its o"idation num er increases. )n element undergoes reduction if it gains electrons and its o"idation num er decreases. Geaction in which o"idation and reduction occurs is /nown as redo" reaction. 2(. There are four main factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction nature of reactants, concentration of reactants, temperature and the presence of catalysts. 2*. !hemical reactions follow the law of conservation of mass and the law of definite proportions. 2+. 4toichiometry is the study of the $uantitative relationship etween reactants and products that can e derived from alanced chemical reactions. 2-. ) limiting reagent is the reactant that is completely consumed and predicts the amount of products formed in a chemical reaction. 20. )n e"cess reagent is the reactant present in an amount greater than the needed amount of a limiting reagent. 31. ) chemical formula is an a reviation for the name of a compound. <t consists of the sym ols of the elements with proper su scripts. The su script indicates the num er of atoms of the element in the compound. The parenthesis in the formula indicates a group of atoms that may ehave as a unit. .olecular formula gives the actual num er of atoms of each element in the compound ,mpirical formula gives the simplest whole num er ratio of the atoms of the compound

31. ) mole of a su stance contains )vogadroBs num er of units of a su stance (*.12 " 11 23) 32. The present composition of a compound is the percentage y mass of each of the elements in the compound. <t may e determined if the formula of the compound is /nown.

33. The empirical formula of the compound can e found from its percent composition. <n order to determine the molecular formula, the molecular mass must e /nown. 9. Che ical 8ondin# 1. )toms react in order to achieve the sta le electron configuration of a no le gas (or to e isoelectronic with a mo le gas). This is also /nown as the octet rule ecause of the need of eight electrons. This rule is true only to elements elonging to the second period of =roup <F), F), F<), and F<<). (no le gases have eight valence electrons e"cept helium) 2. There are some elements that do not follow the octet rule in forming covalent onds ecause of their electron configuration. 4ome have e"panded outer energy levels which can hold more than eight electrons8 others can share only three pairs of electrons. 3. 7hen elements com ine, the force of attraction that holds atoms together is called a chemical ond. ) chemical ond may e ionic D electrovalent (formed e electron transfer involving ions formed from metals and non5metals) or covalent (formed y electron sharing) &. <n the formation of chemical onds, only the valence electrons are involved. These valence electrons are represented in a :ewis dot sym ol or electron dot sym ol of an element. (. <n the formation of an ionic compound, a metal atom loses electrons and ecomes a cation, whereas a nonmetal atom gains electrons and ecomes an anion. *. <onic compound are usually solids at room temperature ecause of the strong electrostatic force of attraction etween their oppositely charged ions. These compounds easily dissolved in water. +. !ovalent onds involve the sharing of electron pairs etween nonmetal atoms. -. 6onding electrons are involved in the formation of covalent onds. ,lectrons not involved in ond formation are the non onding electrons or lone pairs. 0. The ond formed etween atoms of different non5metals wherein there is une$ual sharing of electrons due to differences in electronegativities is a polar covalent ond. !onversely, the ond formed etween atoms of the same nonmetal wherein the onded electrons are e$ually shared etween atoms is a nonpolar covalent ond. .olecules with nonpolar onds are nonpolar, ut molecules with polar onds may or may not e polar depending on the shape or geometry of the molecule. 11. 6ecause of wea/ van der waals forces of attraction etween molecules, covalent compounds are usually gases or li$uids with low oiling points8 those in the solid state generally have low melting points. They are often insolu le in water ut dissolve readily ion organic solvents. @onpolar covalent compounds do not conduct electricity, ut some polar covalent compounds conduct electricity in their molten state. 11. .etallic ond is the e"isting force of attraction etween metal positive ions and the highly mo ile electrons. 12. The F4,EG (valence shell electron pair repulsion) model for predicting the shape of molecules is ased on the assumption that valence electrons repel each other8 thus, they tend to e as far apart as possi le. The shapes of molecules can e predicted from the num er of onding electron pairs and lone pairs. 13. The ta le elow is the summary of the ,lectron Eair Gepulsion .odel for predicting the shape of simple covalent molecules: Type )62 )63 )62, )6& )63, )62,2 )6( )63,2 )6* .olecular shape .olecular arrangement @o. of attached groups 6ond angle ,"ample .olecular shape @um er of ,lectron Eairs 6onding @on 2 3 2 & 3 2 ( 3 * 8asic Trigonal planar onding 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 Eredicted 4hape :inear Trigonal planar )ngularD ent Tetrahedral Trigonal pyramidal )ngularD ent Trigonal ipyramidal T shaped #ctahedral 8asic tetrahedral ,"amples 3g!l2 6%3 4n!l2 !3& @33 32# E!l( !l%3 4%*

8asic :inear

De'iation 6ent

De'iation Trigonal 6ent pyramidal ,

2 1-1o 6e!l2 8asic Trigonal pyramidal

3 121o 6%3

2 C121o 4#2 De'iation

& 110.(o !3& 8asic #ctahedral

C110.(o @33, 32# De'iation 4$uare 4$uare Eyramidal planar

4ee5saw ,T5shaped, :inear

, .olecular arrangement @o. of attached groups



01o (a"ial) C01o (a"ial), C01o (a"ial), o 6ond angle 121 1-11 01o C01o, 01o o (e$uatorial) C121 (e$uatorial), 555 ,"ample E!l( 4%&, !l%3, >e%2 4%* 6r%(, >e%& 1&. The attraction etween atoms in a chemical ond is termed as intramolecular forces. Their onding forces are relatively strong due to the larger charges that are close together. Inter olec$lar forces are non onding attractive forces etween molecules as a result of partial charges, or the attraction etween ions and molecules. Their forces are relatively wea/ due to smaller charges that are farther apart. 6elow are the different types of intermolecular forces of attraction (<.%)) presented according to their strength of attraction: Ion<di"ole forces is an attraction of an ion (either a cation or an anion) and a polar molecule to each other with a appro"imate energy of &15*11 /ODmol. This is commonly e"hi ited in a$ueous salt solutions. ) smaller ion and a greater dipole moment of a molecule creates a stronger attraction. ,"ample: @a 9KKK #32 H!dro#en %ondin# is a special type of dipole5dipole interaction etween a partially positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and a negative lone pair on the @, #, and % of another molecule. ,"ample: 3#3 KKK #32 Di"ole<di"ole forces are attractive forces etween polar molecules e"hi iting dipole moments. ,"ample: <5!l KKK <5!l Ion<ind$ced di"ole is the attraction etween an ion and the induced dipole with an energy of 351( /ODmol. ,"ample: !u29KKK #2 Dis"ersion forces are attractive forces that arise as a result of temporary dipoles induced in atoms or molecules. <t is also /nown as :ondon %orces. ,"ample: 6r56r KKK 6r56r The three latter forces are collectively /nown as 'an der =aal forces. 1(. The ,lectrical )ttractions 6etween 4u microscopic Earticles )ttraction <on5dipole Hipole5dipole Hipole5induced dipole <nduced dipole5dipole Gelative 4trength 4trongest 7ea/est

1*. 4u stances may e"ist as gas, li$uid and solids. The distance etween their particles is the ma2or difference etween them. <.%) affects mostly the ehavior of the su stances. <.%) etween molecules is considered as a factor in the non5ideal ehavior of gases. 1+. 6elow are the properties of li$uids and their relationship to <.%) S$rface tension5is the PinwardQ molecular attractive forces, which must e overcome to increase the surface area. Ca"illar! action is the rising of a li$uid through a narrow space against the pull of gravity. This phenomenon is an e"ample of surface tension that is rought a out y cohesion (attraction etween li/e molecules) and adhesion (attraction etween unli/e molecules) 9iscosit! is a measure of the ease with which molecules move past one another. Fiscosity decreases with increasing temperature. 9a"or "ress$re is the pressure e"erted y the gas molecules that evaporated from a li$uid. 8oilin# "oint is the temperature at which the vapor pressure e$uals atmospheric pressure %or a given li$uid at a certain temperature has high or greater (R)

IMFA surface tension viscosity vapor intermolecular forces of attraction the surface tension and vapor pressure is high while viscosity is low. pressure boiling pt.
1-. 4olids are classified as crystalline (made up of ions, molecules, atoms arranged in definite repeating geometric patters) and amorphous (without regular structure). <ce is an e"ample of crystalline solid and glass is of amorphous type.