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Historical Geology
Historical Geology (G 102) (G 102)
Fossils and Fossilization
Fossils and Fossilization
Dr. Osama E.A.
Dr. Osama E.A.
Attia
Attia
(from Latin fossus, literally "having been dug up")
Remains or traces of any recognizable
organic structure, whether of plants or
animals, preserved in rocks to indicate
extinct life
What conditions promote fossilization?
What conditions promote fossilization?
1- Rapid Burial 2- Hard Skeleton
3- Suitable Environment 4- Lack of Oxygen
Fossilization: It covers the survival of the
organism's remains after death and its transition into a
fossil.
What is a Fossil?
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I s I t fossil or Not?
1. Actual Remains of the Organism:
a- Remains of the entire
organism : ex. Mammoth
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1. Actual Remains of the Organism:
a- Remains of the entire
organism :ex. I nsect in Amber
1. Actual Remains of the Organism:
b- Remains of the original hard parts
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2. Altered Remains of the Organism:
a- Carbonization
b- Permineralization
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2. Altered Remains of the Organism:
C- Replacement:
ex. Petrified wood
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2. Altered Remains of the Organism:
C- Replacement:
ex. Pyritization
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External Mold
ex. Pelecypod mold
Internal Mold
(Steinkern)
ex. Pelecypod steinkerns
Molds Casts
ex. Pelecypod Cast
Imprints
ex. Leaf Imprints
Fish Imprints
Preservation of the Original Form
3. Preservation of the Original form:
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Making Molds and Casts
a. Molds and Casts
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3. Preservation of the Original form:
b- Imprints: ex. Leaf Imprints
ex. Fish Imprint
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4. Preservation of tracks of the organism:
a- Foot Prints
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b. Tracks: an impression made by a single foot.
c. Trackway: a number of tracks made during a single trip.
d. Trail: an impression made by an animal without leg.
e. Burrow: a hole or holes an animal dug into loose sediment (like mud).
f. Borings: a hole or holes an animal dug into a hard substrate (like wood
or rock).
4. Preservation of tracks of the organism:
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5. Preservation of Coprolites:
Coprtolites Coprtolites = = korpos korpos meaning meaning dung dung and ; and ; litho litho meaning meaning stone stone
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Preservational
Preservational
Conditions in Marine &
Conditions in Marine &
Terresterial
Terresterial
Environments
Environments
Marine Environment
Marine Environment
Terresterial
Terresterial
Environment
Environment

Conditions of fossilization
Conditions of fossilization
much more favorable.
much more favorable.

Deposition more common
Deposition more common

Conditions of fossilization
Conditions of fossilization
less favorable.
less favorable.

Deposition less common
Deposition less common

Organisms are buried
Organisms are buried
immediately after death
immediately after death

Chances of preservation
Chances of preservation
very common
very common

Organisms are not buried
Organisms are not buried
immediately after death
immediately after death

Chances of preservation
Chances of preservation
poor
poor
Large number of organisms my
Large number of organisms my
covered & preserved in sea
covered & preserved in sea
bottom and ocean floor
bottom and ocean floor
Few number of organisms my
Few number of organisms my
covered & preserved as in :
covered & preserved as in :
volcanic ash, dust,
volcanic ash, dust,
vaves
vaves
, rivers,
, rivers,
lakes, etc
lakes, etc

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Habitat Paleogeography
Evolution Chronology
Correlation Paleoecology
SIGNIFICANCE
OF
FOSSILS
Mohamed Fouad ALY Mohamed Fouad ALY
Habitat Paleogeography
Evolution Chronology
Correlation Paleoecology
SIGNIFICANCE
OF
FOSSILS
Mohamed Fouad ALY Mohamed Fouad ALY
Habitat Paleogeography
Evolution Chronology
Correlation Paleoecology
SIGNIFICANCE
OF
FOSSILS
Mohamed Fouad ALY Mohamed Fouad ALY
Habitat Paleogeography
Evolution Chronology
Correlation Paleoecology
SIGNIFICANCE
OF
FOSSILS
Mohamed Fouad ALY Mohamed Fouad ALY
Habitat Paleogeography
Evolution Chronology
Correlation Paleoecology
SIGNIFICANCE
OF
FOSSILS
Mohamed Fouad ALY Mohamed Fouad ALY
Habitat Paleogeography
Evolution Chronology
Correlation Paleoecology
SIGNIFICANCE
OF
FOSSILS