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Copy 3 FM 17-12
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FIELD MANUAL

TANK GUNNERY

HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY


NOVEMBER 1964
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PREPARE TO FIRE
Instructional Card
(M41A3, M48, and M60 Tanks)
TANK COMMANDER GUNNER DRIVER LOADER
Commond: PREPARE TO Observe looder's actionr in Cleon periscopes, Check indicotor tape for
FIRE. making check of replenisher in. lower seat, close proper amount of recoil oil
Inspect coaxial machine- dicotor tope. Clean nd inspect hoatch, nd turn in replenilher. Check posi-
gun ond telescope ports gunner s direct-fire sights. Check on master switch. tion of breechblock crank
to ensure gun shield operaoion of sight covers if op. stop. Open breech (assisted
cover is correctly posi- cable. Check instrument lights. by gunner); inspect cham-
tioned ond clomps are Assist loader in opening breech. ber ond tube, and clote
secure. Clean exterior breech. Check coxial
lenses and vision devices. mochinegun and adjust
and clean ond inspect head space if opplicble.
commander's direct-fire Check coaxial machinegun
sight(s). Inspect cupolao mount ond odjust solenoid.
sowed ammunilion if Inspect turret-stowed am.
applicable. munitlon.

Command: CHECK FIR- Ploce main gun safety in FIRE Start auxiliary Place moin gun safety
ING SWITCHES. position if located on right side engine (moin en- in FIREposition if loated
If main gun has percus- of gun. Turn gun switch ON. gin. if tank has on left side of gun. If
sion mechanism, cock gun Check firing triggers on power no auxiliary en- moin gun hoaspercussion
for eoch firing check if control handle if applicable. gine). mechanism, cock gun for
cocking mechonism is Check firing trigger on manual eoch firing check if cocking
locoatd on right side of elevating handle. Check manual mechanism is located on
gun. Check firing trig- or auxiliary firing control. (If left side of gun; watch
ger when moin gun moin gun has electric firing, n- dctionof linkage, ond
switch is ON and when nounce FIRE eoch time o trigger listen for oction of percus-
coaxiol mochinegun is checked with the main gun sion mechanism during
switch is ON. switch ON.) Turn moin gun each firing heck. If maoin
switch OFF; turn coaxial gun hoaselectric firing,
mochinegun switch ON. Check position circuit tester ond
firing triggers on power control watch indicator (light or
handle if applicable. Check scale). When the gunner
firing triger on manual ela- announces FIRE light
ting handle. Turn coaxial should be iluminated or
mochinegun switch OFF. rescribed reading should
shown on cale; if not,
.nnounce NO FIRE. When
the check Is completed, re-
move circuit tester.
Cock coaxial mochinegun
for each firing check, nd
listen for firing action.
Command: CHECK GUN Check oil in power control Check for obstruion to
CONTROLS. system as applicable. Unlock Itravr.e nd unlock turret
Check elevation ond turret if lock is located on righl if Ick is located on left
traverse with power side of turret. Check manual side of turret. Coordinoate
control handle. elevotion. Check manual tra.- with gunner to check hull.
erse and ensure handle is re- stowed ammunition.
turned to a ltched position.
Turn turret motor switch ON
(ond elevation power switch, if
applicable). Check power control
hondle for power elevation and
power traverse s opplicable.
Check mognetic broke if appli-
coble. Receck oil in gun control
system on tanks with controlled
pressure system. Check azimuth
(deflection) indicator for ac-
curacy nd slippage. Turn turret
motor switch OFF (and elevation
power swilch if applicable).
Check accurocy of quadrants as
opplicable ond odjust as re-
quired.
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TANK COMMANDER GUNNER DRIVER LOADER
Command: CHECK FIRE On tanks with a computer, Assist in boresighting main
CONTROL. index zero on rnge correction gun aond coaxial machine-
If tank has a range knob. Check to ensure that gun. Open breech (assist-
finder, check ond place inner pointer on computer .d by gunner). Assist tank
in operation. On talonks indictes sme ranges as in- commander in od'ueing
with a computer. check dexed on ronge finder. Ensure head spce on caliber .50
for binding by rotating circuit breaker switch is on and mochinegun if opplicable.
ranging knob through depress reset button. Check that
entire range scole; turn outer ond inner pointers on com-
computer ON; index puter match at various ranges.
various ranges on range Check that suprelevation wale
finder ond have gunner on computer indicates proper
ensure that they ore in- superelevation for the range
dexed on computer. and ammunition seleted; check
Boresight diret-fire sight superelevator action if o pli-
for main gun and opply cable. On tanks without a com-
establishe zero. Set puter, chck operation of ballis-
prescribed bttlesight lic unit. Baresight and opply
range on rnge finder if established zero. Index ammu-
pplicobl. Check caliber nition (and range if pplicable)
50 machinegun and in fire control system for pre-
dijust head space nd wribed batlesight if applicable.
timing if applicable.
Check caliber .50
mochinegun mount and
controls. Boresight cali-
ber .50 machinegun if
applicable.

Note. When perfoming the prepare-to-fire checks in prepartlon for a combat mission, all wepon ore
oded or half-loaded and placed on SAFE as a lt step before the report. When performed in
conjunction wih training exercis, wepons or loaded on y on order.
TANK COMMANDER GUNNER DRIVER LOADER
Command: REPORT. Reprt; 'GUNNER READY. Repod: *DRIVER Repor 'LOADER READY.
READY.
Or reports uncorrected deficiencies.
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PREPARE TO FIRE CHECKLIST
M 60 TANKS
AE GTA 17-010

TANK Command: PREPARE TO FIRE.


COMDR
Clean exterior lens and vision devices on turret.
GUNNER Observe loader's action in checking replenisher indicator tape.
Clean and inspect periscope and telescope (interior). Install bat-
teries and check instruments lights and rheostats for proper
operation.
DRIVER Clean periscopes, lower seat, close hatch, and turn on master
switch.
LOADER Check recoil oil by feeling indicator tape, open breech; inspect
tube and chamber for obstructions and cleanliness. Check coaxial
machine gun mount. Inspect all turret-stowed ammunition for
completeness of stowage, type, and serviceability. Check breech-
block crank stop to insure it is in the rearward position.

TANK Command: CHECK FIRING SWITCHES.


COMDR
Check firing trigger on power control handle when main gun
switch is ON and again when coaxial machine gun switch is ON.
GUNNER Turn main gun switch on. Check firing triggers on power control
handle and trigger on manual elevation control handle. Turn main
gun switch to OFF position. Actuate handle of manual firing de-
vice. NOTE: Each time the handle is actuated the circuit tester
light should come on. While actuating the handle announce FIRE.
Turn main gun switch off, then turn coaxial machine gun switch.
Check firing triggers on power control handle. Check firing trig-
gers on.power control handle. Check firing trigger on manual
elevation control handle. Turn off coaxial machine gun switch.
DRIVER Start engine.
LOADER Turn safety to OFF. Position circuit tester between breech ring
and breech block. Turn safety to FIRE position. During check of
triggers and firing button with main gun switch on, observe for
lighting of bulb in circuit tester. Light should be illuminated when
gunner announces FIRE. If the light falls to illuminate announce
NO FIRE. Close the cover, cock the coaxial machine gun, and
listen for the action of the barrel and barrel extension going
forward during firing trigger checks. Recock coaxial machine gun
after each check.

AG (1) l1-64.4M-100592 (L)


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TANK Command: CHECK GUN CONTROLS.
COMDR
Check power control handle for power elevation and power
traverse. Check magnetic brake.
GUNNER Check oil in turret power control system. Check manual traverse
to ensure free movement of turret. Insure that handle is returned
to a latched position. Check manual elevation. Turn turret motor
switch on. Check power control handle for power elevation and
power traverse. Check magnetic brake. Re-check oil in turret
control system. Check azimuth indicator for accuracy. Check turret
ring for obstructions. Check elevating cylinder for leaks. Manually
traverse turret a complete rotation, stopping to permit loader to
check ammunition in hull stowage. Coordinate with crew mem-
bers. Place turret in power and check azimuth indicator for slip-
page. Turn off turret motor switch. Check for leaks.
LOADER Check for obstruction to traverse. Unlock turret. Check hull-stowed
ammunition for completeness of stowage and serviceability; co-
ordinate with gunner while checking ammunition. NOTE: Traverse
manually for safety reasons.

TANK Command: CHECK FIRE CONTROL.


COMDR
Check and adjust head space and timing on cal. .50 machine gun
(This check does not apply on tanks equipped with the M85, cal
.50 machine gun). Turn on cupola power switch. Check operation
of cal .50 machine gun mount and controls. Index various ranges
on range finder. Calibrate and boresight range finder and apply
established zero. NOTE: If an established zero has not been de-
termined, apply the emergency zero. Set unit battlesight on range
finder. Boresight the cal .50 machine gun on tanks equipped with
the M85 machine gun. Half-load the cal .50 machine gun.
GUNNER Set range correction knob to reflect the number of rounds fired.
Check manual operation of computer to ensure there is no bind
in computer or linkage. Push RESET button on computer. Observe
to see that pointers on computer synchronize at various indexed
ranges. Index various types of ammunition and check for syn-
chronization of pointers each time ammunition selector handle is
released. Boresight periscope and telescope and apply estab-
lished zero to these sights. NOTE: If an established zero has
not been determined, apply the emergency zero. index ammuni-
tion on computer for unit battlesight.
LOADER Assist tank commander in adjusting head space on cal .50 ma-
chine gun (This check does not apply on tanks equipped with the
M85 cal .50 machine gun). Boresight coaxial machine gun and
assist in boresighting main gun. Open breech of main gun; return
operating handle to latched position. Load the coaxial machine
gun.
TANK
COMDR Command: REPORT
GUNNER Report: GUNNER READY
DRIVER Report: DRIVER READY
LOADER Report: LOADER READY
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*FM 17-12

FIELD MANUAL HEADQUARTERS

No. 17-12 I DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY


WASHINGTON, D.C., 30 November 1964

TANK GUNNERY

Pagrpbhs PePe
PART ONE. PURPOSE AND SCOPE
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION_____
- _._________-_------------------ ------------------ 1-2 3

PART Two. TANK WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION


CHAPTER 2. TANK WEAPONS AND USES ___.--------_.__---______------------------- 3-8 4
3. TANK GUN AMMUNITION AND TARGET DESTRUCTION
Section I. Introduction ----- ---- .......................... --.. 9-11 8
II. Projectiles and fuzes.---------------- _________- _-______--------
- -- 12-14 10
III. Armor-defeating projectiles and uses.- _______-.- ..... __-__----------------- 15-18 12
IV. Antipersonnel/antimateriel projectiles and uses_ -___.. ._____________________ 19-24 19
V. Special purpose projectiles and uses-.-------------------------------------- 25-28 23
VI. Identification of main gun ammunition ________-..__________________________ 29-30 25
VII. Machinegun ammunition, identification and uses _-------.--.----------------- 31-36 27

PART THREE. FIRE CONTROL AND SIGHTING EQUIPMENT


CHAPTER 4. DIRECT-FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM ---- _-------------- ---- _-- ---------- 36-45 30
5. AUXILIARY FIRE CONTROL INSTRUMENTS__________
----------------- 46-49 38
6. TANK-MOUNTED SEARCHLIGHTS.- ____________________________------- 50-52 42
7. BORESIGHTING AND ZEROING-_-
--- ________------------------- 53-60 48

PART FOUR. CONDUCT OF FIRE


CHAPTER 8. INTRODUCTION _ __-_-----__-_ _-__-__---
----------.----------------- 61-64 57
9. TARGET ACQUISITION_________.--------------------------------------- 65-70 60
10. CREW FIRING DUTIES.- _______ ___
-- ___------------------------------
-- 71-75 65
11. DIRECT FIRE IN DAYLIGHT
Section I. The initial fire command - - -_ -- --- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- --- -- -- - 76-86 67
II. Sensings --------------------------------------- 87-89 73
III. Direct-fire adjustment_.-----_-_____----_____-------------- 90-93 78
IV. Special techniques for different ammunition- .-....... ...
_________________ 94-96 86
V. Battlesight------_______-_--__.-----------------------.-------.- --------- 97-98 88
CHAPTER 12. FIRING AT NIGHT OR DURING REDUCED VISIBILITY
Section I. The tank range card __.----_______ ___-_________
-- -------------------- 99-100 90
II. Types of range cards-.--------------- __---------------------------------- 101-103 92
III. Preparation for and reoccupation of night firing positions ___.-._______._____ 104-106 95
IV. Preparation for night firing._______________-_____--------------------______ 107-109 97
V. Tactical use of range cards--- __
- _-_______----------------
-- 110-113 98
VI. Use of tank-mounted searchlights .-------- _____._________________________ 114-116 102

*This minuol supersedes FM 17-12, 3 April 1961, including C I, 3 May 1961; end TC 17-, 4 October 1962.

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Paragraphs Page
CHAPTER 13. PLATOON FIRE DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL
Section I. Introduction -_-___ _ _ _ _ -__
_-__ _-_-_-_
__ _ _-__- 117-119 105
II. Distribution and volume of fire .....................
____._ ........ 120-122 106
III. Platoon leader's fire command___ __ _______________________________...._
.. 123-129 111
IV. Platoon fire planning offensive actions __-_________________________.. 130-132 116
V. Platoon fire planning, defensive actions -.............................. 133-137 116

PART FIVE. TANK GUNNERY TRAINING


CHAPTER 14. GENERAL
Section I. Introduction… _____-___________-__
-- _---
…-_ ----------------------- 138-140 122
II. Individual gunnery training........................ ___......... .. 141-150 124
III. Crew gunnery training................. ______________ 151-152 130
CHAPTER 15. RANGE DETERMINATION
Section I. Introduction _________-_-_____ ______________________-------------------- 153-154 132
II. Methods of range determination____ ....................... 155-160 132
III. Range determination training......................... ______ 161-164 142
IV. Binocular _-___-___-___-______-_____--_____------------ ------------------ 165-167 144
V. Range finder training and testing______________ _.________________________ 168-175 147
CHAPTER 16. TARGET ACQUISITION TRAINING 176-179 153

PART SIX. TANK GUNNERY TESTING


CHAPTER 17. INTRODUCTION- __ __._____________________
.-.. _...............180-185 156
18. TANK CREWMAN GUNNERY QUALIFICATION COURSE
Section I. Introduction __._.________.____._______ ___________________________ 186 160
II. Tank crewman preliminary gunnery examination --... ___.__. ............
187-204 160
III. Tank crewman gunnery qualification-subcaliber firing -_..........___. ___ 205-208 171
IV. Tank crewman gunnery qualification-service firing ________________-________ 209-213 179
CHAPTER 19. TANK CREW GUNNERY QUALIFICATION FIRING- .------------
_______- 214-221 187
20. FAMILIARIZATION AND PRACTICE FIRING
Section I. Familiarization firing __________________________________________________- 222-224 206
II. Practice firing __________________________......
.. . ...................
225-226 208

PART SEVEN. OPERATION OF TANK RANGES


CHAPTER 21. ESTABLISHING TANK RANGES
Section I. Introduction… .
______________________..___________________________…. .... 227-228 210
II. Establishing tank firing ranges -________________.__________________________ 229-233 210
CHAPTER 22. CONDUCT OF RANGE FIRING
Section I. Preparation and duties of the officer in charge _________________.________._ 234-238 213
II. Conduct of firing_ .-..
_______________________________ . 239-243
............... 217
III. Duties of the safety officer ______..______…._ _____________________ - 244-245 218
IV. Duties of the tank instructor/examiner.-____. _____________ ______-. 246-247 220
V. Safety precautions and methods of controlling tank range firing ________-_. _ 248-250 221
VI. Handling of main gun ammunition .-..__ __._.________
.....................
251-253 222
VII. Targets ____-._________._._._____________.____________-__. 254-259 .. 225
APPENDIX I. REFERENCES __...._______.._______ 234
II. TANK IN THE ARTILLERY ROLE ___-............................ 236
INDEX -----.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- 246

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PART ONE
PURPOSE AND SCOPE

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1. Purpose b. For detailed information on functioning,


maintenance, and operation of specific items of
This manual presents tank gunnery princi- equipment and weapons, refer to the appro-
ples and techniques and training exercises and priate field or technical manuals and training
tests for crews of all standard tanks. Elements circulars.
of tank gunnery are discussed in detail to pro-
mote uniformity and to maintain a high stand- c. Units equipped with tanks not considered
ard of proficiency. Proper application of these in this manual may modify the methods of
principles and techniques will insure the most conduct of fire and firing exercises, when neces-
effective use of the tank weapons system in sary, to conform with available equipment.
training and in combat. When it is necessary to modify a qualification
firing exercise, the number of rounds fired will
2. Scope not be changed and the modified exercise must
a. This manual is divided into seven parts. be at least as challenging as the prescribed
Part one outlines the purpose and scope of the exercise.
manual. Part two presents the tank weapons,
ammunition, and considerations used to place d. The material presented herein is appli-
effective fire on various targets; part three, the cable without modification to both nuclear and
tank fire control systems used to fire in day- nonnuclear warfare.
light, at night, and with artificial illumination;
e. Users of this manual are encouraged to
part four, the principles and techniques of tar-
get acquisition and conduct of fire by the tank submit recommended changes or comments to
crew and platoon in daylight, at night, and with improve the manual, direct to the Commandant,
artificial illumination; part five, the types and U.S. Army Armor School, Fort Knox, Ken-
means of tank gunnery training in the unit; tucky. Comments should be keyed to the specific
part six, the tank gunnery testing program page, paragraph, and line of the text in which
used to determine individual and crew pro- the change is recommended. Reasons should be
ficiency; and part seven, guidance for the es- provided for each comment to insure under-
tablishment and operation of tank ranges. standing and complete evaluation.

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PART TWO
TANK WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION

CHAPTER 2
TANK WEAPONS AND USES

3. Introduction the effectiveness of area fire with the gun from


United States tanks have a large caliber a stationary or moving tank, the coax machine-
main gun, which is used for destruction of gun is used against soft targets when they ap-
enemy armor and other hard targets, and pear within its effective range. This conserves
those soft targets that are not within effective main gun ammunition for targets that cannot
range of the tank mounted machineguns. They be destroyed with coax fire either because of
have a coaxially mounted machinegun (re- range or type of target and reduces the supply
ferred to hereafter as coax or coax machine- requirements of main gun ammunition.
gun) for engagement of soft targets (per-
sonnel, trucks, wooden structures, etc.) at close 6. Coax Machinegun Fire
ranges and to provide suppressive fire while a. General. The coax machinegun is fired in
the tank is moving. The tank commander also bursts of 20-25 rounds both for adjustment on
has a machinegun, which can be used against and destruction of targets. When the primary
soft targets and some lightly armored vehicles sight or an infinity sight is used, the gunner
and may be fired at different targets when the will index either range and ammunition in his
main gun or coax machinegun is already em- ballistic unit (M41 tank) or the lowest muzzle
ployed. It can provide the tank commander velocity main gun ammunition in his com-
with a means for reconnaissance by fire. Ad- puter (M48, M60 tanks) prior to firing. On a
ditionally, it provides the tank with an anti- tank equipped with a range finder the tank
aircraft capability against low performance commander does not have to range on a coax
aircraft.
target, but he should index the approximate
range to the target in his range finder prior to
4. Main Gun the gunner's firing. If the range to the target
The tank main gun with a variety of am- is about 500 meters he can rotate his ranging
munition can be used effectively against all knob counterclockwise against the stop on the
types of ground targets. The ballistic character- range finder, thereby indexing 500 meters
istics (flat trajectory) of the projectiles make (yards) in the fire control system.
the weapon very accurate. The tank com-
mander's decision as to what type of ammuni- b. Fire from a Moving Tank at Stationary
tion to use against a target is based on his Targets.
knowledge of the capabilities of the ammuni- (1) When the target is in front of the
tion (ch. 3). tank, fiie is adjusted on the near edge
of the target, and the movement of
5. Coax Machinegun the tank combined with the gunner's
Because of the large amount of coax am- manipulation will move the bursts
munition that can be stowed in the tank and through the target (fig. 1).

4 AGO 6398A
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- ~~~~~->
·· ·

r -

- - C--

L= --
- -
- - ,j

. ~ ~
=
r L

Figure 1. Coax fire-target direct front.

vI _n ~_
*,~1 - .
-~A -
-

Figure 2. Coax fire-target to side and parallel.

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Figure 3. Coax fire-target to side and perpendicular.

(2) When the target is to the side of the while on the move. If the target has apparent
tank and parallel to the direction of speed, a 5-mil lead should be used initially to
movement, fire is adjusted on the near engage the target, when not using the infinity
edge of the target, as the movement sight.
of the tank will move the bursts
through the target (fig. 2). 7. Caliber .50 Machinegun
(3) When the target is to the side of the Because the tank commander's machinegun
tank and perpendicular to the direc- can be moved independently of the main gun
tion of movement, fire is adjusted on and coax machinegun, it can be used to engage
the far edge of the target so the move- another target at the same time the gunner
ment of the tank will move the bursts is firing. The tank commander loads, aims, and
through the target (fig. 3). fires this weapon. The caliber .50 machinegun
is used against the same type targets as the
c. Fire at a Moving Vehicle. To destroy a coax machinegun but is effective at greater
moving vehicle, it is best to stop the tank ranges. It can be used to destroy some lightly
momentarily for engagement, because a stable armored vehicles, to engage air vehicles and for
gun platform increases the hit probability. In reconnaissance by fire on suspected enemy posi-
a situation where enemy armor or antitank tions within its effective range. Another use
guns are suspected to be present, this halt of the caliber .50 machinegun is for its in-
should be made in a covered or defilade posi- cendiary effect on wooden structures, gasoline
tion. However, in a pursuit or unopposed situ- or ammunition stores, and other inflammable
ation the tank may halt momentarily in the targets. Conversely caution must be taken in
open to engage a target of this type. If the its employment to preclude starting unwanted
situation requires, the target may be engaged fires.
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8. Caliber .50 Machinegun Fire the main considerations, the tank should be
halted when firing the caliber .50 machinegun.
a. General. When the caliber .50 machine-
gun is mounted in a cupola, a sight is used c. Fire Against Air Vehicles. Against air
that has a ballistic reticle (fig. 4). When the vehicles this gun is fired in one continuous
gun is mounted on top of the turret, a leaf sight burst until the target is destroyed or moves
on the gun or the tracer stream is used. The beyond effective range. When the target has
range to the target in either case must be apparent speed, the speed rings on the sight
determined prior to firing. are used. The tank commander will estimate the
apparent speed of the target and place either
the 200- or 400-knot ring on the target, with
the target pointing into the center of the sight
(fig. 5). The tracer stream is then adjusted on
the target. The leaf sight on turret-mounted
machineguns cannot be used when engaging
these targets; adjustment is made by observ-
ing the tracer stream.

Figure 4. Cupola-mounted periscope reticle (ballistic).

b. Firing at Ground Targets. The caliber .50


machinegun is fired in bursts of 10-20 rounds
for adjustment on and destruction of ground
targets. The same procedures should be used
to fire the caliber .50 machinegun against
ground targets as are described for the coax
machinegun in paragraph 6b and c. However, Figure 5. Engagement of air vehicles with caliber .50
if speed and accuracy of target destruction are machinegun.

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CHAPTER 3
TANK GUN AMMUNITION AND TARGET DESTRUCTION

Section I. INTRODUCTION

9. General
COMPONENTS OF A PROJECTILE
The tank commander's decision regarding
the type of ammunition to use against a target
is based upon his knowledge of the capabilities
and limitations of the ammunition. The com- OGIVE
mander must evaluate the vulnerability of a
target to determine rapidly the ammunition to - pROCTiLE
be employed. For the recommended employ- BOURREET--
ment of standard rounds of ammunition, see BOOY
paragraph 78. For maintenance of ammunition,
see appropriate operator's manual for the ROTATINGBAND(S)-

vehicle. For handling procedures of ammuni-


tion, see paragraph 253.

10. Complete Round of Tank Gun


Ammunition CATRIOG CASE

a. Components. A complete round of tank


gun ammunition has all of the components
necessary to fire the weapon once. These com-
ponents are a- PRIMER

(1) Projectilewhich is fired to destroy the


target.
(2) Propelling charge to develop sufficient
gas pressure when ignited to propel
the projectile to the target. -PROPELNiT
(3) Primer (electrical or percussion type)
to ignite the propelling charge.
(4) Cartridge case to contain the primer Figure 6. A complete round of tank gun ammunition.
and propelling charge (fig. 6).
A projectile having a high explosive or chemical charge attached to the projectile. The complete
filler must be fitted with a fuze in order to ex- round is loaded into the weapon as a unit.
plode it upon impact or at the desired time.
Depending upon the manner in which these c. Separated Round. A separated round has
components are loaded into the gun a complete a cartridge case containing a primer and pro-
round is known as either fixed or separated pelling charge, which is sealed with a closing
(fig. 7). plug, and a separate projectile. The projectile
b. Fixed Round. A fixed round has a cartridge and the cartridge case are loaded into the gun
case containing the primer and propelling separately.
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A

FIXED
I SEPARATED

Figure 7. Fixed and separated complete rounds.

11. Classification of Tank Gun Ammunition handled with care. The explosive elements, par-
ticularly the primer, are sensitive to shock. Pre-
a. Tank gun ammunition is classified accord- scribed precautions for handling ammunition
ing to type and use. When classified according are stated in paragraph 253 and TM 9-1903.
to type, the ammunition will be identified as
service, target-practice, blank, drill, dummy, or b. When tank gun ammunition is classified
inert. according to use it will be identified as armor-
defeating, antipersonnel/antimateriel, and spe-
Caution. All tank gun ammunition must be cial purpose.
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Section II. PROJECTILES AND FUZES

12. General projectile. When spin-stabilized projectiles are


fired, the rotating bands will also impart spin
Tank gun ammunition has two types of pro- by being engraved by the rifling of the gun
jectiles: inert (APDS, TP, AP) or filled (HE, tube and simultaneously act as a rear bearing
HEP, HEAT, WP). Armor defeating inert surface. When fin-stabilized projectiles are
projectiles, which do not contain an explosive, fired, the rotating band(s) do not cause spin
obtain their destructive effect by mass and
to be imparted to the projectile and may act
velocity (kinetic energy). Target practice (TP) as a rear bearing surface; their primary func-
rounds are used in training to duplicate the tion is to seal the propellant gases.
in-flight ballistics of the more expensive combat
round. Filled projectiles contain either an ex- e. The base (fig. 6) is that portion of the
plosive or chemical filler and obtain their effect projectile upon which the expanding propellant
upon the target by blast, fragmentation, chem- gases act, causing the projectile to move for-
ical energy (shaped charge), fire, or smoke. ward. With the exception of certain types of
Filled projectiles will require a fuze to detonate canister and some white phosphorus ammuni-
the explosive filler or spread the chemical filler. tion, the base of the projectile is equipped
In addition, canister projectiles which contain with a tracer. The tracer (-T) is used by the
a number of subprojectiles are available for crew to sense the projectile (para. 87-89).
most tank guns.
14. Fuze Operation and Nomenclature
13. Projectile Nomenclature a. Fuze. A fuze is a mechanical device used
a. The forward portion of the projectile from with a projectile to cause the projectile to func-
the point to the widest portion is called the tion at the time and under the circumstances
ogive, which may include a fuze (fig. 6). The desired. Fuzes are classified by:
length of the ogive influences the flight of the (1) Position on the projectile.
projectile by minimizing the effects of drag (a) Base detonating.
(air resistance) upon it. Because the "slug" (b) Point detonating.
of some inert projectiles are blunt to increase (c) Point-initiating, base detonating.
penetration, an aluminum windshield is added
to streamline the ogive. (2) Method of functioning.
(a) Impact.
b. The bourrelet is the widest forward por- (b) Timed (used with some types of
tion of the projectile and forms the rear of antipersonnel/antimateriel ammu-
the ogive (fig. 6). The bourrelet is an accu- nition).
rately machined surface that is slightly larger
b. Bore Safety and Methods of Anming. All
in diameter than the body and by bearing upon
the rifling of the gun tube, centers the forward fuzes for tank gun ammunition are bore safe.
portion of the projectile in its travel through This means that the fuze will not be armed
the bore. until such time as the projectile clears the
muzzle of the gun tube. Sufficient centrifugal
c. The body (fig. 6) is slightly smaller in force must be obtained or inertia overcome
diameter than the bourrelet and rotating bands to arm the fuze (methods of arming).
and when manufactured must be accurately
balanced in order for the projectile to main- c. Fuze Settings. Normally, ammunition with
tain the required stability in flight. The body a point detonating fuze (HE and WP) will be
may consist of a "slug" or contain an explosive issued to function superquick (SQ). When the
or chemical filler. slot in the setting sleeve of the fuze is rotated
one-quarter turn, in either direction, the fuze
d. A common function of the rotating will be set for delay (fig. 8). With the fuze
band(s) (fig. 6) of all projectiles is to seal set for delay, the fuze will detonate the pro-
the propellant gases behind the base of the jectile a fraction of a second (.05) after impact.

10 AGO 639;A
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BOOSTER' SETTING SLEEVE

At M lT

Z::;rw
STANDARD SUPERQUICK-DELAY FUZE

NOTE. BOOSTERS ARE NOT INTERCHANGEABLE.

BOOSTER

CONCRETE PIERCING FUZE

Figure 8. Point detonating fuzesimpact type.

The concrete-piercing fuze with booster has for better penetration of concrete.
an established delay (.025), which cannot be
adjusted by the crew (fig. 8). This fuze, when Caution. When substituting a concrete-pierc-
substituted by the crew for the standard point ing fuze and booster, be sure to remove both the
detonating fuze on the HE round, will provide standard fuze and its booster.
AGO 6398A 11
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Section III. ARMOR-DEFEATING PROJECTILES AND USES
15. General (1) A tungsten carbide subprojectile
Armor-defeating projectiles produce the de- sheathed in aluminum with a tracer
sired effects against armor targets by the use element attached.
of either kinetic or chemical energy. (2) Three aluminum petals to center the
subprojectile with the plastic bour-
16. Kinetic Energy Projectiles relet around them.
Kinetic energy armor-defeating projectiles (3) An aluminum alloy sabot (body),
produce the desired target effects because of which houses the subprojectile and
their mass (hardness, density, and weight), contains the base friction plate.
and the velocity of travel at the time of impact (4) A nylon-plastic rotating band, which
with the target (striking velocity). Range and causes the projectile to spin.
angle of impact are two important factors that (5) A rubber obturator to help the rotat-
will affect the degree of penetration possible ing band seal off the propellant gases.
with these projectiles. As range to the target
increases, air resistance or drag continuously c. As a result of centrifugal force (spin) and
reduces the velocity of the projectile. The angle friction, soon after the projectile clears the
of impact is determined by the slope or shape muzzle of the gun tube, the obturator, rotating
of the target and by the angle of target engage- band, and bourrelet will rupture and fall free.
ment. An inspection of figure 9 should aid in Air resistance and centrifugal force acting
understanding that the thickness of armor to .upon the three aluminum petals will cause
be penetrated will increase as the slope in- them to break away simultaneously. This dis-
creases. The increase of armor protection is carding will take place between 6-36 feet from
called equivalent thickness. To determine muz- the muzzle of the gun. The absence of these
zle velocity, striking velocity, and angle of fall petals will allow air to pack into the open
at various ranges, consult the firing table for end of the sabot. This resistance and centrifu-
the appropriate weapon. There are two kinetic gal force will overcome the grip of the friction
energy armor-defeating projectiles: armor- plate and separation of the subprojectile from
piercing and armor-piercing discarding sabot. the sabot will take place. This separation will
occur between 50-500 meters from the muzzle.
a. Armor Piercing (AP-T). The armor-pierc- From this point to the target, the subprojectile
ing projectile (fig. 10) consists of- with tracer is not hindered by carrier compo-
(1) An aluminum windshield to improve nents, which would unnecessarily reduce its
its ballistic performance. velocity. Because the velocity of the projectile
(2) A solid steel body (slug) to destroy is greater than 3,500 fps, it is difficult for the
the target. crew to use the tracer for adjustment of fire
up to a range of 2,500 meters. Upon impact
(3) A tracer element. with a metal target, the tungsten carbide sub-
(4) A copper rotating band to cause the projectile produces a distinctive bright orange
projectile to spin. flash. Because of its discarding of parts, this
Upon impact, the windshield will shatter and projectile should not be fired overhead of
neither hinder nor assist the slug in its target friendly troops without warning them. The
penetration. Armor-piercing projectiles are an- danger area extends up to 1,000 meters from
nounced in the initial fire command as SHOT, the gun along the trajectory and spreads out
and are used with the 76, 90, and 120-mm guns. to 70 meters on each side of the trajectory at
this range. Armor-piercing discarding sabot
b. Armor-Piercing DiscardingSabot (APDS- projectiles are announced in the initial fire
T). The armor-piercing discarding sabot pro- command as SABOT, and used with the 105-mm
jectile (fig. 11) consists of- gun.
12 AGO 6398A
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AGO 6s98A 13
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ROTATING BAND(S) BODY

WINDSHIELD

JoliLC
TRACER

BOURRELET

ARMOR-PIERCING

Figure 10. Armor-piercing projectile.

17. Chemical Energy Projectiles (4) Steel fin assembly which contains the
tracer element.
a. Shaped charge projectiles cause their dam-
(5) Base detonating fuze actually con-
aging effect by focusing the gases released as
tained within the body.
the high explosive detonates into a high pres-
sure jet stream. The shaped charge must be b. The complete fuze is called a point-initiat-
held away from the target a certain distance ing base detonating fuze (PIBD). The pointer-
to allow the jet stream to form. This distance initiator is required to activate the fuze instan-
is called standoff. Generally, the action of this taneously upon impact to insure proper stand-
jet stream can be likened to that of an acetylene off. The PIBD fuze is armed by inertia (setback
cutting torch when cutting metal. Upon impact forces), as the projectile is fin-stabilized and
with the target, the jet stream will displace the it does not have any appreciable spin. The shape
armor plate. This in many cases will have an of this projectile is designed so that air passage
explosive effect upon the target or cause fires. will assist in stabilization (fig. 12). When the
An important thing to remember when using projectile strikes the target, the ceramic disk
chemical energy armor-defeating projectiles is is defcrmed, and generates an electrical im-
that their target defeating potential is not pulse that initiates the electrical detonator of
affected by range. The chemical energy armor- the fuze. This results in detonation of the high
defeating projectile currently available is high explosive shaped charge. Because the energy
explosive antitank (HEAT-T). This projectile produced by detonation of the shaped charge
(fig. 12) has a peculiar shape. It consists of a- is restricted by the body of the projectile except
(1) Spike-like windshield which provides toward the front, it will seek the path of least
standoff distance and contains the resistance (front). This energy (pressure) is
point initiator (ceramic disk) portion refracted by the copper cone and at the point
of the fuze. of intersection is focused, forming the rein-
(2) Steel body which contains the high forced high-pressure jet stream necessary to
explosive shaped charge and the bour- produce target effects (fig. 13).
relet. c. The velocity of this projectile is greater
(3) Nylon-plastic rotating band which than 3,500 pfs; therefore, the crew will have
seals the propelling gases but does not difficulty in using the tracer for adjustment
impart spin. of fire, although the strike of the round may

14 AGO 6398A
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NYLON-PLASTIC ALUMINUM PETALS
ALUMINUM ALLOY NYLON-PLASTIC
BODY BOURREL ET

TRACER -

RUBBER OB
A. COMPONENTS

ALUMINUM ALLOY BODY

TUNGSTEN CARBIDE SUBPROJECTILE


WITH WINDSHIELD AND TRACER
BASE FRICTION PLATE
B. SEPARATION OF BODY AND SUBPROJECTILE

Figure 11. Armor-piercing discarding sabot projectile.

be very apparent. HEAT-T projectiles are self-propelled, track laying, armor protected
available for the 76, 90, 105, and 120-mm guns vehicle that has a gun capable of destroying
and are announced in the initial fire command another tank. Other armored vehicles are
as HEAT. wheeled or track laying vehicles, with armor
protection, without major armament and used
18. Employment of Armor-Defeating for combat security or cargo, e.g., armored
Ammunition personnel carrier, scout car, etc. Upon sighting
a. Armor-defeating ammunition is used to a tank or other armored vehicle target, imme-
destroy tanks and other armored vehicles. For diate attention must be given to its identifica-
target identification purposes a tank is any tion, range, and what part is exposed. This
AGO 6398A 15
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NYLON-PLASTIC
ROTATING BAND BOURRELET

STEEL FIN I STEEL BODY


TRACER SPIKE-LIKE
WINDSHI ELD

CERAMIC DISK
PIBD FUZE HIGH EXPLOSIVE
SHAPED CHARGE CONE

A. COMPONENTS

B. AIRFLOW PATTERN

Figure 12. High explosive antitank projectile.

information combined with a knowledge of the flat surfaces perpendicular to the line of fire
ammunition capabilities will assist in rapid is more vulnerable than a tank of the same
destruction of the target. The vulnerability of thickness with sloped surfaces oblique to the
an armored vehicle depends on the combination line of fire. Tanks have sloped surfaces when-
of actual armor thickness, slope of the armor ever possible and have the heaviest armor on
plate (equivalent thickness), and angle of en- the front of the hull and turret. The sides and
gagement. The slope of the armor plate is rear of the turret have less armor, and the sides
determined by the construction of the vehicle and rear of the hull have the least amount.
and its position in relation to the tank that is The sides and rear of the hull also have flatter
taking it under fire (angle of engagement). surfaces and are the most vulnerable parts of
Equivalent thickness becomes greater as the a tank. The center of vulnerability varies with
amount of slope increases and the angle of the amount of target exposed and the angle
engagement decreases, because there is more at which it is engaged. Figure 14 shows the
armor placed in the path of the projectile (fig. vulnerability of a typical tank. If it is possible
9). Thus, a tank of given armor thickness with to get a flank or rear shot at a tank, the center
AGO 6398A
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-ARMOR PLATE
OR
TARGET

PIBD FUZE

Figure 13. Jet stream action of HEAT projectile.

of vulnerability is the center of the hull. The dictate the best round to employ. With some
center of vulnerability of a tank engaged head- armored vehicles, it may be found that destruc-
on is the turret ring. Vulnerability decreases tion is possible by employing antipersonnel/
considerably when tanks are in hull delilade. antimateriel ammunition or by employing ma-
chinegun fire. In this case, the armor-defeating
b. As a general rule, chemical energy armor- ammunition would be conserved for the engage-
defeating projectiles have a greater target- ment of heavier, more dangerous targets.
defeating potential than the kinetic energy Should the tank commander be in doubt regard-
armor-defeating projectiles; therefore, they ing what round is necessary to destroy a par-
should be employed whenever the part of the ticular armored vehicle, it should be considered
tank target that possesses the greatest equiva-
as a tank and engaged with armor-defeating
lent thickness of armor is exposed (frontal
ammunition. Surprise type targets, e.g., tanks,
engagement). Kinetic energy projectiles should
other armored vehicles, and antitank guns, be-
be employed when areas of lesser equivalent
cause of their mobility are of particular danger
thickness are exposed (flank or rear engage-
ment). With this general rule in mind, rapid to the tank crew. HEAT, because of its blast
and accurate target destruction within normal and fragmentation, armor-defeating potential,
combat ranges (0-2,000 meters) should be ac- and penetrating capability, will enable the tank
complished without waste of ammunition. With crew to engage all types of surprise targets
the wide variety of armored vehicles known with the assurance of some degree of target
today, in many cases, experience will have to destruction.

AGO 6398A 17
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m GREATEST EQUIVALENT THICKNESS; MOST


DIFFICULT TO PENETRATE.
| LESSER EQUIVALENT THICKNESS; NEXT MOST

I
DIFFICULT TO PENETRATE.
'-' LEAST EQUIVALENT THICKNESS; MOST- EASILY
PENETRATED.

TYPICAL TANK
FRONT VIEW
HEAT IS THE PROPER
AMMUNITION TO USE
kl·l

TYPICAL TANK
FLANK VIEW
Id A.,'T---
SABOT OR SHOT
IS THE PROPER
AMMUNITION TO USE

ma -a.

TYPICAL TANK
LEFT FRONT VIEW
600 ANGLE OF ENGAGEMENT
(LESS LEFT SUSPENSION)

Figure 14. Tank vulnerability.

18 ACO 6398A
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Section IV. ANTIPERSONNEL/ANTIMATERIEL PROJECTILES AND USES

19. General b. Because this is a spin-stabilized projectile,


These projectiles are filled with either a high centrifugal force is used to arm the fuze. Upon
explosive filler with fuze, to cause them to act impact, the fuze will function and detonate the
upon the target at the time and under the high explosive filler. The primary target effects
circumstances desired, or many subprojectiles. of this projectile are blast, fragmentation, and
There are three projectiles available: high ex- concussion. The bursting area is 5-8 meters
plosive, high explosive-plastic, and canister deep and 35-45 meters wide (fig. 16). The
(antipersonnel use only). HE-T projectile is available for the 76, 90,
and 120-mm guns. It is announced in the initial
fire command as HE, HE-DELAY, or HE-
20. High Explosive (HE-T) CONCRETE, depending upon the fuze and its
a. High explosive projectiles (fig. 15) con- setting.
sist of a-
(1) Point detonating fuze (para. 14), 21. High Explosive Plastic (HEP-T)
which is issued set to function imme- a. High explosive plastic projectiles (fig. 17)
diately (superquick) upon impact. A consist of a-
fuze wrench or screwdriver is used (1) Steel body which contains the explo-
to set the fuze to function in delay. sive-plastic filler.
The fuze wrench is also used to re- (2) Copper rotating band which causes
move the point detonating fuze and to the projectile to spin.
install the concrete-piercing fuze (3) Base detonating fuze which functions
(para. 14). immediately (superquick) upon im-
(2) Steel body which contains the high pact.
explosive filler. (4) Tracer element.
(3) Copper rotating band(s) which causes b. The fuze setting cannot be changed and will
the projectile to spin. function upon impact, detonating the explosive
(4) Tracer element (for training, HE plastic filler, producing blast, fragmentation,
without tracer may be issued). and concussion. The fragmentation effect pro-

TRACER 7
COPPER ROTATING BAND
BOOSTER

FUZE

HE FILLER

Figure 15. High explosive projectile.

AGO 6398A
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= 0

rUU

4O

APPROX 35 TO-:45 SMETERS

DIRECTION OF FIRE

Figure 16. Approximate fragmentation pattern of HE burst.

20 AGO 6398A
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TRACER STEEL BODY

FUZE EXPLOSIVE PLASTIC FILLER

Figure 17. High explosive plastic projectile.

STEEL BODY
SUBPROJECTILES

i jw~_-

NOSE
r ./FLAT
" SURFACE

I,

r:

/
ROTATING BAND

Figure 18. Canister projectile.

duced by the HEP projectile is similar to that 22. Canister


produced by the HE projectile. It will vary
however, depending upon the angle of impact. Canister projectiles (antipersonnel use only)
Because the ballistic characteristics of the contain a large number of subprojectiles, a
HEP-T projectile allows it to be affected more slotted cylindrical body with rotating band, no
readily than most other projectiles by wind, tracer element, and a flatnosed surface. As the
drift, and cant, a first round hit is more diffi- projectile (fig. 18) leaves the muzzle of the gun,
cult when engaging distant stationary or mov- centrifugal force will rupture the projectile,
ing targets. When engaging close-in targets, discharging the subprojectiles. The maximum
obscuration produced by firing presents a prob- lethal effect of this round will take place be-
lem in adjustment of fire. Although these prob- tween 150 and 200 meters. Canister is available
lems do exist, with the proper training (para. for the 76- and 90-mm guns and is announced
95) tank crews can be trained to employ this in the initial fire command as CANISTER.
projectile very effectively. HEP-T is available
for the 105-mm gun only and is announced in Caution. Canister is not to be fired over vul-
the initial fire command as HEP. nerable friendly troops.
AGO 6398A
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23. Employment of Antipersonnel/ machineguns while moving, firing into trenches
Antimateriel Ammunition and other vulnerable parts of the enemy de-
fense. SMOKE (para. 27) also can be employed
Antipersonnel/antimateriel ammunition (ex- for its incendiary, screening, and casualty-
cept canister), because of its blast, fragmenta- producing effect.
tion, and concussion effect will be employed
against field fortifications, bunkers, pill boxes, e. Destruction of Crew-Served Weapons.
personnel, buildings, some armored and all un- Crew-served weapons include antitank guns,
armored vehicles, built-up areas, and crew towed artillery, recoilless rifles, machineguns,
served weapons. If experience proves that ma- and mortars. Crew-served weapons are some-
chinegun fire can be used to destroy any of times encountered in hasty positions, but usu-
these targets, it should be used within its ally are placed in prepared positions with good
effective range to conserve main gun ammuni- cover and concealment. They present small tar-
tion. gets with low silhouettes. Normally HE or HEP
is employed to destroy these targets.
a. Destruction of Unarmored and Lightly
Armored Vehicles. Unarmored vehicles can be d. Destruction of Field Fortifications.Bunk-
penetrated by coaxial machinegun fire. Lightly ers and pillboxes provide good protection
armored vehicles can be penetrated by caliber against all types of fire, but they can be pene-
.50 machinegun fire or by the blast and frag- trated and defeated by employing the proper
mentation of antipersonnel/antimateriel am- type of ammunition. A direct hit with HE or
munition. Unarmored vehicles include trucks HEP at the aperture will result in part of the
and automobiles of all types; lightly armored force of the explosion and fragmentation being
vehicles include scout cars, some types of ar- directed inside the position. The possibilities of
mored cars, and personnel carriers. Vehicles achieving a detonation inside the bunker are
that cannot be penetrated by this fire should increased by employing HE delay. The HEP
be engaged with armor-defeating ammunition. round or the concrete-piercing fuze with the
Unarmored vehicles are vulnerable to all types HE round is most effective against concrete
of fire, but their speed often makes them diffi- or masonry (pillboxes). Replacing the standard
cult to hit. HE or HEP ammunition should be point detonating fuze with the concrete-pierc-
used to destroy these targets when they are ing fuze should be accomplished prior to an
beyond the maximum effective range of ma- operation and stowed in the tank. Should HE-
chineguns (para. 32-34). CONCRETE or HEP prove to be ineffective,
b. Firing at Dismounted Troops. Dismounted HEAT ammunition may be used to weaken the
troops constitute an area target by varying structure followed by an HE-CONCRETE or
depth, width, dispersion, and vulnerability. HEP round. The choice of ammunition for en-
Attacking infantry should be engaged with gagement of bunkers and pillboxes will depend
machinegun fire whenever possible; however, primarily on the combat experience of the
the type weapon and ammunition employed commander, ammunition availability, and tar-
depends primarily on the range and the actions get vulnerability. However, employment of HE
of the enemy troops. Normally, HE or HEP or HEP has a greater casualty-producing effect
is employed against troops beyond effective ma- and conserves armor-defeating ammunition.
chinegun ranges. At lesser ranges, the fire of
the machineguns is added to or substituted for
that of the main gun. Depending on the terrain, 24. Special Uses of Antipersonnel/
Antimateriel Ammunition
ricochet fire may be effective against troops
advancing under cover. At close ranges, (150- In addition to the specific techniques of tar-
200 meters) canister is most effective against get destruction previously mentioned, there are
mass attacks, but consideration must be given other special uses of main gun ammunition that
to the location of vulnerable friendly troops have proved effective in battle. Combat situa-
before this type of ammunition is fired. Assault- tions may arise where the following fire tech-
ing tanks employ the coaxial and caliber .50 niques could be employed effectively.
22 AGO 6398A
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a. Use of HE and HEP. HE and HEP are (4) They may be used in reconnaissance
versatile types of ammunition as they can be by fire of probable enemy positions
employed in numerous ways against a wide beyond the effective range of the cali-
variety of targets. The following special uses ber .50 machinegun.
are in addition to those discussed previously:
b. Use of HEP Against Armor. HEP is pri-
(1) They give excellent fragmentation ef- marily an antipersonnel/antimateriel round. It
fect when fired into treetops over the is the only such round of ammunition for use
heads of enemy troops. With HE, with the 105-mm tank gun; therefore, it should
superquick fuze normally is used; be reserved for destruction of personnel and
however, if the trees are exceptionally materiel targets. However, in the event that
tall or the troops are deep in the armor-piercing ammunition is in short supply
woods, delay fuze should be used. or has been expended during an operation, HEP
(2) They may be employed in the reduc- ammunition may be used to engage an armored
tion of certain obstacles such as road- target. If used, and a direct hit is obtained,
bIocks. They are ineffective for clear- HEP will produce varying results, with con-
ing minefields. Use of these rounds cussion being the primary target effect. De-
for this purpose will result in a waste pending upon the type and thickness of the
of the limited amounts of ammunition armor, spalling (chipping of the armor plate
available. opposite the point of impact) may occur simul-
(3) HE and HEP are effective for attack- tanebusly with concussion. These effects will
ing troops occupying masonry build- kill or injure the crew, produce damage to the
ings. When firing HE, fuze delay is fire control instruments and other less rugged
usually the most effective for this components, and damage the structure of the
purpose. vehicle.

Section V. SPECIAL PURPOSE PROJECTILES AND USES

25. General trifugal force and functions on impact (super-


Special purpose projectiles include white quick). The fuze action detonates the burster
phosphorus, which is used in combat and in tube, which ruptures the body and disseminates
training practice to train armor crewmen in the white phosphorus filler. When exposed to
the proper technique of tank gunnery. air, white phosphorus will burn and produce
a dense white smoke. The white phosphorus
round is available for the 76, 90, 105, and
26. White Phosphorus (WP) Projectiles 120-mm guns and is announced in the initial
This projectile (fig. 19) is similar in con- fire command as SMOKE (hereafter referred
struction to the HE projectile. It consists of a- to as SMOKE or WP).
a. Point Detonating Fuze (para. 14) which Caution. When white phosphorus is stored
or transported in temperature higher than
is issued set to function immediately (super- 1110 F. (melting point), it should be positioned
quick) upon impact. A fuze wrench or screw-
on its base. If positioned otherwise the filler
driver is used to test the fuze to function in may become displaced, due to melting and con-
delay. This fuze cannot be replaced with the
concrete-piercing fuze. sequently, cause either premature detonation
after firing or erratic performance in flight
b. Steel Body which contains the white phos- (TM 9-1903).
phorus filler and the burster tube.
27. Use of White Phosphorus Ammunition
e. Copper Rotating Band which causes the SMOKE is employed for screening, incen-
projectile to spin. This projectile may or may diary, casualty-producing, and marking pur-
not have a tracer. The fuze is armed by cen- poses. There are many combat situations where
AGO 6398A 23
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BURSTER CHARGE BOOSTER
BURSTER TUBE:

N- I

STEELIBOD
X -WP FILLER
ST EEL BODY
COPPER ROTATING BAND

Figure 19. White phosphorus projectile.

use of this round, particularly in conjunction for burning purposes. HE, HEP, or machine-
with other ammunition, will produce excellent gun fire should be employed in conjunction
results. with SMOKE to destroy and harass enemy
troops driven from cover by fires.
a. Screening blinds the enemy, allowing
greater freedom of movement of friendly c. The casualty-producing effect of SMOKE
forces. SMOKE may be placed in front of the is a direct result of its incendiary nature. Best
enemy to screen the maneuver of attacking results are obtained when it is fired into an
tanks or to cover their withdrawal. Tanks are enclosure, such as a bunker or the ground floor
capable of temporarily screening short move- of a building. It is also effective against troops
ments of the tank platoon or company. Due to in the open, because the burning phosphorus
the limited supply of this type of ammunition sticks to the skin and clothing. Although
and the tendency of WP smoke to dissipate and SMOKE does not have the destructive capa-
rise rapidly, tank ammunition should be em- bility of HE or HEP, it has a much greater
ployed for screening purposes only when other psychological effect on enemy troops.
sources are not available. The basic factors
governing the employment of SMOKE are wind d. SMOKE can be used also to mark targets;
direction and velocity. With a wind from the however, care must be taken so that the target
flank, the screen is started upwind of the target is not obscured.
so that it will drift into and in front of the
enemy. With a tailwind, SMOKE should be 28. Target Practice Projectiles (TP-T)
placed just in front of the target; with a head-
wind, SMOKE should be placed on or behind the These projectiles are used only for training
target. When the wind velocity is high, the rate purposes. They have the same shape and bal-
of fire must be increased to maintain the screen. listic characteristics as the service (combat)
When firing into a strong headwind, considera- round for which they are substituted. However,
tion must be given to smoke drifting over they do not contain an explosive filler nor cause
friendly positions. the same target effects. The firing of these
b. In addition to its incendiary effect on projectiles rather than service projectiles will
buildings and log fortifications, SMOKE is ef- cause less damage to range facilities; also, it
fective in burning out enemy positions in woods is less expensive. They will be announced in the
and brush. The factors of wind direction and initial fire command the same as the service
velocity that govern the employment of rounds they represent, e.g., target practice high
SMOKE for screening apply also to its use explosive antitank (HEAT/TP-T) would be
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announced as HEAT. If it becomes necessary to service projectile would be properly announced
fire both service and target practice projectiles (HEAT) and the target practice projectile an-
of the same type during training, then the nounced as TP-T.

Section VI. IDENTIFICATION OF MAIN GUN AMMUNITION


29. General 30. Ammunition Stowage Plan
Ammunition can be identified by its shape, The ammunition stowage plan should be
color code with markings, and by its location identical for all tanks in a battalion-size unit.
prescribed by the stowage plan. For shape or This stowage plan should include location of all
configuration, see figure 20. ammunition authorized for the basic load, by
a. Color Code. Ammunition is painted with a type and number of rounds. All ammunition
special paint to prevent rust and other corro-
sion. In addition it provides a color code for loaded aboard the tank should be stowed in the
ease of identification, and to indicate primary racks according to the stowage plan. The stow-
uses (fig. 21). age plan not only serves as a guide for the
b. Moarkings. Ammunition is identified by initial stowage of ammunition, but also serves
markings on the outside of its packing con- as an aid to the crew, regarding supply of
tainers (fig. 22). Once removed from its pack- ammunition, by indicating the number of
ing, it may be identified by color and markings rounds by type that have been fired. During
found on the rounds (fig. 23). The lot number darkness, when the use of lights inside the
of the ammunition is one of these markings. turret would reduce the crew's night vision or
It is stenciled on the projectile and stamped
give away the tank's position, the stowage plan
on the base of the cartridge case and on its
packing box. The lot number is information assists the loader in locating rapidly that type
required for records, reports of condition, func- of ammunition announced in the initial fire
tioning, and accidents in which the ammunition command. When preparing this plan, consid-
is involved. To obtain the greatest accuracy eration must be given to the location of those
in firing, successive rounds should be from the ammunition racks that have been specified for
same ammunition lot whenever practicable. only HEAT or SABOT.

l- A

A
Ii:n~i fl-, fr
Pk - i r7Uf l 'I

AP-T APDS-T HEAT-T HE-T HEP-T CANISTER WP

Figure 20. Configuration of tank gun ammunition.

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TYPE OF AMMUNITION BASIC COLOR WITH MARKINGS
Armor-Piercing Discarding Sabot (APDS-T) .................. Black with white markings
Armor-Piercing (AP-T) ........................................... Black with white markings
Armor-Piercing Target Practice (TP-T) ....................... Blue with white markings
High Explosive Antitank (HEAT-T) ............................ Black with yellow markings
High Explosive Antitank Inert (HEAT-INERT) .............. Black with yellow and blue bond
High Explosive Antitank Target Practice
(HEAT/TP-T) ................................................... Blue with white markings
Canister ........................................ Black with white markings
High Explosive, High Explosive Plastic
(HE-T, HEP-T) .................................................. Olive drab with yellow markings
White Phosphorus (WP) ....................................... Light green with light red markings

COLORS INDICATING PRIMARY USES


Yellow--High Explosive
Light Green--White Phosphorus
Black--Armor Piercing
Blue--Target Practice, Inert and Drill
Light Red--Incendiary
Olive Drab--Antipersonnel
White--Lettering and Marking Only
Figure 21. Ammunition color code.

QUANTITY AND TYPE


OF PACKED ITEMS

< ~, ~ ICC SHIPPING


NAME
FEDERAL STOCK
NUMBER

A.
'~ ~ LOT NUMBER
GROSS WEIGHT >
CUBICAL DISPLACEMENT
MONTH AND YEAR LOADE Da

MUZZLE VELOCITY -

NOMENCLATURE /
* OF PACKED ITEMS

LOT NUMBER

Figure 22. Typical two-round packing box.

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h
\\A. TYPE, MODEL, AND ACTION OF FUZE
\B,. THREE T', INDICATE TRACER
\C., CALIBER AND DESIGNATIONOF WEAPON
KIND OF FILLER
E. TYPE AND MODEL OF SHELL
F. AMMUNITION LOT NUMBER; AN X AFTER
THE SERIAL NUMBER INDICATES STEEL
CARTRIDGE CASE
G. CAL IBER AND MODEL OF CASE
H. LOTNUMBEROF CASE
I. YEAROF MANUFACTURE
J. PERFORMANCE OF ROUND UPON FIRING,
FLASHLESS OR SMOKELESS, FLASHLESS-
SMOKELESS
K. TYPE AND MODEL OF SHELL

Figure 23. Typical markings on ammunition.

Section VII. MACHINEGUN AMMUNITION, IDENTIFICATION AND USES


31. General the maximum effective range of each type ma-
Machinegun ammunition is belted in metallic chinegun. Tracers of the same type do not burn
link belts (MLB). In tank gunnery training out at exactly the same range. The figures used
and in combat, machinegun ammunition should are averages and, therefore, approximate, but
be linked together in a ratio of 4 nontracer to they are accurate enough to use in establishing
1 tracer (except for subcaliber exercises, which a maximum effective range. Machinegun ammu-
should be all ball or frangible). Tracer ammu- nition is identified by type, caliber, model, and
nition of some type is included in each belt lot number. A color code on the bullet tip is
to be used in automatic fire for observation for identification by type. Markings are also
and subsequent adjustment of fire. As machine- located on the original packing containers (figs.
gun fire normally cannot be adjusted beyond 24 and 25). Units equipped with M85 machine-
the range of tracer burnout, this determines guns must insure that the caliber .50 ammuni-
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ITON LOT NUMBER

NUMBER OF ROUNDS,
CALIBER

TYPE OF AMMUNITION

GROSS WEIGHT
DISPLACEMENT

WHEN BOX CONTAINS PRACTICE AMMUNITION


THECLEATSARE PAINTED BLUE ANDA BLUE
BAND IS ADDED AROUND CENTER

Figure 24. Typical wooden packing box for small arms ammunition.

tion used against personnel, unarmored vehi-


.'_111L cles, and equipment. The link M13 (clip-type)
I it, 7, ; . .
is used in belting.
b. Tracer M62. Burnout occurs at approxi-
mately 900 meters (1,000 yards).
c. Ball M59. Used in training.

33. Cartridge Types, Caliber .30


Machinegun
a. Armor-Piercing Incendiary (API) MI4.
When belted with tracer, M25, this is the stand-
ard combat ammunition used against personnel,
Figure 25. Typical metal packing box for small arms
ammunition. unarmored vehicles, and equipment. The link
M1 (closed-loop) is used in belting.

tion is linked with the clip-type link rather b. Tracer, M25. Burnout occurs at approxi-
than the closed loop link. For methods of em- mately 900 meters (1,000 yards).
ployment of machineguns see paragraphs 5 c. Ball, M2; Tracer, M25; Blank, M1909; and
through 8. Frangible, M122. Used in training.
Caution. Franghble ammunition will not be
32. Cartridge Types, 7.62-MM Machinegun fired on indoor ranges without adequate venti-
a. Artmor-Piercing (AP) M61. Belted with lation because of the toxic hazard that may
tracer, M62, is the standard combat ammuni- occur.

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34. Cartridge Types, Caliber .50 c. Ball, M33 or M2; Tracer, M17. Used in
Machinguns training. Tracer (M17) burnout is approxi-
mately 2,250 meters (2,450 yards).
a. Anmor-Piercing Incendiary (API) M8.
\NWhen belted with armor-piercing incendiary 35. Identification of Machinegun
tracer, M20, this is the standard combat ammu- Ammunition by Color Code
Type of cartridge Color of tip of bullet
nition used against personnel, unarmored vehi- Armor-Piercing ___________- - Black
cles, some lightly armored vehicles, equipment, Armor-Piercing Incendiary __Silver
and aircraft. Caliber .50 ammunition to be fired Armor-Piercing Incendiary
with the caliber .50, HB series of machineguns Tracer _________________ Red and silver
must be linked with either the M2 or M9 Tracer (7.62-mm, caliber .30) _Red
(closed-loop) link. The M15A2 (clip-type) link Tracer (caliber .50) ________ Red
must be used for ammunition to be fired with Ball ______________________Not painted
the caliber .50, M85 machinegun. Frangible __________________Green and white
Note. Dummyammunition is identified by corrugated
b. Armor-Piercing Incendiary Tracer (AP- or perforated cartridge cases.
Blank ammunition is identified by its colored plug in
IT) M20. Burnout occurs at approximately place of a bullet (an exception is the 7.62-mm, which
1,600 meters (1,750 yards). has an elongated case).

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PART THREE
FIRE CONTROL AND SIGHTING EQUIPMENT

CHAPTER 4
DIRECT-FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM

36. General the target is illuminated by visible


This chapter discusses the components of the light.
direct-fire control systems and their uses. When (4) To designate targets to the gunner.
a target can be seen through the sights, the b. Procedures for training range finder op-
direct-fire control system is used. The compo- erators are contained in chapter 15. Because
nents included in the direct-fire control system the range finder is linked to the computer, the
are- tank commander can index range into the
a. For the tank commander-the range finder direct-fire control system on main battle tanks
and/or periscope, supplemented by hand held when the periscope sight is used by the gunner.
binocular. Range finders have a nonballistic reticle gradu-
ated in mils (fig. 29).
b. For the gunner-the computer or ballistic
unit, periscope, superelevator in the hydraulic
system, ballistic drive, and as the gunner's 39. Tank Commander's Sight (M41 Tank)
secondary sight, the telescope (fig. 26). a. The tank commander's sight on the M41
tank moves with the gunner's primary sight
37. Binocular and is used--
The binocular is used by the tank commander (1) To designate targets to the gunner.
to acquire targets, and to observe and adjust (2) As a direct-fire sight.
fire. By placing the center point of the hori- (3) To sense rounds fired at night when
zontal mil scale on the target, he can measure the target is illuminated.
deflection in mils that the round is to the left
or right of the target. The measurement will b. It has a nonballistic reticle that is essen-
form the basis of his deflection or lead correc- tially the same as the gunner's periscope reticle
tion (fig. 27). He can also measure vertical (fig. 29).
height in mils to aid in the determination of
range (fig. 28). For adjustment and uses of 40. Computer (M48 and M60 Tanks)
the binocular see chapter 15.
The computer receives ammunition informa-
tion from the gunner and range information
38. Range Finder (M48 and M60 Tanks) from either the tank commander's range finder
a. The range finder is used by the tank com- or the gunner by means of the superelevation
mander: hand crank. The computer determines the
(1) To determine accurate ranges. superelevation (fig. 30) and transmits it to the
fire control system based on the range and
(2) As a direct-fire sight. ammunition indexed. This data is transmitted
(3) To sense rounds fired at night when to the ballistic drive and to the gunner's and
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X-

9U
,*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~0
i
.t~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~t

i u t~~
- jX =n-S~~~~u:23a Z

1_

Is
t3
-
a
X a. AL i

11

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10*

In- -c-
Wt
le

,o

I I
4 S

THE BURST IS 20 MILS RIGHT OF TRUCK.


Figure 27. Measuring a horizontal angle with the binocular.

tank commander's sights and, on the M48A2, the tank commander's and gunner's primary
M48A3, and M60 tanks, to the superelevator sights, causing them to move while the gun
and the gun. remains stationary.

41. Ballistic Unit (M41 Tank) 42. Gunner's Periscope


The gunner must index both the range and The gunner's periscope is his primary direct-
ammunition, which are announced by the tank fire sight because of its location and ease of
commander, in the ballistic unit. The ballistic use. It incorporates a nonballistic reticle (fig.
unit then determines the superelevation data 29) graduated in mils. In conjunction with the
and transmits it to the ballistic drive and to computer or ballistic unit, it can be used for
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THE MIL ANGLE SUBTENDED BY THE HEIGHT OF THE TANK IS 6 MILS.


Figure 28. Measuring a vertical angle with the binocular.

all types of main gun ammunition and the coax data from the computer in the form of mechan-
machinegun. The viewing window has a unity ical movement. The superelevator controls the
(one power) field of view to provide a wider flow of oil through the hydraulic lines to the
field of vision than that of the sight. In some
viewing windows a projected infinity sight is elevation cylinder under the gun. With the
provided as a coax machinegun sight (fig. 31). turret power on, this causes the gun to move
approximately the required amount above the
43. Superelevator (M48A2, M48A3, and
M60 Tanks) line of sight for a given round to hit a target
The superelevator receives superelevation at a given range (superelevation angle).
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1} 2 MILS
MLS
2 MILS JM

I
5 MILS 5 MiLS
1 MI(- 4 MILS
1 Ml<Ij MIt
I
I -

I
I
Figure 29. Nonballistic reticle.

TRAJECTORY
GUN TRUNNIONS LINE OF
\ SUPERELEVATION

Figure 30. Superelevation angle.

44. Ballistic Drive direct-fire sight. Telescopes that are articulated


The ballistic drive causes the gun and sights (jointed) have an eyepiece that remains in a
to move together when the gun controls are fixed position for ease of the gunner's sighting.
used. On those tanks equipped with a super- Because the telescope is not linked to the com-
elevator it allows the sights and gun to move puter, the tank commander must announce the
independently of each other to apply superele- range to the gunner when the telescope is being
vation to the gun while the sights remain within used. However, the tank commander should de-
1 mil of the aiming point. On those tanks with- termine range as accurately as possible, using
out a superelevator or on which the turret the range finder if available.
power is inoperative, it allows the sights to (1.Reticle. The telescope has a ballistic reticle,
move independently of the gun to apply super- which means, it is graduated for a particular
elevation. type of ammunition. The graduations are in
yards or meters of range and in mils of deflec-
45. Telescope tion. The lead lines are either 21/2 or 5 mils
The telescope is mounted coaxially to the wide, (figs. 32 and 33). Some telescopes have
main gun and is used as the gunner's secondary selectable reticles and some reticles themselves
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nition being fired, the gunner must either refer
PERISCOPE NONMAGNIFIED
FIELD OF VIEW to an aiming data chart or use the computer
(ballistic unit) as an aiming data chart (c
below).
b. Aiming Data Chart (fig. 34). This chart is
found in the tabular firing table issued to the
tank unit or it may be issued separately. In
either case it may be attached to the recoil
guard of the main gun for ready reference.
To use it the gunner reads-
Figure 31. Infinity sight reticle (nonballistic).
(1) Down the column of the announced
combine the ballistics of two different types of ammunition to the announced range.
ammunition (fig. 33). When the telescope is Example: SHOT (AP) 1300.
being used and there is no reticle for the ammu- (2) Across to the sight diagram to deter-

/ - 90 AP M318A1,v\
GUN AND AMMUNITION IDENTIFICATION DATA
BORESIGHT CROSS
B

I--1
I
5 MILS 5 MILS
200 YDS I
200 YDS (I
8 -- 8

16 - 16

I
24
I 24

1
LINES
32
I 'ZEROING CROSS

40-- 40

48 48

RANGE LINES

Figure 32. Ballistic reticle.

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105-MM APDS-T M392
AND
HEP.T M393

MS4
MILS
- i -Ao~ 12
.8
16
3..5 - . I *.20
- - 24
5..5 _ * I . 28

8 - -

12 .
*

16

SMILS

20 *

5MILS

24

28

32

Figure 33. Ballistic combination reticle.

mine the range line to place on the (2) The tank commander will range on the
target to fire. Example: 1600. target and turn the computer off.
(3) The gunner will then index the type
c. Computer as an Aiming Data Chart. of ammunition for which the reticle
(1) The gunner will index the announced is graduated.
ammunition in the computer. (4) The gunner will note the range indi-
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TANK, 90-MM GUN, M48-SE RIES HEAT-T, T300E54 IN METERS ADC 90-X-1
W/CANNON, M41 AND TELESCOPE, M97G ON RETICLE

HE, T300E54 HE-T.


M71 RETICLE M71A1
PATTERN
WP, WP.
M313 M313C

1 1
2...................................................2
3 3
4.........................8 ............ 4
6 5
7...................................................6
9 7
10..................... 15 ........................ 8
11........................16 ............ 9
13 10
15 ................................................. 12
17 14
20...... 24 ...................... 16
24 19
27 ................................................. 22
31 25
36........................ 32 ...................... 29
41 34
46 ...................................... 38
43
........................ 40 ...................... 49

Numbers and lines under the reticle column are those that appear on the reticle.
To use chart: 1. Find the type of ammunition to be fired.
2. Read down to the range at which you will fire.
3. Move left (or right) and find the corresponding sight setting
under the reticle column.
4. Use this point in the telescope to lay and fire.

Figure 34. Aiming data chart.

cated by the outer pointer on the com- range and ammunition in the ballistic
puter range dial and place this range unit.
line of the telescope reticle on the (2) He then notes the indexed range for
target. the ammunition for which the reticle
is graduated.
d. Ballistic Unit as an Aiming Data Chart. (3) He places this range line of the tele-
(1) The gunner indexes the announced scope reticle on the target.

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CHAPTER 5
AUXILIARY FIRE CONTROL INSTRUMENTS

46. General periodically for accuracy by the end-for-end


The auxiliary fire control instruments are test. If the correction is greater than 0.4 mil
designed to complement the direct-fire control it must be turned in to Ordnance.
system in providing the tank crew with a 24-
hour capability of delivering effective fire. The 48. Elevation Quadrant
instruments are primarily used to obtain and This instrument (fig. 36) is found only on the
apply range card data for the tank's armament main battle tanks and is used to measure and
and searchlight. If the tank is used in the apply gun elevation angles. Elevation angles
artillery role then the instruments are used can be measured and applied to the nearest
to apply firing data from the fire direction cen- 1 mil. It is mounted on the ballistic drive cross
ter. The instruments used in this system consist shaft or on the recoil guard of the main gun.
of a gunner's quadrant or elevation quadrant The elevation quadrant has two scales: the ele-
and an azimuth indicator. vation scale graduated in 100-mil increments
and the micrometer scale graduated in 1-mil in-
47. Gunner's Quadrant crements. Black figures indicate plus readings
and red figures minus readings. Each scale
This instrument (fig. 35) is OEM on all
standard tanks. It is used to measure and apply has an index to designate readings. The quad-
angles of elevation on those tanks without rant has a level vial and a reflector to aid the
mounted elevation quadrants. On main battle gunners when centering the bubble. Elevations
are applied or determined by rotation of the
tanks this quadrant is used primarily to check micrometer knob and use of the gun controls.
and adjust the mounted elevation quadrant. In
The elevation quadrant is checked and adjusted
measuring and applying angles, it is possible
to interpolate the reading of this quadrant to by using the gunner's quadrant.
the nearest one-tenth of a mil. There are two
scales on this quadrant: the elevation scale 49. Azimuth Indicator
graduated in 10-mil increments, and the mi- a. The azimuth indicator (fig. 37) is used
crometer scale graduted in increments of two- to lay the gun for direction and to measure
tenths of a mil. Each scale has an index to horizontal angles. It is mounted so that its
designate readings. A level vial is mounted on gear meshes with the turret ring gear and is
the index arm. To measure or apply plus angles located on the right side of the turret where
of elevation, the black line-of-fire arrow must it can be viewed by the gunner. The azimuth
be pointed to the muzzle end of the main gun. indicator has three scales: an azimuth scale
Minus angles are measured or applied with graduated in 100-mil increments, a micrometer
the black line-of-fire arrow pointing to the scale graduated in 1-mil increments, and a gun-
breech end of the gun. To use the quadrant to ner's aid scale graduated in 1-mil increments.
measure or apply angles of elevation, the quad- There are three pointers: an azimuth pointer
rant shoes are placed on the seats or scribed (middle) and a micrometer pointer (outer),
marks provided on the breechring of the main both of which are adjustable, and a directional
gun. The index arm and micrometer knob or pointer (inner). The directional pointer indi-
the gun controls are manipulated to obtain the cates the amount of turret traverse measured
proper reading. The quadrant must be checked from the front center of the tank and is non-
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IDEX PLATE

INDEX
PLUNGER

INDEX I : <04- LINE OF FIRE

SHOE MARKS

Figure 35. Gunner's quadrant.

adjustable. To use the azimuth indicator, the scale opposite the micrometer pointer; then the
gun is laid on a reference point by use of the turret is traversed in the desired direction
direct-fire sights. The resetter knob is pushed until the micrometer pointer indicates the re-
down and rotated to move the azimuth and quired deflection angle on the gunner's aid.
micrometer pointers to zero, then released. Any
subsequent turret rotation will be measured by b. Azimuth indicators must be checked peri-
the azimuth and micrometer scales. For small odically for accuracy and slippage. As no error
shifts (50 mils or less) in deflection, the gun- is allowable, inaccurate instruments must be
ner's aid is rotated to index the zero of its repaired by Ordnance.

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MICROMETER
SCALE
MICROMETER
INDEX
ELEVATION ELEVATION
SCALE SCALE INDEX

K0191-11 Q 11-A I%
&AsaITWA a Lei mP
MINUS ELEV,
SCALE
PLUS ELE
0-11-pl-lamu'VERITS,
ETON - - -]=

REFLECTOR - ,
,LEVEL VIAL a __ =

ILEVEL VIAL
COVER ---+,41~ m~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~mm
'
~~~
~~ - /

Figure 36. Elevation quadrant.

40
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RESETTER KNOB

AZIMUTH I
SCALE DIRECTIONAL
POINTER
Figure 37. Azimuth indicator.

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CHAPTER 6
TANK-MOUNTED SEARCHLIGHTS

50. General makes the light less vulnerable to enemy fire


All tank-mounted searchlights are mounted and permits freer operation of the cupola ma-
coaxially with the main gun. The tank crew chinegun. Some standard searchlights have a
visible light capability only, while others have
can position the searchlight on a target area
prior to illumination by use of the gun controls. both visible and infrared capabilities. For em-
When in a position for which a range card has ployment of the searchlight and precautionary
been made, the tank crew can lay the search- procedures see paragraphs 114 through 116 of
light on a specific point prior to illumination this manual and appendix XV, FM 17--1.
by using the auxiliary fire control instruments
and the gun controls. If a tank has a stowage 51. Searchlight
rack for the searchlight, then the light can The 18-inch searchlight (fig. 38) has a visible
be removed and stowed for daylight firing. This light capability, with a maximum effective

pv()

A. .

, __ ~~~~~~*' .
' .. !-am> J
b

.. 4:C . - l
*1 2.'>
- *~-~ ~ J-
· ;4

Figure 88. 18-inch searchlight.

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Z! ZC t,
__,,

Figure 39. Xenon searchlight.

range of approximately 1,000 meters on a clear viewing capability. The sights provide for di-
night. If adverse weather conditions exist, i.e., rect fire with infrared light and can be used to
rain, mist, fog, etc., the effective range would detect the use of infrared light by the enemy.
decrease proportionally. On tanks equipped
with this searchlight, the light should be prop- b. Xenon Searchlight. The Xenon searchlight
erly focused and boresighted (para. 54d). Once (fig. 39) has a dual capability of visible or in-
boresighted, the searchlight can be laid using frared light. This searchlight has an increased
the same controls that are used for the main maximum effective range with visible light in
gun. Instruction in the care and maintenance comparison with the 18-inch searchlight and
of the 18-inch searchlight is found in TM 5- provides a means of employing direct fire with
6230-201-15. infrared light. Either the visible or infrared
light beam can be controlled in width from a
52. Infrared Visible Light Kit for minimum of 2 degrees to a maximum of 7
M60-Series Tanks degrees (approximate figures). Either beam
a. General.This light kit consists of a search- can be boosted in intensity by use of an over-
light, a gunner's periscope, two periscopes for drive capability. The overdrive can be selected
the tank commander, and a pair of infrared by the tank commander on his control panel
binoculars. The kit provides the crew with a and once applied will operate for approximately
visible light capability and an infrared light 15 seconds, then automatically kick off. The

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ISUPPORT

ELEVATION '
WEDGE

RELEASE
HANDLE -
UNITY
VIEWING
WINDOW

HEADREST /
ADJUSTING
SCREW

INFRARED BObY? -
ASSEMBLY
(RIGHT-SIGHT
ELBOW)

*M31 BODY /
ASSEMBLY,
(LEFT SIGHT / ZERING (DIOPTER RING)
ELBOW) \
INFRARED RETICLE /AREDPOWE SWIT
PROJECTOR EYEPIECE/FOCUSING RINGFRARED POWER SWT

Figure 40. Gunner's periscope M22 (visible-infrared).

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Figure 41. Tank commander's periscope MS4 (visible light only).

control panel has a standby position, which will the Xenon searchlights are outlined in TM
allow warmup of the light for instant illumi- 5-6230-204-12.
nation without leakage of light to the exterior.
Conversely this standby position provides for c. Gunner'sPeriscope.The gunner's periscope
(fig. 40) which is issued with the kit replaces
instant cutoff of illumination without an "after-
glow." If adverse weather conditions exist, the the original periscope on the tank. It has two
sight elbows. The left sight elbow for visible
maximum effective range of either visible or
light has 8-power magnification and contains
infrared light would decrease proportionally. a nonballistic reticle. The right sight elbow
This searchlight is mounted coaxially to the
main gun. A stowage rack is provided so that fcr infrared light has 8-power magnification
it can be placed in a less vulnerable position and contains a nonballistic reticle. A unity (1)
power wide angle viewing window is also
during daylight operations. The light must be
provided.
focused and boresighted properly prior to op-
eration. Once boresighted the searchlight can d. Tank Commander's Periscopes. The tank
be laid using the same controls that are used commander has two periscopes that use the
for the main gun. Care and maintenance of same head assembly. They replace the periscope
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Figure 42. Tank commander's periscope M36 (visible-infrared).

for the cupola machinegun. One is a binocular a nonballistic reticle. Each periscope has a
periscope for visible light viewing only (fig. unity (1) power wide angle viewing window.
41). It has 7-power magnification and contains
a ballistic reticle in the left sight elbow for e. Infrared Binocular. A pair of infrared
use with the cupola machinegun. The second binocular (fig. 43) is issued as part of the light
periscope (fig. 42) is a combination visible- kit. These binocular are for use with infrared
infrared sight similar to the gunner's periscope. light; they have 3.5-power magnification and
It consists of two sight elbows. The left sight do not contain a reticle. Their primary use is
elbow is for viewing with visible light, has for target surveillance by the tank commander
7-power magnification, and contains a ballistic in conjunction with an infrared source. Once a
reticle for use with the cupola machinegun. The target is acquired, the tank commander will
right sight elbow is for viewing with infrared use the infrared (right elbow) periscope for
light, has 8-power magnification, and contains observing and adjusting fire.

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aiin

V A

6r

IR
Field of View( ° ) 12.0
Magnification 3.5X
Weight (pounds) 4.75

Tank Commander's Handheld Binocular, XM-18

Figure 45. Infrared binocular.

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CHAPTER 7
BORESIGHTING AND ZEROING

53. General be as indicated in the technical manual


Guns vary in their performance due to in- for the tank.
herent differences such as wear, jump, and (2) Affix thread across the marks on the
droop. The range scales used in fire control muzzle of the gun to form a cross.
equipment are based on standard range table This cross is used as the front sight.
angles of elevation and make no allowance for (3) Open the breechblock and insert the
the varying characteristics of individual weap- breech boresight (if available). If no
ons. To compensate for the variation in per- breech boresight is available, use the
formance, sights must be adjusted. This adjust- firing pin well as a rear sight.
ment must be accomplished periodically, as the (4) Place the range finder (if tank is so
movement of the tank and firing of the gun equipped) in operation and index the
may cause the sights to move out of adjustment. range to the target on the range scale.
Accurate sight adjustment is fundamental in (5) Remove all superelevation from the
tank gunnery; it is impossible to fire accurately sights by use of the computer or bal-
without it. Sight adjustment includes bore- listic unit.
sighting, zeroing, and verification and refine- (6) Using the front and rear sights on
ment of the zero. the gun ((2) and (3) above), aline the
Note. Because of the extremely short ranges involved, axis of the bore on the target (aiming
boresighting and zeroing procedures for subcaliber fir- point) by manually elevating and tra-
ing are not the same as those discussed in this chapter.
For boresighting and zeroing procedures for subcaliber versing the gun. Use the right tele-
firing, see paragraph 206b. scope of the binocular to sight through
the gun tube (fig. 44).
54. Boresighting (7) Without disturbing the alinement of
Boresighting provides the basis for all sight the gun, unlock the boresight knobs
adjustment. It is performed to establish a of all sights for the main gun and
definite relationship between the axes of the turn the knobs to move the aiming
guns and the direct-fire sights, and is accom- crosses or boresight crosses of all reti-
plished to facilitate zeroing or the indexing of cles to the aiming point (fig. 44).
an established zero. Complete boresighting, per- Relock the boresight knobs.
formed daily before firing, and as frequently as (8) Slip the numbered scales on the bore-
practicable in combat, includes boresighting the sight knobs in order to establish a
main gun, coaxial machinegun, cupola-mounted known point from which to make cor-
machinegun, and coaxially mounted searchlight. rections. The normal setting to which
To boresight, position the tank as level as pos- the scales are slipped is established
sible to eliminate or reduce cant error (para. for the standard boresight range in
60b), charge manual accumulator on those the technical manual for the tank. As
tanks so equipped, and proceed as follows: a target may not be available at the
standard boresighting range, some slip
a Main Gun. scales have reference marks for bore-
(1) Select a target with a clearly defined sighting at other ranges. These alter-
right angle. Range to the target should nate settings correspond to various
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TELESCOPE SIGHT

INFINITY SIGHT

1 -I~

MAIN GUN PRIMARY SIGHT AND RANGE


FINDER SIGHT

COAX MACHINEGUN

Figure 44. Boresighting the main gun and coaxial machinegun.

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ranges and are etched in red on the (3) With the elevating and traversing
slip scale. After boresighting at a controls, aline the axis of the machine-
range other than the standard bore- gun barrel on the aiming point. En-
sight range, the scale should be slipped gage the azimuth (travel) lock and
to the corresponding red number. For use the vernier to make a precise
example, if a boresight range of 600 adjustment.
meters is used, the scales must be (4) Without moving the machinegun, re-
slipped to the red 6. fer the boresight point of the machine-
(9) Recheck to insure that the gun and gun sight reticle to the same aiming
boresight point of all direct-fire sights point.
are on the correct boresight point. (5) Replace the bolt and backplate group.
(10) After slipping the scales to the ap-
propriate numbers, index the estab- d. Tank-Mounted Searchlight. Boresighting
lished zero or emergency zero by un- the searchlight is alining the axis of the search-
locking the boresight knobs and turn- light parallel to the axis of the gun tube. Before
ing them to the appropriate reading; such alinement is undertaken, the lamp must be
then relock the knobs. properly focused. Boresighting is best accom-
plished during the hours of darkness or, if done
b. Coaxial Machinegun. Boresighting the co- in daylight, by placing the target in a shaded
axial machinegun takes place immediately after area. To boresight the searchlight, proceed as
boresighting the main gun. follows:
(1) Select a target at the same range used (1) Project the beam on a smooth, light-
for the main gun (normally the same colored, vertical surface, e.g., a 6 by
target or aiming point). 6-foot panel target. The target should
(2) With all superelevation removed from be approximately 60 meters from the
the fire control system, lay the aiming tank. Place two black dots approxi-
cross of the primary sight on the aim- mately 2 inches in diameter on the
ing point by use of the gun controls. target. Space the dots vertically with
Then if a separate sight is available the same distance between them as
for the coaxial machinegun, move this distance between the axes of the gun
sight to the aiming point by use of its tube and searchlight. With Xenon
boresight knobs. (visible light and infrared light capa-
(3) Remove the backplate and bolt or re- bilities) searchlights, either light can
ceiver group from the machinegun. be used for boresighting.
(4) Looking through the barrel, move the (2) Insert the breech boresight (if avail-
axis of the barrel to the same aiming able) into the gun or remove the firing
point by using the adjusting mecha- mechanism. Place black thread on the
nisms on the machinegun mount. marks of the muzzle of the gun to
(5) Make a final check to insure that the form a cross.
sights and machinegun are on the aim- (3) Sight through the gun tube and, using
ing point and then replace the bolt and the gun controls, lay the axis of the
backplate or receiver group. gun tube on the lower black dot. By
moving the searchlight independently
c. Cupola-Mounted Machinegun. of the gun, place the center of the
(1) Select a target with a clearly defined beam on the upper black dot. When
right angle at a range of 500 meters this has been accomplished the search-
(yards). light is boresighted.
(2) Remove the backplate group and the
bolt from the machinegun. 55. Emergency Zero
Note. On the M85 caliber .50 machinegun,
hold the feed cam lever to the left to allow a. The emergency zero is used to compensate
a clear view through the barrel. for the characteristics of the main gun and for

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drift of the projectile in flight. This setting is target used will have a dotted circle, 24
applied to certain sights on the tank when no inches in diameter.
established zero has been determined. It is (3) Determine the range to this target by
applied by unlocking the boresight knobs and the most accurate means available.
turning them to move the reticle a specified Range finder is used on those tanks so
number of mils in elevation and azimuth. The equipped.
knobs are then relocked. (4) Index the range and type of ammuni-
tion to be fired in the fire control
b. If any main gun sight has an established system and make a precise lay on the
zero, all other main gun sights can be alined
center of the target, using the manual
with this one without the need to zero.
controls.
c. If an established zero has not been deter- Note. Normally the most accurate armor-
mined for any sight and zeroing cannot be ac- defeating ammunition will be used to zero.
complished, firing will take place with the If the type used cannot be sensed from the
emergency zero. tank, position an observer (driver of tank)
approximately 10 meters to the windward
d. If zeroing is to take place immediately side of the tank to adjust fire if the first
after boresighting, the emergency zero need round misses. All zeroing rounds should be of
the same type and lot number. Each final
only be applied to the gunner's primary sight lay of the gun should be in the same direc-
and the tank commander's sight. tion, against pressure, during entire zeroing
procedure.
e. If zeroing with HEAT or SABOT, no
emergency zero is applied and zeroing is accom- (5) Fire one round with the correct sight
plished from boresight. picture. If the gun is cold, the accur-
acy of this first round is doubtful;
56. Zeroing therefore, the first round fired
through a cold gun is considered a
Both the tank commander and the gunner warming round and is not used in the
will go through the zeroing procedure together zeroing procedure. Re-lay on the aim-
to insure accuracy. Zeroing is the firing of the ing point and fire another round. (To
gun to adjust the sights so that the point of obtain a correct sensing, re-lay im-
aim and the point of strike of the projectile mediately after firing each round.) If
coincide at a given range, thereby increasing the first round fired (other than a
the accuracy of fire at all direct-fire ranges. warming round) fails to hit the tar-
When zeroing, all final lays of the main gun get, note the point on the reticle where
should be made in the same direction, against the strike of the round appeared in
pressure, each time a round is fired to minimize relation to the target and move this
slippage in the turret controls. All zeroing point to the center of the target by
rounds should be of the same type and lot num- using the gun controls. Then unlock
ber and if the gun is cold, the first round fired the boresight knobs; move the aiming
is a warming round and is not part of the zero- cross to the center of the target, and
ing procedure. lock the knobs. This procedure pro-
a. Main Gun (fig. 45). To zero the main gun vides the gunner with a definite point
proceed as follows: on the reticle for firing subsequent
rounds to establish a shot group. Con-
(1) Boresight and apply emergency zero tinue to fire, re-laying on the center
(if applicable). of the target by use of the gun con-
(2) Select a well-defined point in the tar- trols for each round fired, until there
get area at a range as indicated in the is a three-round shot group. Again
technical manual for the tank. The re-lay the gun with the sight on the
boresight target will normally be used. center of the target.
Note. To give a high probability of all
rounds in the shot group striking the target, (6) Without disturbing the lay of the gun,
this should be a 12- by 12-foot target. The move the aiming cross to the center of
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SHOT
GROUP

A. FIRE A THREE-ROUND SHOT GROUP, USING THE


CENTER OF THE TARGET AS AN AIMING POINT.

AIMING
CROSS

f
- I

B. REFER THE AIMING CROSS TO THE CENTER OF THE


SHOT GROUP USING THE BORESIGHT KNOBS.

C. RE-LAY THE GUN USING THE MANUAL CONTROLS,


AND FIRE A CHECK ROUND. CHECK
ROUND

Figure 45. Zeroing the main gun.

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the shot group, using the boresight (4) If the main gun sight is to be used,
knobs. Lock the boresight knobs. use the adjusting mechanism on the
(7) Use the manual gun controls to lay coaxial mount and adjust the beaten
the aiming cross back on the aiming zone to the main gun sight. Insure
point. that the mounting block does not con-
tact the gun port.
(8) Fire a check round. The projectile (5) Fire another burst of 20 to 25 rounds.
should strike within 24 inches of the The beaten zone of the burst should
aiming point. If it does not, fire a
second check round. If either round bracket the target. If not, repeat ad-
strikes within the specified distance justment in (4) above and again fire
from the aiming point, the gun is a burst of 20 to 25 rounds.
zeroed. If not, re-lay on aiming point; (6) If a machinegun sight (infinity) is
unlock the boresight knob; move the available, move the reticle with the
aiming cross to the center of the two boresight knobs to the beaten zone.
check rounds fired, and lock the knobs. c. Cupola-Mounted Machinegun.
Using the manual gun controls re-lay (1) Select a target (normally the bore-
on the aiming point and fire a check sight target) with a clearly defined
round. If this round falls within the aiming point at a range of 500 meters
specified distance, the gun is zeroed. (yards).
The aiming cross or appropriate
(2) With the elevating and traversing
range line of all sight reticles for the controls, lay the 500-meter (yard)
main gun are then referred to the point of the periscope on the aiming
aiming point. This is the established point of the zeroing target. Engage
zero. the azimuth lock and make fine adjust-
(9) Record the zero settings and place ments with azimuth adjusting knob
them in some convenient part of the (vernier).
turret. In subsequent sight adjust- (3) Fire a burst of 10 to 20 rounds. Re-lay
ment, this established zero is applied the gun if necessary after firing.
after boresighting to preclude repeat- (4) Without disturbing the lay of the gun,
ing the zeroing procedure. move the 500-meter (yard) point of
b. Zeroing the Coaxial Machinegun. Once the reticle to the center of the beaten
boresighted, the coaxial machinegun is zeroed zone.
by firing to cause the center of the beaten zone (5) Fire another 10 to 20 round burst to
(dispersion area of one burst of 20-25 rounds) verify the zero. The weapon is zeroed
to hit the target at a range of 800 meters when the center of this beaten zone is
(yards). To zero the coaxial machinegun, pro- within 24 inches of the aiming point.
ceed as follows:
(1) Index the known range to the target 57. Verification of an Established Zero
in the fire control system.
Make periodic checks of the zero by bore-
(2) Index ammunition in the fire control sighting and indexing the established zero set-
system. If machinegun ammunition ting. If the main gun is cold, fire a warmup
cannot be indexed, index the type of round. Then fire a check round or burst from
main gun ammunition with the lowest the machinegun at a definite aiming point at
muzzle velocity. the zeroing range. If the projectile strikes
(3) Use the coaxial machinegun sight to within 24 inches of the aiming point, the zero
lay on the aiming point and fire a burst is correct. If the projectile fails to strike within
of 20 to 25 rounds. If the coaxial ma- the prescribed distance, refine the zero (para.
chinegun sight is not available, use 58). Repetition of the complete zeroing exercise
the main gun primary direct-fire is necessary only on replacement of the gun
sight. tube.
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58. Refinement of an Established Zero l. Note the point on the reticle where this
round strikes in relation to the target and, in
As changes in wind, temperature, and hu- using the gun controls, move that point to the
midity will affect an established zero, an ac- center of the target.
curate zero obtained on any day might not
insure first round hits on following days or f. Using the boresight knobs of the sight,
even later on the same day. As a result, the move the aiming cross to the center of the
gunner should be aware of any constant error target. This provides a definite point on the
that exists in firing the main gun. When such reticle for firing subsequent rounds.
an error is detected, first check the range finder g. Fire a check round using the same type
and computer. If their adjustment is correct. round.
refine the zero of the gun to obtain greater ac-
curacy. To refine the zero, proceed as follows: h.. Continue to adjust the sights until the
round strikes within approximately 24 inches
a. Boresight. This is done to insure that
of the aiming point.
errors in firing are not being caused by loss of
boresight.
60. Effect of Drift, Cant, Parallax, and Droop
b. If gun is cold, fire a warmup round. Drift, cant, parallax, and droop cause a cer-
c. Fire a two-round shot group at a zeroing tain amount of error in firing. These errors are
target or any vertical surface at the zeroing usually small at direct-fire ranges and can be
range indicated in the technical manual for the corrected somewhat by zeroing and adjusting
tank. Final lay for each round should be in the fire.
same direction, against pressure. a. Drift is the deviation of the projectile from
d. With the same sight picture used to hit the plane of fire. It is the result of the effects
the target, unlock the boresight knobs and turn of rotation and air resistance on the projectile.
them until the aiming cross is in the center of The rotation imparted to spin-stabilized pro-
the two-round group. This refinement results jectiles by the rifling of the bore and the ro-
in a new established zero, which replaces the tating bands cause the projectiles to drift in
previously recorded established zero. the direction of the rotation. This drift is to the
right, since all tank gun bores are rifled with
a right-hand twist. Ballistic reticles correct for
59. Combat Zeroing drift by use of offset range lines; however, non-
In combat, if a zeroing panel is not available, ballistic reticles do not. Proper zeroing results
a building or similar target may be selected in full compensation for drift at the zeroing
and the tank gun zeroed by normal methods. range and partial compensation at other direct-
When no target is available that would show a fire ranges. When firing at long ranges is con-
shot group, the following procedure is used: ducted, as indirect fire, data from firing tables
can be used to compensate for drift. The drift
a. Select a terrain feature as near the zeroing
of the HEP round must be compensated for at
range for the tank as possible. Use the most direct-fire ranges (para. 95).
accurate means available to determine this
range. b. Cant is the inclination of the gun trun-
nions (trunnion tilt) from the horizontal when
b. Boresight and apply the established zero. ground is not level. This is caused by one track
If there is no established zero, use the emer- of the tank being higher than the other. As the
gency zero or the boresight setting (HEAT or range to the target increases, cant causes in-
SABOT). creasing deflection and range error in the direc-
c. If gun is cold fire a warmup round. tion in which the tank is canted. Cant is
avoided by the selection of as level a firing
d. Lay on the center of the selected target position as possible. When cant is unavoidable,
and fire one round. re-laying immediately for error can be compensated for by taking a cor-
proper sight picture when round is sensed. rected sight picture (fig. 46) for the initial
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t
I

Co

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round. The primary method of adjustment, d. Droop is the bending of the gun tube as a
burst-on-target, decreases in accuracy if the result of uneven cooling of the outside surface.
firing tank is canted. As rain or wind cools one portion of the tube
c. Parallax is the apparent difference in. the and not another, the cooled surface will con-
position of an object when it is viewed from tract while the unaffected portion remains ex-
two different points. A parallax error within panded. This will cause the tube to droop or
the optics is caused by the sights being offset bend slightly in the direction of the cooled
from the gun tube. This error is corrected at surface. The tank commander should be aware
the zeroing range or by adjustments on some of this problem because excessive droop can
sights, and is of small consequence at any cause the rounds to completely miss the target.
direct-fire range. A parallax error from physi- This condition can be compensated for by re-
cal sight displacement is caused by not position- fining the established zero. By noting the cli-
ing the eye to the sight in the same manner for matic conditions when the gun is zeroed, the
each sight picture. This can be corrected tank commander can best be prepared to com-
through gunnery training or by proper adjust- pensate for changes in weather when they
ment of the headrest. occur.

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PART FOUR
CONDUCT OF FIRE

CHAPTER 8
INTRODUCTION

61. Scope in the artillery role (app. II). This type of fire,
Part four explains conduct of tank fire by however, is not as effective as direct fire, or fire
the tank crew and platoon. Conduct of fire con- using range cards, or supporting artillery fire.
sists of the methods and techniques used by the
tank crew and tank platoon to detect, engage, 64. Firing Positions
and destroy enemy targets with minimum ex- a. The ideal firing position is one that pro-
penditure of time and ammunition. vides cover, concealment, and level hardstand-
ing. When possible, hull defilade positions,
62. General where the hull is behind cover and the turret
exposed, are employed for direct fire (fig. 47).
a. The tank is an offensive weapon, possessing
armor-protected fire-power and a high degree When not in the act of engaging targets the
tank commander may position his tank in tur-
of mobility. The ability of armor to concentrate
devastating fire on the enemy while aggres- ret defilade (fig. 48). This affords maximum
sively advancing on his position produces the cover from enemy direct fire yet allows the
shock effect essential to success in battle. tank commander to observe for targets. Once a
target is acquired the tank will be moved to a
b. The primary mission of tank units is to hull defilade position for engagement of the
close with and destroy the enemy. Tank units target. All firing positons must be as level as
perform this mission by assaulting the enemy possible in order to eliminate or reduce cant
position in mass; followed by exploitation and (para. 60b). In a static situation, selection and
pursuit of the defeated enemy forces. Even in a occupation of positions are deliberate. How-
defensive situation, every effort is made to use ever, in mobile situations ideal firing positions
tanks offensively. The defense mission is ac- are not always available. Rapid selection and
complished by employing fire and maneuver. immediate occupation of a position is a crew
effort, requiring close teamwork among crew
63. Firepower members. Selection of the final position is the
tank commander's responsibility, but a trained
The most effective firepower is obtained by driver will constantly search for good positions
using direct fire, and concentrating the massed so that he can move in immediately when or-
fire of the entire tank unit. Direct fire can be dered to do so. As rapid engagement of the
delivered by the tank crew on targets that can target has priority over selection of a firing
be observed through the direct-fire sights. The position, situations may arise when a danger-
tank's firepower is not limited to a direct-fire ous target will be engaged from an exposed
capability. By proper preparation and use of firing position.
range cards and platoon fire plans, the tank
unit is able to deliver effective fire during dark- b. When moving into hull defilade, the tank
ness or other periods of poor visibility. Under commander commands GUNNER TAKE
exceptional conditions, the tank may be used OVER. With the gun level, the gunner looks
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- I

f,

----- - -- ----- -----


OtS V_/ -

Figure 47. Hull defilade position.

through the telescope observing the designated d. Although the machineguns can be fired
target area and halts the driver when the mask effectively from a moving tank (para. 6-8),
of the defilade is cleared for firing. Any time shooting on the move with the main gun is
it becomes doubtful as to whether or not the extremely inaccurate. The tank gun will nor-
projectile will clear the mask, the loader will mally be fired from stationary positions unless
check by sighting along the bottom of the gull the tank gun is stabilized. In the event fleeting
tube. If any of the mask is visible, the tank's large area or personnel targets are presented
position must be changed. and the terrain is relatively fiat, an unstabilized
tank main gun may be fired while the tank is
c. The tank commander directs the driver
moving. Accuracy will be secondary to psycho-
into turret defilade. The tank commander occu-
logical effect and HE, HEP, CANISTER or like
pies his normal position for observing the ammunition will be used.
target area and halts the driver when he can
see the target area.

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Figure 48. Turret defflade position.

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CHAPTER 9
TARGET ACQUISITION

65. General should be assigned the left flank and rear. The
Target acquisition for a tank requires the tank commander, at his discretion, will observe
combined efforts of all crewmen. It includes the remainder of the area. The driver, loader,
detection, location, and identification of targets and tank commander will be alert for aircraft.
by the crew. Subsequently, the target is ana- If one or more crewmen are dismounted or
lyzed by the tank commander to determine the unable to observe sectors, sectors must be re-
most effective employment of weapons and am- assigned accordingly.
munition. The tank crew that can fire the most
accurate and quickest first round will emerge 67. Identification and Alert
the victor from the battle. The speed of target The tank crewman who observes a target will
engagement for a crew is directly proportional alert the remainder of the crew to its presence.
to their proficiency in target acquisition. The tank commander does this by issuing an
initial fire command. Other crewmen designate
66. Responsibility and Duties of the Crew a target by announcing the target description
Within the tank crew, target acquisition is and movement, direction, and range (esti-
the responsibility of the tank commander, but mated), in that order. For example, TANK,
he is assisted by the other crew members. Ac- MOVING LEFT, DIRECT FRONT (12
quisition must be rapid and accurate, so that O'CLOCK), 1,000. The use of the clock system
the target can be engaged quickly with the cor- by the crew in reporting direction, will enable
rect weapon and type of ammunition. This is the tank commander to engage targets more
not an easy task, because enemy position and rapidly. The driver gives direction in relation
weapons will often be concealed and camou- to the tank hull. All other crewmen give direc-
flaged. Even when an enemy gun opens fire, the tion in relation to the turret. Should the tank
haze and noise of battle make target acquisition commander decide to engage a target desig-
difficult. Concealed and camouflaged targets are nated by another crewman, he will issue an
not only more difficult to detect, but they are initial fire command. For the proper descrip-
also more difficult for the gunner to discern and tion of a target, see paragraph 79.
consequently make a precise lay. To assist the
tank commander in target acquisition, he will 68. Classification of Targets by the
assign each crew member a specific sector for Tank Commander
observation. In assigning sectors, provisions a. Targets are broadly classified as point or
must be made for all-around security. The area, according to their nature. A point target
driver should be responsible to the front. The is one that consists of -a particular object or
gunner is assigned a sector covering the most structure, e.g., tank, gun position, or bunker.
dangerous approach, because he must observe An area target consists of a general location or
in the same direction the gun is laid. He will area on which fire is to be delivered, e.g., de-
traverse the turret throughout his sector view- fensive position, assembly area, or dispersed
ing through the observation window of his peri- troops.
scope. Upon observing a suspected enemy loca-
tion, further detection will be made by using b. Targets are further classified as hard or
either the periscope or telescope. The loader soft. Hard targets are those that cannot be

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penetrated by small arms fire (machineguns) cannot be destroyed by infantry weapons. To
or by the fragmentation effect of high explosive notify the tank commander of target locations
ammunition. The most common type of hard or to request tank fire on particular targets,
targets are armor protected vehicles, bunkers, the infantryman contacts the tank commander
and pillboxes. Soft targets are those that can by external interphone or radio. The action
be defeated by small arms fire and fragmenta- taken by the tank commander upon receipt of
tion. Common soft targets are personnel, un- the information or request by the infantryman
armored vehicles, and gun positions. depends on the situation and delegation of fir-
ing control within the tank unit.
69. Infantry Designation of Targets for
Tank Fire b. Method of Requesting Fire and Designat-
a. General. Fire coordination between tank ing Targets. The following elements are re-
and infantry units normally takes place at pla- quired for an individual requesting fire or des-
toon level; however, situations may arise where ignating targets:
this coordination can be best accomplished be- (1) Identification of the individual.
tween tank commander and infantry squad (2) Warning-fire mission or target.
leader or individual infantrymen. Infantry
units assist tank units by locating targets. Tank (3) Description of target-brief term con-
units assist infantry units by engaging targets sistent with clarity.
dangerous to dismounted troops and those that (4) Location-direction and range.
Examples:
REQUEST FOR FIRE REQUEST FOR FIRE
(RADIO) (EXTERNAL TELEPHONE)
Identification PENROD 22 THIS IS APPLEGATE 26A THIS IS THE SQUAD LEADER OF
SECOND SQUAD
Warning FIRE MISSION FIRE MISSION
Description MACHINEGUN MACHINEGUN
Location LEFT FRONT (ELEVEN O'CLOCK) ONE O'CLOCK (RIGHT FRONT)
SIX HUNDRED ROAD JUNCTION
TARGET INFORMATION TARGET INFORMATION
(RADIO) (EXTERNAL TELEPHONE)
Identification PENROD 21 THIS IS APPLEGATE 26A THIS IS PFC SHAVERS, FIRST
OPERATOR SQUAD, SECOND PLATOON
Warning TARGET TARGET
Description ANTITANK ANTITANK
Location DIRECT FRONT (TWELVE O'CLOCK) ELEVEN O'CLOCK (LEFT FRONT
ONE FIVE HUNDRED CHURCH
Note. The amount of detail required in the
identification element depends on the length
70. Target Acquisition at Night
of time the infantry and tank units have Target acquisition at night is accomplished
been operating together; call words are used
with the radio. Announcing FIRE MISSION
in the same manner as for daylight. However,
indicates a request, and announcing TAR- in the assignment of sectors of observation, the
GET indicates information on a target loca- tank commander must insure that he has pro-
tion. All tank commanders receiving a re- vided for adequate close-in protection against
quest for fire or information on a target infantry and dismounted tank-hunter teams
location will acknowledge the call and main- that may be operating under the cover of dark-
tain contact with the infantryman until the
the target is located. When a request for fire
ness. All crewmen must protect their night
is received, the tank commander notifies the vision by blackening out the turret and by
requester as to whether or not the target will closing eyes when the enemy illuminates the
be taken under fire. area or when other weapons are firing (para.
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107-109). But, if enemy illumination or friendly determine which method is better for him.
gun flashes appear frequently, crewmen should When using the binoculars, the crewman must
close one eye and take advantage of illumina- brace his arms in an effort to reduce unsteadi-
tion to observe his assigned sector. Both the ness, and cup the thumbs aside of the eyepieces
gunner and tank commander will find that a to restrict all light from the eye except that
precise lay on the target will be difficult, be- seen through the binoculars. This problem does
cause the target edges will blend into the back- not exist when using the magnified sight on the
ground. In addition to protection of night vi- tank. Regardless of the magnified instrument
sion, all crewmen must apply the following used, off-center vision, and scanning by moving
principles during night observation: the instrument must be employed.
a. Use of Off-Center Vision. During periods d. Use of Gun Flash. The flash produced by
of darkness, an individual must look out of the a gun being fired at night will aid the crewman
corner of his eyes rather than straight at an in target location. The flash will indicate the
object. By experimentation, he can find the direction, and by counting the number of sec-
most sensitive area of his eyes, one side or the onds that have lapsed from the flash to the
other, or, above or below normal view. For bang (sound of weapons), the range can be
most individuals, 6 to 10 degrees from normal estimated. Multiply the number of seconds
direction of vision is the most sensitive. flash to bang) by four to obtain the approxi-
mate range in hundreds of yards (meters) to
b. Scanning an Area. At night, observation the weapon position. Continued practice is nec-
should be performed by short, jerky, abrupt essary to maintain the degree of accuracy de-
movement of the eyes until an object is located. sired. Based on experience, the crew may be
Then off-center vision should be used to observe able to determine the nature of the target, i.e.,
the object. While observing an object, short eye rifle, antitankgun, or tank. For additional in-
movement is frequently necessary to prevent formation see paragraph 159.
object fadeout. Frequent periods of night train-
ing are necessary to produce confidence in night e. Use of Artificial Illumination. When an
observation. Cupping the hand around the eyes enemy is suspected to have occupied an area but
will also increase night vision. determination is not possible (no patrols avail-
able nor listening posts in that area), artificial
c. Use of Magnified Optics. Binoculars and illumination may be used. The use of tank-
the magnified sights are the most valuable aids mounted searchlights should be considered
to increase night observation without the use when mortar or artillery illumination is not
of artificial illumination. These instruments available. By requesting mortar or artillery
will allow the crew to detect targets at ranges illumination, the tank's position will not be
four times greater than possible with the un- disclosed to enemy observation. Prior to the
aided eye. They gather the available light and use of the tank-mounted searchlight for this
magnify the target image. As a result of this,
objects that cannot be observed because of dis- purpose, permission must be granted by the
tance or their contrast with the surrounding platoon leader or company commander. The
area, can be observed at greatly increased infrared (red light) searchlight is more desir-
ranges by tank crewmen using the binoculars, able than the visible (white light) searchlight
telescope, periscopes, and range finder without for this use; however, the use of infrared may
the use of artificial illumination. When using also compromise the position because the enemy
binocular type (two eyepiece) instruments for must be expected to have detection equipment.
night use, the necessity for accurate interpupil- When employing mortar or artillery illumina-
lary distance adjustment is increased because tion the shell should be adjusted so that the
the images must be in alinement with the pupils maximum illumination is slightly in front of
of each eye. Individuals may find that by using the enemy. Illumination in this manner will
only 1 eye and 1 of the eyepieces they can blind or dazzle the enemy so that he will not
increase their proficiency. Through training be able to effectively return fire to the tank's
and experience each crewman will be able to position, yet will provide sufficient target illu-
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mination for the effective employment of the produced by a grounded shell will produce
tank's weapons. The shell should burn out smoke and haze, as well as blind or dazzle
before it hits the ground, because the glare friendly personnel.

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CHAPTER 10

CREW FIRING DUTIES

71. General causes his tank to engage the target by issuing


To insure target destruction with a minimum an initial fire command. At the same time he
expenditure of time and ammunition, the tank lays the gun to be fired near the target. If he
crew must work together as a team. Each mem- uses the main gun or the coaxial machinegun,
ber of the tank crew must know his particular he either estimates the range during his lay for
job so well that certain orders from the tank direction or, on main battle tanks, ranges on
commander will stimulate automatic responses. the target after the gunner has placed his
In so much as possible the tank crewmen must sight on it. He tells the gunner to fire and
be able to perform in all positions within the observes the target with his binocular during
crew so the loss of one member will not destroy daylight hours, and through the range finder
the effectiveness of the tank as a fighting ve- during hours of darkness to adjust fire if the
hicle. Each crew member must fire the tank gunner cannot do so. After the target has been
crew qualification tables specified for his crew destroyed, he will order cease fire. If the gun-
position at least once annually. This is essential ner fails to identify the target or cannot prop-
in order to produce a tank crew capable of erly adjust the rounds to bring accurate fire
functioning as an integrated team and to insure on the target, the tank commander can fire and
a high degree of gunnery proficiency among all adjust fire from his position, using his power
crew members to permit the assignment of any control handle and direct-fire sight. If the range
one of them as gunner in an emergency. Nor- card is being used, the tank commander an-
mal attrition and personnel turnover also make nounces the data to be placed on the auxiliary
this an essential requirement during peacetime fire control equipment by the gunner.
as well as combat. The specific firing duties of
the crew will be discussed in the following 73. The Gunner
paragraphs.
The gunner normally fires and adjusts the
72. The Tank Commander fire of the main gun and coaxial machinegun.
He ensures that the necessary switches are
The tank commander controls the movement turned on to cause the turret and weapon to
and fire of the tank. The effectiveness of the function properly. He indexes the ammunition
tank is dependent on the degree to which the (and range if required) into the fire control
tank commander has trained his crew. When a
target appears he must decide whether or not system. He takes the correct sight picture (in-
to engage the target with his tank. If the tank cluding lead and aimoff when applicable) and
is to engage the target the tank commander fires in the prescribed manner and continues
determines rapidly what type of weapon and to adjust fire, when possible, until the tank
ammunition will most effectively destroy the commander announces cease fire. When firing
target. This decision is based on the type of from range card data he applies the announced
target, the range to the target, and a thorough data on the auxiliary fire control equipment.
knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of Although observation from his position is lim-
the weapons and the type and quantity of am- ited, he assists the tank commander in acquir-
munition available. The tank commander then ing targets.
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74. The Loader 75. The Driver
The loader aids the tank commander to ac- The driver must constantly be looking for
quire targets. He insures that all ammunition good firing positions that afford protection for
is in a serviceable condition and is ready to be the tank and are fairly level to reduce cant
loaded in all weapons. He loads the ammunition (para. 60). He must be prepared to stop the
announced by the tank commander, ensures
tank on the tank commander's order by bring-
that the weapon is ready to be fired, and an-
nounces UP to the crew to signify the weapon ing the vehicle to a gradual halt. He must be
is loaded. He continues to load until the tank prepared to drive the vehicle forward as
commander announces cease fire. He must be smoothly as possible when the machineguns are
prepared to rapidly reduce malfunctions in the used against stationary targets. He aids the
tank weapons. tank commander in acquiring targets.

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CHAPTER 11

DIRECT FIRE IN DAYLIGHT

Section I. THE INITIAL FIRE COMMAND


76. General include only those elements necessary to load,
aim, and fire the tank weapons. This may be
The initial fire command is issued by a tank as few as 4 or as many as 6 elements, depending
commander to his crew for each target engage- on the type of equipment on the tank and its
ment. Standard terminology and logical se- serviceability. Given below is an example of
quence are used to achieve effectiveness and sequence and terminology used in an initial fire
speed in engagement. The tank commander will command by the tank commander.
Element Example Remarks
Alert GUNNER
Ammunition SHOT Main gun AP-T ammunition
(weapon or COAX Coaxial machinegun
searchlight) WHITE LIGHT Visible searchlight
RED LIGHT Infrared searchlight
Description TANK
MOVING TANK To include word moving when target has apparent speed.
Gunner will then apply appropriate lead for the type
ammunition announced.
FIRST TRUCK
ANTITANK
Direction TRAVERSE RIGHT- Omitted when tank commander can lay for direction.
STEADY-ON
Range ONE TWO Omitted when tank commander can index range into
HUNDRED sighting system.
Execution FIRE
AT MY COMMAND
-FIRE

77. Alert Element 78. Ammunition (Weapon, or Searchlight


Element)
a. The alert is the first element of the initial
fire command. It alerts the crew to the presence a. The tank commander must analyze the
of a target to be engaged. This element is target rapidly and select the best type of main
always included in initial fire commands. gun ammunition, machinegun, or illumination.
This decision is based upon a thorough knowl-
b. The tank commander alerts the entire edge of the capabilities, limitations, and avail-
crew by the one word, GUNNER. The loader ability of the ammunitions, weapons, and
checks to see that the turret is free of obstruc- searchlights, and the tactical consideration. If
tions. The gunner insures that turret power a target appears within the effective range and
switch is on and the tank commander immedi- destructive capability of the machineguns,
ately lays the gun for direction. these weapons are used. This will conserve
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main gun ammunition for those targets beyond Weapon Term Type targetr and range

effective machinegun range or those targets Caliber .50 machine- CALIBER Same as coax up to
gun FIFTY 1,600 meters; lim-
that cannot be destroyed with machinegun fire. ited capability
In addition, the use of machineguns will reduce against lightly
main gun supply requirements. armored vehicles.
b. Listed below are the types of main gun d. Because the tank commander personally
ammunition and the targets normally engaged loads, aims, and fires the caliber .50 machine-
with each type. See also chapter 3. gun, he does not issue an initial fire command
Ammunition Ten. Type targets
to use it. However, he announces CALIBER
High explosive, HE- HE Troops, crew-served FIFTY before firing, to warn the crew and to
T (super quick (AITCH- weapons, and un-
fuze setting) 76-, EE) armored and light- indicate that they must assume responsibility
90-, 120-mm. ly armored vehi- for observation in his sector. Tank commander
cles. announces CEASE FIRE upon completion of
High explosive, HE- HE- Dug-in troops, sand firing.
T (delay fuze set- DELAY bagged positions,
ting) 76-, 90-, 120- and wooden struc- e. Listed below are the tank searchlights and
mm. tures. their uses, including their appropriate an-
High explosive, HE- HE-CON- Bunkers and con- nouncement in the fire command. Tank-mounted
T (concrete pierc- CRETE crete fortifications. searchlights are effective at ranges up to 1,000
ing fuze) 76-, 90-,
12 0-mm. meters or more.
Armor-piercing AP- SHOT Flank engagement Searchlight Term Use
T 76-, 90-, 120-mm. against tanks, 18-inch WHITE LIGHT Visible light illumi-
other armored ve-
hicles, flank or
light nation of targets.
frontal. Xenon WHITE LIGHT Visible or infrared
Armor-piercing, dis- SABOT Flank engagement RED LIGHT illumination of
carding sabot, (SAY- against tanks. targets.
APDS-T, 106-mm. BO) Other armored ve-
hicles flank or f. The loader, upon hearing the ammunition
front.
element, sets the fuze if necessary, loads the
High explosive anti- HEAT Frontal engagement
tank HEAT-T, against tanks. announced type, checks to ensure the path of
76-, 90-, 105-, 120- recoil is clear and the weapon safety is in the
mm. FIRE position, and announces UP. He con-
High explosive, plas- HEP Troops, crew-served tinues to load this type of ammunition until the
tic, HEP-T, 105- weapons; unarm- tank commander gives a command to change it
mm. ored and lightly or announces CEASE FIRE.
armored vehicles;
bunkers, and con-
crete fortifications. g. The gunner turns on the appropriate gun
Canister, 76-, 90-mm. CANIS- Troops within 200 switch. If the tank has a computer he indexes
TER meters. the announced ammunition in the computer or
White phosphorus SMOKE For casualty pro- a type of ammunition that ballistically matches
WP, 76-, 90-, 105-, ducing, incendiary, the ammunition or weapon to be fired. On tanks
120-mm. marking or screen-
ing effect.
with the main gun safety on the gunner's side,
the gunner places the safety in the FIRE posi-
c. Listed below are the tank machineguns, the tion. If the gunner is using the telescope, he
types of targets normally engaged, and maxi- selects the proper reticle or uses an aiming
mum effective range of each. data chart. On tanks with a ballistic unit, the
Weapon Ternn Type tarpe ae nd ranves
gunner notes the type of ammunition and
Coaxial machinegun, COAX Troops, crew-served awaits the range element. He then looks
cal. .30 and 7.62- (KO- weapons, and un-
mm. AXE) armored vehicles through the periscope or telescope to locate the
up to 900 meters. target.
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79. Description Element facilitate ranging (para. 172b). When the tele-
scope is used, the gunner awaits the range ele-
a. The description element is always an- ment to make a precise lay.
nounced so that the gunner can rapidly identify
and lay on the target. To avoid misunderstand- d. If the tank commander has described a
ing, the description must be clear and concise. moving target in the initial fire command, the
Most of the targets encountered can be desig- gunner upon making a positive identification,
nated by using the following standard termin- announces IDENTIFIED. If the tank com-
ology: mander is going to range on the target the gun-
ner positions the reticle for ranging. Upon the
Any tank or tank-like TANK. command of execution the gunner applies the
vehicle*. initial lead, using a standard lead element or a
Any unarmored vehicle TRUCK. lead element based upon the experience of the
Any armored person- P.C. (PEE CEE). crew. Lead is expressed in mils and is based
nel carrier. upon the type of ammunition to be fired. The
Any armored car P.C. initial leads shown in this paragraph are those
without major arm- leads required by the ammunition being fired to
ament. hit a target moving perpendicular to the firing
Personnel ........ TROOPS. tank at a speed of 10 MPH. These initial leads
Any type of machine- MACHINEGUN. should be used by tank crews until they have
gun. sufficient experience to dictate a change.
Initial
Any antitank gun or ANTITANK. Ammunition Lead
towed artillery piece. HEP-T--. ___----___.__________ 71 A mils
Any moving target -MOVING - fol- HE-T, WP, AP-T-- . . 5 mils
..............
lowed by the APDS-T, HEAT-T __-_______________ 2'% mils
appropriate de-
scription of tar- 80. Direction Element
get. a. This element is omitted by the tank com-
Any other target _____Briefest term con- mander when he lays the gun for direction.
sistent with b. The tank commander uses his power con-
clarity. trol handle and sights through the cupola sight
Armor.protected, full-track vehicles with a gun capable of
cover (vane sight) if available or over the gun
destroying tanks, e.g.. self-ropelled artillery piece. tube to move the gun to the target. The gun
must be at the approximate elevation to enable
b. In some situations the tank commander the gunner to see the target through the limited
must desginate the specific target such as LAST field of view of the sights. The tank commander
TRUCK or specific part of the target such as can use one of the examples below to lay the
HOUSETOP LEFT WINDOW TROOPS. When gun for direction if for some reason he is unable
the target is concealed, it is described as it to accomplish it with his power control handle.
appears to the gunner such as GREEN BUSH (1) Traverse right (left)-steady--on.
-MACHINEGUN. The tank commander commands TRA-
c. When the gunner has positively identified VERSE RIGHT (LEFT), and the
the target, he immediately announces IDENTI- gunner traverses rapidly in the an-
FIED, not waiting for the tank commander to nounced direction. As the gun ap-
finish the initial fire command. The tank com- proaches the direction to the target,
mander releases control of the turret to the the command STEADY is given, and
gunner. The gunner then, using the nonballistic the gunner slows his traverse. When
reticle, places the aiming cross in the center of the gun is laid on the target, the tank
vulnerability of the target. If the tank com- commander commands ON; the gun-
mander is going to use the stereoscopic range ner stops traversing, and the target
finder, the gunner will position the reticle to should appear within the gunner's
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7Tk
1r

i- >

&-c-"i*' -
41,~_
Am- ..
-'4k'saVq
el*^ . .

A-_
TANKS 1, 2, AND 3 ARE MOVING AT 10 M.P.H. TANK 1 HAS NO APPARENT SPEED.
TANK 2 AND 3 BOTH HAVE APPARENT SPEED, WiTH TANK 3 HAVING THE GREATER.

Figure 50. Apparent speed.

field of view. The tank commander easily. The tank commander measures
may use his direct-fire sight to insure the deflection from the reference point
that the gun is laid on the selected with his binocular and announces the
target. shift. For example, he commands
(2) Reference point and deflection. To REFERENCE POINT BRIDGE,
assist the gunner in identifying the RIGHT THREE ZERO. The gunner
target, the tank commander may use a lays the aiming cross of his direct-fire
reference point and a deflection shift sight on the reference point, zeroes
in mils. The reference point must be his gunner's aid, traverses right 30
one that the gunner can recognize mils, and looks for his target. Small
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Moving target-range 1,000 meters Same moving target-range 2,000


(yards). Sight picture for leadof meters (yards). Sight picture of
FIVE MILS. FIVE MILS LEAD. Target appears
smaller due to greater range, but
leadis the same.

Figure 51. Leading.

shifts may be made by using lead lines nearest 100 meters if estimated. Numbers are
in the sight reticle. announced in even hundreds or thousands or
digit by digit. Examples follow:
81. Range Element 850_-__ EIGHT FIVE ZERO
a. Because range is the greatest potential 900 -_____.. NINE HUNDRED
cause of error in direct fire, each tank com- 1,100____. ONE ONE HUNDRED
mander will determine the range to the target 2,000-____.TWO THOUSAND
as accurately as possible. 3,050 ______THREE ZERO FIVE ZERO
b. On tanks equipped with a range finder, the 82. Aim-Off
tank commander will range at this time and
may announce the range even though it is Aim-off is not announced but should be auto-
mechanically transmitted to the computer matically applied by the gunner when engaging
(para. 95). On tanks without a range finder or stationary targets with ammunition that re-
when the gunner is using the telescope, the quires compensation for the drift of the pro-
range must be announced by the tank com- jectile (para. 95). The tank commander must
mander. announce the range element when this ammu-
nition is used. The gunner may then engage
c. When a ballistic unit is used, the gunner the target, using the ballistic reticle (pre-
will index the range on the drum for the an- ferred) or apply the appropriate aim-off to the
nounced ammunition, or one that ballistically nonballistic reticle. Aim-off is not considered
matches it. If the telescope is used, the gunner when engaging a moving target.
will place the announced range line on the
center of vulnerability of the target. 83. Execution Element
d. If announced, range is given to the nearest a. After all preparations (crew duties) have
50 meters if accurately determined or to the been made and the tank commander is in a posi-
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tion to observe the fire, the execution element TANK TANK
is given. CORRECTION ONE SIX HUNDRED
ANTITANK FIRE
b. Upon hearing the command FIRE, the FIRE. CORRECTION
TWO SIX HUNDRED
gunner insures that he has the sight laid cor- FIRE.
rectly (para. 86), announces ON THE WAY,
pauses 1 second, and fires. The loader continues b. The tank commander normally will not
to load the type ammunition announced in the correct an error in the ammunition element
initial fire command and the gunner continues after the gun has been loaded unless the supply
to fire, adjusting if necessary, without further of ammunition is critical; instead, he will allow
command until the tank commander assumes the gunner to fire the chambered round, then
control of firing or announces CEASE FIRE. will give a change in the ammunition as a sub-
e. If the tank commander wishes to delay the sequent fire command. In the following exam-
fire he announces AT MY COMMAND and ples the tank commander announced SHOT in
when he is ready, announces FIRE. the initial fire command and the loader loaded
shot before the tank commander realized his
d. If the gunner has not announced IDENTI- mistake.
FIED, the tank commander will make a detail
lay of the gun, using his direct-fire sight. If Tank commander Tank commander desires
the gunner still fails to identify the target, the desires to unload to have chambered shot
tank commander will announce FROM MY chambered round fired:
POSITION-ON THE WAY and fire, using his round:
direct-fire sight and power control handle. The CORRECTION FIRE HE (loader announ-
gunner should indicate his ability to adjust HE ces HE, UP
subsequent rounds by announcing IDENTI- ANTITANK after second
FIED. At this time the tank commander has FIRE. round is loaded)
the option of returning the adjustment of fire c. It is not necessary to correct an error in
to the gunner or continuing the engagement sequence unless it prevents the crew from prop-
from his position. Normally speed and accuracy erly performing its duties; in this case, the
are best assured by returning adjustment to
the gunner. announcement of CORRECTION will be made
and a new fire command issued.
84. Repeating Elements of the Initial d. No attempt will be made to correct an
Fire Command element that has been unnecessarily included;
When a crew member fails to hear or under- e.g., direction element included when the tank
stand any element of an initial fire command, commander has laid the gun for direction.
he announces such elements as a question. Only
that element is repeated. For example, if the e. The omission of an element is corrected
gunner or loader asks AMMO?, the tank com- by the announcement of CORRECTION and
mander repeats SHOT. the omitted element, and the command is com-
pleted.
85. Correcting an Initial Fire Command Example:
a. To correct an error in an initial fire com- GUNNER
TANK
mand, the tank commander announces COR-
CORRECTION
RECTION and corrects the element in error. SHOT
He then completes the command by announcing TANK
all elements after the corrected element. FIRE.
Examples:
GUNNER GUNNER f. For method of correcting subsequent fire
HE SHOT commands see paragraph 93b.
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86. Center of Vulnerability ner should aim at these parts rather than the
frontal armor. If only the front of a tank is
Regardless of type of target engaged, the exposed, the center of vulnerability is the tur-
gunner places the aiming point on the center of ret ring. If the side is exposed, the aiming
vulnerability and adjusts fire to that point. point becomes the hull just above the top of the
This is the most vulnerable point of the ex-
posed part of the target, which if hit will most track. The purpose of aiming at the center of
likely destroy it. On many targets this will be vulnerability is to increase the probability of
the exact center, but this is not always true. rapid target destruction. However, to increase
The center of vulnerability varies with the type the probability of target destruction at long
of target and the angle at which it is engaged. ranges, the aiming point is the center of the
For example, the heaviest and most sloped target. The gunner should make his final pre-
armor of a tank is normally the front slope cise lay on the target in the same direction
plate of the turret. The most vulnerable parts each time against pressure. This will reduce
are the sides and rear. When possible, the gun- error caused by slack in the linkage.

Section II. SENSINGS

87. General cloud of dust produced by a projectile striking


the ground may indicate the general location
Sensing is noting mentally where the round of the strike and provide an observation.
appears in relation to the target. The round
and target must be seen at the same time;
otherwise, the round or effects of the round 88. Deflection Sensings
only are observed. Every round fired is sensed, Deflection sensings are mental notations of
when possible, for deflection and range, by both whether the round is on line with or to the
the tank commander and the gunner. Tracer side of the target. There are three deflection
equipped rounds are sensed where the tracer sensings: right, left, or line. The gunner notes
strikes short of, passes, or hits the target; the point on his sight reticle and the tank
nontracer rounds are sensed at the point of commander measures the amount of error,
burst. The strike or burst must be sensed im- using the horizontal mil scale of the binocular
mediately to avoid errors caused by drifting reticle. Deflection sensings are not announced
smoke or dust. When attempting to sense trac- but form the basis of deflection corrections in
ers, crewmen must concentrate on the target adjusting fire. With most ammunition there
rather than the path of flight of the tracer. will be little or no error in deflection on sta-
The gunner uses his direct-fire sight and the tionary targets if boresighting and zeroing are
tank commander his binoculars except when performed properly.
buttoned up or at night when he uses his direct-
fire sight. Some rounds cannot be sensed be- 89. Range Sensings and Observations
cause of obscuration and velocity, which causes
There are five range sensings: target, over,
the round to pass the target before either the short, doubtful, and lost. Although these sens-
smoke and dust dissipate or the sights settle ings are mental, they will be announced at
from the recoil of firing. The gunner must be times. There are two observations-over and
cautioned that he can adjust fire only when he short-which are made by the gunner or tank
actually senses the round in relation to the commander when he observes some evidence of
target. At times, the gunner may be able to see the round being over or short, but cannot ac-
the tracer through the haze of the obscuration curately sense the round. In adjustment if the
but will not be able to see the target or he may gunner senses the round or burst, he will re-
be able to see the tracer only after it passes main silent and apply the primary method of
the target. In such cases he only has an ob- adjustment burst-on-target. If the gunner does
servation and not a sensing. Also a residual not sense or observe either the tracer or burst
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after firing, he announces LOST. However, if may cause the target to change shape, move,
he observes evidence of the round being over disappear, or burn. When a round strikes a
or short he announces OVER or SHORT, a!- metal target, a distinct bright orange flash is
lowing the tank commander to adjust fire. The seen.
tank commander announces his range sensings
or observation when the gunner makes an an- b. Over. A round is sensed as over (fig. 53)
nouncement or anytime the tank commander when the burst appears beyond or the tracer
takes over the adjustment of fire, using the passes above the target. A tracer round is
alternate method of adjustment. The five range sensed at the point where it passes over the tar-
sensings are discussed in the following sub- get; a nontracer round is sensed at the point
paragraphs. of burst. Over sensings are also sensed for
deflection; for example, over, three right.
a. Target. A round is sensed as target (fig.
52) when the round or shell fragments strike c. Short. A round is sensed as short (fig. 54)
any part of the target even though subsequent when either the burst or the strike appears be-
adjustments may be necessary toward the cen- tween the gun and the target. Both tracer
ter of vulnerability to destroy the target. A hit and nontracer rounds are sensed at the point

Figure 52. Sensing of target (as seen by tank commander).

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Figure 53. Sensing of over (as seen by tank commander).

of burst or strike. The strike must be observed range change is made on a doubtful sensing.
carefully and sensed immediately, as the tar- An example of this sensing is doubtful, two
get, just after the strike, is sometimes tem- right.
porarily obscured by smoke and dust. Short
e. Lost. A round is sensed as lost (fig. 56)
rounds are sensed also for deflection; for ex- when the gunner or tank commander fails to
ample, short, line.
see the point of strike, burst, or tracer. It may
d. Doubtful. A round is sensed as doubtful not be visible due to obscuration, terrain, fail-
(fig. 55) when it appears to be correct for ure of the tracer element to ignite, or failure
range but the tracer passes or the burst strikes of the round to detonate. Based on his knowl-
left or right of the center of vulnerability. As edge of the terrain, the tank commander may
a deflection correction is usually sufficient to make a range change if he feels that the round
obtain a hit on the center of vulnerability, no has been lost due to terrain (para. 92b(2)).

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Figure 54. Sensing of short (as seen by tank commander).

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Figure 55. Sensing of doubtful (as seen by tank commander).

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Figure 56. Sensing of lost (as seen by the tank commander).

Section III. DIRECT-FIRE ADJUSTMENT

90. General ability of the target rapidly to destroy it with


the minimum number of rounds.
a. The ultimate goal in tank gunnery is
rapid target destruction with a first round hit, b. To obtain rapid destructive fire, accurate
if possible. With the excellent fire control equip- boresighting and zeroing are required. This be-
ment and the relatively fiat trajectory of tank comes increasingly important as muzzle velo-
gun projectiles, it is within the capabilities of cities of ammunitions increase and sensing be-
a well-trained crew to achieve this goal con- comes more difficult.
sistently. This standard, however, must be ap- c. There are two basic methods of adjust-
proached realistically. Such factors as crew ing direct fire. The primary method, known as
skill and target nature will obviously affect burst-on-target, is applied by the gunner. The
achievement of this goal. If the target is not alternate method involves the tank commander
hit or is not hit in a vulnerable spot, it is and the gunner. With both methods the gunner
necessary to adjust fire to the center of vulner- aims and fires the gun.
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91. Primary Method of Adjustment gardless of the type of sight used. For moving
targets, the gunner must track continuously be-
a. The primary method of adjustment, burst- fore, during, and after firing in order to apply
on-target, is the gunner's means of adjusting
fire without further command from the tank adjustments accurately. Figures 57-60 demon-
commander. This is the most rapid and ac- strate burst-on-target with the ballistic and
curate method of adjustment of direct fire and nonballistic reticles against stationary and mov-
should be used whenever possible. To apply ing targets.
this method of adjustment, the gunner upon
receiving the command FIRE takes the follow- 92. Alternate Method of Adjustment
ing actions: makes a final precise lay; an- a. General. Although burst-on-target is the
nounces ON THE WAY, pauses a second and most rapid and accurate method of adjustment,
fires; observes through his sight re-laying if there are conditions and rounds that preclude
necessary to maintain his correct sight picture, its use. When the gunner cannot observe the
and concentrates on the target, noting the point round he announces LOST. When he observes
of the sight reticle where the tracer or burst the round or its effects but cannot sense it, he
appears as it passes, strikes short of, or hits the announces OVER or SHORT depending on
target; if he senses the round he remains silent where it went. Under these conditions or at
and immediately moves this point of the reticle any other time he deems necessary, the tank
to the center of vulnerability of the target by commander will control the adjustment of fire
the shortest route, using his gun controls, an- by the alternate method of adjustment.
nounces ON THE WAY, and fires again; the
gunner continues to fire, adjusting each subse- b. Subsequent Fire Commands. Subsequent
quent round to the center of vulnerability until fire commands are used to change an element
the tank commander announces CEASE FIRE in the initial or subsequent fire command, to
or takes over the adjustment of fire. cease fire, or in the alternate method of ad-
justment. They are used in the alternate meth-
b. Throughout the application of burst-on-
target the gunner does not announce his sens- od of adjustment to give directions to the gun-
ner as to how he will move the sight and gun to
ing, but merely makes his adjustment and con-
adjust fire. Against stationary and moving tar-
tinues to fire. While the gunner makes these gets the subsequent fire command may contain
adjustments, the tank commander acts as a
silent observer sensing each round fired for
deflection and range. During daylight the tank
commander will use his binocular and during
the hours of darkness he will use the range
finder or the tank commander's periscope. The
tank commander is then prepared to take over
adjustment of fire if the gunner fails to sense
a round or if he is not satisfied with the gun-
ner's adjustment of fire.
c. Accuracy of the burst-on-target method
depends on the ability of the gunner to take
correct sight pictures and make precise sens-
ings. This method is applied in the same man-
ner on ballistic and nonballistic reticles. Prop-
erly applied, burst-on-target provides a rapid
and accurate means of obtaining second-round
hits or adjusting target hits to the most vulner-
able part of the target.
d. This method is applied in the same man-
ner for both moving and stationary targets re- Figure 57. Situation 1, first round, stationary target.

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Figure 58. Situation 1, second round hit. Figure 60. Situation 2, secord-round hit.

upon the tank commander's mental sensing and


the gunner's announcement. Deflection and
range corrections are omitted if not required;
the execution element, however, is always given.
(1) Deflection corrections. The deflection
element announced in the subsequent
fire command is based on the tank
commander's deflection sensing. The
tank commander measures with his
binoculars the number of mils that
the round passed or struck to the left
or right of the center of vulnerability
of the target. He then commands the
gunner to shift the measured number
of mils in the opposite direction. For
example, if the deflection sensing is
two left, the announced deflection cor-
rection would be RIGHT TWO. If the
round is sensed as line, the deflection
element is omitted in the command.
Figure 59. Situation 2, first round, moving target. This procedure is used for stationary
or moving targets. Because lateral dis-
2, 3, or 4 elements. If all four elements are persion is slight with tank guns, there
necessary, the following sequence will be used: should be little or no error in deflec-
alert, deflection correction, range correction, tion. A deflection error of more than
and execution. To alert the gunner that he is 3 mils indicates improper sight pic-
going to adjust fire and to prepare him to ap- ture, improper boresighting and zero-
ply the issued corrections, the tank commander ing, cant error, or failure to correctly
announces his range sensing or observation as identify target.
the alert element of his subsequent fire com- (2) Range corrections. The range element
mand. The announced range sensing is based of the subsequent fire command is

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based on the tank commander's range observation of over or short. If the
sensing or observation. If the round is next round does not destroy the tar-
short, the tank commander adds get, the gunner applies burst-on-
range; if the round is over, he drops target if possible. If this second
range. Range is changed for the first round is also sensed as lost or ob-
round adjusted for range by use of served as over or short by the gun-
the standard range change. The pur- ner, the tank commander continues
pose of the standard range change is with the adjustment, making neces-
to obtain a target hit, to move the sary deflection and range changes
strike ef the round closer to the tar- to destroy the target.
get so the gunner can sense the round (b) Less accurate range determination.
and apply burst-on-target, or to pro- When the initial range to the target
vide a mental yardstick on the ground is determined by a less accurate
if the tank commander must continue means (estimation, flash and
to adjust. The tank commander is sound), the standard range change
bound by the standard range change depends on the determined range.
only for the first round adjusted for If the range is 1,500 meters (yards)
range with a sensing or observation of or less, the standard range change
over or short. Once an adjustment for is 200 meters (yards); if the range
range has been made (either by burst- is over 1,500 meters (yards), the
on-target or the alternate method) standard range change is 400
the tank commander is no longer held meters (yards). Subsequent adjust-
to the standard range change, but may ment, if necessary, is accomplished
make any range change he feels is as explained in (2) above.
necessary to hit the center of vulner-
(c) Announcement of range correction.
ability. Range changes are made in The tank commander announces all
multiples of 50 meters (yards). The
subsequent range corrections in
amount of the standard range change
meters (yards).
has been determined by experience
and depends on the method initially (d) Application of range correction. In
used to determine the range. applying range corrections the gun-
Note. If the primary method of adjust- ner must consider the muzzle veloc-
ment is employed first, then a range change ity of the ammunition and the type
is presumed to have been made. reticle (ballistic or nonballistic) he
(a) Accurate range determination. is using.
When a range finder or other ac- 1. When the gunner is using the bal-
curate means i.e., intersection listic reticle, he merely adds or
(para. 160) has been used to deter- drops (so many) meters (yards) as
mine the initial range to the target, announced by the tank commander.
the standard range change is made This is possible because the ballistic
by adding or dropping 200 meters reticle is graduated in meters or
(yards) regardless of the tank-to- yards and the correction can easily
target range. If the gunner fails to be made by the gunner.
sense or observe the first round, he
announces LOST. If he only ob- 2. When the gunner is using the non-
serves the first round as over or ballistic reticle, he must convert the
short, he announces OVER or announced yards or meters to mils
SHORT. The tank commander then before applying the correction be-
issues a subsequent fire command, cause the reticle is graduated in
making any necessary deflection mils. To convert mils the gunner
change and adding or dropping 200 uses a C factor. (The C factor for
meters (yards) with a sensing or any type of ammunition is the num-
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ber of mils of change in elevation 3,500 feet per second is fired, a 100-
necessary to move the strike of the meter (yard) change is equivalent
projectile 100 meters or yards on to a C factor of 1/2 mil for tank
the ground.) When ammunition gunnery purposes.
with a muzzle velocity of 3,500 feet S.The application of the standard
per second or less is fired, a 100- range change, therefore, depends on
meter (yard) change is equivalent the method used to determine
to a C factor of 1 mil for tank gun- range, the type of sight used by the
nery purposes. When ammunition gunner, and the velocity of the am-
with a muzzle velocity in excess of munition fired.

Examples follow:
Gunner's correction
Nonballistic Ballistic
Means to reticle reticle
Muzzle determine Tank commander's (mils after (as announced)
velocity range announced correction conversion) (meters/yards)
0-3,5000 fps ----- .Range finder--_____ ADD 200________-Adds 2 ________ Adds 200
DROP 200_______-Drops 2 _____-. Drops 200
over 3,500 fps .___Rangefinder _.. ADD 200 _____-.__Adds 1- _______Adds 200
DROP 200 ___.-- Drops 1- ____. Drops 200
0-3,500 fps-._ ____.Estimation -_______ADD 200 ..- _______Adds 2 _____- Adds 200
(0-1,500 yd/m) DROP 200 _______-Drops 2 __. .--- Drops 200
over 3,500 fps_ ___-Estimation _______ADD 200______-Adds 1________ Adds 200
(0-1,500 yd/m) DROP 200 ____-_ Drops 1 __-___- Drops 200
0-3,500 fps_ … .____.
F;timation - -_____
ADD 400 _____-__Adds 4- ___- - Adds 400
(over 1,500 DROP 400_______-Drops 4_________ Drops 400
yds/m).
over 3,500 fps _____Estimation -_____ADD 400 ____--- Adds 2--- _---- -Adds 400
(over 1,500 DROP 400_______-Drops 2 ____-____Drops 400
yds/m).
Note. Projectiles traveling faster than 4,500 feet per second may have as much as 200-meter (yard) change for
' mil; however, vertical change is the primary consideration; therefore, the guide for conversion listed above is
still applicable.

(e) Large range error. If an extremely ful, no range change is made, mere-
large range error (more than 400 ly a deflection correction.
meters) is made in the initial range, 2. When the gunner fails to sense or
the tank commander should an- observe the round, he announces
nounce CEASE FIRE, and then is- LOST. If the tank commander fails
sue a new initial fire command to to sense or observe the round he
insure target identification as well also announces LOST and completes
as correct range. the subsequent fire command. De-
(f) Target, doubtful, and lost rounds. pending on the circumstances the
1. Regardless of the means of deter- tank commander has four alterna-
mining range, if the tank com- tives. If the round is of such a
mander senses the round as target, high muzzle velocity that it is not
doubtful, or lost, the tank com- normally sensed by the crew he
mander can make any range change will assume the round is over and
that he feels is necessary to destroy announces LOST DROP 200 FIRE.
the target. With a sensing of doubt- If he thinks that the round was lost

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because of obscuration or failure DROP 400 FIRE, to bring the
of the tracer to ignite or explosive round close enough to the target to
to detonate, and that he has applied be observed. If none of these con-
the proper range, he may command ditions apply, the tank commander
LOST FIRE. If he feels the round may say LOST, CEASE FIRE and
was lost due to terrain features in
the vicinity of the target, he may issue a new fire command, requir-
issue a range change based on his ing a complete re-engagement of
knowledge of the terrain, i.e., LOST the target.

c. Examples of Subsequent Fire Commands.


Alert OVER SHORT TARGET DOUBTFUL LOST
Deflection Correction LEFT 2 LEFT 3
Range Correction DROP 200 ADD 200 ADD 50
Execution FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE
Further examples of subsequent fire commands are shown in figures 61 and 62.

93. Repeating and Correcting Subsequent the tank commander repeats only the elements
Fire Commands requested. For example, if the gunner an-
nounces RANGE?, the tank commander repeats
a. Repeating Commands. The procedure for ADD 200.
repeating elements of subsequent fire com- b. Correcting Commands. To correct an er-
mands is the same as for initial fire commands ror in a subsequent fire command the tank
(para. 84). The crewman requests a repetition commander announces CORRECTION and
by announcing the elements as a question, and then issues an entire corrected command.

Examples.
OVER DOUBTFUL SHORT
RIGHT THREE LEFT TWO DROP 400
ADD 200 FIRE CORRECTION
CORRECTION CORRECTION OVER
OVER DOUBTFUL DROP 400
RIGHT THREE RIGHT TWO FIRE
DROP 200 FIRE
FIRE

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Section IV. SPECIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DIFFERENT AMMUNITION
94. General d. Lead. As the time of flight of the HEP
round is considerable, the initial lead against a
Adjustment of fire and fire control equip-
ment has been designed, based on firing rounds moving target should be 71/2 mils. This will
remain fairly constant regardless of range
that have a muzzle velocity of approximately
3,000 feet per second. However, some ammuni- when the ballistic reticle is used. At ranges
in excess of 1,400 meters moving targets should
tion has much slower (HEP) and some faster be engaged with HEAT ammunition in prefer-
velocity (HEAT, SABOT), which require ad-
ditional techniques to insure the most effective ence to HEP.
use of the ammunition. e. Adjustment. The propellant used with the
HEP round causes much obscuration at the
95. HEP Gunnery tank on windless days. As a result, the tank
a. General. Because the combat zero on the commander should be prepared to use the al-
M60 tank will be established with either ternate method of adjustment when firing this
round.
SABOT or HEAT, an inherent error will be
introduced when firing HEP from either of
these zeroes when using the nonballistic reticle. 96. SABOT, Heat Gunnery
This is because the SABOT and HEAT rounds a. General. The SABOT and HEAT rounds
have little or no drift, but HEP rounds drift have a very high muzzle velocity and, at ranges
considerably at ranges beyond 1,400 meters. If up to 1,500 meters for HEAT and 2,500 meters
the gun is zeroed with HEP, the accuracy of for SABOT, are almost impossible to sense;
the SABOT and HEAT rounds will decrease. conversely because of their speed they are very
As these rounds are rarely able to be sensed accurate. As a result, if the target is not hit,
this greatly decreases the effectiveness of tank it will be very close and in most cases if it is
fire. Therefore periscopes on M60 tanks should short, it can be observed. Most misses are due
not be zeroed with HEP. to range error.
b. Aim-Off. With drift inherent in the HEP b. Lead. Due to the short amount of time
round, the aiming cross of the nonballistic necessary for the round to travel to a moving
reticle cannot be placed on the center of vulner- target, an initial lead of 21/ mils should be
ability of a stationary target with the expecta- given.
tion of getting target hits beyond 1,400 meters.
When firing HEP the tank commander glances c. Adjustment.
at the range indexed in the range finder and (1) Because these rounds are used pri-
announces it in the initial fire command. This marily against tanks it is easy to
allows the gunner to use his telescope, which sense target hits by the distinct bright
has compensations for drift, or apply the neces- flash of the round striking the metal
sary aim-off shown below if using the nonbal- target. When the gunner senses the
listic reticle. round as target he remains silent and
fires another round with the same
Range Aim-off
sight picture unless the tank com-
500-1,400 __________-No aim-off mander announces CEASE FIRE. If
1,400-2,000 ___ _ LEFT ONE the gunner senses a miss he applies
2,000-2,500 ___________LEFT TWO burst-on-target. If, however, the
2,500-3,000 _-_______LEFT THREE round misses and the gunner does
c. Telescope. No aim-off is required when not sense or observe it, he announces
firing with the telescope as it is equipped with LOST. If he observes it he announces
a ballistic reticle. For this reason the tank crew OVER or SHORT. The tank com-
should use the telescope when engaging a tar- mander then announces his range
get with HEP ammunition as it compensates sensing or observation and gives a
for drift. subsequent fire command. If both the
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gunner and tank commander fail to ner until the target is destroyed. This
see any effects of the round, the tank method has the disadvantage of not
commander announces LOST, DROP having all crew members mounted for
200, FIRE. If either the tank com- rapidly reverting to a mobile role.
mander or gunner observes the round
(2) Two-tank methods. When using a 2-
as over, the tank commander an- tank method of adjusting fire, 2 tanks
nounces OVER, DROP 200, FIRE. If
either the tank commander or gunner form a firing team. The tanks are posi-
tioned approximately 50 meters apart
observes the round as short, the tank and 1 tank commander is designated
commander announces SHORT, ADD the team leader for purposes of de-
200, FIRE.
ciding target engagements, determin-
(2) If the second round does not obtain ing target destruction, and making
a target hit and no sensing or observa- other decisions. The team leader is-
tion is made by the crew, the tank sues an initial fire command to initiate
commander re-ranges or re-estimates the engagement and insure that the
range to the target and the gunner location of the target is positively
places the aiming cross or appropriate known by the other tank crew. Before
range line on the center of vulner- employing a 2-tank method of adjust-
ability and fires. If however, an ob- ment in preference to the dismounted
servation is made, another 200-meter observer method, consideration must
range change is given by the tank be given to the fact that 2 tanks are
commander. required for each target engagement
with the firepower of only one tank
d. Other Methods of Adjusting Fire. To in- being employed at a time. Commands
crease the accuracy of firing ammunition that and announcements when using two
cannot be sensed from the firing tank in de- tanks for adjusting fire are usually
liberate or static situations, a dismounted ob- transmitted by radio, and either of
server or a two-tank method of adjustment can the following methods may be used:
be used. In sensing from any position farther (a) Two-tank burst-on-target (BOT).
than 10 meters from the firing tank, apparent Both tanks must have the range
errors in deflection for tracer rounds that are indexed as announced by the team
short, or for nontracer rounds that are over leader. One tank crew (No. 1) com-
or short, must be ignored or an erroneous de- mences firing as designated by the
flection sensing will be obtained. team leader. The other tank crew
(1) Dismounted observer method. In the (No. 2) also lays its gun with the
dismounted observer method, the driv- correct initial sight picture and
er or tank commander of the firing senses the round fired from tank
tank dismounts to sense and adjust No. 1. If the target is not destroyed,
the fire of his tank from a position the gunner of tank No. 2 applies
approximately 10 meters to the flank the primary method of adjustment
(upwind side). The observer must be (burst-on-target) and fires a second
able to see the target area from this round at the target. If properly ap-
position and have cover and conceal- plied, BOT should produce a second-
ment. Communication between the round hit. The 2-tank method of
tank and observer is by voice. After BOT can be applied more rapidly
the initial round in the engagement than 1 tank applying BOT. It is
is fired, the observer announces a sub- simple to perform once the team
sequent fire command based on his leader has indicated that two-tank
sensing of the round. Rounds are BOT will be used, as no further
sensed using the binoculars. Adjust- commands are necessary until tar-
ment of fire is continued in this man- get destruction has been obtained.
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(b) Firing tank and observing tank. the target and senses each round
One tank is designated by the team fired, but remains silent unless his
leader as the firing tank and the tank commander announces LOST.
other the observing tank. (These In this case, if the gunner of the ob-
designations can be reversed' for serving tank has sensed the round,
subsequent target engagements.) he will announce a subsequent fire
When the firing tank fires, the tank command to the gunner of the
commander of the observing tank firing tank. If he also failed to sense
senses the round, using his binocu- the round in this situation, he too
lars and, based on this sensing, an- would announce LOST and his tank
nounces a subsequent fire command commander would make corrections
to the gunner of the firing tank. based on his judgement of the sit-
This procedure is continued until uation (para. 92b(2) (f)). This
the target is destroyed. The gunner method is not as rapid as two-tank
of the'observing tank lays his sight BOT, but does have the advantage of
on the center of vulnerability of disclosing only one tank's position.

Section V. BATTLESIGHT

97. General guns loaded and sights set, a tank crew should
have an advantage on a dangerous target. The
Battlesight is a combination of a predeter-
flat trajectory of projectiles fired from the tank
mined range and ammunition setting (both in- gun gives a high probability of a first-round
dexed in the fire control system) with the hit, even though the target is not exactly the
specified ammunition loaded. It is employed range indexed in the fire control equipment.
against dangerous surprise targets and fleeing If a hit is not obtained, the appropriate method
targets. The range and ammunition are deter-
of adjustment is applied.
mined by the unit commander (normally the
company or troop commander, but can be desig-
nated by the platoon leader or even a tank 98. Action Upon Engagement
commander when the situation dictates) as the If the surprise target is one that is within
most effective combination for destruction of the battlesight range, which is up to 200 meters
the most dangerous target expected to be en- beyond the indexed battlesight range, and the
countered in the immediate battle area. Bat- target is one that can best be defeated with
tlesight is changed as necessary; it will vary the battlesight ammunition, the tank com-
according to available information of the mander will issue a normal 4 or 5-element initial
enemy, terrain, and weather. The range is de- fire command except that he announces BAT-
termined by previous experience of reconnais- TLESIGHT as the ammunition element. The
sance. The ammunition selected normally de- announcement of BATTLESIGHT will remind
pends on the probability of tank or antitank the loader of the type ammunition to be se-
opposition. An example of a battlesight setting lected for additional firing. The following ex-
could be range of 1,000 meters (yards) and ceptions may be encountered:
HEAT ammunition. This range-ammunition
combination will give a high hit probability on a. If the range to the target is estimated
targets up to approximately 1,200 meters to be more than 200 meters beyond the battle-
(yards). HEAT is the best battlesight ammuni- sight range, yet is best defeated by battlesight
tion in most situations as it will defeat armor ammunition, accuracy of fire will take prece-
and give good effect against materiel and per- dence over speed. Therefore, the tank com-
sonnel targets. The effective use of battlesight mander will announce the type of ammunition
depends on rapid and accurate laying, with em- loaded to indicate to the gunner that ranging
phasis on speed. This means that both the main must take place and either range (M48 and
gun and machineguns are kept loaded. With M60 tanks) on the target, or estimate and
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announce the range element in his initial fire After the loader loads the new type of ammuni-
command. tion he will announce it as HEP UP to the
gunner who will index HEP in the fire control
b. If the target is dangerous and within system.
battlesight range but not the type best de-
stroyed with the chambered ammunition, the c. If the battlesight round will not defeat a
tank will fire the chambered round at the tar- target of opportunity and sufficient time is
get and load a more suitable ammunition for available, the tank commander, to conserve
subsequent fire. The tank commander will im- ammunition, may issue an initial fire command
mediately follow the initial fire command with with the proper ammunition element.
a subsequent fire command to have the ammu- Example.
nition changed. GUNNER
Example. HEP
GUNNER TROOPS
BATTLESIGHT FIRE
TRUCK In this case the loader would be required to
FIRE unload the chambered round and load the round
FIRE HEP announced in the initial fire command.

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CHAPTER 12
FIRING AT NIGHT OR DURING REDUCED VISIBILITY

Section I. THE TANK RANGE CARD

99. General Obscuration at the tank's position can be re-


The range card is a sketch or diagram of duced by selecting a firing position that has
an area showing the tank's position, existing a cover of vegetation. If this is not possible,
and probable target areas, and in some cases, the area around the firing position (especially
prominent terrain features, plotted in relation the ground just below the muzzle of the gun)
to their actual location on the ground. Range should be soaked with water or oil. Once the
cards are used to place effective fire on plotted tank is in its firing position, the necessary data
targets and targets of opportunity during for a range card are obtained by use of the
periods of good and poor visibility. The range fire control equipment of the tank. Specific
card serves as the individual tank's fire plan techniques for obtaining the data will vary for
and provides the basis for coordinating and different type tanks, but generally the method
concentrating the defensive fires of a unit. is the same.
a. Reference Point. The tank commander
100. Preparation of Range Cards selects a reference point-a prominent, easily
Range cards are prepared for all defensive located point on the terrain, fairly permanent,
positions (primary, alternate, supplementary, and readily seen through the direct-fire sights
in order of priority) and all static positions of the tank. The reference point serves as a
when contact with the enemy is possible, e.g., starting point to determine data to targets.
after occupying an objective when the time for For each target plotted, including the reference
continuation of the attack is uncertain. Time- point, the following information (b-f below)
liness is an important factor in the preparation must be recorded.
of range cards. Range cards must be made b. Target Identification. Targets are recorded
during the time targets are visible through the on the range card by using a military symbol,
direct-fire sights; therefore, the preparation of a brief word description, or both. In addition,
these cards must be given a high priority when specific targets selected by the company com-
positions are occupied shortly before darkness, mander or platoon leader receive a designa-
or when reduced visibility conditions are immi- tion in form of a number (company targets),
nent. A range card must contain all informa- or a letter (platoon targets). All company and
tion necessary to place fire on a target under platoon targets designated by the platoon
all conditions of visibility, and it must be con- leader must be plotted. Targets that cannot
structed so that it can be understood by all be engaged are plotted, but no data are recorded
tank crewmen. The tank commander analyzes for such targets.
the terrain in his sector of responsibility and
selects a firing position (preferably hull defi- c. Deflection. The gunner obtains deflection
lade) from which his tank can achieve maxi- by laying the aiming cross of the direct-fire
mum coverage of assigned or probable targets sight on the reference point and zeroes the
and target areas. In selecting the tank position, azimuth indicator with the resetter knob. The
special consideration must be given to obscura- deflection to the reference point will always be
tion when firing at night with illumination. 0. The gunner then traverses to the target to
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be plotted. The gunner reads the deflection
indicated by the azimuth and micrometer point-
ers of the azimuth indicator (fig. 63). The
deflection thus obtained is recorded, including
direction from the reference point, i.e., left or
right. 4
Example. Deflection 2,840 right; plotted as t
DEFL 2,840 R.
d. Range. Range is obtained by use of the
range finder or by the most accurate means
available. If estimation is used initially, a more
accurate range should be determined at the
earliest opportunity. Range is recorded as RG
1,600, etc.
Example. Range 1,600; plotted as RG 1,600.
e. Quadrant Elevation. Quadrant elevation is > }
a combination of angle of sight and superele-

REF PT 'RJ
Figure 64. Mounted elevation quadrant.

vation. Simpiy, the numbei of mils the gun


tube must be elevated, or depressed in relation
to the horizontal to insure that a round will
strike the target at a given range. HE or HEP
ammunition is used during periods of poor
visibility to take advantage of the bursting
radius and fragmentation effect of the round.
__- rr-&-2--Z"A/_/-_
N Quadrant elevation is obtained as follows:
(1) Main battle tanks. With the computer
on, the range to the target and either
HE or HEP ammunition is indexed in
LEFTr -\
RoIGHTr the fire control system. The gunner
lays the aiming cross of his direct-fire
sight on the center of the target,
centers the bubble in the elevation
Age
24 \, \
>WYsgovltl quadrant by using the micrometer
knob, and reads the quadrant eleva-
tion from the elevation and microm-
eter scales.
Example. Quadrant Elevation + 90
mils. Recorded as QE + 90.
(2) Tank, M41. The gunner indexes the
range to the target on the HE scale
of the ballistic unit and lays the aim-
ing cross of his direct-fire sight on
the target. He then places the gun-
ner's quadrant on the quadrant seats
of the breechring and centers the bub-
Figure 63. Azimuth indicator. ble, using the index arm and microm-
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Figure 65. Gunner's quadrant.

eter knob. The existing quadrant ele- a P, an A, or an S, or a combination of these


vation is now read from the elevation letters, to indicate primary, alternate, or sup-
and micrometer scales. plementary firing positions. If a combination
Example. Quadrant Elevation + 55 of letters is used to indicate that the range
mils. Recorded as QE + 55. card contains data for two firing positions
(sketch-type range card only), then each posi-
f. Range Card Identification. Each range card tion should be marked with the appropriate
is marked in the upper right-hand corner with letter.

Section II. TYPES OF RANGE CARDS

101. General ing a range designated by the tank commander.


The outer range circle serves as a deflection
The two types of range cards used in tank
gunnery are the circular and the sketch range scale; it is a reproduction of the azimuth
cards. The tank commander decides which type (inner) scale of the azimuth indicator. Num-
of range card will be used. He bases his deci- bers in parentheses on the right side of the
sion upon the terrain and the distribution of card have no application in tank gunnery. All
targets within his sector of responsibility. targets are plotted for deflection and range in
their relation to the tank's position. The tank's
position is represented by the center of the
102. Circular Range Card card. Target data obtained as outlined in para-
The circular range card (fig. 66), consists graph 100 are recorded on the range card
of five concentric circles, each circle represent- adjacent to a line drawn from the center to
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___- - - - - - - - -- -
-11 L (64) (62) FRONT R
1
X. 2 0 30 (60) P
P

I14

I 16

14 :
(46),
2(44)

,y2 (4 ° 42)
26 _- 6 8(40)
26\~~~ ~ 6(38)
28 ~6
''CARD, TANK RANGE 30 2 2 (36)
_-. 8724207 L 0 (34) REAR R- -- -- -

Figure 66. Circular range card.

a point corresponding to the range and deflec- 103. Sketch Range Card
tion of the target. Double lines to targets rep-
resent the right and left boundaries of the The sketch range card (fig. 67) is a simple
sector of responsibility. The zero deflection line drawing of the sector of fire of the tank. The
represents the direction to the reference point. drawing shows the tank's position, reference
Each target is positioned by interpolation for point, key terrain features, and plotted target
range and deflection. It is necessary to record areas. A line is drawn from the tank's position
the data even though it may coincide with a to the plotted target and data obtained as out-
range circle or a graduation on the deflection lined in paragraph 100 are recorded adjacent
scale. The value of this type of range card is to this line. Double lines indicate sector of
the simplicity of preparation and ease of read- responsibility. Sketch range cards need not be
ing. If a tank has a narrow sector of fire it drawn to scale and should provide ample space
will be difficult to plot many targets and record for plotting. The value of the sketch range
data within the limits of the deflection scale. card depends on the ability of tank crewmen
In this case, a sketch type range card should to draw simple, legible diagrams. It can be
be used. used to plot data for more than one position.

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IeV

C-

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ic

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Section ill. PREPARATION FOR AND REOCCUPATION OF
NIGHT FIRING POSITIONS

104. General 106. Method 2


After the range card for a tank's firing a. After the range card for the tank's firing
position has been completed (para. 101-103), position is completed, and with the tank in
the position of the tank is marked to facilitate position, a small stake is driven into the ground
reoccupation of the position during reduced at the rear of the left or right track. Another
visibility conditions, or to permit a relieving small stake is positioned at the front of the
unit to use prepared range cards. Depending same track at a point where the track touches
upon the terrain and tactical situation, any the ground. Both stakes must be immediately
one, or a combination, of the following tech- adjacent to the outside edge of the track. Aim-
niques may be used. ing stakes are set up in line at any angle from
the firing position except within 100 mils of the
105. Method 1 direct front or rear, because placement of the
aiming stakes in such a position will not facili-
After the range card for the tank's firing tate accurate positioning of the tank. One stake
position is completed, two reference stakes with is placed approximately 15-25 meters from
filtered or shielded lights are placed out as the firing position and the other at twice that
shown in figure 68. One stake (high enough distance. The light on the far stake should be
to be visible to the driver) is placed at the at a higher elevation than the light on the near
center, and flush with, the bow of the tank. stake. The gunner traverses from the reference
The second stake is positioned approximately point to the aiming stakes, and when both
20-25 meters to the front, and on line with, stakes appear in line, records the deflection
the first stake and the vehicle center. The gun-
reading to the aiming stakes.
ner records the deflection reading to the far
reference stake on the range card. When the b. When the firing position is to be reoccu-
firing position is to be reoccupied during dark- pied, a white tape stretched between the two
ness, or periods of poor visibility, the shielded ground stakes facilitates alinement of the tank.
lights on the reference stakes are turned on. The shielded lights on the aiming stakes are
As the tank moves into position, the driver, turned on. The gun is traversed to the approxi-
with the aid of a white tape or chalk mark mate angle of the aiming stakes and the tank
on the front center of the tank hull, alines the is moved forward along the tape (fig. 69); the
tank on the two lights. He stops when the gunner controls the final positioning of the
front slope of the tank touches and is centered tank by giving instructions to the driver. When
on the near reference stake. The tank is now the far light appears to be above and in line
positioned properly. The gunner lays his direct- with the near light in the sight reticle, the
fire sight on the far reference light, and using tank is positioned properly. Using the resetter
the resetter knob, indexes the deflection read- knob, the gunner indexes the deflection to the
ing for the reference stake on the azimuth aiming stakes on the azimuth indicator and
indicator. The gunner then traverses to zero traverses the gun to zero deflection or any
deflection or any other deflection designated other deflection designated by the tank com-
by the tank commander. mander.

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a
s"
4
i::p"*·-HaC
u

:I

'i

riiii-

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- AIMING STAWIS
REIERENCE FPOI

Figure 69. Method 2.

Section IV. PREPARATION FOR NIGHT FIRING

107. Blackout Turret 108. Night Vision


All unnecessary lights must be turned off. To acquire night vision, tank crewmen should
If lights cannot be independently turned off, not be subjected to light for approximately 30
they should be covered so no light shows, or minutes before firing. Once night vision is ob-
the bulb should be removed. Intensity-controlled tained, it must not be destroyed by exposure
lights necessary for firing must be adjusted to intense light. During firing, both the tank
properly (dimmed as much as possible consist- commander and gunner must close their eyes
ent with continued use). Necessary lights with- momentarily (from the announcement of ON
out intensity controls must be masked to re- THE WAY until approximately 1 second after
duce the amount of illumination. Shaded flash- the gun has fired) to avoid the blinding effect
lights may be used to assist the crewman in of muzzle flash. The head must not be moved
reading scales. away from the sight because repositioning of
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the head may cause an incorrect sight picture 109. Reticle Illumination
and failure to sense the round. At night, the
The reticle of a direct-fire sight usually must
tank commander uses his direct-fire sight rather
be illuminated during night firing because arti-
than his binocular to sense rounds. The direct- ficial illumination is not always of an intensity
fire sight remains on the target. Between tar- sufficient to provide contrast for viewing the
get engagements, the tank commander should etched reticle. When a reticle is illuminated for
position himself so he can observe his sector use, it must be kept as dim as possible by use
of responsibility. of the rheostat to avoid glare.

Section V. TACTICAL USE OF RANGE CARDS


110. General Command Crew duties
The range card is used by the tank crew. on main gun switch and
The platoon leader and company commander indexes HE in computer
use a fire plan, based on their unit's range or waits on range element
cards, to increase the effectiveness of tank gun (M41 tank).
fire during periods of both good and poor visi- TROOPS Gunner traverses to an-
bility. Good visibility implies daylight hours DEFLECTION nounce deflection, then
with no weather restrictions or the hours of THREE TWO anounces reading on azi-
darkness when illumination is used. Poor visi- FIVE LEFT muth indicator. Tank com-
bility implies daylight hours when weather mander indexes recorded
conditions restrict vision or the hours of dark- range on range finder
ness when no illumination is used. (M48, M60 tanks) or an-
nounces it for the gunner
111. Firing During Poor Visibility to index (M41 tank).
QUADRANT Gunner indexes announced
During periods of poor visibility, HE or HEP PLUS ONE QE on quadrant, elevates
ammunition is employed to obtain the benefit SIX or depresses gun with
of the blast and fragmentation effect in the manual controls until lev-
target area. Firing during poor visibility dis- eling bubble in quadrant
closes the tank's position and often requires is centered, and announces
a considerable expenditure of ammunition to QE on quadrant.
achieve the desired results. The decision to fire FIRE Gunner announces ON THE
is based on the importance of the target, the WAY and fires.
knowledge that the firing position may be dis- Note. Although turret power, range, and ammo are
closed, and the ammunition supply. In this not necessary to lay the gun back on the target, they
last consideration, commanders at all echelons are used to return the sights to the target. In the
should exercise control over expenditure of am- event the target becomes illuminated, the direct-fire
munition when the effect of firing in the target sights can be used.
area cannot be determined. To fire on a plotted The sequence of performing these steps is im-
target, range card data are applied to the aux- portant because if the tank is canted, the gun
iliary fire control instruments. may not be laid properly unless the leveling
bubble in the quadrant is centered as the last
a. Initial Fire Command and Crew Duties. step. Also, the leveling bubble must be recen-
Command Crew duties tered each time the weapon is fired. This is
GUNNER Gunner turns on turret pow- accomplished after the weapon is loaded to
TWO ROUNDS er. Loader loads a round insure that the gun is laid correctly. When the
HE of HE, checks path of re- gun is laid for deflection, the gunner's aid is
coil, positions safety in zeroed for use in making subsequent deflection
FIRE position, and an- changes for firing at a particular target. Even
nounces UP. Gunner turns when it is impossible to adjust fire by observa-

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tion, target hits may be observed under certain gets encountered in unusual terrain. If such
conditions. For example, HE or HEP striking additional patterns are used, they must be easily
metal causes a bright flash, and has an in- identifiable when announced in the fire com-
cendiary effect on some targets. When HE or mand, e.g., pattern blue.
HEP rounds strike near a target, the target (1) Initial fire comand for area fire:
may be momentarily illuminated (short), or GUNNER
silhouetted by the detonation (over). AREA FIRE
b. Area Fire. When target effect is not visible, TROOPS
area fire may be employed to increase the DEFLECTION ONE NINE TWO
probability of damaging or destroying the tar- LEFT
get. Area fire is the firing of a prescribed num- QUADRANT PLUS ONE ZERO
ber of rounds of HE or HEP in a prescribed FIRE
pattern. The standard area fire pattern (fig. (2) The gunner fires the first round, using
70) is normally employed for all standard tanks. range card data, and the remaining
This pattern consists of five rounds. The initial rounds in the prescribed pattern with-
round is fired from range card data; subsequent out further command.
rounds are fired 1 mil over, 1 mil short, 10 mils
right, and 10 mils left of the first round. This 112. Firing With Good Visibility
pattern gives an area coverage of approxi-
mately 200 meters (yards) in depth at all a. General. When a target is engaged that
ranges and of a varying amount of width can be seen through the direct-fire sights,
depending on range to the target. Other area direct-fire methods are employed. At night, arti-
fire patterns may be devised to increase the ficial light and sometimes moonlight provide
effectiveness of this type of fire against tar- sufficient visibility to allow target engagement

DISRE
OFFIRE

Figure 70. Standard area fire pattern.

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I I rt-"l ,
TANKi-:
SEARCHLIGHT

-- - -- _
~A .,' .-

.. ORTAR - .
RL -*- =,
bs-- y '. / "E;` -;
RIFLE FLARE - ~~~~·1
-"~

· tT~~~~4- -

TRIP FLARE

[I'@ AAnt'*I'

Figure 71. Types of artificial illumination.

by direct fire. Artificial illumination is pro- target and the crew duties remain the same
vided by searchlights (tank-mounted, visible except that the tank commander eliminates the
or infrared light, and artillery 60-inch search- time normally required for ranging by indexing
light), illumination shells (mortar and artil- the recorded range. The recorded range to tar-
lery), and flares (trip flares, rifle flares, hand- gets also serves as a yardstick on the ground,
held flares, and those released from aircraft) which will assist the tank commander in esti-
(fig. 71). Fires may be started in the target mating the range to targets of opportunity that
area by firing smoke rounds, or machinegun appear between plotted targets (M41 tank).
incendiary or tracer ammunition at such flam-
mable materiel as brush, trees, wooden build- c. Artificial Illumination.
ings, or flammable materiel pre-positioned in (1) Range card lay for direct fire. When
the target area. Before any target or target the decision is made to illuminate a
area is illuminated, consideration must be target for engagement, the tanks to
given to the effects of this illumination on engage the target can lay their guns
friendly troops. and sights on the target by use of
range card data prior to illumination.
b. Daylight. The tank commander can in- This technique is range card lay to
crease the speed of target engagement during direct fire. Once illumination occurs,
daylight by using the recorded range to engage the gunner will see the target in his
targets at or near a plotted target. The normal direct-fire sight and engage it imme-
initial fire command is issued to engage the diately with direct fire. This will pre-
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elude any time for evasive action by Initial fire command Crew duties
the enemy after illumination and prior the tank commander an-
to engagement. If the target to be en- nounces FROM MY POSI-
gaged requires the same type ammuni- TION and engages the
tion for which the range card is target, using his direct-
prepared, the fire command and crew fire sight.
duties shown in example 1 below Example 2.
would be used. If the target required a
Initial fire command Crew duties
type of ammunition other than that
for which the range card was pre- GUNNER, Gunner insures that turret
pared, the fire command and crew DIRECT power is on. Tank com-
duties shown in example 2 below FIRE mander turns the com-
would be used. puter on.
INDEX HE Loader loads a round of
Example 1.
FIRE SHOT shot, checks path of re-
Initial fire command Crew duties coil, insures safety is in
GUNNER, Gunner insures that turret FIRE position, and an-
DIRECT power is on. Tank com- nounces UP. Gunner turns
FIRE mander turns computer on main gun switch and
on. indexes HE in computer.
HE Loader loads a round of HE, Tank commander indexes
checks path of recoil, in- plotted range.
sures safety is in FIRE TANK Gunner traverses to an-
position, and announces DEFLECTION nounced deflection and re-
UP. Gunner turns on main 2895R peats the reading.
gun switch and indexes Gunner indexes quadrant
QUADRANT
HE in computer. Tank -18 reading, uses his manual
commander indexes plot- gun controls to center
ted range. bubble, and repeats the
TROOPS Gunner traverses to an- reading. The gunner then
DEFLECTION nounced deflection and re- indexes SHOT in the com-
217L peats the reading. puter.
QUADRANT Gunner indexes quadrant AT MY COM- The tank commander calls
+6 reading, uses his manual MAND- or waits for illumination.
gun controls to center When the target is l-
bubble, and repeats the luminated, the gunner
reading. announces IDENTIFIED
AT MY COM- The tank commander calls when he sees it, makes
MAND- or waits for illumination. a final precise lay, and
When the target is il- upon the command FIRE
luminated the gunner from the tank commander
announces IDENTIFIED engages the target.
when he sees it, make a FIRE The tank commander an-
final precise lay, and upon nounces FIRE after the
the command FIRE from gunner has identified the
the tank commander en- target. If the gunner fails
gages the target. to identify the target,
FIRE The tank commander an- the tank commander an-
nounces FIRE after the nounces FROM MY POSI-
gunner has identified the TION and engages the
target. If the gunner fails target, using his direct-
to identify the target, fire sight.
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The examples given are for tanks with tank commander determines the range
range finders and superelevators. If to the target.
the tank does not have a range finder
(M41 tank) the tank commander an- 113. Firing Machineguns at Night
nounces the range just before quad- Both tank machineguns are effective for
rant elevation. In example 2, if the firing at night with artificial illumination. Dur-
tank does not have a superelevator ing periods of poor visibility, the caliber .50
the gunner waits until after illumina- machinegun cannot be laid for elevation by
tion of the target and then indexes indirect means; therefore, its use is limited
SHOT prior to making his final pre- unless the tank commander can determine the
cise lay. In both cases, the other crew target area, i.e., by use of illumination or fire
duties remain the same as in examples. from one of the other tank weapons. The coaxial
(2) Targets of opportunity. Unplotted tar- machinegun, however, can be laid indirectly
gets may be illuminated when an area by plotted range card data. When no illumina-
tion is available the gunner should search and
of enemy activity has been located or
traverse the target area to insure coverage.
when accidental illumination is caused Tank machineguns are not laid on final protec-
by some means. In either case, if these tive lines as are ground-mounted machineguns.
targets appear at or near plotted tar- The reasons are clear. The elevation of the
gets, the range can be obtained from tank machinegun in relation to the ground pre-
the range card and indexed by the vents the delivery of effective grazing fire,
tank commander as he issues a normal which is an integral part of final protective
direct-fire initial fire command. If the fires, and the use of the machinegun in this
target is not located at or near a plot- manner would divert it and the tank main
ted target, the normal direct-fire gun from their primary mission of engaging
initial fire command is issued and the targets of opportunity.

Section VI. USE OF TANK-MOUNTED SEARCHLIGHTS

114. Quadrant Elevation methods, after the quadrant elevation for the
main gun has been determined.
A tank equipped with a searchlight must
prepare a range card that contains all of the a. Main Battle Tanks. With the turret power
data outlined in paragraph 100 to be used when on, the gunner uses the superelevation hand-
the tank is engaged in the firing role. In addi- crank to index 0 mils in the superelevation
tion to this information, the searchlight tank counter of the computer. Superelevation has
must obtain a separate quadrant elevation for now been removed from the fire control sys-
the searchlight. This is necessary because the tem. The gunner centers the bubble in the ele-
searchlight is a line of sight instrument. Quad- vation quadrant, using the micrometer knob,
rant elevation for the searchlight requires the and reads the existing quadrant elevation from
angle of sight only. Quadrant elevation for the the elevation and micrometer scales.
armament contains the line-of-sight angle and b. Tanks Not Equipped with a Superelevator
superelevation to compensate for the trajectory (M41 and M48 tanks). The gunner removes
of the projectile. If the quadrant elevation for superelevation from the fire control system
the armament were used, it would place the by indexing 0 mils on the ballistic unit (M41
beam of the searchlight above the target to be tank), or indexing 0 mils in the superelevation
illuminated. This would necessitate the gun- counter of the computer (M48 tank). He lays
ner's depressing the searchlight when it is the aiming cross of the direct-fire sight on the
turned on. Quadrant elevation for the search- target and centers the bubble in the quadrant,
light can be obtained by any of the following using the micrometer knob. The gunner reads

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the existing quadrant elevation from the ele- ammunition in the computer; subtract
vation and micrometer scales. the number of mils (nearest whole
mil) shown in the superelevation coun-
c. Quadrant Elevation Conversion Method. ter window from the QE for the main
This method can be applied on all tanks. It is gun (fig. 73).
used when existing conditions allow a tank
crew only sufficient time to obtain range card Example. Range = 1,000 yds., QE
data for the main gun. Quadrant elevation for (main gun) = + 59 (mils)
the main gun can be converted to quadrant From main gun QE + 59
elevation for the searchlight as follows: Subtract 9
(1) Using the tabular firing table. Obtain QE for searchlight = 50
the elevation for range, (supereleva-
tion) in mils, from the tabular firing (3) Using the ballistic unit. Use same pro-
table and subtract it from the quad- cedure as discussed in (2) above with
rant elevation for the main gun (fig. the exception that mils of supereleva-
72). tion is obtained by use of the mil
scale on the ballistic unit.
Example. Range = 1,000 yds., QE
(main gun) = + 59 (mils) d. Recording Searchlight QE. Crewmen must
From main gun QE + 59 insure that a clear distinction is made between
Subtract 9 quadrant elevation for the main gun and quad-
rant'elevation for the searchlight, when they
QE for searchlight = 50 are recorded on the range card.
(Disregard tenths of a mil) Example. RG 1,000 QE + 59 SLT + 50
(2) Using the computer. Index range and DEFL 2,859R

Figure 72. Tabular firing table.

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firing tank is ready to make his final lay and
fire, he can announce OVERDRIVE, thereby
obtaining increased illumination for actual tar-
get engagement. For offensive operations, the
light is turned on in the appropriate direction
and adjusted on targets as required. Normally
tanks mounting searchlights do not fire while
illuminating, as obscuration from the firing
reduces illumination of the target. In addition,
the searchlight would not be centered on the
target because it is a line of sight instrument
and superelevation is required to fire the gun
accurately. For maximum effectiveness, illumi-
nating tanks should be positioned a minimum
of 50 meters laterally from firing tanks. When
a tank crew must illuminate for its own fir-
ing, it is advisable to use a dismounted ob-
server, when possible, for adjusting fire because
of the difficulty of sensing from the tank.
Figure 73. Superelevation--counterwindow. 116. Techniques of Employment
Tank-mounted searchlights are used best
115. Initial Searchlight Lay against moving targets, point targets, and
A searchlight is laid on a target by indirect small area targets (50 meters or less in width).
means, prior to lighting, in the same manner Tank-mounted searchlights must be properly
as a tank gun (para. 112c). The tank com- focused (complete fusion of the light beam to
mander operates the ON-OFF switch for the obtain maximum efficiency of the light) and
searchlight, issues an initial fire command, and boresighted (para. 54d) before use by the crew.
makes adjustments by subsequent fire com- Normally, only direct illumination will be used
mands. for tank gunnery purposes and the tank-
Initial fire command mounted searchlight will be quite vulnerable to
GUNNER enemy fire if not employed properly. The pla-
WHITE LIGHT toon leader coordinates the firing tanks and
TROOPS the searchlight tanks by fire commands. The
DEFLECTION ONE ONE THREE LEFT flicker technique is employed to reduce the
QUADRANT PLUS ONE EIGHT enemy's opportunity to fire accurately on the
Note. When the gunner has completed laying the searchlight. One light is turned on for 15 sec-
searchlight, he repeats the QE, and the tank com- onds and then turned off as another searchlight
mander then turns on the searchlight when ready or is turned on for 15 seconds (if only one search-
as ordered by the platoon leader. light is used, the flicker time is 15 seconds on
Subsequent fire commands are issued by the and 5 seconds off). To further reduce vulnera-
tank commander of the tank providing illumina- bility of the searchlight to enemy fire, no more
tion, or by the gunner of the firing tank, if the than two 15-second periods of illumination
initial or subsequent lays are not satisfactory. should be performed by any searchlight tank
Subsequent fire command before moving to a new position. The tank-
ADD (DROP) ___-- STEADY .-. ON mounted searchlight has a limited capability
RIGHT (LEFT) __- - STEADY .- ON ... with indirect illumination (bouncing light off
Lights are turned off on the command CEASE of low clouds). When used for this purpose,
FIRE. When the tank providing illumination the tank is behind a mask and not vulnerable
has an Xenon searchlight, the searchlight would to enemy direct fire, but conversely the tank's
initially be laid on the target with the normal weapons cannot be used to place direct fire on
intensity of beam. When the gunner of the the enemy.
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CHAPTER 13
PLATOON FIRE DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL

Section I. INTRODUCTION

117. General effective, due to the flat trajectory and small


bursting radius of tank gun projectiles.
This chapter provides guidance for the use
of basic technique to control and coordinate
the firepower of the tank platoon for target 119. Target Acquisition and Analysis
engagement with long and short range fires. a. For destruction of targets, the platoon
The concentration or distribution of fires of leader must first locate and then evaluate a
the tank platoon at the proper time and place target to form a sound basis for the employ-
is essential to destroy, neutralize, or repel the ment of his weapons. The platoon leader, like
enemy. It is the platoon leader's responsibility, the tank commander, must classify the target
and requires a high degree of fire discipline to insure that the proper weapon and ammuni-
and responsiveness on the part of individual tion are employed. He must determine the
tank commanders and crews. The tank platoon volume of fire required to destroy the target
leader must study techniques of firecontrol.and based on the mission and the number and type
coordination and practice them until he has the of weapons available.
ability to take full advantage of his unit's fire-
power, regardless of the physical or mental b. Detection of targets is a platoon effort
strain imposed upon him by battle conditions. the same as it is a crew effort on the individual
The guidance given in this chapter is basic tank. The platoon leader assigns areas of ob-
and serves as fundamental techniques from servation and establishes a rapid reporting
which the platoon leader can derive his own system within his platoon. This enables him to
methods as his training proficiency increases. properly evaluate the acquired targets even if
they are not in his field of view. The location,
118. Firepower of the Tank Platoon type, number, and action of the target(s) must
be given in the report. The platoon leader must
The tank's main gun, machineguns, and any be careful to give guidance that will afford his
supporting fires constitute the firepower of the tank commanders immediate independent ac-
tank platoon. Direct fire is the most effective tion on targets within their capabilities. Sub-
type of fire delivered by the tank platoon. It sequent reporting on the progress of engage-
should be used whenever possible in offensive ment of independent targets is required.
or defensive action. Not only is it more readily
placed on a target during daylight, but due to c. The platoon leader has other means avail-
ever-increasing illumination capabilities, it can able for target detection and location. These
be equally effective during darkness or periods may include infantry, observation and listening
of reduced visibility. Range card fire is used posts, the company radar sets, and air ob-
during darkness or periods of poor visibility servers. The reports from these sources should
when illumination is not available or not de- contain the same general information that the
sired. It is not as effective as direct fire but platoon leader would receive from his tank
is vitally important in defensive actions. The commanders. If applicable, he should give spe-
tank in the artillery role (app. II) is used only cific guidance to those elements in support to
in exceptional situations. It is slow and not very insure that the information desired is contained
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in their report. Spot report used for reporting scribe the target(s). Include the type,
observations and actions will include as a mini- number, and activity.
mum, the following information:
Example. TANK IN POSITION;
(1) ALERT-Callwords followed by word THREE TRUCKS MOV-
or words to alert person receiving the ING SOUTH; DEMOLI-
message of action taken by reporting TION SQUAD WORKING.
station.
Example. PENROD TWO SIX, THIS (3) LOCATION-Use best means of locat-
IS PENROD TWO THREE, ing targets (followed by the terminat-
OBSERVING (ENGAG- ing proword).
ING OR DESTROYED). Example. TARGET 4; FRONT OF
(2) DESCRIPTION AND ACTION OF CHURCH, COORDI-
TARGET-Use words that best de- NATES 943785.

Section II. DISTRIBUTION AND VOLUME OF FIRE


120. General their explanations shown in figures 74, 75,
a. Speed and accuracy are essential in the and 76 are sufficient for this purpose.
initial engagement of enemy targets. In many
encounters, for reasons of urgency, the pla- 122. Volume of Fire
toon leader will not be able to analyze the target a. General. When engaging specific targets,
fully prior to the engagement. Control over i.e., tanks, trucks, or troops, the volume of fire
the fires of his platoon can be achieved rapidly will be dictated by the amount of fire necessary
through commands calling for the employment for destruction. In some situations specific
of a given fire pattern and a certain volume targets will not be observed by a part or all
of fire. Once a target has been engaged, the of the tanks in the platoon. These situations
platoon leader can issue subsequent commands occur when the platoon is fired upon from a
to adjust or change the initial pattern or volume well-concealed enemy position, when an enemy
of fire. position is being attacked but the exact location
b. Speed is essential in the initial engage- of the target is not known, or when encounter-
ment; for this reason, the platoon leader nor- ing suspected enemy positions. To insure that
mally should not require the acknowledgement proper use of firepower is obtained in these
of his commands by individual tank com- situations, the platoon leader must provide
manders, nor should he attempt a time-con- basic guidelines for his tank commanders to
suming target description for those tanks that use. Strength of the enemy, time required by
have not immediately identified the target. the maneuvering force, availability and effec-
tiveness of supporting fires, and ammunition
121. Basic Platoon Fire Patterns supply are factors that will govern the volume
of fire in these situations. The terms and ex-
Sound guidelines in the distribution of fire planations discussed in this paragraph will fit
must be established by the platoon leader to most situations that require the volume of fire
ensure complete coverage of target(s) or target to be controlled.
area. Numerous patterns for distribution of
fire can be developed to fit different situations; b. Reconnaissance by Fire. As dictated by
however, the possibility of confusion increases the existing situation and mission, reconnais-
with each pattern that is established. Since the sance by fire is normally performed by indi-
speed of effective initial engagement is critical, vidual tanks without specific orders from the
the development hnd constant practice of a few platoon leader. It is used primarily in offensive
simple patterns that will fit most situations or patrol actions. By placing machinegun fire,
are more desirable. Examples of patterns and or a round of main gun ammunition, on sus-
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-~~--- =' n

- S~~-

Figure 74. Frontal fire pattern.

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,a -- ~~~~ n--t.~
-5_;-- :=i5-

-x - I zz-szz --- Z

It 1S.-~ - :

Figure 75. Cross fire pattern.

='gl~lr~dbC_-I~~
~~~S

rC%.-
Figure 76. Depth fire pattern.

pected enemy positions it is anticipated that suspected enemy positions (fig. 77). It must
the enemy will return fire, thus revealing his be considered that a well-trained enemy will
location and approximate strength. Instructions not always react to reconnaissance by fire.
to employ reconnaissance by fire are normally c. Support by Fire. Support by fire is used
given prior to an operation, and individual to pin down or neutralize an enemy position,
tank commanders decide when to employ it on permitting other elements to move, assault,

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Figure 76-ontinued.

or withdraw (fig. 78). This type of fire will


be employed when the tank platoon is per-
forming one of the following roles:
(1) Overwatching the infantry by fire.
(2) Supporting by fire when fire and
movement are employed.
(3) Covering a withdrawal of another
unit.
The intensity of fire desired is usually directed
by the platoon leader in his oral order for an
operation. Occasions may arise that require this
type of fire during an operation. To direct this,
the platoon leader announces SUPPORT and
follows with the numerals designating the
number of high explosive rounds from the main
gun and bursts of machinegun fire per min-
ute from each tank, e.g., SUPPORT TWO AND
FOUR meaning 2 rounds main gun and 4 bursts
from machinegun. When specific targets are
acquired by a tank commander he engages
them, using the type of ammunition and rate
of fire required for destruction. The tank com-
mander returns to the announced rate of sup-
port fire upon destruction of the target. Rate
of fire can be changed by the platoon leader
during engagement by issuing a subsequent
fire command containing the change, e.g., RE-
DUCE TO ONE AND TWO or INCREASE
TO THREE AND FIVE. Anytime that the
Figure 77. Reconnaissance by fire. platoon leader desires that the maximum rate
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Figure 78. Support by fire.

<- - --- - N"I


_ ~ . s

Figure 79. Assault fire.

possible is to be fired he would announce SUP- The termination of this fire can be controlled
PORT MAXIMUM or INCREASE TO MAXI- by the announcement of a time duration, a
MUM. When firing support fire, the platoon prearranged signal, or a subsequent command.
can expect to draw a heavy volume of enemy
fire. For this reason hull defilade positions are d. Assault Fire. The use of this fire is in the
highly desirable. If possible, tanks delivering attack with the tank platoon as a part of the
this fire should have more than one firing posi- maneuver element (fig. 79). When assaulting
tion, alternating positions from time to time. an enemy pcosition, the location of specific tar-
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gets will not always be known. If they are ammunition; however, as individual targets
known prior to movement, direct-fire support appear that are dangerous and can best be
is planned to engage these targets. The move- destroyed with the main gun, the tank com-
ment to the enemy position must be fast and mander acquiring the target will stop and
accomplished with the maximum effective fire- engage it. He should stop only long enough
power. For the assaulting tanks on the move for the engagement and then move out again.
this will be primarily machinegun fire. The The platoon leader must be especially alert to
main gun cannot be fired accurately on the ensure that the momentum of the assault is
move except when using special antipersonnel maintained.

Section III. PLATOON LEADER'S FIRE COMMAND


123. General command insures that all necessary information
and control measures are given in a minimum
In the stress of battle, a platoon leader must
retain the ability to analyze a situation quickly, of time, causing a positive reaction by the
and issue concise and complete orders rapidly. platoon leader even under the most adverse
The habitual use of standard format for a fire conditions. The elements of a platoon fire com-

BEEARCAT ©ObEL THUS OS BLEARCA' OBE 50


MANa SUM
VE TALE$KS ABVAMC*fl
MOLECT FRONT VW ThOUSAD

,- -". ,; ^4-26i'.. I

~~~~~-.1
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~.
_ . ova!~·'; ...
lr-- 11. .- ;r
%t tz.

r: .

~~~-·~~~
- -~ ~ ~ Y~,F

Figure 80. Platoon leader's fire command to engage assaulting tanks.

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BEARCAT ONE THIS IS BEARCAT ONE SiX
FIRE MISSION
COLUMN OF TRUCKS
RIGHT FRONT, ONE FIVE HUNDRED
CROSS
AT MY COMMAND -
FIRE

Figure 81. Platoon leader's fire command to ambush a truck column.

mand issued in sequence are: alert; weapon, 2. PENROD TWO TWO AND
ammunition, or searchlight; description; loca- TWO THREE, THIS IS PEN-
tion; control; execution. Examples of the pla- ROD TWO SIX.
toon leader's fire command are shown in figures
80-83. Correction of the platoon leader's ini- 125. Weapon, Ammunition, or Searchlight
tial fire command is the same as for the tank
commander. Each element of the platoon fire a. This element directs the type weapon, am-
command is discussed separately in the follow- munition, and illumination to be used. When-
ing paragraphs. Subsequent fire commands will ever possible, the tank commander should be
consist of the necessary elements to alter the given the freedom of selecting the type of main
fire distribution or volume as the situation gun ammunition or machinegun that he uses.
develops. This allows the tank commander to take full
advantages of his armament capabilities, e.g.,
124. Alert tank 22 has a frontal shot at a tank target
and HEAT would be more effective; tank 25
The alert should consist of the radio call has a flank shot at a tank target and SABOT
signs of the tanks the platoon leader desires would be more effective. Similar situations
to employ. could arise when engaging a target with the
Examples. 1. PENROD TWO, THIS IS PEN- machineguns e.g., tank 22 within coax range,
ROD TWO SIX. but tank 25 is beyond coax range yet within
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BEARCAT TWO THIS IS BEARCAT TWO SIX
TWO THREE AND TWO FIVE WHITE LIGHT
TWO TWO AND TWO FOUR MAIN GUN
TANK
TIARGETt993 HUMBER
TaIQ UR
AT
3~~~ MY C©MMAND
FitW~~ ~

Figure 82. Platoon leader's fire command to engage and illuminate a target.

caliber .50 range. The platoon leader could tions, platoon ammunition inventory during an
indicate these options to the tank commanders operation, or poor visibility, the platoon leader
as shown in examples below. must designate the type of machinegun, main
Examples. 1. MAIN GUN. gun ammunition, and the quantity. He would
2. MACHINEGUN. do so in this element of the fire command.
Examples. 1. HE.
b. If the tank commanders are well-trained
and briefed on ammunition supply rates, the 2. COAX.
platoon leader could give a more general ele- 3. 2 ROUNDS HE.
ment that would allow them to select the 4. AREA FIRE.
weapon best suited for their tank positions. d. The platoon will face situations that re-
Example. FIRE MISSION. quire the use of both the main gun and machine-
c. Occasions may arise that, because of sup- gun simultaneously. This situation will dictate
ply availability, higher headquarters limita- whether all tanks employ both weapons or
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BEARCAT TWO THIS IS BEARCAT TWO SIX
DIRECT FIRE - FIRE MISSION
TANK AND TROOPS
TARGET BRAVO
FRONTAL
AT MY COMMAND -
FIRE

Figure 83. Platoon leader's fire command to engage targets illuminated by a source outside the platoon.

whether the platoon leader directs some to tank call sign announced first begins the illumi-
employ the main gun and others the machine- nation.
gun. Other situations will require illumination Examples. 1. COAX AND HEP.
of the target area by the searchlights of some
2. TWO TWO AND TWO FOUR,
tanks and firing by the remaining tanks of the
platoon. In either case this element is used COAX, TWO THREE AND
to direct the desired employment. TWO FIVE MAIN GUN.
3. TWO THREE AND TWO FIVE
e. Unless otherwise stated in this element, RED LIGHT TWO TWO
the announcement of WHITE (RED) LIGHT AND TWO FOUR MAIN
by the platoon leader means that the flicker GUN.
illumination technique (para. 116) will be em-
ployed. Steady illumination is employed by the f. If a target is to be engaged at night and
searchlight tank(s) only when specifically an- illumination is to be effected by a source outside
nounced by the platoon leader, i.e., WHITE the platoon, the platoon leader notifies his tank
LIGHT-STEADY. If two tanks are used, the commanders in this element of the fire com-
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mand so they will be ready to employ direct fire. the platoon. These patterns were discussed in
Example. DIRECT FIRE HE. paragraphs 121 and 122. In training, the pla-
toon should be thoroughly indoctrinated that
126. Description this element, and specifically any of the pat-
The physical description of the target(s) terns announced, serves primarily for an initial
should be the same as in the tank commanders engagement and will be modified by the platoon
initial fire command, i.e., tank, troops, etc. The leader as the situation demands. The control
platoon leader should include when appropriate element may contain only the distribution de-
the number and action of targets for clarity. sired if specific targets are to be engaged.
Examples. 1. TANKS. Examples. 1. FRONTAL.
2. TWO TANKS MOVING 2. DEPTH TO CROSS WHEN
SOUTH. DISPERSED.
3. TROOPS CRAWLING. When no specific targets are visible and a
known enemy location or area is to be engaged,
127. Location the platoon leader designates distribution and
intensity.
In most cases, location can be given briefly
and clearly by use of the platoon fire plan, Examples. 1. FRONTAL SUPPORT TWO
prominent terrain features, or code names. AND THREE.
Examples. 1. TARGET NUMBER FOUR. 2. CROSS ASSAULT.
2. STEEL BRIDGE. If the platoon leader is issuing a fire command
3. RIGHT SLOPE OBJECTIVE to 1 or 2 of his tanks he may omit this element.
BANANA. In these cases the tank commanders involved
control their fire and the platoon leader moni-
Direction and range or a combination of direc- tors the engagement.
tion and a terrain feature can be used to locate
the target. The announced range is accurate
only for the platoon leader's tank, and would 129. Execution
serve merely to locate the target for the other a. This element is used to designate when
tanks. the firing will commence. When the element of
Examples. 1. RIGHT FRONT, ONE SIX surprise with the maximum tanks firing ini-
HUNDRED. tially is not a consideration, the platoon leader
2. RIGHT FRONT, ROAD JUNC- simply announces FIRE. If the target(s) is
TION. desired to be hit with maximum firepower ini-
tially, the platoon leader announces AT MY
Marking is a detailed method of locating the COMMAND, pauses to allow time for the tanks
target. The platoon leader must realize that to lay on the target, and then announces FIRE.
the element of surprise will be lost when locat- In certain instances, such as an ambush, he may
ing a target in this manner. want to receive READY back from his tank
Examples. 1. WATCH MY BURST. commanders before he announces FIRE. If this
2. RIGHT FRONT WATCH MY situation exists, the platoon leader announces
TRACER. AT MY COMMAND-READY REPORT. He
waits until all tank commanders have an-
128. Control nounced READY and then repeats the call sign
and announces FIRE, e.g., PENROD TWO,
Rapid engagement of a target with effective THIS IS PENROD TWO SIX, FIRE.
distribution, intensity, and control of fire is
essential to the tank platoon's success in com- b. If tank searchlights within the platoon are
bat. General patterns of engagement pertaining being employed, the word FIRE is the com-
to distribution and intensity of fire should be mand of execution for both illuminating and
taught by the platoon leader and practiced by firing tanks.
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Section IV. PLATOON FIRE PLANNING OFFENSIVE ACTIONS
130. General commander when encountering surprise tar-
Offensive action requires the advance- plan- gets. An example of a part of a platoon leader's
ning for the use of the platoon's firepower. guidance might be as shown below.
Detailed fire planning will generally not be Example. "In surprise engagement of enemy
possible, but basic plans and techniques for tanks, 22, and 23 will work as a
distribution of fire (para. 121) will enable the team, and 24 and 25 as a team. If
platoon leader to quickly adapt them to most a tank appears within range of
situations. These plans should be designed to be destruction, with the platoon in
effective in both good and poor visibility. Most any formation, the first tank com-
operations during periods of poor visibility will mander to see the tank will en-
be supported in the assault phase by illumina- gage it. He will be joined imme-
tion, but the tank platoon should be prepared diately by the other tank in his
to complete its mission in case of an illumina- team. I will monitor the action
tion failure or loss through enemy action. and, along with the remainder of
the platoon, observe for other
131. Surprise Targets targets. If I am first to spot a
target, the tank to my right, or
a. In the offense, many targets appearing on to my rear if in column, will im-
the battlefield can be classified as surprise tar- mediately join me in engaging the
gets. The nature of many of these targets enemy. The platoon sergeant will
requires immediate engagement and destruc- then monitor the action and take
tion by individual tanks. To retain control un- control of the remaining tanks in
der such circumstances, the platoon leader the platoon for the duration of
establishes basic guidelines for his tank com- the engagement."
manders. Before giving his guidance, the pla-
toon leader decides what instructions to give 132. Known or Suspected Targets
concerning the following questions.
More specific planning and training can be
What actions: accomplished for the engagement of known or
(1) At various ranges. suspected targets. The presence or suspected
(2) On single targets-on two or more presence of the enemy can be determined by
targets. surveillance sources within the unit or a sup-
(3) In good and poor visibility. porting unit. The mission of the platoon dic-
tates the employment of its firepower. The
(4) If terrain is favorable to enemy. platoon leader controls this firepower, based on
b. This guidance will not cover every con- his knowledge of enemy situation and by em-
ceivable situation, but it will provide for posi- ploying patterns for distribution and intensity
tive initial engagement on the part of each tank of fire as outlined in paragraphs 121 and 122.

Section V. PLATOON FIRE PLANNING, DEFENSIVE ACTIONS


133. General the platoons. The platoon fire plan is used to
coordinate the fire of tanks in the platoon. In
In defensive situations, the fires of all avail- addition to assigning sectors of responsibility
able weapons are coordinated to obtain maxi-
mum effectiveness for the engagement of tar- to his platoons, the company commander as-
gets with long and short range fires. Sectors signs specific target areas to be plotted on
of responsibility are assigned and fire plans range cards and designates them by number.
are developed for these sectors. The tank com- In the selection of these target areas, the
pany fire plan is used to coordinate the fires of company commander considers those areas
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within the company sector that he feels may requires many tasks to be performed by all
require the massing of all available fires in the members of the platoon; however, with a
company, i.e., likely avenues of approach and trained unit they can be performed with speed
key terrain features. He also considers those and efficiency. A platoon fire plan is developed
areas that lend themselves to offensive type each time the platoon moves into a position for
actions to accomplish his defensive mission. a length of time that would allow deliberate
The platoon leader insures that this informa- planning for its defense.
tion is disseminated to his tank commanders,
and based upon a similar evaluation of his b. Platoon Sector. Prior to occupation or
platoon sector, assigns specific target areas he immediately thereafter, the company com-
desires to be plotted, designating each of them mander assigns the platoon leaders their sec-
by a letter. The tank commander plots all the tors of responsibility and specific targets he
targets (numbered and lettered) assigned by desires to have plotted. The platoon leader
the platoon leader even if he cannot determine records this information as the outline of the
data or the targets are not within his sector sketch for his fire plan (fig. 84). He makes this
of responsibility. He selects additional target as an overlay if the scale map being used is
areas within and adjacent to his sector of large enough for clarity; otherwise he uses a
responsibility that he feels are necessary to sketch showing prominent terrain features.
insure complete defense of his sector. This fire
planning on the part of the tank unit provides c. Individual Tank Sectors. After quickly
them the capability of delivering effective co- evaluating his assigned sector, the platoon
ordinated fire during good or poor visibility. leader assigns each tank commander a primary
sector of responsibility. He insures that these
assignments provide coverage of the entire area
134. Platoon Fire Plan
assigned and that tanks in his platoon have
The platoon fire plan provides the platoon overlapping fire if possible. He coordinates with
leader with the necessary information to dis- the units on his flanks to provide overlapping
tribute and control the fire of all available fire between units. The targets assigned by the
weapons. The basis of the platoon fire plan is company commander and those selected by the
the range cards of the tanks in the platoon. platoon leader are designated to the tank com-
Supplementing this information is the recom- manders for plotting on their range cards. If
mendations of the tank commanders for addi- alternate positions are to be planned, the pla-
tional fire coverage of attached or supporting toon leader tells his tank commanders at this
weapons. The platoon leader combines this with time. The company commander may assign a
the requirements established by the company supplemental sector of responsibility for which
commander and recommendations of attached plans are to be made. If so, the platoon leader
elements. He considers all information and rec- begins a separate plan for this sector and as-
ommendations in regard to his own evaluation signs supplemental sectors of responsibility to
of the position and completes his direct-fire his tank commanders.
plan. This fire plan and recommendations for
indirect-fire coverage for his sector are for- d. Preparationof Range Cards. The initial
warded to the company commander. Indirect- effort of the platoon is to prepare their primary
fire concentrations approved for his sector will sector of responsibility range cards. Once work
be added to his direct-fire plan upon receipt. by any individual tank is complete on this,
The plan then is the coordinated platoon fire including alternate positions, work on a supple-
plan for all fires available. mental range card is begun. While work is
being accomplished by the tank commanders on
135. Development of a Platoon Fire Plan their range cards, the platoon leader analyzes
a. General. The fire plan when completed is his position and the surrounding terrain. He
a sketch or overlay of an area with reference checks the positions and progress of his tanks
data to provide for complete control of avail- and attached weapons, supplementing his orig-
able fires. The development of this fire plan inal instructions as necessary.
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1ST PLATOON FIRE PLAN
I
I
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I

a-

STEE

I//
FENCE CORNER
I
I
; - - _
I

I
CLUMP OF
TREES
\ I

\'

N
'9\

Figure 84. Initial sketch, platoon fire plan.

e. Completion of Direct-FirePlan. When the proved, the concentrations and barrages


tank commanders have completed their range planned for the platoon sector are placed in the
cards, the platoon leader examines them and platoon fire plan (fig. 86). If a supplemental
extracts the information necessary to complete sector of responsibilty was assigned by the
his direct-fire plan. The fire plan to be sub- company commander, the fire plan for it would
mitted to the company commander will nor- be similar to the primary fire plan.
mally contain the information shown by the
example in figure 85. Observation or listening 136. Surprise Targets
posts and location of other attached elements
are included if appropriate. Along with his If observation or listening posts and other
direct-fire plan the platoon leader submits any surveillance means available are employed
recommendations (normally orally) for sup- properly, very few surprise targets will be
porting fires. encountered in defensive operations. These ac-
quisition sources will normally have reported
f. Completed Fire Plan. Once the indirect- the progress of enemy elements prior to their
fire plan for the battalion is completed and ap- movement within engagement range. Despite
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1ST PLATOON FIRE PLAN
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,-9
CEMETERY I
/ FENCE CORNER
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HOUSE\ \ }I TREE
CLUMP OF
TREES

\ I

%
IN

Target Searchlight Target Tanks Able to Fire


1 13, 15 1 All
3 13 2 All
8 15 3 11, 12, 13, 14
C 13, 15 4 11, 12, 13
D 13, 15 5 All
6 All
7 All
8 11, 12, 14, 15
9 12, 13
A All
B All
C All
D 11, 12, 13, 15

Figure 85. Sketch, platoon direct-fire plan

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1ST PLATOON FIRE PLAN

II
AA I
101 AA
VI

AA
AA
/
/
/ FENCE CORNER
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TREE
HOUSE.
\ %I
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TREES
DI
\ |-4.21

0\1 p
I

N*

Target Searchlight Target Tanks Able to Fire


1 13, 15 1 All
3 13 2 All
8 15 3 11, 12, 13, 14
C 13, 15 4 11, 12, 13
O 13, 15 5 All
6 All
7 All
8 112, 1 4, 15
9 12, 13
A All
B All
C All
D 11, 12, 13, 15

Figure 86. Completed sketch, platoon fire plan.

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this fact, guidance for engagement of surprise front. If this occurs each tank commander has
targets must be established in case they are an assigned sector of responsibility in which
encountered. Unlike the engagement of surprise to initially concentrate his fire. Subsequent
targets in offensive action, immediate, inde- changes in distribution can be made by the
pendent engagement by the individual tank platoon leader as the situation develops.
commander acquiring surprise targets in the
defense is not always desirable. In these cases
the acquisition should be reported and the pla- 137. Known or Suspected Targets
toon leader decides whether immediate engage- When normal security measures have been
ment is consistent with the mission assigned. implemented by a unit in a defensive position,
For example, the platoon leader's primary con- most every enemy activity that will effect that
cern may be to cause the enemy to deploy at position will be reported by surveillance sources
maximum range consistent with the ammuni- prior to direct contact. With this information,
tion and weapons available, insuring that his the platoon leader can begin formulating his
platoon does not become decisively engaged. If plans for the engagement of the enemy. Mis-
he has continually studied the terrain around sion, terrain, forces available, and weather
him, the platoon leader knows at what point he (visibility conditions) will be the most decisive
can best accomplish this and cause maximum factors for him to consider. Once these have
confusion and damage to the enemy. In addi- been considered the platoon leader can issue
tion, coordinated massed fire rather than piece- orders to his platoon, using his prepared fire
meal engagement will be more effective. If a plan to insure that the best use of available
surprise target appears that threatens a part firepower is made. Use of the basic platoon fire
or all of the platoon's position, the target patterns will provide definite control measures
should be engaged by the tank commander who to be established prior to encountering known
acquired it and he should immediately report targets. This insures that the proper distribu-
actions taken. The platoon fire plan provides tion of fire will be combined with surprise for
good initial distribution of fire without com- destruction of targets with the minimum ex-
mand in case of surprise attack all across the penditure of time and ammunition.

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PART FIVE
TANK GUNNERY TRAINING

CHAPTER 14

GENERAL

Section I. INTRODUCTION

138. General developed through instruction and practice in


the following:
a. The objectives of tank gunnery training
are to develop tank crewmen capable of deliver- (1) Machineguns. Characteristics, nomen-
ing rapid, accurate fire to destroy enemy per- clature, disassembly, assembly, func-
sonnel and equipment. The tank crew must be tioning, malfunctions, immediate ac-
trained to function as a team. Each member of tion, adjustments, and mounting.
a crew must be trained to perform the duties (2) Tank armament, controls, and equip-
of the other members, so that the loss of one ment. Familiarization with the tank
member, while reducing, will not completely turret, gun and turret controls, vision
destroy the effectiveness of the tank as a fight- devices, fire control equipment, and
ing vehicle. In addition, personnel in other sec- searchlight; sight adjustment; preven-
tions of the tank unit must be sufficiently tive maintenance services; and de-
trained to serve as replacements on the tanks. struction of weapons and fire control
This replacement should take place at the earli- equipment to prevent enemy use.
est opportunity to restore the tank to its full
effectiveness as a fighting vehicle. (3) Tank ammunition. Identification,
characteristics, capabilities, uses, and
b. To insure high standards of proficiency, maintenance.
prescribed tests and exercises must be con- (4) Main gun. Characteristics, nomencla-
ducted to measure the ability of tank crewmen ture, disassembly, assembly, function-
and crews to apply the skills taught during the ing, malfunctions, and adjustments;
training cycle. loading and unloading; and removal
c. Parts five and six of this manual establish of stuck round or separated projectile.
procedures and standards for training and test- (5) Range determination. The mil rela-
ing tank crewmen and crews in all aspects of tion, registration, intersection, maps,
tank gunnery. and estimation; practical work on
range designation and range deter-
139. Sequence of Tank Gunnery Training mination sites.
a. To develop proficient tank crews, tank (6) Range finder. Characteristics, nomen-
gunnery training must be progressive. Crew- clature, adjustment, operation, rang-
men receive training first in individual duties ing practice, determining target image
followed by crew exercises. coincidence (TIC), or internal cor-
rection system (ICS), and testing
b. Gunnery skills and crew proficiency are proficiency.
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(7) Conduct of direct fire. Initial fire Note. Subcaliber and service exercises are
command; crew composition and fir- fired in the qualification and familiarization
ing duties; use of the binoculars; courses and for practice.
sensings, observations, and adjust- (14) Platoon fire distribution and control.
ments; firing the main gun at station- Platoon target acquisition procedures,
ary and moving targets; firing the distribution and volume of fire, offen-
tank-mounted machineguns; battle- sive and defensive fire planning, and
sight and practical application on conduct of fire by the entire platoon.
trainers or tanks. (15) Indirect-fire from defilade. (Con-
(8) Preparation for firing. Prepare-to- ducted after crews are proficient in all
fire checks, safety precautions, flag aspects of direct fire.) Laying tank
signals for range firing; handling, guns parallel, determining minimum
loading, and stowing of ammunition; elevation, fire commands and crew
mounting and dismounting the crew; duties, and duties of the observer.
misfire and stoppage procedures; and
procedure to clear and secure guns. 140. Methods of Testing Gunnery Training
(9) Crew duties and target acquisition. To evaluate training, commanders must have
Crew nonfiring exercises in all phases some means of measuring progress and profi-
of target acquisition and conduct of ciency of tank crews. Although individuals or
direct fire (also conducted at night in crews may complete a training program, their
conjunction with range cards). level of proficiency cannot be determined with-
(10) Range cards and night firing tech- out a method of testing. Methods of testing
niques. Types of range cards, deter- include:
mining data, plotting data, and use of a. Examination by Observation. Many as-
range cards under conditions of good pects of gunnery training can be measured only
and poor visibility; practical exercises by actual observation of the training or firing.
in constructing range cards and apply- For example, a tank commander who is able to
ing the data to the fire control equip- write a correct fire command may not be able
ment; use of the searchlight; and to give the command quickly and accurately
nigh firing techniques in conjunction during a live-firing exercise. Definite objectives
with target acquisition. must be sought when observing a phase of
(11) Tank crewman preliminary gunnery training.
examination.
b. Oral Examination. Normally used as an
(12) Subcaliber (coax machinegun) firing. on-the-spot check of training, it can be used to
Zeroing the coax machinegun for sub- check the effectiveness of the instructor and to
caliber firing, correct sight picture determine whether the tank crewman under-
and accurate laying exercises, range stands the material being presented. Each oral
card exercises, primary method of ad- question should have a specific purpose and
justment exercises, alternate method emphasize one point.
of adjustment exercises, and moving
target exercises. c. Written Examination. This type of test
indirectly measures an individual's knowledge
(13) Service firing. Zeroing tank weapons, to apply gunnery skills and is best used to
firing at stationary and moving tar- determine the knowledge gained over a wide
gets, adjustment of fire, and firing at area of subject matter.
night with illumination; firing from a
moving tank with the coaxial ma- d. Performance Test. Proficiency in tank
chinegun; firing the cupola-mounted gunnery training can best be determined by
or external turret-mounted caliber .50 the performance test. This type of test can be
machinegun at ground and air tar- conducted in numerous phases of gunnery train-
gets; and individual crew exercises. ing by having the individual do what he has
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been taught. A performance test includes and scribed time limit. The tank crewman prelim-
emphasizes such factors as correct procedure, inary gunnery examination is an example of a
accurate results, and performance within a pre- performance test.

Section II. INDIVIDUAL GUNNERY TRAINING

141. General a. Conduct-of-Fire Trainer. The conduct-of-


fire trainer (fig. 87) is an excellent training aid
Success in battle depends upon close coordi- to teach crewmen the correct sight picture for
nation within the tank crew. Conduct of fire direct laying, set off lead, change lead, and to
depends primarily upon the skills and actions of make adjustments when using the primary or
the loader, gunner, driver, and tank com- secondary sight in conjunction with all methods
mander, who comprise the tank crew. The of adjustment. The conduct-of-fire trainer is
training of the crew is integrated after indi- used also to teach crew firing duties. Each
vidual training; however, in all training, each member performs (partially simulated) his
crewman must master his individual duties assigned firing duties for each problem. Firing
before the crew can work together as a team. problems are conducted as follows:
(1) Tank commander issues an appropri-
142. Mechanical Training ate initial fire command and begins
As the first step in gunnery training, tank laying for direction.
crewmen must learn the weapons, controls, am- (2) Upon hearing the ammunition ele-
munition, and associated equipment for their ment, the loader simulates loading and
particular type tank. This is accomplished by announces UP.
classroom work and practical work on the tank (3) The gunner simulates indexing ammu-
cr turret trainers. For specific information and nition (and range when necessary)
procedures, see the technical manual for the into the fire control system.
tank. (4) On identifying the target, the gunner
announces IDENTIFIED and as-
143. Training in Use of Direct-Fire Sights sumes control of the trainer.
Use of direct-fire sights must be rapid and (5) The gunner takes the correct sight
accurate when laying on a target and making picture, announces ON THE WAY
adjustments. Each individual must know the and simulates firing.
graduations and use of the sight reticles. Initial (6) The instructor flashes a light to sim-
training is conducted in the classroom by use ulate a burst or tracer for sensing
of charts and slides. This instruction is fol- adjustment.
lowed by practical work on a trainer or tank. (7) The gunner applies the appropriate
method of adjustment, again an-
144. Nonfiring Exercises nounces ON THE WAY, and simu-
lates firing.
Nonfiring exercises are designed to prepare
tank crewmen for firing exercises and as re- (8) The problem continues until the tank
fresher training. They are directed toward de- commander announces CEASE FIRE.
veloping firing skills of the gunner and tank (9) The instructor critiques each problem
commander and promoting team work of the immediately after completion.
entire crew. A thorough understanding of the Note. The instructor should place the light
operation and functioning of the tank turret so that it is off the target but within the
and weapons is the first step in gunnery train- reticle. Before beginning the problem, in-
sure that the reticle can be traversed to the
ing. This is followed by classroom presentation target. If the gunner fails to sense or ob-
and familiarization with crew duties and serve the tracer, require the tank com-
conduct-of-fire procedure for engaging targets. mander to issue a subsequent fire command.

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LTANK COMMANDER

Figure 87. Conduct-of-fire trainer.

b. Target Board and Reticle. been boresighted on the same target as the
(1) Silhouette targets, such as tanks and gunner's. Accuracy is stressed and speed is
antitank guns, are drawn or pasted developed as training progresses.
on a target board representing terrain.
A clear piece of acetate is cut and d. Aiming Data Charts. The gunner must
learn to determine rapidly the correct aiming
placed in a circular frame. A gun lay-
point-to use with the ballistic reticle when firing
ing reticle is painted on the acetate to
represent the gunner's sight reticle a type of ammunition other than that for which
the reticle is graduated. Aiming data charts are
and field of view.
provided in tabular firing tables for this pur-
(2) The crewman places the reticle on the pose and a computer or ballistic unit can be
target in the proper position to repre- used to obtain the same information. As ballis-
sent initial laying, relaying, applying tic type reticles are calibrated for only one type
burst on target, and making deflection ammunition, the gunner must compensate for
and range changes. Following indi- the difference in trajectory when he uses any
vidual instructions, simulated crew type of round other than the type for which
exercises may be conducted. the reticle is graduated. This correction can be
c. Training on the Tank. Further practical determined by using an aiming data chart simi-
application of direct laying is performed on lar to the one shown in figure 34. This type of
the tank. The gunner simulates firing and ad- chart is issued to tank units and may be at-
justing on various targets, using both the pri- tached to the recoil guard of the main gun for
mary and secondary sights in conjunction with ready reference. If an aiming data chart is not
the methods of adjustment. The instructor or available, the computer or ballistic unit can
tank commander supervises the gunner by ob- be used as an aiming data chart (para. 45e and
serving through the direct-fire sight, which has d).
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b. The next phase of manipulation training
requires the gunner to lay rapidly on a series of
stationary targets. This is a dry run of the
manipulation part of subcaliber firing. The sub-
caliber manipulation can take place on the
actual firing range, using the standard targets
or set up in another designated training area.
The "dry run" type exercise does not give a
"hit indication" to the gunner.
c. To offset this condition, a training device
such as the LASER gun should be used. The
simulator, weapon, firing LASER gun may be
mounted on the tank. The power unit and con-
trol panel may be plugged into a 110-volt ac or
the tank's 24-volt dc power supply. The LASER
gun projects a light beam on a target covered
Figure 88. The snakeboard.
with a reflective material. This light beam is
an easily detectable hit indication, adding real-
145. Manipulation Exercises ism to manipulation exercises. The LASER
gun will permit indoor or outdoor training in
Any exercise that gives the gunner practice boresighting and zeroing procedures, burst-on-
in traversing and elevating the gun is called target exercises, range card firing exercises,
manipulation. These exercises must be prac-
and training in firing the subcaliber tables I,
ticed by the gunner throughout his gunnery
training. II, and III.
a. The snakeboard (fig. 88) is an effective 146. Tracking and Leading Exercises
and easily fabricated aid to manipulation train-
ing. Lines, approximately 2 inches wide, are a. Towed-Card Exercises (fig. 89). A line is
drawn on target cloth mounted between 2 stretched between two supports at different
standards or on any vertical surface. The gun- heights and a card is suspended from the line.
ner tracks accurately along the lines as rapidly The card is pulled along the line by a cord and
as possible. the gunner tracks the card during its move-

APPROX 50 METERS
FROM TANK

Figure 89. Towed card exercise.

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ment. The speed of the moving card is alter- well-defined intersecting horizontal and vertical
nately increased and decreased during its run. lines. The crew alines the sight and the weap-
ons (main gun and coaxial machinegun) on the
b. Combat Tracking. Before firing at a mov- aiming point, locks the boresight knobs, and
ing target, the gunner performs dry run track- slips the scales to the prescribed setting. The
ing. A vehicle, or the moving target on a instructor then traverses the gun off the target,
subcaliber or service range, may be used for and unlocks and rotates the knobs to disturb the
this purpose (fig. 90). The speed and direction reading. The crew then reboresights on the
of the target should be varied. The gunner same target and readings are compared. This
tracks with proper lead. The gunner simulates exercise is repeated until accuracy is obtained.
firing and adjusting by changing the range and This same general procedure is followed in
lead as directed by the tank commander, who boresighting the cupola-mounted machinegun;
observes the direct-fire sight. The gunner tracks however, accuracy is checked as each step is
with a smooth continuous motion, maintaining performed.
a constant sight picture before, during, and
after firing. He does not stop traversing while
he simulates firing. When the situation permits, 148. Zeroing Exercises
gunners should practice in conjunction with The zeroing procedure for the main gun can
their other training. Various other types of be simulated by placing large targets at the
moving targets could be used for dry firing zeroing range, with a shot group painted on
(fig. 91). each target (fig. 92). The gunner simulates
firing a shot group, and simulates firing a check
147. Boresighting Exercises round. Each time the exercise is completed, the
The prescribed steps for boresighting tank gunner records the azimuth and elevation knob
weapons should be followed closely and the readings. To check the accuracy of the gunner,
exercises repeated until the crew is able to his results are compared with previously deter-
make precise adjustments. To check the crew's mined zero readings on the same shot group.
accuracy, the instructor selects a target with Any variations in the reading can be directly

ST
ia

17777
At1
ToW
VEHICLE

Figure 90. Manipulation and live fire moving target.

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PULL-BACK WIRE

GUIDE CABLE

GRAVITY

PULLEY

SLEDS

WINCH

Figure 91. Various types of moving targets.

associated with the gunner's ability to make from these data. This practice can be obtained
an accurate lay. This exercise is repeated until by integrating this instruction with target ac-
accuracy is obtained. The zeroing procedures quisition training (ch. 16), although any area
for the coaxial machinegun and cupola-mounted with fields or fire up to at least 2,000 meters
machinegun are simulated in the same general (yards) can be used. The instructor tests the
manner, using target setups as shown in figures accuracy of each crewman by first preparing
93 and 94. Once crewmen have learned the a range card for the area, to be used in checking
zeroing procedures in simulated exercises, they the crewman's data. This range card should
are accomplished by actual firing. have a minimum of six targets plotted, with
approximately half the targets on each side of
149. Training in Use of Auxiliary the referenced point. The crewman is then
Fire Control Equipment shown the reference point and each target to
a. Each crewman must have practice in ob- be plotted and is told the range to each target;
taining range card data and in simulating firing with this information, the crewman (gunner)
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Figure 92. Target for dry practice-zeroing


lmain gun.

prepares a range card. The data must be ac- Figure 92. Target for dry practice-zeroing
curate and complete with a 1-mil tolerance cupola machinegun.
allowed for both quadrant elevation and deflec-
tion. After the crewman has satisfactorily pre-
pared a range card, he should be given practice elevation quadrant and 30 seconds when a gun-
in applying these data to the auxiliary fire con- ner's quadrant must be used. Practice in simu-
trol equipment by simulating firing from range lating firing the standard area fire pattern can
card data. The instructor issues an initial fire be accomplished in conjunction with this in-
command to engage each target. The crewman struction. An additional minute should be al-
(gunner) is allowed 20 seconds to correctly lowed when this is performed. Accuracy and
apply these data to the auxiliary fire control sequence of application are important. See para-
equipment for each target, on tanks with an graphs 100 and 110 through 112 for obtaining

E TARGET AT A RANGE OF 800 METERS (YARDS). ZEROING


TARGET FOR COAX MACHINEGUN.

0
TARGET CLOTH REPRESENTING THE BEATEN ZONE OF THE
INITIAL BURST OF THE COAX MACHINEGUN APPROXIMATELY
200 METERS (YARDS) SHORT (OVER) OF THE COAX MACHINE-
t0 GUN ZEROING TARGET.

DIRECTION OF FIRE

Figure 94. Target for dry practice-zeroing coaxial machinegun.

AGO 6398A 129


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and applying range card data and the area fire 150. Preparation for Firing
pattern.
Classroom and practical work are given on
b. Other appropriate exercises in the use of prepare-to-fire checks, safety precautions, and
auxiliary fire control instruments are laying flag signals for range firing; handling, loading,
tank guns parallel, determining minimum ele- and stowing ammunition; mounting and dis-
vation, and making deflection and range mounting the tank crew; and misfire and stop-
changes for indirect firing. page procedures.

Section III. CREW GUNNERY TRAINING

151. General 152. Sequence of Crew Training


The training of the crew will begin with the Crew gunnery training should follow the se-
members in their assigned positions. Then the quence list below.
crewmen will rotate within the tank to attain a. Recognition. Crew exercises to train the
proficiency in all gunnery skills. crew in recognition of enemy equipment on the

- - a --- - - - , I ,,"'
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THE APPARATUS INCLUDES A PROJECTION LAMP (SUCH AS A JEEP HEAD


'
LAMP). A STAND FOR SUPPORTING VEHICLE MODELS, AND A SCREEN SUS- °
PENDED IN A CLASSROOM. THE ROOM NEED NOT BE TOTALLY DARK.
· ;-, · · I-,- ~-
·: -·~~~r 2; -gZ a
·g ~I I

Figure 95. Shadowugraph recognition trainer.

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battlefield, in periods of good and poor visi- eludes the firing of the cupola or externally
bility, can be accomplished, by using flash card mounted machinegun and the coaxial machine-
pictures, actual vehicles, and visual projectors gun at stationary and moving targets from sta-
(fig. 95). tionary and moving tanks in daylight and at
b. Target Acquisition. This training includes night (ch. 19).
crew nonfiring exercises in all phases of target d. Crew Field Firing Exercise. This training
acquisition and conduct of direct fire (also con- includes firing all tank-mounted weapons at
ducted at night in conjunction with range cards stationary and moving targets while moving
and with various types of illumination). The the tank over a prescribed course in daylight
crew trains first in a static position, then from and at night. The tank crew fires a practice and
a moving tank (para. 178). a record course and the proficiency of the tank
c. Machinegun Exercises. This training in- crew is determined (ch. 19).

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CHAPTER 15
RANGE DETERMINATION

Section I. INTRODUCTION

153. General be used for quick conversion, and is accurate


The greatest potential cause of error in tank enough for tank gunnery purposes.
gunnery is incorrect range determination. To convert- Multiply number by-
When a tank crewman can determine range ac- meters to yards ____..____ _ 1.1
curately, the probability of obtaining a first- yards to meters____________ .9
round target hit is greatly increased. The best
feet to meters ________ __ .3
methods of determining range for tank gun-
nery purposes are range finders, binoculars and meters to feet_ __________ 3.3
mil relation, maps, and estimation by eyesight mils to degrees __________ .06
or sound. Another method of range determina- degrees to mils _______-.. 18
tion is intersection; however, it is not used
frequently by a tank crew. A source of range b. The following table provides a handy ref-
is information from friendly troops, but the ference to those range commonly used by tank
range obtained is only as accurate as the units:
method used to determine it. The best method M YD/M YD
in any given situation is the one that gives 458 500 547
the most accurate range, consistent with the 549 600 656
time and equipment available. When available,
the range finder is the best means of determin- 732 800 875
ing range; however, as it is not mounted on all 914 1,000 1,094
tanks or it may become inoperative, tank crew- 1,097 1,200 1,312
men must become proficient in other methods 1,372 1,500 1,640
of determining range. 1,646 1,800 1,968
1,829 2,000 2,187
154. Conversion Table
a. The following table will be of assistance 2,286 2,500 2,734
in tank gunnery. The column of figures should 2,743 3,000 3,281

Section II. METHODS OF RANGE DETERMINATION


155. Range Finder a. Coincidence range finder ranging proce-
dure (para. 171).
On tanks so equipped, the use of the range
finder is the primary method of range deter- b. Stereoscopic range finder ranging proce-
mination. The value of the range finder lies in dure (para. 172).
the speed and accuracy of determining ranges
beyond 1,000 meters (yards). A tank crew can 156. Binoculars and Mil Relation
expect a high percentage of first-round hits on The binoculars and mil relation are useful
targets when the range has ben determined by in deliberate range determination. To use this
a range finder. method, the width or height of the target or
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MIL ANGLE MEASUREMENT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Aggressor Length: 6.5 meters 6500 3300 2200 1600 1300 1100 900 800 700 700
medium - _
tank Width: 3.5 meters 3500 1800 1200 900 700 600 500 400 400 400
Aggressor Length: 7.5 meters 7500 3800 2500 1900 1500 1300 1100 900 800 800
heavy
tank Width: 3.5 meters 3500 1800 1200 900 700 600 500 400 400 400

Notes. 1. The above chart, which facilitates use of the mil relation as a means of determining range,
is used as follows:
a. Measure mil angle of target with binocular.
S. Find length or width of target in the chart.
c. Find range to target by reading to the right to the range under the mil angle measured
with binocular.
2. This chart may be made readily available in a convenient location near the tank commander's
position in the tank.
3. Range figures on above chart are rounded off to the nearest hundred.

Figure 96. A range determination chart.

0-6,400p
OR 360"

5,000pv

4,800pt
OR 270 1,600pr
OR 90'

3,200p OR 1800

Figure 97. A comparison of mils and degrees.

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1
J~10 ~METER
piT~
1,000 METERS

Figure 96. The mil relation at 1,000 meters.

I2
,'\Emp's

|a 1,000 METERS -

1MIL AT 1,000 METERS EQUALS 1 METER.


1MIL AT 2,000 METERS EQUALS 2 METERS.
2 MILS AT 1,000 METERS EQUALS 2METERS.
2 MILS AT 2,000 METERS EQUALS 4 METERS.
Figure 99. The mil relation is constant.

objects in the vicinity of the target must be ment. There are approximately 18 mils in 1
known. Measure the known width or height degree (10 equals 17.777778 mils). The mil is a
with the binocular mil scale or a nonballistic unit of angular measurement equal to 1/6400 of
reticle; substitute the mil relation and compute a circle (fig. 97). One mil, for tank gunnery
the range. Accuracy of this method depends on purposes, subtends a width (or height) of 1
knowledge of target dimensions and the ability meter at a range of 1,000 meters (fig. 98).
of the individual to make precise measurements When the sides of a 1-mil angle are extended
with the binoculars. The mil relation may be until they are 2,000 meters long, the width
used in constructing a range determination between the ends of the lines is 2 meters. The
chart as illustrated in figure 96. relationship of the angle, the length of the sides
a. Mil. The mil is the basic unit of angular of the angle, and the width (height) between
measurement used in tank gunnery, because of the sides remains constant. Figure 99 demon-
the precise calculations and adjustments re- strates this constant relation as the angle in-
quired. Tank weapons may be laid for deflection creases from 1 mil to 2 mils and the range
and elevation by moving the gun right (or left) increases from 1,000 meters to 2,000 meters.
and up (or down) a specified number of mils. b. The Mil Relation.
Tank fire control equipment is graduated in (1) The relationship of the size of the
mils to conform to the mil method of measure- angle (y), the length of the sides
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W= WIDTH (OR HEIGHT) IN METERS


R = RANGE IN THOUSANDS OF METERS
'i= ANGLE INMILS
Figure 100. The mil relation.

(R), and the width between the ends yards, the width between the ends of
of the sides (W) is expressed as the the sides is 1 yard.
W
mil relation or: R (fig. 100). (3) The mil relation may be converted
into a formula by removing the factor
(2) Because the mil relation is constant,
other units of measure such as yards, that is to be determined.
feet, or inches may be substituted for W
meters in expressing width or range; Thus RX becomes W = R X #P
however, the relation holds true only W
or R
if both W and R are expressed in the
same unit. For example, if the sides of
a 1-mil angle are extended to 1,000 or = R

Figure 101. The mnil relation is applicable in all planes.

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Figure 102a Determining the range to a target, using the mil relation.

As a memory aid, the word WORM (c) By removing the R factor from the
may be used, meaning W over R X Pi mil relation,
W W W
or X R X becomes R = W
(4) The mil relation holds true whether (d) Substitute the two known values for
the W factor is in a horizontal or W and m and solve for R:
vertical plane, if the mil angle is W 7
measured in the same plane (fig. 101). R =W = 7 = 1.4.
$i 5
e. Determining Range. (e) Since R is in thousands of meters,
multiply the answer (1.4) by 1,000;
(1) General. To determine range, the mil 1.4 X 1,000 = 1,400 meters, the
angle and the width (height) must be
range to the enemy tank.
known. Figure 102 illustrates a situa-
tion in which the tank commander d. DeterminingMil Angle.
must determine the range to the tar-
get. (1) General. It may be necessary to solve
for the mil angle (A) when determin-
Remember: Remove unknown: ing the safety factor for friendly
W W troops (minimum elevation), when de-
RX$ termining angle of site, or when the
(2) Procedure. mil angle cannot be measured directly
(a) It is known that the enemy tank is with instruments. To determine the
approximately 7 meters long (W). mil angle, the range and width must
(b) Using his binocular, the tank com- be known. Figure 103 depicts a situa-
mander determines that the tank tion in which the tank commander
measures 5 mils (m) in length. must determine the mil angle neces-
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Figure 103. Determining the mil angle.

sary to add a 5-meter safety factor to and underpasses, and determining the
the top of the mask. difference in elevation between gun
Remember: Remove unknown: and target. To determine width by
using the mil relation, the mil angle
W W
(m) and the range (R) must be
RX$K RX?
known. Figure 104 illustrates a sit-
(2) Procedure. uation in adjusting artillery fire. In
(a) Using the range finder or some order to correct for deviation, the ob-
other method of range determina- server must determine the width (W)
tion, the tank commander deter- between the volley and his observer-
mines that the range to the hill target (OT) line.
mask is 1,000 meters (R).
Remember: Remove unknown:
(b) The height above the mask for troop
W ?
safety is 5 meters (W).
(c) By removing the m factor from the
mil relation, (2) Procedure.
-- W becomes m = W. (a) The range (R) from the observer
to the target is 3,000 meters.
(d) Substitute the two known values for (b) Using his binocular, the observer
W and R and solve for m: determines that the angle between
W = 5 = 5 mils. the OT line and the volley measures
20 mils (m).
e. Determining Width. (c) By removing the W factor from
(1) General. It is necessary to solve for the mil relation,
width (W) when adjusting indirect
fire, determining clearance for bridges R becomes W = R X I/.

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Figure 104. Determining the width.

(d) Substitute the two known values method requires a great deal of training. Train-
for R and #, and solve for W. ing must be continuous to maintain the pro-
W = R X # = 3 X 20 = 60 meters, ficiency necessary to estimate range by eye
the width between the OT line and with any degree of accuracy. Accuracy is also
the volley. greatly influenced by the distance to the target.
As the range increases, accuracy decreases at
157. Maps a rapid rate. In estimating range, the tank
When a tank commander has located the crewman employs some form of mental yard-
positions of both his tank and the target on a stick that can be practiced on a range deter-
map, he can measure the distance between them. mination site (para. 163). This yardstick is in
He then applies this measured distance to the multiples of hundreds of meters (yards) to
graphic scale on his map and obtains the range. correspond with the graduation on direct-fire
The accuracy of this method depends on the sights. However, in order to apply this yard-
accuracy of the individual in locating the posi- stick with maximum effectiveness, the crewman
tions of both tank and target and the accuracy must be aware of certain factors that influence
of the map. its application. These factors are nature of the
target, nature of the terrain, and light condi-
158. Estimation by Eye tions. As a general rule, the easier the target
Estimation by eye is the most rapid but least is to see, the closer it appears, and the harder
accurate method of determining range. This a target is to see, the farther away it appears.
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Figure 105. Clarity of outline affects estimation by eye.

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range to be estimated is the airline distance
and not the ground distance. The eye, however,
tends to measure the ground distance. In the
field, the observer's eye unconsciously tends to
follow the irregularities that vegetation and
terrain conformation give to the ground line,
thus resulting in over estimation of the range.
Conversely, in observing over smooth terrain.
such as desert, water, or snow, or in any other
situation where there is little to distract the
eye, the tendency is to under estimate the
range.
c. Light Conditions. The more clearly a tar-
get can be seen, the closer it appears. A target
seen in full light of the sun appears to be
closer than the same target seen at dusk or
dawn or through smoke, fog, or rain. The
position of the sun with relation to the target
also affects the apparent range. When the sun
is behind the viewer, the target is in full light
and easy to see and thus appears to be closer
than it actually is. However, when the sun is be-
hind the target and the viewer is looking into
the sun, the target is more difficult to see and
appears to be farther away.

159. Estimation by Flash and Sound


a. Sound travels through the air at a fairly
constant speed, about 330 meters (1,100 feet)
per second. This makes it easy to estimate
range if you can see and hear the action. For
Figure 106. The amount of target visible affects example, when you see the flash or smoke of
estimation by eye. a weapon, or the dust it raises, immediately
start counting at a rate of one count per
a. Nature of the Target. A target of regular second. When you hear the report of the
outline, such as a house or vehicle, appears to weapon, stop; multiply the number you were
be closer than it actually is; a target of irreg- counting when you heard the report by 'four;
ular outline, such as a clump of trees or a this will be the range to the weapon in hundreds
camouflaged position, appears to be more dis- of meters. If you stop on the number 3, the
tant than it actually is. When the target is in range is 1,200 meters. If you count to 8 before
contrast to the background, it appears nearer you hear the report, then the range is 3,200
because the target outline is more clearly de- meters.
fined. If the target blends with the background,
it appears farther away because it is more dif- b. Practice timing the speed of your count.
ficult to distinguish the target outline (fig. 105). The best way to do this is to practice with
The amount of target visible also affects the blank ammunition fired at known distances. If
estimate. When the entire target is in view, it this is not possible, have someone time you
appears closer. When only part of the target is while you count. When counting higher than
visible, it appears to be more distant (fig. 106). 10, start over again; counting numbers such
as 12 and 13 will throw your timing off. With
b. Nature of the Terrain. Because projectiles practice, you can estimate range more accurate-
travel through the air from gun to target, the ly with this method than by eye alone.
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1. Using the boresight cross, each gunneralines
his telescope on the telescope port of the other
tank; he then zeroes his azimuth indicator.
2. Each gunner traverses directly to the target,
taking care to aim on the some point.
3. Each azimuth indicator reading is recorded.
4. The smaller reading is subtracted from the
I arger.
1628 d
- 1578
50
The result is the apex angle (qd).
5. The distance (W) between the tanks is measured.
6. The mil relation is then used to solve for range.
W or, removing the unknown, R = W =
R xr n(
R = 100 = 2 or range = 2 x 1000 = 2000 meters.
50

ZERO LINE OF AZIMUTH


INDICATORS

TANK
;,w
100 METERS
J'1W
TA UV
1 2
Note. The dotted lines indicate the angle measured.
AZIMUTH INDICATOR AZIMUTH INDICATOR
READING: 1578 pi READING: 1628 pi

Figure 107. Determining range by intersection-two-tank method.

160. Intersection h. Summation of Angles (Alternate). To use


When time and equipment are available, in- this method, establish a triangle, using the tar-
tersection is an accurate method of determining get as the apex. Measure the angles at each
range. end of the base of the triangle using any angle-
measuring instrument (fig. 108). If only one
a. Twio-Tank Method (Primary). To use this
method, establish a triangle, using the target instrument is available, mark both positions by
as the apex. Place a tank at each end of the stakes and move the instrument from one posi-
known base length of the triangle (fig. 107). tion to another.

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1. Aiming circle 1 measures angle A, which is the
angle from the target to aiming circle 2.
2. Aiming circle 2 measures angle B, which is the
angle from aiming circle 1 to the target.
3. These two base angles are added (angle A +
angle B).
4. The sum of the base angles is subtracted from
3200 mils (the total number of mils in a triangle).
5. The result is the apex angle (nO.
6. The distance (W)between aiming circles is
measured.
7. The mil relation is then used to solve for the
range to the target.

Angle A = 1578 rq
Angle B = 1572
Total 3150
Apex angle (r$) = 3200 - 3150 = 50 '(
Using the mil relation:

b Rx W or R=W
:IiP
R =100 - 2

Range = 2 x 1000 = 2000 meters


100
AIMING CIRCLE I METERS AIMING CIRCLE 2

Figure 108. Determining range by intersection-summation of angles method.

Section III. RANGE DETERMINATION TRAINING

161. General tion training to assist the crewmen in acquir-


ing the mental yardstick necessary to estimate
Skill in the estimation of range can be at-
range by eye. The site should, if possible, al-
tained only by constant practice. Initial train-
ing should be conducted, using range designa- low the placement of targets to a range of 3,500
tion and range determination sites. As the
meters (yards). Signs marked 1, 2, 3, and 4 are
crewman acquires proficiency in the estima- placed at ranges of 100, 200, 300, and 400 me-
tion of ranges on these sites, training should ters (yards) from an observation point. Tanks,
be integrated or conducted concurrently with tank silhouettes to scale, or 6- by 6-foot panels
other field training. As individual ability in- are placed at 500-meter (yard) intervals from
creases, more difficult objects, such as camou- 500 to 3,500 meters (yards). Finally, the dis-
flaged positions, are introduced. tance to prominent terrain features at greater
ranges is determined. From the observation
point, the crewman studies all of the marked
162. Range Designation Site ranges to get a mental picture of them. He then
a. The range designation site (fig. 109) is studies the tank silhouettes farther away, not-
employed in the initial stage of range estima- ing how the size tends to decrease as the range

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Figure109. A range designation site.

increases and the relationship between sizes at be established on any terrain having adequate
specific ranges. If suitable additional terrain fields of fire. The following steps are necessary
exists at the range designation site, practical to prepare the site:
work may be given by having the crewman
(1) Determine accurate ranges to promin-
estimate ranges to targets in a different direc- ent objects and terrain features. (Use
tion, while estimating, he refers to the laid out
a range finder or the intersection
site. After the range to a target has been esti-
method.)
mated, the instructor announces the correct
range. (2) Measure the height or width of each
object or terrain feature in meters
b. As units receive tanks with fire control
(yards).
equipment graduated in meters, the unit com-
mander should have a range designation site (3) Determine the mil height or width
set up in both meters and yards. In this way, of each object or terrain feature by
crewmen will have a comparison of these units means of an aiming circle or any other
of measure and can use this as a basis for accurate method.
establishing a mental yardstick in meters. Note. If several similar objects exist in
the target area, the azimuth to each target
is measured as an aid to the instructor.
163. Range Determination Site
a. After the crewman has become ac- b. A method of instructing on the range de-
customed to the measurement of range by use termination site is as follows:
of a mental yardstick, his training should pro- (1) Have each crewman make the proper
gress to the determination of ranges on a diopter and interpupillary settings on
range determination site (fig. 110). On this his binoculars.
site, he employs techniques of determining
range by estimation. Determining range by in- (2) Point out targets one at a time, giv-
tersection and use of the mil relation are in- ing sufficient time to estimate and
tegrated with this instruction. This site may record each range.

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RANGE FINDER OPERATOR TESTING SIT

2_. _ 1_,500___-= - .
-= - - ~no 475-
. -~ - 1,500 -- _ _f,00_ r

-t .4a

Figure 110. A range determination site.

(3) Have each crewman measure the mil 164. Advanced Range Determination
width or height of each target by use Training
of his binoculars and give him the
dimension of the part measured in When individuals have attained reasonable
meters (yards). Have him determine proficiency in determining range on the range
the range by use of the mil relation. determination site, camouflaged targets should
be added and used in determining range.
(4) Announce the correct range for each Thereafter, training is integrated or concur-
target after estimation and mil re- rent with all field training. Tank crewmen
lation computations have been made. should use every opportunity to practice de-
(5) Have crewmen, working in groups of termining range, first estimating the range and
3 or 4, determine the range to several then checking their results against ranges ob-
targets, using the intersection method. tained by more accurate means. This includes
(Tanks or aiming circles for this prob- practice at night with the target area illumi-
lem should be pre-positioned to check nated by tank-mounted searchlights and mortar
the crewman's computation.) or artillery illuminating shells.

Section IV. BINOCULAR


165. General gether for magnified vision from both eyes. The
reticle (fig. 112) in the left telescope has both
The binocular (fig. 111) is an optical instru- horizontal and vertical scales. The horizontal
ment consisting of two telescopes hinged to- scale is 100 mils long graduated in 10-mil in-

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INTERPUPILLARY
SCALF

Figure 111. The binocular.

tervals, with 50 mils right and 50 mils left of 166. Adjustment of the Binocular
the center of the field of view. There are three
vertical scales. Infantrymen use the vertical a. Setting Interpupillary Distance. To set
scale in the right half of the field of view in the binocular so that the eyepieces are the same
adjusting indirect machinegun fire when using distance apart as the eyes, open the binocular
the auxiliary aiming point method. Tankers at the hinge and look through the eyepieces
use it only to denote the 30-mil mark on the at the sky. Close the binocular until the 2
right side of the horizontal scale. The other circles appear as 1 sharply defined circle. Note
vertical scales, one above the center and one the reading on the interpupillary scale, for
above the left edge of the horizontal scale, con- future use with the binocular or binocular type
sist of horizontal lines 5 mils long and spaced instruments. This reading remains constant
5 mils apart vertically. These are for measure- for that particular individual.
ment of vertical angles.
Caution. Never look at the sun through the
INFANTRY binocular. Permanent damage to eyesight will
1CALEFOR
INDIRECT MG
occur without warning symptoms as the magni-
FIRE fled rays of sun burn the eyes,. Uncorrectable
blurring of vision is the most frequent result.

5 MILS b. Focusing (Diopter Setting).

(1) Set both diopter scales at plus 4 and,


with both eyes open, look through the
eyepieces at a distant object.
2 MILS

(2) Cup the palm of 1 hand over the lens


of 1 telescope and slowly turn the
focusing nut of the other telescope
until the object is clearly defined.
Figure 112. The binocular reticle. Once the object becomes sharp, stop
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turning the focusing nut and note the a wide area, observe sections of the
reading. terrain at a time.
(3) Reset the scale at plus 4 and repeat
this procedure for the same telescope. b. Use of the Reticle. The binocular should
Use the greater plus reading (or be held so that the reticle appears superim-
smaller minus reading) of the two posed on the observed area. The reticle is used
trials. to measure horizontal and vertical angles.
Measurement to the nearest mil is of primary
(4) Repeat the procedure in (2) and (3) importance.
above for the other telescope. It may
be necessary to make a slight read- (1) Measuring horizontal angles (fig.
justment of the left focusing nut to 114). To measure the horizontal
define the reticle clearly. angle between two points, move the
binocular so that both points are lined
(5) Note the diopter scale reading for
each eyepiece for further use with up along the horizontal scale. The
binocular-type instruments. number of mils between the two
points is measured by the horizontal
scale. If the points are less than 5
167. Use of Binoculars mils apart, place one end of a 5-mil
a. Observing. horizontal line on one point of the ob-
(1) Holding the binocular with both ject; then interpolate the number of
hands, press the eyepieces lightly to mils to the other. If the points are
the eyes (fig. 113). more than 5 but less than 50 mils
apart, place the zero graduation on
(2) Bend the thumbs and hold them at one point; then read the number of
the side of the eyes to block out ex- mils to the other. If the points are
ternal light. Do not look through the between 50 and 100 mils apart, place
binocular any longer than necessary one end graduation (numeral 5) on
at one time, as this may cause eye one point and read the number of mils
strain.
(3) When observing, look at a specific area
for a short period of time. To examine

THE BURSTIS 20 MILSRIGHT OF THETRUCK.

Figure 113. Propermethod of observing with the Figure 114. Measuring a horizontal angle with the
binocular. binocular.

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them; make 2 or more measurements,
and add them together. If one point
does not appear exactly on a gradua-
tion, interpolate the number of mils
less than 10.
(2) Measuring vertical angles (fig. 115).
To measure the vertical angle be-
tween two points, move the binocular
so that the bottom point is on either
the zero or the left graduation (nu-
meral 5) of the horizontal scale. The
number of mils between the bottom
and the upper points, as read on the
vertical scale, is the vertical angle.
Interpolate between the 5-mil gradua-
tions. To measure larger angles (over
20 mils), make two or more measure-
ments and add them together or tilt
the binocular sideways and use the
THEML ANGLESUIT ENDED ay THE HEIGHTOF THE TAJK 1I 6 MILS. horizontal scale.
Note. Do not use the numbered vertical
Figure 115. Measuring a vertical angle with the scale (infantry) for these measurements.
binocular.
c. Position of the Binocular. When using the
binocular, adjust the carrying strap so that the
to the other point (remember that binocular will rest high on the chest. In this
there are 50 mils between each end position they are readily available and less like-
graduation and the zero graduation). ly to swing and strike against the turret or
If the points are more than 100 mils other parts of the tank. Keep the binocular in
apart, select 1 or more points between the carrying case when not in use.

Section V. RANGE FINDER TRAINING AND TESTING


168. General sible to tanks, with targets placed at known
In tank gunnery, the range finder can be the ranges from 1,000 to 3,500 meters (yards) (fig.
key to successful target engagement. A range 110). Panel targets are desirable for initial
finder combines accuracy with speed in deter- training; however, as proficiency increases,
mining range and is used for this task when- natural terrain and partially camouflaged com-
ever possible. In range finder training, the bat-type targets should be used. Targets should
standard is correct range within 5 seconds. be placed in various locations, such as on for-
This standard is achieved by the simultaneous ward slopes, partially visible on reverse slopes,
development of speed and accuracy through on the skyline, against contrasting background,
frequent ranging practice. Training and testing and in both thick and sparse vegetation.
methods for both coincidence and stereoscopic b. Training aids include graphic charts,
range finders are discussed in this section. training films, slide projectors, depth percep-
tion trainers, stereovision trainers, and plastic
169. Training Areas and Equipment or wooden reticle models. However, the best
a. Preliminary training in nomenclature, training aid is the range finder itself.
maintenance, adjustment, and operation is con-
ducted in classrooms and motor parks. Ranging 170. Steps in Range Finder Training
practice requires a target-ranging area acces- a. Mechanical Training. Nomenclature, main-
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tenance, and operation of the instrument and this average range from the known
its components are taught as preliminary train- range to the target.)
ing. Crew maintenance is limited to changing e. Testing. When the crewman has obtained
light bulbs and cleaning the instrument, in- accuracy to the point that his range spread
cluding the outside lens. All other maintenance
is 100 yards (meters) or less on targets up to
is restricted to higher echelon. 3,000 yards (meters) he is tested. The number
b. Adjustment. Inability to use the range of rangings required to achieve this degree of
finder can be traced usually to improper ad- proficiency varies with the ability of the in--
justment. Operators must master the step-by- dividual. Once proficiency in the use of the
step procedure of placing the instrument in range finder is attained and initial testing is
operation. completed, periodic drills and tests should be
conducted to insure that proficiency is main-
c. Ranging Practice. Crewmen practice rang- tained. Particular attention should be given
ing on targets at varying ranges and locations. to checking proficiency in the use of the range
Each reading is recorded. This training con- finder during the periods just before tank gun-
tinues until crewmen are obtaining consistent nery firing practice, tank gunnery annual
rangings on all targets. Crewmen should not qualification, and Army training tests.
range for more than 20 to 30 minutes per
hour, or longer than 10 to 15 minutes at any 171. Coincidence Range Finder Training
one time. Ranging practice should be conducted Procedures and Techniques
in blocks of not more than 4 hours. Crewmen
work in pairs; the second man records the a. During the first application phase of co-
range. Initially, the operator is allowed a max- incidence range finder training, crewmen must
imum of 30 seconds for 1 ranging; this time is be checked individually to insure that they
gradually reduced until he is ranging accurate- understand and can perform the correct meth-
od of placing the coincidence range finder in op-
ly within 5 seconds. Ranging practice should eration as outlined below.
be conducted also during the hours of darkness
with artificial illumination of the target area (1) Diopter adjustment. Place the occlu-
(tank-mounted searchlights and illuminating der knob in the R position and rotate
shells). the diopter until the image is sharp
and clear. The correct diopter setting
d. Miscellaneous. will be indicated on the diopter scale.
(1) The same range finder used to deter- (2) Light and filter check.
mine an individual's target image (a) Place the occluder knob in the cer-
coincidence (TIC) adjustment or in- ter position, the coincidence reticle
ternal correction system (ICS) ad- (3-position) switch in the ON (12
justment should be used for subse- o'clock position), and check the il-
quent ranging. If a different range lumination of the coincidence
finder is used, a new adjustment is reticle. Adjust intensity of illumina-
determined. In addition, the TIC ad- tion by use of the coincidence reticle
justment is not permanent and must (rheostat) knob. Place the coinci-
be adjusted as necessary (para. 171). dence reticle (3-position) switch in
the AUX GUN-SIGHT (6 o'clock)
(2) Range spread is the difference be- position and check the illumination
tween the highest and the lowest read- of the red illuminated reticle. Ad-
ings for one target. (Use a minimum just intensity of illumination (if
of 20 readings and subtract the low- necessary) by use of the coincidence
est from the highest reading.) reticle knob.
(3) Range bias is the average error in (b) Turn on range scale lamp switch.
ranging. (Determine the average of a (c) Introduce filter (if necessary) by
minimum of 20 readings and subtract positioning the filter lever to the
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left. In using the filter, be careful b. Because temperature changes may disturb
not to damage the range finder by optical alinement and cause separation of the
slamming the lever into position. coincidence reticle, frequent checks of the
(3) Target image coincidence. reticle will be made throughout the day. Sub-
sequent adjustments of the reticle, when neces-
(a) With the occluder knob in the R sary, are made with the vertical and horizontal
(right) position and the 3-position adjustment knobs only.
switch in the OFF (center) posi-
tion, and using the gun controls, lay c. The range finder should be in the carry
the aiming cross of the black etched position: 500 or battlesight range indexed on
reticle on a target at a known the range scale, the occluder knob in the R
range as near 1,200 meters as pos- position, and the 3-position switch in the OFF
sible. Whenever possible this range position. During periods of darkness, the oc-
should be surveyed. The measured cluder knob is in the L position and the 3-posi-
range is always indexed on the tion switch is in the AUX GUN-SIGHT (6
range scale of the range finder. o'clock) position.
Place the occluder knob in the cen- d. With the range finder properly placed in
ter position. If target images over- operation the crewman practices ranging to
lap with the ghost image to the left, develop proficiency. The proper ranging pro-
use the vertical adjustment knob; cedure is as follows:
adjust the double target images in-
to coincidence vertically, and with (1) After the gunner has announced
the horizontal adjustment knob, IDENTIFIED and laid on the target
bring the target images into coinci- (crewman lays on target in practice
dence, moving from left to right ranging) place the occluder knob ir
horizontally until a single target the center position.
image appears in the field of view. (2) Concentrating on a vertical or near
Stop rotation of the knob the in- vertical part of the target, rotate the
stant correct alinement is obtained. range knob until the two target im-
The target images need to be ages merge. The range to the target
brought into coincidence only once has been determined.
in this manner for proper TIC ad- (3) The operator should habitually range
justment. out to the target (moving the ghost
(b) If the images are wide apart or image from left to right) and stop
the ghost image is to the right of rotation of the range knob the instant
the more distinct image, use the coincidence is obtained.
horizontal adjustment knob to move
the ghost image to the left of the (4) Upon completion of target engage-
ment, return the range scale to 500
distinct image. Then proceed as de-
or the battlesight range setting.
scribed in (a) above.
(4) Initial coincidence reticle alinement. When the crewman is familiar with the range
With the occluder knob in the center finder controls and adjustments, knows how to
position, place the 3-position switch place it in operation, and is ranging with an
in the ON (12 o'clock) position; use average range spread not greater than 100
knobs marked ICS and HALVING, meters, he is ready to be tested.
and adjust the upper right half of the
coincidence pattern until it is in aline- 172. Stereoscopic Range Finder Training
ment with the lower left half of the Procedures and Techniques
pattern, to form a cross. Turn the 3- a. During the first application phase of
position switch to the OFF (center) stereoscopic range finder training, crewmen
position. This completes placing the must be checked individually to insure they
range finder in operation. understand and can perform the correct meth-
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od of placing the stereoscopic range finder in (fused stereopatterns) to separate.
operation as outlined below. Using the halving knob, adjust the
(1) Diopter adjustment. Rotate each diop- right stereopattern to the same ele-
ter until the field of view is sharp and vation as the left stereopattern. It
clear. Adjust each eyepiece separately. may be necessary to make a subse-
quent halving adjustment, after the
(2) Interpupillary adjustment. gun is elevated. This adjustment will
(a) To determine interpupillary dis- be very small and will cause the rang-
tance by the use of the binocular, ing reticle to appear clearer.
note the setting on the binocular
and place this setting on the inter- (5) ICS adjustment.
pupillary scale of the range finder. (a) The operator will index his known
A finer adjustment may be neces- ICS adjustment on the scale of the
sary, as outlined in (b) below. ICS knob. If the operator has to
determine an ICS adjustment, fol-
(b) To determine interpupillary dis- low the procedure in (b) below.
tance when the binoculars are not
used, one man stations himself be- (b) The instructor will place the lower
neath the range finder where he can vertical bar of the ranging reticle
observe the operator's eyes. With over a target to show the student
the filter off, he will note two beams the proper relationship between the
of light from the eyepieces, shining reticle and the target.
on or near the operator's eyes. He 1. Index the known range on the range
then instructs the operator to nar- scale of the range finder.
row or widen the interpupillary 2. Using the ICS knob, move the rang-
distance with the adjusting knob ing reticle until the lower vertical
until the beams are centered in the bar appears to be at the same range
pupils of the operator's eyes. as the target. Record the reading
(3) Light check. now indexed on the ICS scale.
Note. Disturb the ICS knob in the
(a) Illuminate the stereopatterns (check same direction before each ranging, to
each eyepiece separately) and then eliminate being influenced by previous fig-
the red illuminated reticle. Adjust ures always ranging out (rotate from 50
the degree of illumination with the toward 0).
brightness rheostat until the stereo- 3. Make a minimum of 10 ICS rang-
patterns appear to have a pale yel- ings in this manner. Total the col-
low glow. umn and divide by the number of
(b) Turn on range scale lamp switch. ICS readings to obtain the ICS ad-
(e) Introduce filter (if necessary) by justment. This adjustment will then
positioning the filter lever to the be indexed on the ICS scale.
left, being careful not to damage
the range finder by slamming the b. With the ICS adjustment indexed into the
lever into position. range finder, the crewman will make practice
rangings, using the proper technique outlined
(4) Halving adjustment. To adjust for below.
halving, rotate the range knob until
maximum range is indexed on the (1) The range finder should be in the car-
range scale. Place the 3-position ry position: 500 or battlesight range
switch in the STEREO (12 o'clock) indexed on the range scale, the range
position. Lower the line of sight, with- scale switch in the ON position, and
out looking through the instrument, the 3-position switch in the STEREO
until the range finder is pointed at the (12 o'clock) position.
ground directly in front of the tank. (2) After the gunner has announced
This will cause the ranging reticle IDENTIFIED, he positions the reticle
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for ranging by laying the gun so that spread, bias, and classification after computa-
the lower vertical bar is just above tions are made. Operator proficiency is deter-
or to the side of the target. If prac- mined in the following manner:
tice ranging is being conducted, the
crewman will position the ranging a. The average range reading for each tar-
reticle, using the tank commander's get is computed by adding all 20 readings for
power control handle. that target and dividing by 20.
(3) Concentrating on the target, not on b. Range bias for each target is obtained by
the ranging reticle, rotate the range determining the difference between the average
knob to move the ranging reticle out range reading and the known range for that
toward the target until the lower target.
vertical bar of the reticle appears to c. Range spread for each target is obtained
be at the same range as the target. by subtracting the smallest reading from the
The range to the target has been de- largest.
termined.
d. Each crewman is classified as a qualified
(4) The operator should habitually range or unqualified range finder operator. The stand-
out to the target and stop rotation ard for qualification is a range bias not greater
of the range knob the instant the low- than plus or minus 50 meters (yards) on the
er vertical bar appears to be at the coincidence or stereoscopic range finder, with
same range as the target. a range spread not greater than 100 meters
(5) Upon completion of target engage- (yards) for each type range finder at each
ment, return range scale to 500 or the target. If this standard is not achieved, the
battlesight range setting. individual is unqualified.
When the crewman is familiar with the range
finder controls and adjustments, knows how to 174. Improving Proficiency in Ranging
place it in operation, and is ranging with an a. Spread. When an operator has a spread
average range spread not greater than 100 of more than 100 meters (yards), he is still
yards, he is ready to be tested. making inconsistent rangings. The only way to
develop consistency, or reduce spread, is
173. Testing Range Finder Operators through more ranging practice; however, ad-
ditional practice is not a sure cure as all crew-
The testing site should be in a different lo- men eventually reach the point of their maxi-
cation from the area for practice ranging; how- mum ability. Beyond this point, more ranging
ever, if this is not practicable, new targets may may not produce improvement, but it will en-
be erected in the practice ranging area. A mini- able the operator to maintain the proficiency
mum of six 6 by 6-foot panels are placed at that he has gained.
varying known ranges from 1,000 to 3,500
meters (yards). Using the crewman's TIC or b. Bias. When an operator has a bias ex-
ICS adjustments, the operator makes 20 rang- ceeding that for qualification, but a good spread,
ings on each of the targets. Each ranging starts his lack of accuracy is probably due to an im-
from an indexed range of 500 meters (yards) proper TIC or ICS adjustment. To verify this,
in such a sequence that no 2 rangings on any his rangings should be checked for at least two
1 target are consecutive. The range scale on successive days. If he continues to range with
the range finder is covered so that the operator the same bias, his TIC or ICS adjustment
cannot read it and the operator is not informed should be corrected accordingly. However, if he
of the range to any target. The examiner notes is short one day and over the next, no correc-
and records each reading from the computer, tion is made.
Note. With a coincidence-type range finder, insure
re-indexing 500 meters (yards) on the range that the operator establishes his TIC adjustment and
finder for the next ranging. At the completion determines range by stopping rotation of the appro-
of the test, the readings for all targets are com- priate control the instant coincidence is obtained,
puted. The tested crewman is informed of his always moving the ghost image from left to right.

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c. Lack of Stereovision. A few persons do responding edge of the lower vertical
not have stereovision in the degree necessary bar of the movable stereopattern in
to obtain acceptable results with a stereoscopic the right eyepiece to the same point on
range finder, regardless of the amount of train- the target. This completes ranging.
ing and practice. When this condition exists Note. When the ranging reticle (fused
(determined by medical examination) the indi- image of both stereopatterns) is viewed
vidual can be taught to determine ranges rapid- stereoscopically, it will appear to move in
depth. When viewed separately, right stereo-
ly and with greater accuracy than by estima- pattern moves laterally. When lack of stereo-
tion, using intersection with the range finder. vision is due to one eye being much weaker
This method is less accurate and slower than than the other, the stronger eye should be
normal stereoscopic operation and should, used to lay both stereopatterns in the inter-
therefore, be taught only to and employed by, section method. Care must be taken to posi-
tion head opposite each eyepiece in the same
individuals without stereovision. The method is manner.
as follows (use one eye at a time):
(1) Using the gun controls, lay one edge 175. Retesting Range Finder Operators
(left or right) of the lower vertical Personnel who achieved a good spread on
bar of the fixed stereopattern in the their initial test may be retested after their
left eyepiece on a definite point on TIC or ICS adjustment is corrected. Those who
the target. had excessive spread should be retested after
(2) Using the ranging knob, move the cor- additional practice.

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CHAPTER 16
TARGET ACQUISITION TRAINING

176. General ing terrain, wooded and open areas, trails, or


a. Training of the crew in the art of target unimproved roads, hull defilade firing positions,
acquisition is a training problem area that re- and good fields of fire (fig. 116). Both station-
quires extensive emphasis at all echelons. The ary and moving combat-type targets should be
proficiency of the crew in the performance of placed in a camouflaged tactical position. These
target acquisition is of the utmost importance targets should be positioned at varied ranges
because armor combat demands rapidly at- out to 2,500 meters. The number of targets
tained first-round hits. This basic fundamental necessary will depend on the size of the area
of modern warfare translates simply into "kill" and the equipment available. Moving targets
or "be killed." Crew proficiency in target ac- should be controlled by radio; stationary tar-
quisition is directly related to proficiency in gets by telephone or radio. Targets should be
accuracy of fire. Target acquisition training equipped with gun simulators or fire blank am-
therefore must be supervised closely to insure munition to indicate enemy fire. If simulators
that all crewmen are participating and per- or blank ammunition are not available for a
forming those duties required by their posi- particular target, then TNT charges should be
tions. emplaced. If this type of area or equipment is
b. Combat realism must be emphasized dur- not available, target acquisition training can
ing target acquisition training by employing still be effective and realistic provided that the
realistic combat targets, e.g., tanks, antitank targets represent a well-trained enemy and
that the actions of the crews are supervised
guns, personnel carriers, trucks, jeeps, and dis-
mounted infantry. These targets should be con- and critiqued properly. To allow the crew to
cealed and camouflaged until their actions are develop coordination and the basic skill of ac-
required. Once exposed target movement should quiring a target, initially, target acquisition
be tactically sound and typical of a well-trained should be simple with sufficient time between
enemy. Training with realistic targets will en- engagements for a thorough critique. As the
able the crew to get the proper idea of a target crew becomes more proficient, training in tar-
in combat. get acquisition should be made more difficult
and extensive by increasing the target activity,
c. Target acquisition during periods of both and by presenting multiple targets so that the
good and poor visibility should receive equal tank commander must evaluate each target,
emphasis. This will ensure a higher degree of select the most dangerous target, then engage
combat readiness and will increase the number it with the proper weapon and ammunition.
of crews that will attain a qualifying score on
the crew proficiency exercises, tables VIIIA b. Another weapon may be used to engage
and VIIIB. the target(s) of lesser consequence, e.g., when
a tank and a personnel target are presented,
d. Duties and procedures during target ac- the main gun is employed to destroy the tank
quisition are presented in chapter 9. and simultaneously, the tank commander em-
177. Target Acquisition Training Course ploys the caliber .50 to destroy the personnel
Layout target. After the crews have attained a high
degree of proficiency in target acquisition from
a. Target acquisition training is most ef- a stationary position, then they must be re-
fectively accomplished in an area that has roll- quired to become proficient in target acquisi-
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Figure 116. Stationary tank target acquisition course.

tion while moving their tank over unimproved to begin. All targets should be controlled by one
terrain, employing all tank-mounted weapons individual who will order targets to move and
against surprise combat targets. The same type fire in a random order. The crews must not be
live targets used for stationary tank target ac- able to anticipate nor should they receive ad-
quisition are positioned along the course. Some vanced notice of the next target to appear. They
targets should be controlled, but others should must be required to acquire the target without
be free to simulate fire on the crew as soon as assistance. Additional combat realism is pro-
they are visible and in range of the crew be- vided by having the targets respond with simu-
ing trained. The crew must be required to re- lated fire, immediately after being exposed. The
act rapidly to this type of surprise enemy ac- difficulty and rapidity of target engagements
tion. If the crew acquires and engages the must be commensurate with the crew's pro-
target first, that target should not participate ficiency in target acquisition.
in its scheduled sequence during that particular
run. Type and location of targets should be b. To measure crew proficiency in this ex-
changed frequently. This training prepares the ercise, the following factors are considered:
crew for the crew's part of the qualification (1) Time elapsed before a target is lo-
course in addition to providing training in tac- cated after it has fired or moved.
tical operations. (2) Identification of target.
(3) Selection of the most dangerous tar-
178. Conduct of Target Acquisition Exercises get.
a. The targets should be positioned before (4) Selection of the correct weapon and
the arrival of the crews. On stationary tank ammunition.
target acquisition, when the crews arrive they
should move into a tactical position, prepare (5) Ranging time (when applicable).
range cards, and organize the position. With (6) Accuracy of determined range.
both the targets and crews in their tactical (7) Speed and accuracy of lay.
posture, the conduct of the exercise is ready (8) Execution of crew firing duties.
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179. Target Acquisition Training- in engagement will allow the target sufficient
Poor Visibility (Night) time to take evasive action. Once detected, the
target will fire the second round. The crew
Target acquisition training is continued dur-
ing periods of poor visibility. Course layout, should be required to engage several targets of
opportunity, and targets that expose themselves
equipment, and target activity are generally the
by movement only. During the exercise, when
same as above. In addition, the tank-mounted appropriate, the controller will act as a listen-
searchlight and mortar or artillery illuminat-
ing shells may be employed to provide target ing post or patrol and announce the presence
illumination. A range card is prepared for the of a target to the crews who will then engage it.
searchlight (para. 114) and indirect illumina- Training in target acquisition should require
tion is registered. During periods of poor visi- the crews to engage: illuminated targets of op-
bility, more simulators, blanks, and TNT are portunity using daylight direct-fire techniques;
required because the target should fire twice. illuminated targets for which they have plotted
The crew should acquire the target by the flash range card data and can engage with the am-
and bang of the first round (para. 159). They munition used when preparing the range card;
should then apply range card data and request and illuminated targets for which they have
illumination. Immediately upon illumination, plotted range card data requiring the use of a
the crew must engage the target. Any delay different round of ammunition (para. 112c).

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PART SIX
TANK GUNNERY TESTING

CHAPTER 17
INTRODUCTION

180. General controls, and fire control equipment without


subjecting them to the blast and recoil of the
The tank is an effective fighting machine main gun and without expending main gun am-
only when the crew is capable of delivering fire munition.
with speed and accuracy. Firing exercises are
designed to provide the tank crew with train- b. Service Firing. The purpose of service
ing in the destruction of targets under varied firing is to test the crewman in firing the main
conditions so they will attain this proficiency. gun at various targets and ranges and to de-
These exercises are the most important type velop skill, speed, and accuracy in applying
of gunnery training. Range firing exercises af- gunnery techniques. At the same time, per-
ford opportunities to apply by individual and sonnel are conditioned mentally to the blast and
collective efforts, subject matter that was recoil of the main gun. In addition, these ex-
learned previously in the form of theoretical ercises provide training in gun and turret pre-
and nonfiring exercises. Tank firing should not ventive maintenance services, handling and
be limited to annual qualification firing. To at- stowage of ammunition, and safety precautions
tain and maintain the proficiency of all tank connected with tank firing.
crews in gunnery, unit commanders should
schedule periods of practice firing and familiar- c. Crew Field Firing and Crew Proficiency
ization firing. Exercises. The purpose of these exercises is
to train and test the speed and coordinated
181. Types of Firing Exercises actions of the tank crew. The crew is required
to move the tank over designated routes and
a. Tank crewman qualification firing (ch. rapidly engage different types of targets at
18). varied ranges with the proper weapon and am-
b. Tank crew qualification firing (ch. 19). munition. These combat-type exercises provide
the crew with the opportunity to achieve the
c. Familiarization and practice firing (ch. high standards of training and efficiency neces-
20). sary in combat.
182. Firing Skills d. Night Firing. The purpose of night firing
is to train and test the tank crew in rapid
Individual and crew firing skills are de-
engagement and destruction of both illuminated
veloped by firing subcaliber and service ex-
ercises in a logical sequence. and nonilluminated targets. Furthermore, night
firing exercises familiarize the crew with the
a. Subcaliber Firing. The purpose of sub- various methods of illumination (including in-
caliber firing is to develop speed and accuracy frared if units are so equipped) and instill
when engaging targets during good or poor confidence in crew members by showing the ef-
visibility. Subcaliber firing also trains and tests fectiveness of tank weapons under these con-
crewmen in using the direct-fire sights, turret ditions.
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183. Tank Gunnery Qualification Course (5) Tank crew gunnery qualification
firing.
Chapters 18 and 19 contain the prescribed Table VIA-crew machinegun exer-
tank gunnery qualification course and gunnery cises (day).
qualification standards. All members of a tank Table VIB--crew machinegun exer-
crew (tank commander, gunner, loader, and cises (night).
driver) and other personnel as outlined in AR Table VIIA-crew field firing exer-
370-5 will fire all or parts of the tank gunnery cises (day). (Fired twice.)
qualification course for qualification at least Table VIIB-crew field firing exer-
once annually. cises (night). (Fired twice.)
a. The purpose of the tank gunnery qualifi- Table VIIA-crew proficiency exer-
cation course is to provide a means of deter- cises (day).
mining the proficiency of the tank crewman and Table VIIB-crew proficiency exer-
the tank crew in gunnery. Tables I-III (sub- cises (night).
caliber) test each crewman as a gunner. Tables
IVA and VA (service firing (day) course A) b. Each tank crewman must satisfactorily
test three crewmen (tank commander, gunner, complete the tank crewman preliminary gun-
and one other as a gunner). Tables IVB and nery examination before firing the subcaliber
VB (service firing (night) course B) test the exercises. The crewman fires the subcaliber ex-
tank commander and gunner as a gunner. ercises once for practice and once for a record.
Tables VIA-VIIIB test the tank crew. All He must qualify on the subcaliber exercises
tables serve as an adjunct to training in the before firing the service exercises. The crew-
proper care and use of the weapons and their man fires the service exercises for record only.
accessories. The complete tank gunnery quali- He must satisfactorily complete tables IVA-
fication course is organized and conducted as VB (service firing courses A and B) to qualify
follows: for the position of tank commander or gunner
of a tank crew participating in the tank crew
(1) Tank crewman preliminary gunnery gunnery qualification exercises. Other members
examination. (All crew members.) of the tank crew must have fired the subcaliber
(2) Tank crewman gunnery qualification exercises (and tables IVA and VA (service fir-
-subcaliber firing. (All crew mem- ing course A, if applicable)) before participat-
bers fire for practice and record.) ing as a member of a tank crew, other than
Table I-zeroing and initial lay ex- tank commander or gunner, in the tank crew
ercises. gunnery qualification exercises. An exception
Table II-adjustment of fire exercises. may be made to this requirement if crew mem-
Table III-moving target exercises. bers are assigned to a unit after the crewman's
(3) Tank crewman gunnery qualification tables have been conducted, but before the crew
-- service firing (day)-course A. tables are fired. In such cases, these persons
(Fired by tank commander, gunner, may participate as crew members (other than
and one other crew member.) tank commander or gunner) after satisfactorily
Table IVA-stationary target ex- completing the preliminary gunnery examin7
ercises (day). ation.
Table VA-moving target exercises
(day). c. Classification of tank crewmen and tank
crews is based on the score attained on the
(4) Tank crewman gunnery qualification appropriate tables. Both crewmen and crew
-service firing (night)--course B. are classified as expert, sharpshooter, marks-
(Fired by tank commander and gun-
ner only.) man, or unqualified.
Table IVB-stationary target exer- (1) There are three separate qualification
cises (night). categories for a crewman; one for
Table VB-moving target exercises subcaliber firing and two for service
(night). firing, but a qualification badge is
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awarded for only one category at a Score
time. These scores are not combined Total possible __________… 400
and a crewman who fires the service Expert _______---_____ 375
tables is not awarded a badge for sub- Sharpshooter __.________ 320
caliber firing; if such a badge has been Marksman ___-.-------- _ 280
previously awarded, it is automatical- Unqualified _______ Below 280
ly revoked. The indicated minimum (2) Classification of tank crews is based
satisfactory score must be attained on the combined scores of tables
on each table for a classification of VIIIA and VIIIB (para. 221). The
marksman or higher to be awarded. indicated minimum satisfactory score
These classifications are the basis for must be attained on each table or a
awarding arms qualification badges in combined score of 1,800 points if score
conjunction with the following stip- on one table is below satisfactory, in
ulations: order for a classification of marksman
(a) In active Army units, both sub- or better to be awarded. Arms quali-
caliber and service tables must be fication badges are not awarded for
fired annually unless a waiver of crew classifications; however, nota-
the service firing requirement is tions indicating crew position and
obtained from the appropriate the- crew classification will be entered on
ater commander. Such waivers are individual qualification records.
granted only when a unit does not
Crew classification Score
have access to range facilities
where service firing can be con- Total possible ------------ 2,400
ducted. Expert ----- __--------- 2,000
(b) In Army reserve component and na- Sharpshooter _______.__ 1,800
tional guard units, the type and Marksman ___ _________ 1,560
amount of firing is based on annual Unqualified _-________ Below 1,560
training requirements; therefore,
awards based on subcaliber firing 184. Ammunition Required for
only are authorized in years when Qualification Firing
service firing is not conducted. a. The following chart lists the ammunition
(c) Individual classification-subcaliber required for a crewman to fire the tank crew-
firing. man's gunnery qualification tables applicable
Score to his position in the crew:
Total possible ___________ 300
Main gun
Expert ..............._____ 280
Coaxial MG Ilium
Sharpshooter____________
-240 Table 4-1
. MLB HE or
HEP TP-T
shell
Marksman ______------ __ 210
Unqualified __-. Below
.. 210 *I a b c _______. 22(176)
Note. The second firing of each table *Il b ¢ _______-- 20(160)
scored for record. eIII b ....
_______.... 10(80)
(d) Individual classification- service *IVA d e ______…_________ 2(6) 6(23)
firing (day)-course A. *'VA f ______.. _________--- - 8(25)
***IVB ______. …_______ 2(4) 6(12) 1(2)
Score ***VB --------
___ __-------- -__- - 8(16)
Total possible ___________ 200
Expert _________________ 185 Total practice
160 per firing
Sharpshooter ------------ crewman __ 652 0 0
Marksman .-____________ 140
Unqualified _-_________ Be low 140 Total record
per firing
(e) Individual classification- -service crewman _._ 52 4 28
firing (day and night)-coi urses A
Total per crew (416) (10) (76) (2)
and B.

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a-Includes five rounds for crewman who needs extra ammunition
for zeroing, and to compensate for multiple-round bursts due to
gunner or crew being tested, the time required
malfunction of the single-shot device. to correct the malfunction is not counted
b-The most recently packed standard coaxial machinegun tracer
ammunition available will
will be used.
against the time allowed for that phase of
e-Frangible ammunition may be substituted when limited range the test. If the malfunction results from the
facilities only ae available.
d-lncludes 6 rounds TP-T for aeroing weapon.
crewman's or crew's failure to perform re-
-Includes 1 round TP-T for crewman to verify ero. quired duties, it is considered negligence, and
f--Includes 2 rounds TP-T for gunner to verify zero and 1 round
each for other 2 crew members.
no time credit will be allowed. All tank weapons
g-24 illuminating shells are used for 8 orders (3 shells per order) to be used in firing tables IV-VIIIB will have
in a company sie unit. 81-mm or 4.2-inch mortar or 105-mm howit-
zer can be used. Additional 10 rounds for settling and registration.
a zero established. On a tank with an infinity
Figure in parentheses next to rounds per individual firing is sight that has no scales on the boresight knobs,
rounds for one crew per table.
*Fired by all crew members.
care must be taken not to move these knobs
**Fired by tank commander, gunner, and one other crew member. once the coaxial machinegun has been zeroed.
°eeFired by tank commander and gunner only.
b. Tank Crewman Gunnery Qualification Ta-
b. The following chart lists the ammuniiton bles. Examiners may be either commissioned or
required for one crew to fire the tank crew noncommissioned officers. Only the crewman
gunnery qualification tables: being tested, loader(s), and examining person-
nel, will be on the tank during record firing.
Coaxial Cal. 50
Main gun
Ilium Flare The examiner will take the tank commander's
Table MG 4-1
MLB
4-1.
MLBg
HE or
HEP TP-T
shell h station. Before firing, the crewman is required
to check the condition of the weapons, controls,
VIAa.a __ 345 150 sights, and ammunition. He is permitted a
VIB _ .___ 270 100 maximum of 30 minutes to make these checks;
VIIA b d ----- 215 110 2 4
VIIA e d . 215
.. 110 2 4
however, the time taken to correct any defi-
VIIB b ______ 200 100 2 4 3 ciencies discovered does not count against the
VIIB c __ 200 100 2 4 3 crewman's time. During firing, the crewman,
VIIIA d f ---- 315 110 4 6 as gunner and without the benefit of coaching
VIIB d f ---- 315 110 4 6 3 1 or assistance, performs all operations required
by the test.
Crew total 2,075 890 16 28 9 1
c. Tank Crew Gunnery Qualification Tables.
a-Includes 75 rounds coax and 50 rounds caliber .50 for zeroing
machineguns.
Examiners may be either commissioned or non-
b-First firing of table. commissioned officers. Only the examiner and
Second firing of table. the members of the crew in their assigned
d-Includes 15 rounds coax and 10 rounds caliber .50 for opera-
tional check. positions will be on the tank during firing.
e-Twelve additional illuminating shells (mortar or artillery) are
required daily for registration.
The examiner will be outside the tank where
f-Includes 2 rounds of TP-T for crew to verify and refine the he can best control and score the tank crew
established zero.
g-Four nontracer to 1 tracer round.
and will use the intercommunication system
h-Rifle or hand-held. for monitoring and control. The crew should
use its assigned tank, if possible, but regard-
185. Rules for Record Firing less of the tank used, the crew will be held
responsible that the tank is fully operational
a. General. Before record firing, examining and mechanically prepared to fire each exercise
personnel must be thoroughly familiar with by performing the proper checks and report-
their duties, including correct firing and scor- ing any deficiencies. The crew will be permitted
ing procedures. If a malfunction occurs, the a maximum of 30 minutes to make these checks;
examiner notes the time and determines the however, the time taken to correct any deficien-
nature of the malfunction. After the malfunc- cies discovered does not count against the crew's
tion has been corrected, the crewman or crew time. During firing, the crew will perform all
is permitted to complete the exercise. If the the operations required by the test without
malfunction was not due to negligence of the benefit of coaching or assistance.

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CHAPTER 18

TANK CREWMAN GUNNERY QUALIFICATION COURSE

Section I. INTRODUCTION

186. General (3) Tank crewman gunnery qualification


a. This chapter outlines the procedures to -service firing (day)-course A.
follow and standards required in the admin- (Fired by tank commander, gunner,
istration of the tank crewman preliminary gun- and one other crew member.)
nery examination and the firing of subcaliber Table IVA-stationary target exer-
and service exercises by the crewman. cises (day).
b. The complete tank crewman qualification Table VA-moving target exercises
course is organized and conducted as follows: (day).
(1) Tank crewman preliminary gunnery (4) Tank crewman gunnery qualification
examination. (All crew members.) -service firing (night)--course B.
(2) Tank crew gunnery qualification- (Fired by tank commander and gun-
subcaliber firing. (All crew members ner.)
fire for practice and record.)
Table I-zeroing and initial lay exer- Table IVB-stationary target exer-
cises. cises (night).
Table II-adjustment of fire exercises. Table VB-moving target exercises
Table III-moving target exercises. (night).

Section II. TANK CREWMAN PRELIMINARY GUNNERY EXAMINATION

187. General recorded on an examination record (fig. 117).


Crewmen on all tanks will complete the first
The tank crewman preliminary gunnery ex-
10 tests. Then, depending on the type of tank
amination is designed to assist the commander
in determining whether his tank crewmen are in the unit, additional tests will be required
sufficiently trained to perform the functions as shown. Detailed, locally produced guides may
necessary for firing the qualification tables. be used by the examiners.
Accordingly, each member of the tank crew is
required to perform each test satisfactorily 188. Test on Field Disassembly and
within the time allotted before he is permitted Assembly of Breech Mechanism
to fire the subcaliber tables or participate as a. Procedure. The breech cover is removed;
a member of the crew, firing the tank crew the gun travel lock is disengaged, and all de-
gunnery qualification tables. Failure of any vices necessary to remove the breechblock are
part of a test means that the crewman fails present. The examiner assists when directed by
the examination and, after any necessary train- the crewman being tested. The examiner com-
ing, must be reexamined on the test(s) he has mands DISASSEMBLE BREECH MECHA-
failed. The examination is conducted under the NISM (BLOCK). The crewman is required to
direction of an officer, by examiners who may be field disassemble the breech mechanism and
officers or noncommissioned officers. Results are breechblock within 6 minutes, using the pre-
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UNIT NAME

DATE GRADE SN

TANK CREWMAN PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION RECORD

TEST EXAMINER'S
NO. TITLE SAT UNSAT REMARKS* INITIALS
1 Field disassembly and assembly of breech
mechanisms
2 Putting turret in power operation
3 Use of replenisher indicator tape
4 Identification and use of ammunition
5 Boresighting and zeroing the main gun
6 Boresighting and zeroing the coaxial machinegun
7Preparing and firing from a range card
8 Misfire procedure
9 Safety and control measures
10 Direct laying and adjustment
M41A3
11 Disassembly, assembly and headspace adjust-
ment on caliber .30 machinegun
12 Adjusting head space and timing and mounting
caliber .50 machinegun
13 Checking and adjusting firing linkage
M48
11** Disassembly, assembly and head space adjust-
ment on caliber .30 machinegun
12 Adjusting head space and timing and mounting
caliber .50 machinegun
13 Checking and adjusting machinegun solenoid
and firing linkage
14 Boresighting and zeroing caliber .50 machinegun
15 Placing range finder in operation
M60
11 Disassembly and assembly on M73 machinegun
12 Disassembly and assembly and mounting M85
machinegun
13 Boresighting and zeroing M85 machinegun
14 Placing range finder in operation
M103
11 Disassembly and assembly on M73 machinegun
12 Adjusting head space and timing and mounting
caliber .50 machinegun
13 Checking and adjusting firing linkage
14 Placing range finder in operation
*P--Procedure incorrect A--Accuracy not attained
T--Time limit exceeded X--Requires much more training
**Test number II, M60 Tanks will be used by units equipped with M48A2C and M48A3 Tanks.
COMMENT

YES NO
QUALIFIED I I
OFFICER IN CHARGE

Figure 117. Tank crewman preliminar


y gunnery examination record.

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scribed methods. The examiner then com- (3) Examiner: Stops time.
mands ASSEMBLE BREECH MECHANISM (4) Time: 2 minutes.
(BLOCK). The mechanism will be disassem- Note. Sequence is important.
bled no further than to remove the breech-
block (mechanism), extractors, and that por-
tion of the firing train contained within the 190. Test on Use of Replenisher
breechblock (mechanism). The crewman is re- Indicator Tape
quired to assemble the breechblock and breech a. Procedure. The examiner hands an indi-
mechanism within the same time limits -pre- cator tape or training aid to the crewman and
scribed for disassembly. directs him to identify the four sections of
b. Examiner's Guide. the indicator tape, to explain what each indi-
cates, and to tell what action he would take
(1) Examiner: DISASSEMBLE BREECH when each section is exposed before firing and
MECHANISM (BLOCK). (Starts during firing. The crewman is required to do
time.) this within 2 minutes.
(2) Crewman: Disassembles breech and
announces COMPLETE. b. Examiner's Guide.
(1) Examiner: IDENTIFY THE FOUR
(3) Examiner: Stops time. SECTIONS OF THE INDICATOR
(4) Time: 6 minutes. TAPE; EXPLAIN WHAT EACH IN-
(5) Examiner: ASSEMBLE BREECH DICATES, AND TELL WHAT AC-
MECHANISM (BLOCK). (Starts TION YOU WOULD TAKE WHEN
time.) EACH SECTION IS EXPOSED BE-
FORE FIRING AND DURING FIR-
(6) Crewman: Assembles breech and an-
nounces COMPLETE. ING. (Starts time.)
(7) Examiner: Stops time. (2) Crewman: Identifies the different sec-
tions of the tape, explains their mean-
(8) Time: 6 minutes. ing, and states action required:
(a) Two rough edges. (Low-add oil.)
189. Test on Putting Turret in (b) One rough and 1 smooth edge. (Cor-
Power Operation rect-no action.)
a. Procedure.The crewman is required to put (c) Two smooth edges. (Before firing-
the turret in power operation within 2 min- excess-drain.)
utes, performing all steps in the prescribed During firing-- OK- watch for
sequence. change.)
(d) Two long notches (Excess oil-drain.)
b. Examiner's Guide. (3) Examiner: Stops time.
(1) Examiner: PUT TURRET IN POW- (4) Time: 2 minutes.
ER. (Starts time.)
(2) Crewman: Alerts crew (announces 191. Test on Identification and
POWER). Use of Ammunition
Checks oil. (Presence of oil or full be-
fore pumping according to type a. Procedure. Three to five rounds of stand-
of tank.) ard-type tank gun ammunition, with all nomen-
Unlocks turret. (Traverses manually clature markings covered, are displayed before
to insure turret is unlocked.) the crewman. The crewman is required to
Turns on power. identify each round and state its primary use
Elevates and traverses. and how it is announced in a fire command.
(Again checks oil when applicable; The crewman is required to do this within 20
full after pumping.) seconds per round. (See chapters 3 and 11
Announces COMPLETE. for ammunition information.)
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b. Examiner's Guide. examiner places the computer or ballistic unit
(1) Examiner: IDENTIFY EACH and the boresight knobs of the primary and
ROUND OF TANK GUN AMMUNI- the secondary direct-fire sights out of adjust-
TION; STATE ITS PRIMARY USE ment. The crewman is required to boresight and
AND HOW IT IS ANNOUNCED IN zero the gun with both these sights, using the
A FIRE COMMAND. (Starts time.) prescribed procedure.
(2) Crewman: Identifies each round and b. Examiner's Guide.
states its primary use and how it is (1) Examiner: BORESIGHT MAIN GUN
announced in a fire command. (indicates target and range to tar-
(3) Examiner: Stops time. get).
(4) Time: 20 seconds per round. (2) Crewman: Performs necessary steps
to make boresight adjustment (in-
192. Test on Boresighting and cluding all main gun sights) and
Zeroing Main Gun announces COMPLETE (examiner
sights through tube while gunner lays
a. Procedure. For this test, a 6-by-6-foot panel on the target).
target with an 8-inch bull's-eye and the appro-
priate size circle is set as close as possible to (3) Time: No time limit.
Note. Correct procedure, including accu-
the desired boresighting and zeroing range, as racy of lay, is mandatory.
stated in the operator's technical manual. A (4) Examiner: APPLY EMERGENCY
3-round shot group is shown by 3 holes (or ZERO TO THE PRIMARY SIGHT.
dots) on the target. A sample target is shown Note. Applicable only to certain type
in figure 118. To conduct the exercise, the tanks.

6 FEET
I

THREE-ROUND
_ a 4 SHOT GROUP

Figure 118. Target for test on boresighting and zeroing the main gun.

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(5) Crewman: Unlocks the boresight sent a machinegun burst. For boresighting the
knobs and indexes the correct setting coaxial machinegun, the main gun target is
on all main gun sights; then locks used. A sample setup is shown in figure 119.
knobs and announces COMPLETE. The coaxial machinegun is properly mounted
(6) Time: No time limit. and the examiner places the coaxial machine-
Note. Accuracy is required. gun, and sight on tanks so equipped with a
(7) Examiner: SIMULATE ZEROING separate sight, out of adjustment.
MAIN GUN. b. Conduct. The crewman is required to bore-
(8) Crewman: Indexes proper ammunition sight and zero the coaxial machinegun, using
(and range if necessary), lays on the the prescribed procedure.
target, and simulates firing three
rounds. Announces COMPLETE. c. Examiner's Guide.
(9) Time: No time limit. (1) Examiner: BORESIGHT COAXIAL
Note. Proper procedure, including accu- MACHINEGUN (indicates target).
racy of lay and correct indexing of range (2) Crewman: Performs necessary steps
and ammunition, is mandatory.
to make boresight adjustment and
(10) Examiner: THE LOCATION OF announces COMPLETE.
YOUR THREE-ROUND SHOT Note. The primary sight is laid on the
GROUP IS INDICATED BY THE same target used to boresight the main gun,
THREE DOTS ON THE TARGET. by use of the gun controls. The coaxial
COMPLETE THE ZEROING PRO- machinegun is laid on the aiming point by
use of the traversing and elevating controls
CEDURE, INCLUDING FIRING A on the mount. Then if a separate sight is
CHECK ROUND AND ZEROING available for the coaxial machinegun, the
THE SECONDARY SIGHT. sight is moved to the aiming point by use
of its boresight knobs.
(11) Crewman: Lays on aiming point, un-
locks boresight knobs of the primary (3) Time: No time limit.
Note. Correct procedure, including accu-
sight, moves aiming cross to center racy of lay, is mandatory.
of shot group, locks the knobs, re-lays
on the aiming point by use of the gun (4) Examiner: ZERO COAXIAL MA-
CHINEGUN (indicates target and
controls, announces ON THE WAY, range to target).
and simulates firing one round.
(5) Crewman: Indexes proper ammuni-
(12) Examiner: YOUR CHECK ROUND tion and range, and simulates firing a
HIT WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED burst.
DISTANCE OF THE AIMING
(6) Examiner: Points out simulated burst.
POINT.
(7) Crewman: Makes necessary adjust-
(13) Crewman: Unlocks boresight knobs of ments.
secondary sight, moves the appropri- Note. The gun is moved by using the con-
ate point of the reticle onto the aim- trols on the mount so that the beaten zone
ing point, locks the boresight knobs, will bracket the target. If the crewman
and announces COMPLETE. moves the gun in the appropriate direction,
he will be considered correct, as the exact
(14) Time: No time limit. amount of movement can be determined only
Note. Accuracy is required. by firing. The crewman simulates firing
another burst to check the adjustment.
193. Test on Boresighting and Zeroing (8) Time: No time limit.
Coaxial Machinegun Note. Correct procedure is mandatory.

a. Procedure. For this test an E-type target


is set up 800 meters (yards) in front of the 194. Test on Preparing and Firing From a
tank and a 6-by-3-foot piece of target cloth is Range Card
laid out approximately 200 meters (yards) a. Procedure. For this test, 5 targets with
short of and on line with the target to repre- 1-inch bull's-eyes are placed or drawn on a
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BORESIGHTING AND ZEROING TARGET FOR THE MAIN GUN,


USED TO BORESIGHT COAX MACHINEGUN.

E TARGET AT A RANGE OF 800 METERS (YARDS), ZEROING


TARGET FOR COAX MACHINEGUN.

0
TARGET CLOTH REPRESENTING THE BEATEN ZONE OF THE
INITIAL BURST OF THE COAX MACHINEGUN APPROXIMATELY
200 METERS (YARDS) SHORT (OVER) OF THE COAX MACH INE-
I4 GUN ZEROING TARGET.

DIRECTION OF FIRE

Figure 119. Setup for test on boresighting and zeroing the coaxial machinegun.

Figure 120. Target layout for range card test.

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vertical surface about 25 meters in front of DURE. (Starts time and cocks gun,
the tank; each target is set at a different eleva- if applicable, for each firing attempt.)
tion so as to provide plus and minus quadrant (2) Crewman: Turns off the main gun
readings. A sample target layout is shown switch and announces MISFIRE.
in figure 120. The center target is used as the Turns on the main gun switch and
reference point. The azimuth indicator is attempts to fire with the appropriate
checked for accuracy. A range card, with data trigger; turns off the main gun
to all of the targets, is prepared. switch and announces MISFIRE.
b. Examiner's Guide. Makes the last attempt to fire manu-
ally on tanks with a percussion
(1) Examiner: Indicates the reference mechanism and with the auxiliary
point to the crewman. unit on tanks that have electric firing;
(2) Crewman: Lays on the reference point, anounces MISFIRE.
zeroes the azimuth indicator and gun- (3) Examiner: Stops time.
ner's aid, and announces the quadrant (4) Time: 30 seconds.
elevation.
(3) Examiner: Indicates two targets to 196. Test on Safety and Control Measures
the crewman.
a. Procedure. For this test, a tank, drill car-
(4) Crewman: Lays on the targets desig- tridge, tarpaulin, and a flag set are required.
nated and announces the quadrant ele- The tank gun is positioned to the front; the
vation (plus or minus) and deflection drill cartridge is placed on a tarpaulin laid
(right or left). adjacent to the tank, with the flags laid on
(5) Time limit: No time limit is placed on top of the turret. The crewman is required to
determination of this data. demonstrate and explain various safety pre-
(6) Examiner: Covers the direct-fire cautions and control measures.
sights and, using the range card data,
issues a fire command to engage one of b. Examiner's Guide.
the remaining two targets. (1) Examiner: DEMONSTRATE THE
(7) Crewman: Lays the gun as directed PROPER METHOD OF HANDLING
by this fire command. AMMUNITION AND PASS IT TO
ME. (Assists crewman by receiving
(8) Time limit: 20 seconds are allowed for round on tank.)
the engagement of this target on tanks
with an elevation quadrant, and 30 (2) Crewman: Takes round from tarpau-
seconds when a gunner's quadrant lin, carries it to tank, and hands it
must be used. to examiner. Round must be handled
properly.
(9) Examiner: Issues a fire command for
the remaining target. (3) Time: No time limit.
(10) Crewman: Repeats the procedure. (4) Examiner: DEMONSTRATE THE
PROPER METHOD OF MOUNTING
THE TANK (ON A STATIONARY
195. Test on Misfire Procedure
TANK FIRING RANGE) (ON A
a. Procedure. The crewman assumes the gun- MOVING TANK FIRING RANGE).
ner's position and the examiner is in the tank (The examiner may specify either
commander's position during the conduct of method.)
this test. When the crewman begins this test, (5) Crewman: Mounts the tank in the
the turret power and the main gun firing switch proper manner.
will be ON, with the breech closed. (6) Time: No time limit.
b. Examiner's Guide. (7) Examiner: DEMONSTRATE THE
(1) Examiner: THE MAIN GUN HAS PROPER METHOD OF STOWING
FAILED TO FIRE; PERFORM THE A ROUND IN THE READY RACK.
STEPS OF THE MISFIRE PROCE- (Passes round to crewman.)
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(8) Crewman: Receives, stows, and locks secondary sight. When engaging the
round in ready rack. first two targets, with either sight
(9) Time: No time limit. the crewman will use the primary
(10) Examiner: DEMONSTRATE THE method of adjustment, assuming that
FLAG SIGNALS TO BE DIS- the red dot on each panel is the first
PLAYED (IN THE EVENT OF round fired. When engaging the third
A MISFIRE) (WHEN FIRING) target, he will use the alternate
(WHEN PREPARING TO FIRE) method of adjustment.
(IN THE EVENT OF A MALFUNC- (3) Conduct.
TION WHEN ALL WEAPONS ARE (a) The examiner briefs the crewman
CLEAR) (WHEN YOU ARE NOT on the series of engagements. When
FIRING). the crewman is ready, the examiner
(11) Crewman: Displays the appropriate issues an initial fire command while
flag signals. laying the gun for direction and
(12) Time: No time limit. simulates ranging (on tanks not
(13) Examiner: DEMONSTRATE THE equipped with a range finder, a
PROPER METHOD OF DISMOUNT- range element is included in the
ING THE TANK ON A (MOVING) command). The crewman is re-
(STATIONARY) TANK FIRING quired to-
RANGE. (Requires method not used 1. Turn on the main gun switch.
in (4) above.) Note. Turret power switch should be
(14) Crewman: Dismounts in the proper on before this exercise beings.
manner. 2. Index the proper ammunition (and
range if necessary).
(15) Time: No time limit. 3. Announce IDENTIFIED.
4. Position the reticle to facilitate
197. Test on Direct Laying and Adjustment ranging by the tank commander
(when applicable).
a. Procedure.
5. Make the final, precise lay (after
(1) Preparation.For this test, three 6- by command FIRE).
6-foot panels painted with tank tar- 6. Announce ON THE WAY.
gets about 4 feet long and 2 feet high 7. Simulate firing one round. (The red
are set up at a minimum distance of dot on the panel indicates a miss.)
300 meters in front of the exercise 8. Apply the primary method of ad-
tank. Two of the panels are marked j ustment.
with a red dot, which represents a 9. Announce ON THE WAY, and sim-
projectile that has missed the target. ulate firing a second round.
On the first panel, the red dot is (b) This sequence is repeated for the
located about 1 foot above the painted second target. Twenty seconds are
tank and near the left edge of the allowed for completion of each of
panel; on the second panel, a red dot the first two engagements.
is located 1 foot below the painted (c) The sequence for engagement of the
tank and near the right edge of the third target is identical; however,
panel. A sample target layout is shown after simulating firing a round, the
in figure 121. crewman announces LOST and re-
(2) Engagements. The crewman is re- ceives a subsequent fire command.
quired to engage the three targets He then applies the corrections
twice in response to initial fire com- given by the examiner, announces
mands issued by the examiner. The ON THE WAY, and simulates fir-
crewman first engages the three tar- ing a second round. Thirty seconds
gets, using the primary sight. He then are allowed for the completion of
engages the three targets, using the the third engagement.
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Figure 121. Target layout for direct laying and adjustment of fire.

(d) The series of three engagements is (8) Crewman: Turns on the main gun
repeated with the secondary sight switch, indexes appropriate type of
in the same manner; however, the ammunition (and range, if necessary),
examiner must include a range ele- announces IDENTIFIED, positions
ment in the fire command on all the reticle for ranging (on range find-
type tanks. The same time limits er equipped tanks), makes the final
are allowed for each type of en- precise lay, announces ON THE WAY,
gagement. simulates firing the first round, and
announces LOST.
b. Examiner's Guide. (9) Examiner: Checks initial lay, an-
(1) Examiner: Issues appropriate fire nounces an appropriate subsequent
command. (Starts time on announcing fire command (RIGHT) (LEFT) 3,
ammunition element.) (ADD) (DROP) 200 FIRE. (Starts
(2) Crewman: Turns on main gun switch, time on command FIRE.)
indexes appropriate type of ammuni- (10) Crewman: Applies correction, an-
tion (and range, if necessary), an- nounces ON THE WAY, and simulates
nounces IDENTIFIED, positions the firing the second round.
reticle for ranging (on range finder (11) Examiner: Stops time and checks for
equipped tanks), makes the final pre- accuracy in applying adjustment.
cise lay, announces ON THE WAY,
and simulates firing the first round. (12) Time: 30 seconds for items (1)
through (10).
(3) Examiner: Checks the initial lay and Note. Proper procedure, including exact
indicates tracer in relation to target. sequence and accuracy of lay, is mandatory.
(4) Crewman: Applies primary method of Procedures described in (7) through (12)
above, are repeated, using the secondary
adjustment, announces ON THE
sight.
WAY, and simulates firing the sec-
ond round.
198. Test on Field Disassembly, Assembly,
(5) Examiner: Stops time and checks for
and Adjusting Head Space on Caliber
accuracy in applying the adjustment.
.30 Machinegun (on Tanks
(6) Time: 20 seconds for items (1) So Equipped)
through (4).
Note. Proper procedure, including exact a. Procedure. The crewman is required to
sequence and accuracy of lay, is mandatory. clear the caliber .30 machinegun, dis-
Procedures described in (1) through (6) assemble, assemble, and set head space
above, are repeated for the engagement of on it within 4 minutes, performing
the second target.
all steps in the prescribed sequence.
(7) Examiner: Issues appropriate fire
command. (Starts time on announcing b. Examiner's Guide.
ammunition element.) (1) Examiner: CLEAR, DISASSEMBLE,

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ASSEMBLE, ADJUST HEAD 201. Test on Field Disassembly, Assembly,
SPACE COAX. and Mounting M85 Machinegun
(2) Crewman: Performs necessary steps (on Tanks So Equipped)
to clear, field disassemble, assemble, a. Procedure. The crewman is required to
and adjust head space on caliber .30 perform all steps necessary to field disassem-
machinegun. ble, assemble, and mount the M85 machinegun.
(3) Time: 4 minutes. b. Examiner's Guide.
Note. Proper procedure is important.
(1) Examiner: CLEAR, DISASSEMBLE,
199. Test on Field Disassembly, Assembly ASSEMBLE, AND MOUNT CUPO-
of M73 Machinegun (on Tanks LA MACHINEGUN.
So Equipped) (2) Crewman: Performs necessary steps
a. Procedure. The crewman is required to to field disassemble and assemble, and
clear the M73 machinegun, disassemble and mounts M85 machinegun in cupola.
assemble it within 4 minutes, performing all (3) Time: No time limit.
steps in the prescribed sequence. Notes. 1. Examiner assists crewman in
mounting the M85 from outside of cupola.
b. Examiner's Guide. 2. Correct procedure for disassembly and
assembly of M85 is necessary.
(1) Examiner: CLEAR, DISASSEMBLE,
AND ASSEMBLE COAX.
202. Test on Checking and Adjusting
(2) Crewman: Performs necessary steps Machinegun Solenoid and Firing
to clear, field disassemble, and assem- Linkage (on Tanks So Equipped)
ble M73 machinegun.
a. Procedure. In preparation for the test, the
(3) Time: 4 minutes. coaxial (M41 and M48 tanks) and cupola (M48
Note. Proper procedure is important. tank) machinegun solenoids and main gun
(M41, M48, M103 tanks) firing linkage are
200. Test on Adjusting Head Space, Timing, adjusted so that the guns will not fire. The
and Mounting of Caliber .50 M2 HB examiner directs the crewman to turn on and
Machinegun (on Tanks So Equipped) actuate the firing switches and triggers and
to adjust the solenoids and linkage so that the
a. Procedure. The crewman is required to guns will fire. All necessary tools are present.
adjust head space and timing on the caliber
.50 machinegun and mount it on the pedestal b. Examiner's Guide.
mount or in the cupola, performing all steps (1) Examiner: CHECK AND ADJUST
in the prescribed sequence. MACHINEGUN SOLENOIDS AND
MAIN GUN FIRING LINKAGE.
b. Examiners' Guide.
(2) Crewman: Performs the checks and
(1) Examiner: ADJUST HEAD SPACE adjustments and announces COM-
AND TIMING AND MOUNT CALI- PLETE.
BER .50 MACHINEGUN. (3) Time: No time limit.
(2) Crewman: Performs necessary steps Note. Correct adjustment is required.
to adjust head space and timing and
mounts caliber .50 machinegun. 203. Test on Boresighting and Zeroing
(3) Time: No time limit. Cupola Machinegun
Notes. 1. Examiner assists crewman in a. Procedure.For this test a 6- by 6-foot panel
mounting cupola machinegun from outside is set up at 500 meters (yards) distance in front
of the cupola.
2. Proper procedure for adjustment is of the tank. The target must have a 10-inch
necessary. bull's-eye and holes (or dots) representing the
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W
W
L-
.D

Figure 122. Target for test on boresighting and zeroing the cupola-mounted machinegun.

burst. A sample target is shown in figure 122. (5) Crewman: Simulates firing burst.
The caliber .50 machinegun is properly mounted (6) Examiner: Points out burst.
and the examiner places the sight out of adjust-
ment. (7) Crewman: Refers sight to burst and
simulates firing check rounds.
b. Conduct. The crewman is required to bore-
sight and zero the cupola machinegun, using (8) Time: No time limit.
Note. Correct procedure and accuracy of
the precsribed procedure. lay are mandatory.
c. Examiner's Guide.
(1) Examiner: BORESIGHT CUPOLA- 204. Test on Placing the Range Finder
MOUNTED MACHINEGUN (indi- in Operation
cates target).
a. Procedure. The crewman is required to
(2) Crewman: Performs necessary steps demonstrate the prescribed steps for placing
to make boresight adjustment and an- the range finder in operation within 2 minutes.
nounces COMPLETE. A target is used at a known range of approxi-
(3) Time: No time limit. mately 1,200 meters for the coincidence range
(4) Examiner: ZERO CUPOLA-MOUNT- finder and at approximately 1,500 yards for the
ED MACHINEGUN. stereoscopic range finder.
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b. Examiner's Guide. (3) Examiner: Stops time.
(1) Examiner: PLACE RANGE FINDER (4) Time: 2 minutes.
IN OPERATION. (Starts time). Note. On all requirements in the prelimi-
nary gunnery examination with no time
(2) Crewman: Places range finder in oper- limit, the crewman will be informed to cease
ation, announcing each step as it is action if it becomes obvious that he does not
performed. Announces COMPLETE. know how to perform the requirement.

Section III. TANK CREWMAI N GUNIFJERY QUALIFICATION-


SUBCALI BER FIR ING
205. General (1) Sight adjustment for subcaliber firing
with the coax machinegun is generally
a. Subcaliber firing exercises are conducted
with the coaxial machinegun to simulate main the same as for the main gun, except
gun firing. They are fired before firing the that superelevation is introduced into
main gun. Machineguns must be tightly secured the fire control system for boresight-
to minimize dispersion. The exercises are fired ing as well as zeroing. This procedure
single-shot throughout and ammunition must properly alines the sights for short
be loaded with alternate dummy cartridges or range firing with a service firing
fired with a single-shot device. Targets are range indexed to provide a starting
physically scored during all subcaliber record point for indexing range errors, when
firing and the targets for tables I and II (except applicable, and to further simulate
the zeroing target) should be pasted or replaced main gun firing. An emergency zero
after each crewman fires. No credit is given for is not used on any type tank for sub-
rounds fired after the time limit prescribed for caliber firing.
the exercise. (2) To boresight the coax machinegun for
subcaliber firing, use the following
b. A distance of 60 meters from weapon to
procedure.
target is prescribed for the subcaliber exer-
cises. Range and ammunition requirements may (a) The range from the tank to the
be modified to enable units to use permanent target is 60 meters.
range facilities now available. However, if the (b) With the computer in electrical op-
gun-target distance is changed, the size of the eration, and the turret power switch
targets must be modified in proportion to the ON, index the appropriate range
change. and ammunition combinations into
the fire control system:
206. Table I-Zeroing and Initial 1. M41A3 tank-1,500 yards and
Lay Exercises AP-T (M339) ammunition.
Note. The range and ammunition are
a. General. The purpose of these exercises is indexed into the ballistic unit on the
to test, with the coaxial machinegun, the crew- M41 tank.
man's ability to- 2. M48A1 and M48A2 tanks-1,500
(1) Zero the main gun. yards and HEAT (T300 or M431)
ammunition.
(2) Lay with the correct sight picture and
fire during periods of good visibility. S. M48A3 and M48A2C tanks-1,200
meters and HEAT (T300 or M431)
(3) Lay and fire during periods of poor ammunition.
visibility.
4. M60 or M60A1 tanks-1,200 meters
(4) Lay and fire during periods of poor and HEAT (M456) ammunition.
visibility with artificial illumination. Notes. 1. If a HEAT reticle is not
(Figure 123 shows target layout for available for the M105 telescope, index
table I.) 1,200 meters and APDS.
2. If frangible ammunition is used it
b. Boresighting and Zeroing the Coax Ma- may be necessary to index HEP for
chinegun for Subcaliber Firing. exercises, although exercises will con-
AGO 6398A 171
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tinue to simulate firing HEAT ammu- between the 2 silhouettes for each
nition. round (i.e., target 1 on the left sil-
(c) Move the receiver end of the coax houette, then target 1 on the right).
machinegun as far left as possible. Either power or manual control can
(d) Sight through the barrel, and lay on be used. The emphasis is on speed and
any target of the zeroing silhouette. accuracy. The exercise must be com-
Using the boresight knobs, place the pleted within 1 minute. Hits within
aiming cross of the nonballistic reti- the 4-inch circle are counted as 6
cle on the boresight point. points; hits within the 8-inch circle
(e) With the boresight knobs of the are counted as 3 points.
telescope, place the 1,500-yard
(3) Exercises 3 and 4. The examiner di-
(1,200 meter) range line or zeroing rects the crewman to lay his sight on
cross of the telescope on the borc-
the top zeroing target and to zero the
sight point. azimuth indicator, using the resetter
(3) To zero the coax machinegun for sub- knob. From previously prepared data
caliber firing: the examiner issues a range card ini-
(a) Lay on the aiming point (boresight tial fire command. The crewman uses
point), using the gun controls, and the auxiliary fire control instruments
fire a 3-round shot group. Take the to lay the gun. He will not use the
same sight picture before firing direct-fire sights. On the command
each round. FIRE, the crewman fires 1 round at
(b) Unlock the boresight knobs of the the target. A hit within the 4-inch
primary sight and refer the aiming circle is counted as 10 points; a hit
cross to the center of the shot within the 8-inch circle is counted as
group. Relock the boresight knobs. 5 points.
(c) Lay on the designated aiming point, (4) Exercise 5. The examiner issues an
using the gun controls, and fire a initial fire command for range card
check round. The check round must lay to direct fire, using ammunition
strike within the 4-inch circle. If it other than that used to construct the
does not, repeat the above proce- range card. The crewman applies the
dure. data (indexing HEP), then indexes
(d) When zeroing has been accom- the ammunition (HEAT) to be fired
plished, unlock the boresight knobs
(on tanks without superelevators the
of the telescope and lay the 1,500- crewman will change the indexed am-
yard (1,200-meter) range line or munition after he identifies the tar-
zeroing cross on the aiming point.
get). The crewman then looks through
Relock the boresight knobs.
his sight to identify the target and
c. The exercises are conducted as follows: makes a precise lay. Upon the com-
mand FIRE the crewman fires one
(1) Exercise 1. The examiner directs the round at the target. A hit within the
crewman to zero the gun. The crew- 4-inch circle is counted as 10 points;
man boresights and zeroes the coax a hit within the 8-inch circle is
following the procedures outlined in counted as 5 points.
b above. The examiner follows the
crewman's procedure with the tank d. The exercises are scored as shown in table
commander's sight. I. Points for each exercise are given as follows:
(2) Exercise 2. The examiner issues an (1) Exercise 1.
initial fire command and indexes the a. Correct procedure: 5.
correct range. The crewman lays on b. Check round within zeroing circle:
the top zeroing target. Using the pri- 5.
mary sight, he fires 1 round at each (2) Exercise 2.
target for a total of 10, alternating a. Hits within 4-inch circle: 6.
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b. Hits within 8-inch circle: 3. indexes (announces on M41 tank) a
c. Hits after 1-minute time limit: 0. plus or minus 200-meter error in the
(3) Exercises 3, 4, and 5. range finder. The crewman uses the
a. Hit within 4-inch circle: 10. primary sight to lay and fire the first
b. Hit within 8-inch circle: 5. round. The first round should miss the
target. The crewman senses the round
e. An appropriate score card is shown in fig- and immediately applies burst-on-
ure 124. target with the next round. Twenty
seconds are given to complete each
Table I
exercise from the command FIRE in
Possible score: 100
Minimum satisfactory score: 70
the initial fire command.
(2) Exercises 2 and 7. The examiner is-
_Numbe
Exer. of Scar- sues an initial fire command and
else Target Type of exercise rounds Sight ing
indexes (announces on M41 tank) a
1 Zeroing___Zeroing ------- 4 Primary 10 plus or minus 200-meter error in the
2 SilhouetteManipulation 10 Primary 60 range finder. The crewman takes the
3 Silhouette Range card fire__ 1 None___ 10 correct sight picture with the primary
4 Silhouette Range card fire_ 1 None___ 10 sight, simulates firing, and announces
5 Silhouette.Range card lay to 1 Primary 10
direct fire. LOST. The examiner issues a subse-
quent fire command to correct for the
range error (OVER, DROP 200,
207. Table 11-Adjustment of Fire Exercises FIRE). The crewman applies the
a. The purpose of these exercises is to test, range correction to his sight and fires
with the coaxial machinegun, the crewman's the round. The round should hit the
ability to: target. If not, the crewman applies
(1) Apply the primary method of adjust- burst-on-target and fires an additional
ment (BOT) with the gunner's sights. round. Twenty seconds are given to
complete the exercise from the com-
(2) Apply the alternate method of adjust-
ment with the gunner's sights. (Fig- mand FIRE in the subsequent fire
ure 125 shows the target layout for command.
table II.) (3) Exercises 4 and 9. The examiner in-
troduces a plus or minus 200-meter
b. The exercises are conducted as follows: range error into the secondary sight
(1) Exercises 1, 3, 6, and 8. The examiner system. He then issues an initial fire
issues an initial fire command and command, announcing 1,200 meters

)I ;;e ,
W fi
©)©:
we
-2 FEET- -2 FEET-

SILHOUETTE I ZEROING SILHOUETTE SILHOUETTE 2

Figure 123. Target layout for table I.

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UNIT NAME

DATE GRADE SN
100 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE I--ZEROING AND INITIAL LAY POSSIBLE

EXERCISE POSSIBLE CORRECT PROCEDURE 4HIT ~HI


WITHIN WIHIN HTWTISCORE
HIT WITHI
_____4-INCH CIRCLE 8-INCH CIRCLE SC
1 10
2 60

3 10

4 10

5 10

TOTAL SCORE

Notes. 1. 5 points for correct procedure in exercise 1.


2. 5 points for check round in zeroing circle in exercise 1.
3. 6 points for hit in 4-inch circle in exercise 2.
4. 3 points for hit in 8-inch circle in exercise 2.
5. 10 points for hit in 4-inch circle in exercises 3-5.
6. 5 points for hit in 8-inch circle in exercises 3-5.

Minimum satisfactory score ................................ .. 70 points.

EXAMINER OFFICER IN CHARGE

Figure 124. Score card for table I.

as the range element. The crewman command, announcing 1,200 meters


uses his secondary sight, lays on the as the range element. The crewman
target, and fires. The first round uses his secondary sight, lays on the
should miss the target. The crewman target, simulates firing, and an-
senses the round and immediately ap- nounces LOST. The examiner issues
plies burst-on-target with the next a subsequent fire command to correct
round. Twenty seconds are given to for range error (SHORT, ADD 200,
complete the exercise from the com- FIRE). The crewman applies the
mand FIRE in the initial fire com- range correction to his sight and fires
mand. the round. The round should hit the
(4) Exercises 5 and 10. The examiner target. If not, the crewman applies
introduces a plus or minus 200-meter burst-on-target and fires an additional
range error into the secondary sight round. Twenty seconds are given to
system. He then issues an initial fire complete the exercise from the com-

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mand FIRE in the subsequent fire e. An appropriate score card is shown in
command. figure 126.
c. The exercises are scored as shown in table
II. 208. Table Ill-Moving Target Exercises
d. Points for each exercise are given as fol- a. The purpose of these exercises is to test,
lows:
with the coaxial machinegun, the crewman's
ability to-
(1) Exerciscs 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9.
(a) Second round hit in 4-inch circle: 10. (1) Track, lead, and aim at moving tar-
(b) Second round hit in 8-inch circle: 5. gets.
(2) Exercises 2, 5, 7, and 10. (2) Adjust fire on moving targets.
(a) First round hit in 4-inch circle: 10.
b. The moving target as shown in figure 127
(b) Second round hit in 4-inch circle: 5.
is mounted on a 6- by 6-foot panel. The speed of
Table II the panels should be approximately 3 miles per
Possible score: 100
Minimum satisfactory score: 70
hour so the crewman can track and engage it
within the safety limits.
Number
of Method af
Exercise rounds* Sight adjustment Scorin c. When the examiner issues the initial fire
command, he announces the primary armor-
1 and 6. 2 Primary_ Primary a10 defeating round in the ammunition element
2 and 7 _ 2 Primary Alternate a10
3 and 8. 2 Primary___ Primary a10 (HEAT). He announces MOVING TANK as
4 and 9__ 2 Secondary Primary a10 the description ad the gunner applies the appro-
5 and 10 2 Secondary Alternate a10 priate lead. The 21/2 mils that the crewman
*Each exercise.
aims in front of the center of the target allows
a-Ten points each exercise. the round to strike the target moving in either

QI
2Q
Q3 2 Q 3
- 2 FEET-I

4Q
(X5 4Q QX5

SILHOUETTE 1 SILOUETTE 2
NOTE. THESE SILHOUETTES SHOULD BE PLACED TWO FEET TO THE
RIGHT OF, AND ON LINE WITH, THE SILHOUETTES FOR TABLE I
Figure 125. Target layout for table II.

AGO 6398A 175


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UNIT NAME

DATE GRADE SN

100 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE II--ADJUSTMENT OF FIRE EXERCISES POSSIBLE
FIRST ROUND SECOND ROUND SECOND ROUND
EXERCISE POSSIBLE 4-INCH CIRCLE 4-INCH CIRCLE 8-INCH CIRCLE SCORE
1 and 6 20

2 and 7 20

3 and 8 20

4 and 9 20
5 and 10 20

TOTAL SCORE

Notes. 1. 10 points for second round in 4-inch circle in exercises


1 and 6, 3 and 8, 4 and 9.
2. 5 points for second round in 8-inch circle in exercises
1 and 6, 3 and 8, 4 and 9.
3. 10 points for first round in 4-inch circle in exercises
2 and 7, 5 and 10.
4. 5 points for second round in 4-inch circle in exercises
2 and 7, 5 and 10.

Minimum satisfactory score ..................................... 70 points.

EXAMINER OFFICER IN CHARGE


Figure 126. Score card for table II.

direction. The direction of movement of the d. The exercises are conducted as follows:
target will be alternated so the crewman will (1) Exercise 1. The examiner issues an
engage the target from right to left and left initial fire command with the correct
to right. In the event that a lead other than 21/2 range indexed (announced on M41
mils is necessary because of target speed, the tank) in the range finder and an-
nouncing moving tank as the descrip-
examiner will indicate this to the crewman and tion element. The crewman, using the
explain that it is due to the false subcaliber primary sight, tracks, leads, and lays
situation. the sight on the target, using the
Note. Before firing table III the error introduced into
power controls. He fires two rounds.
the secondary sight system in table II must be removed The first round should hit the target.
by a referral of sights, using the gunner's periscope as If it does not, the crewman applies
the zeroed sight. burst-on-target before firing the sec-

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ond round. To obtain maximum credit,
the target must be hit with both quent fire command to correct the
rounds. Twenty seconds are given to range error. The crewman applies the
complete the exercise from the com- correction and fires two rounds. The
mand FIRE in the initial fire com- first round should hit the target. If it
mand. does not, the crewman applies burst-
on-target before firing the second
(2) Exercise 2. The examiner issues an round. To obtain maximum credit,
initial fire command, announcing the both rounds must hit the target.
correct range and moving tank as the Twenty seconds are given to complete
description element. The crewman, the exercise from the command FIRE
using the secondary sight, tracks, in the subsequent fire command.
leads, and lays the sight on the target,
using the power controls. He fires two (5) Exercise 5. The examiner issues an
rounds. The first round should hit the initial fire command with the correct
target. If it does not, the crewman range indexed (announced on M41
applies burst-on-target before firing tank) and moving tank as the descrip-
second round. To obtain maximum tion element. The crewman, using the
credit, both rounds must hit the tar- primary sight, tracks, leads, and lays
get. Twenty seconds are given to com- the sight on the target, using the
plete the exercise from the command manual controls (power for assigned
FIRE in the initial fire command. tank commander). He fires two
(3) Exercise 3. The examiner issues an rounds. The first round should hit the
initial fire command with moving tank target. If it does not, the crewman
as the description element and an er- applies burst-on-target before firing
ror of plus or minus 200 meters in- the second round. To obtain maxi-
dexed (announced on M41 tank) in the mum credit, both rounds must hit the
range finder. The crewman, using the target. Twenty seconds are given to
primary sight, tracks, leads, and lays complete the exercise from the com-
the sight on the target, using the mand FIRE in the initial fire com-
power controls. He simulates firing mand.
the round and announces LOST. The
examiner issues a subsequent fire com-
mand to correct the range error. The
crewman applies the correction and
fires two rounds. The first round
should hit the target. If it does not,
the crewman applies burst-on-target
before firing the second round. To ob-
tain maximum credit, both rounds
must hit the target. Twenty seconds
are given to complete the exercise
from the command FIRE in the subse-
quent fire command.
(4) Exercise 4. The examiner issues an
initial fire command announcing a
range error of 200 meters. The crew-
man, using the secondary sight, tracks,
leads, and lays the sight on the target,
using the power controls. He simu-
lates firing the round and announces
LOST. The examiner issues a subse- Figure 127. Moving target for table III.

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Table II1 e. The exercises are scored as shown in table
Possible score: 100 III.
Minimum satisfactory score: 70
Number f. Points for each exercise are given as fol-
of Method of
Exercise rounds Sight adjustment Scoring lows in exercises 1-5.
1 2 Primary ____ Primary-___ b20 (1) Correct tracking: 5.
2 2 Secondary _-- Primary.... b20
3 2 Primary - Alternate___ b20
(2) First round hit: 10.
4 2 Secondary _ Alternate__ b20 (3) Second round hit: 5.
5 2 Primary a__ Primary__ h20

a-Manual controls are used.


g. An appropriate score card is shown in
b-Each exercise fired twice. figure 128.

UNIT NAME
DATE GRADE SN

100 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE III--MOVING TARGET EXERCISES POSSIBLE

EXERCISE POSSIBLE CORRECT TRACKING 1ST RD HIT 2D RD HIT SCORE


1 2C

2 20

3 20
4 20
5 20

Notes. 1. 5 Doints for correct tracking in exercises 1-5.


10 points for first round hit in exercises 1-5.
TOTAL SCORE
1
2.
3. 5 points for second round hit in exercises 1-5.
4. Each exercise fired twice.
Minimum satisfactory score ....................... . 70 points.

EXAMINER OFFICER IN CHARGE

Figure 128. Score card for table III.

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Section IV-TANK CREWMAN GUNNERY QUALIFICATION-
SERVICE FIRING
209. General meters or greater, should allow the crewman
a. Service exercises are fired in order of to sense the first round and apply burst-on-
target. In exercise 2, when using HEAT (TP-
IVA, IVB, VA and VB. The crewman should T) ammunition he may not sense the round;
fire the applicable service tables on the same
tank. however, it is a first round hit exercise with
only one round allowed.
b. Targets will be scored by scorers observing
from adjacent tanks or using battery com- b. The exercises are conducted as follows:
mander scopes or similar instruments. Enough (1) Exercise 1. The examiner issues an
targets must be provided to preclude the possi- initial fire command and indexes the
bility of erroneous scoring. The appropriate de- correct range (announced on M41
duction will be made from the score when the tank). The crewman engages the tar-
time limit for an exercise is exceeded; how- get with two rounds, using the pri-
ever, all exercises will be completed. mary sight. The first round should hit
c. In all exercises, if the crewman fails to the target. If it does not, the crewman
sense the first round, the examiner issues a applies burst-on-target or adjusts fire
subsequent fire command for the second round. as directed by the examiner.
The crewman will be given credit for a second (2) Exercise 2. The examiner issues an
round hit, if obtained, or for correct application initial fire command and indexes the
of adjustment given by the examiner. correct range (announced on M41
tank). The crewman engages the tar-
d. In each of the tables, when the assigned get with one round, using the primary
tank commander is firing, one of the exercises sight. The first round should hit the
must be fired from the tank commander's posi-
tion. target. If it does not, the crewman can
receive credit only for the initial en-
e. When units are equipped with infrared- gagement within time limit specified.
visible light kits at least one exercise on tables (3) Exercise S. The examiner issues a fire
IVB and VB will be with infrared illumination. command with the correct range ele-
ment. The crewman engages the tar-
210. Table IVA-Stationary Target
Exercises (Day) get with two rounds, using the sec-
ondary sight. The first round should
a. These exercises are designed to test the hit the target. If it does not, the crew-
crewman's ability to fire the tank gun at sta-
tionary targets. Because of the problems cited man applies burst-on-target or adjusts
in paragraphs 94-96, these exercises, at times, fire as directed by the examiner.
will necessitate both the examiner and crew- (4) Exercise 4. The examiner issues an
man adjusting fire. The gunner will zero the initial fire command and indexes the
main gun with the rounds allotted in the table correct range. The crewman engages
if zero is not accomplished prior to range. Each the target with two rounds, using the
firing crewman fires one round of ammunition primary sight. The first round should
as a check round, using tactical zeroing pro- hit the target. If it does not, the crew-
cedures (para. 59) before firing the scored man applies burst-on-target or adjusts
exercises. The zeroing rounds or exercise fire as directed by the examiner.
rounds fired by the preceding firer are con-
Note. Assigned tank commanders will fire
sidered sufficient for warm-up. The crewman this exercise from tank commander's posi-
fires this round at a zeroing target set up at tion.
the range specified in the operator's manual. He
then fires four exercises in any sequence. The c. The exercises are scored as shown in table
range to the target in exercises 1 and 4, 1,600 IVA.
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d. Points for each exercise are given as fol- (2) Exercise 2.
Ic.ws: (a) Initial engagement within 5 seconds
(1) Exercises 1, 3, and 4. of the command FIRE: 15.
(a) Completing exercise within 20 sec- (b) Target hit with first round: 10.
onds of the command FIRE: 10. e. An appropriate score card is shown in
(b) Target hit with the first round: 15. figure 129.
(c) Proper application of adjustment or
hit of second round if first round f. An example of range layout for table IVA
misses: 5. is shown in figure 145.
Table IVA
Possible score: 100
Minimum satisfactory score: 70
Exercise Target Range in meters Number of rounds Sight Scoring

Zeroing 12x12-ft. panel ---- 1,200 5C Primary --------- Unscored


Tactical 12x12-ft. panel ..... 1,200 1a Primary ----------- Unscored
Zeroing
1 6x6-ft. panel …------1,600-1,800 2a Primary .…----- 25
2 6x6-ft. panel_----- 900-1,100 1a Primary …....... 25
3 6x6-ft. panel …-----1,000-1,400 2b Secondary …-------- 25
=4 6x6-ft. panel_ …---- 1,600-2,000 2a Primary …....... 25
a-TP-T ammunition.
b-HE or HEP ammunition.
c-Only assigned gunner fire zeroing exercise.
*Assigned tank commanders will fire exercise 4 from tank eommander' position.

211. Table IVB-Stationary Target command with the correct range ele-
Exercise (Night) ment. The crewman engages the tar-
get with two rounds, employing the
a. The purpose of this table is to test the secondary sight. The first round
gunner's and tank commander's ability to fire should be a target hit. If it is not, the
the tank gun at night and hit illuminated sta- crewman applies burst-on-target or
tionary targets. Tank-mounted searchlights and adjusts fire as directed by the exam-
mortar flares will provide the illumination. One iner.
exercise will be with infrared light if units are
so equipped. All crewmen are initially briefed, (3) Exercise 4. This exercise will be exe-
after which the individual crewman fires the cuted using range card lay to direct-
four exercises in any sequence. fire technique and flare illumination.
The examiner issues an initial fire
b. The exercises are conducted as follows: command, using prepared range card
(1) Exercises 1 and 2. The target is illu- data for HE (HEP) ammunition. The
minated and he examiner issues an firing crewman applies data and on
initial fire command, indexing the cor- tanks equipped with a superelevator
rect range (announces M41 tank). changes to TP-T (HEAT, SHOT) on
The crewman engages the target with the computer. Upon illumination, the
two rounds. The first round should be firer announces IDENTIFIED; im-
a target hit. If it is not, the crewman mediately the examiner will announce
applies burst-on-target, or adjusts fire FIRE. The crewman engages the tar-
as directed by the examiner. get with two rounds. The first round
Note. Assigned tank commander will fire should be a target hit; if it is not, the
exercise 2 from tank commander's position. crewman applies burst-on-target or
(2) Exercise 3. The target is illuminated adjusts fire as directed by the ex-
and the examiner issues an initial fire aminer.
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UNIT NAME

DATE GRADE SN

100 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE IVA--STATIONARY TARGET EXERCISES (DAY) POSSIBLE

COMPLETED IN 2D RD
EXERCISE POSSIBLE TIME LIMIT 1ST RD HIT ADJUSTMENT OR HIT SCORE
1 25

2 25

3 25

4 25

TOTAL SCORE

Notes. 1. 10 points for completing exercise 1,3, and 4 in 20 seconds from the
command FIRE in the initial fire command until second round is fired.
2. 15 points for first round hit in exercises 1,3, and 4.
3. 5 points for correct adjustment or second round hit if first round misses in
exercises 1,3, and 4.
4. 15 points for initial engagement within 5 seconds after command FIRE in
exercise 2.
5. 10 points for target hit in exercise 2.

Minimum satisfactory score .................. ............... 70 points.

EXAMINER OFFICER IN CHARGE

Figure 129. Score card for table IVA.

Table IVB
Possible score: 100
Minimum satisfactory score: 70
Number of Method of
Exercise Target Range in meters rounds Illumination d sight Scoring

1 6x6-ft. panel 1,000-1,200 2a Searchlight ----- Primary 25


*2 6x6-ft. panel ____ 1,000-1,200 2a Searchlight ------ Primary -__- 25
3 6x6-ft. panel____ 1,000-1,200 2b Searchlight ------ Secondary ___ 25
4 6x6-ft. panel____ 1,400-1,600 2 c 2 illuminating Primary ____ 25
shells.

a-TP-T ammunition.
b-HE or HEP ammunition
c--Exercise 4 will be executed using the range card lay to direct fire techniques (para. 112c(1l)).
d-At least one searchlight exercise in units with infrared visible light kits will be using infrared illumination.
'Assigned tank commanders will fire exercise 2 from tank commander's position.

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c. The exercises are scored as shown on table If range safety will permit they may be placed
IVB. on the flanks and forward of the firing line.
d. Points for each exercise are given as fol-
lows: 212. Table VA-Moving Target
Exercises (Day)
(1) Completing exercise within 30 seconds
of initial command FIRE: 10. a. These exercises are designed to test the
(2) First round hit: 15. ability of the crewman to lead, track, and ad-
just fire on moving targets with the tank gun.
(3) Proper application of adjustment or The gunner fires two rounds of ammunition,
hit of second round if first round using tactical zeroing procedures (first round
misses: 5. is for warm-up) at a target set up at the
e. An appropriate score card is shown in fig- range specified in operator's manual. (Only
ure 130. TP-T ammunition is used in this exercise.) The
other two crewmen are allowed one round each
f. An example of range layout for table IVB
to check the zero prior to their firing exercises.
is shown in figure 145. Then each crewman fires four exercises, using
g. Tanks mounting searchlights are placed on an appropriate lead in any sequence, with the
the firing line as is appropriate for the range. exception that exercise 3 should never be first.

UNIT NAME

DATE GRADE SN

100 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE IVB--STATIONARY TARGET EXERCISES (NIGHT) POSSIBLE

COMPLETED IN 2D RD
EXERCISE POSSIBLE TIME LIMIT 1ST RD HIT ADJUSTMENT OR HIT SCORE
1 25

2 25

3 25

4 25

TOTAL SCORE

Notes. 1. 10 points for completing exercises within 30 seconds from the initial
command FIRE until second round is fired.
2. 15 points for first round hit in all exercises.
3. 5 points for correct adjustment of second round if first round misses
or if second round hits in all exercises.

Minimum satisfactory score ...................................... 70 points.

EXAMINER OFFICER IN CHARGE


Figure 130. Score card for table IVB.

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In all cases except exercise 3, a second round the crewman applies burst-on-target
will be fired even if a first round hit is obtained, or adjusts fire as directed by the tank
to increase the training of the crewman in the commander.
engagement of moving targets. Note. Assigned tank commanders will fire
b. The exercises are fired from a stationary exercise 4 from the tank commander's posi-
tion.
tank at moving targets (6x6-ft. panels) at
ranges of 700-2,000 meters. The targets are d. The exercises are scored as shown in table
exposed for approximately 300 meters and VA.
travel at a constant speed between 8 and 15 e. Points for each exercise are given as fol-
MPH. lows:
c. The exercises are conducted as follows: (1) Exercises 1, 2, and 4.
(1) Exercise 1. The examiner issues an (a) Completing exercise within 20 sec-
initial fire command with the correct onds of the initial command FIRE:
range indexed (announces on M41 5.
tank). The crewman engages the tar- (b) Correct tracking: 5.
get with two rounds, using the pri- (c) First-round target hits: 10.
mary sight. Either manual or power (d) Correct adjustment or hit of second
controls may be used. The first round round if first round misses or hit
should hit the target. If it does not, with second round if first round
the crewman applies burst-on-target hits: 5.
or adjusts fire as directed by the
(2) Exercise 3.
examiner. (a) Completing exercise within 15 sec-
(2) Exercise 2. The examiner issues an onds of initial command FIRE: 10.
initial fire command with the correct (b) Correct tracking: 5.
range element. The crewman engages (c) First round hit: 10.
the target with two rounds, using the
the secondary sight. Either manual or f. An appropriate score card is shown in
power controls may be used. The first figure 131.
round should hit the target. If it does g. An example of range layout for table VA
not, the crewman applies burst-on- is shown in figure 146.
target or adjusts fire as directed by
the examiner. Table VA
Possible score: 100
(3) Exercise 3. The examiner issues an Minimum satisfactory score:70
initial fire command and indexes the
correct range (announced on M41 Exercise
Range in
meters
Number of
roundsa Sight hb Scoring
tank). The crew engages the target
with one round, using the primary Tactical
sight. Either manual or power con- zeroing. 1,200 1c Primary_ Unscored
trols may be used. A first round hit 1 700-1,400 2 Primary__ 25
2 700-1,400 2 Secondary 25
should be obtained; if not, the crew- 3 700-1,400 1 Primary__ 25
man can only receive credit for initial *4 1,500-2,000 2 Primary_ 25
engagement and proper tracking pro-
a-All rounds TP-T.
cedures. b-lnitial engagement will be with appropriate lead.
(4) Exercise 4. The examiner issues an c-One additional round of TP-T is authoried for the firt crew-
man checking zero.
initial fire command and indexes the *Assigned tank commanders will fire exercise 4 from tank com-
correct range (announced on M41 mander's position.

tank). The crewman engages the tar-


get with two rounds, using the pri- 213. Table VB--Moving Target
mary sight. Either manual or power Exercises (Night)
controls may be used. The first round a. These exercises are designed to test the
should hit the target. If it does not, ability of the tank commander and gunner to
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UNIT NAME
DATE GRADE SN

100 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE VA--MOVING TARGET EXERCISES (DAY) POSSIBLE

2D RD
COMPLETED IN CORRECT 1ST RD DJUSTMEN
EXERCISE POSSIBLE TIME LIMIT TRACKING( HIT OR HIT SCORE
1 25

2 25

3 25

4 25

TOTAL SCORE
Notes. 1. 5 points for completing exercises 1, 2, and 4 within 20 seconds from the
command FIRE in the initial fire command until second round is fired.
2. 10 points for completing exercise 3 within 15 seconds of initial command FIRE.
3. 5 points for correct tracking in all exercises.
4. 10 points for first round hit in all exercises.
5. 5 points for correct adjustment of second round if first round misses or if second
round hits in exercises 1, 2, and 4.
Minimum satisfactory score ................... ................... 70 points.

EXAMINER OFFICER IN CHARGE

Figure 131. Score card for table VA.

hit moving targets with the tank gun at night, initial fire command (range card lay
using artificial illumination. The crewman in- to direct fire from previously plotted
dexes the zero obtained from tables IVA-VA data, using a different type of ammu-
to fire these exercises. He then fires four exer- nition) and indexes the correct range
cises in any sequence. The moving target in to the moving target. When the target
exercises are illuminated by tank-mounted is illuminated, the examiner gives the
searchlights. If unit firing is equipped with execution element and the crewman
infrared-visible light kits a minimum of one engages the target with two rounds,
exercise will be fired with infrared illumina- using the primary sight and the ap-
tion. Both rounds must be fired to obtain maxi- propriate lead. The first round should
mum credit. hit the target. If it does not, the
crewman applies burst-on-target or
b. The exercises are conducted as follows: adjusts fire as directed by the exam-
(1) Exercise 1. The examiner issues an iner.
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(2) Exercises 2 and 4. The searchlight not, the crewman applies burst-on-
illuminates the moving target and the target or adjusts fire as directed by
examiner issues an initial fire com- the examiner.
mand and indexes the correct range.
The crewman engages the target with
d. The exercises are scored as shown in table
two rounds, using the primary sight VB.
and the appropriate lead. The first e. Points for each exercise are given as fol-
round should hit the target. If it does lows for all exercises:
not, the crewman applies burst-on- (1) Completing exercise within 20 seconds
target or adjusts fire as directed by of initial command FIRE: 5.
the examiner.
Note. Assigned tank commanders will fire (2) Correct tracking: 5.
exercise 4 from tank commander's position. (3) First round hit: 10.
(3) Exercise 3. The searchlight illumi- (4) Correct adjustment of second round
nates the moving target and the exam- if first round misses or hit with second
iner issues an initial fire command, round if first round hits: 5.
announcing the correct range element.
The crewman engages the target with
f. An appropriate score card is shown in fig-
two rounds, using the secondary sight ure 132.
and the appropriate lead. The first g. The range layout for table VB would be
round should hit the target. If it does similar to that for table VA.

Table VB
Possible score: 100
Minimum satisfactory score: 70
Range in Number of Method of
Exercise meters Rounds a Illumination b Sight Scoring

1
1 700-1,400
700-1,400
2
2
Searchlight ________
Searchlight _____-
Primary
Primary___ ______
4____
25
25
3 700-1,400 2 Searchlight ________ Secondary . ... 25
*4 700-1,400 2 Searchlight -________ Primary -_- ____-_ 25

a--All rounds TP-T.


b-At least one exercise will be with infrared illumination for units equipped with the infrared-visible light kits.
°Assigned tank commanders will fire exercise 4 from tank commanders position.

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UNIT NAME

DATE GRADE SN
100 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE VB--MOVING TARGET EXERCISES (NIGHT) POSSIBLE

2D RD
COMPLETED IN CORRECT ADJUSTMEN1
EXERCISE POSSIBLE TIME LIMIT TRACKING 1ST RD OR HIT SCORE
1 25

2 25

3 25

4 25

TOTAL SCORE w
Notes. 1. 5 points for completing all exercises within 20 seconds from the command
FIRE in the initial fire command until second round is fired.
2. 5 points for correct tracking in all exercises.
3. 10 points for first round hit in all exercises.
4. 5 points for correct adjustment if first round misses or if second round hit in
all exercises.

Minimum satisfactory score ...................................... 70 points.

EXAMINER OFFICER IN CHARGE

Figure 122. Score card for table VB.

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CHAPTER 19
TANK CREW GUNNERY QUALIFICATION FIRING

214. General d. Conduct of Exercises. The tank crew gun-


nery qualification course should be conducted
a. Purpose. The purpose of tank crew gun- over designated routes providing as much real-
nery qualification firing is to determine the ism of crosscountry firing as safety will permit.
crew's ability to employ all tank weapons effec- Combat realism should be emphasized con-
tively during both daylight and darkness. sistent with targets and range facilities avail-
b. Sequence of Firing. able. Demolitions and surprise targets should
be used to add realism. The appropriate deduc-
(1) Each crew fires tables VIA and VIB tion will be made from the score when the time
once and tables VIIA and VIIB twice. limit for an exercise is exceeded; however, all
These tables are training exercises for exercises will be completed.
developing crew proficiency and they
afford the unit commander an oppor- e. Critique of Exercises. Examiners will
tunity to complete the organization critique each crew after it has fired each table,
and training of crews before firing using the completed score card as the basis for
tables VIIIA and VIIIB. The firing of the critique.
tables VIA, VIB, VIIA, and VIIB f. Corrective Training. As the firing pro-
should be scored to provide motivation gresses, commanders will make every effort to
for the crews and to furnish the unit correct deficiencies noted so as to attain maxi-
commander with an indication of crew mum performance when crews fire tables VIIIA
progress. The minimum satisfactory and VIIIB.
scores for these tables are guides to
progress and satisfactory perform- g. Range Facilities. Range facilities avail-
ance. If a crew has not attained the able to the unit may not permit firing the main
minimum satisfactory score on these gun from a series of firing positions as re-
tables but, in the opinion of the unit quired in the crew field firing and crew pro-
commander, has shown progressive ficiency tables. Under such condiitons, unit
improvement, it may be allowed to fire commanders should make one of the following
tables VIIIA and VIIIB. modifications, listed in order of desirability.
(2) Tables VIIIA and VrIIB are fired for (1) Fire main gun exercises from a firing
qualification once by each crew. line in a manner similar to tables IVA
and VA firing (figs. 145 and 146) and
c. Crew Composition. machinegun exercises from a series
(1) The firing crew should be the as- of positions as prescribed in the crew
signed crew. However, crew assign- qualification tables.
ments may be varied during the firing (2) Fire machinegun exercises of all crew
of tables VIA, VIB, VIIA, and VHB qualification tables as prescribed and
to provide an even distribution of simulate firing the main gun exercises.
skills among all crews in the unit. Note. Scoring will be modified as appro-
priate and notations in individual records
(2) Crew composition should not be varied will indicate that modified main gun exer-
after the crew begins firing tables cises or the machinegun exercises only were
VIIIA and VIIIB. fired.

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Table VIA or VIB
Possible score: 660
Minimum satisfactory score: 460
Range in No. of
Exercise Weapon meters rounds Target deecrlption Scoring

Zeroing Coax MG . ....... 800 75 a 6x6-ft. panel . .............Unscored


Zeroing Cal .50 MG ------ 500 50 a 6x6-ft. panel_ __._.
.-- Unscored
1 Cal .50 MG _ _ 1,000-1,200 50 Truck (6x6 ft.) . . 110
....
2 Coax MG --------- 200-400 75 Troops (14 E-type) ______ 110
3 Coax MG ____ _ 600-800 60 Machinegun (3x5 ft.) ___. 110
4 Coax MG --------- 600-800 60 Moving truck (6x6 ft.)__ 110
5 Coax MG _____ 500-600 75 Troops (14 E-type) ------- 110
6 Cal .50 MG __- o 1,000-1,500 50 Suspected area . ......... 110

a-Zeroing rounds are only authorized for table VIA.

215. Table VIA-Crew Machinegun (d) Each hit on the target (up to a
Exercises (Day) maximum of 7 hits): 10 (total 70).
a. The purpose of these exercises is to develop (2) Exercises 2 and 5.
crew coordination and the ability to engage (a) Completed exercise within time
moving and stationary targets with tank ma- limit: 5.
chineguns from a moving and stationary tank (b) Opened fire in 15 seconds: 15.
in daylight. This table should be conducted on (c) Correct fire commands, crew duties,
a range similar to the one used for crew field and techniques of fire (cut 5 points
firing exercises (fig. 147). for each error): 20.
(d) Target effect (cut in 10-point incre-
b. Each crew makes a dry run of the exer- ments for less than maximum): 70.
cises before its firing run. This can be done in (3) Exercises 3 and 4.
conjunction with the firing run of another tank. (a) Completed exercises within time
On the dry run, the examiner indicates the loca- limit: 5.
tion of the targets and what each target repre- (b) Opened fire within 15 seconds: 15.
sents. (c) Correct fire commands, crew duties,
c. The tank crew inspects its vehicle and and techniques of fire (cut 5 points
equipment, stows the ammunition, and estab- for each error): 20.
lishes communication with the safety officer. (d) Target hits (10 points for each tar-
An outline of the exercises is shown in table get hit, up to a maximum of 7 hits):
VIA. The sequence may be varied to suit the 70.
available range facilities. Zeroing is accom- (4) Exercise 6.
plished prior to moving out. (a) Completed exercise within time
limit: 10.
d. Points for each exercise are given as fol- (b) Opened fire in 20 seconds: 15.
lows: (No partial credit is given except as indi- (c) Correct procedure and technique of
cated.) fire (cut 5 points for each error):
(1) Zeroing exercises. These are fired by 15.
the gunner and are not scored. (d) Target effect (cut in 10-point incre-
(2) Exercise 1, ments for less than maximum): 70.
(a) Completed exercise within time
limit: 10. e. After zeroing is completed the tank crew
(b) Opened fire in 20 seconds: 15. is ordered to move out. Then exercises are con-
(c) Correct procedure and technique of ducted as follows:
of fire (cut 5 points for each er- (1) Exercise 1 (truck). The tank is in a
ror): 15. hull defilade position (can be simu-
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UNIT TANK CREW

COMMANDER
DATE GUNNER

DRIVER

DAY NIGHT (Circle One) LOADER


660 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE VIA OR VIB-CREW MACHINEGUN EXERCISE POSSIBLE
NUMBER
EXERCISE OF ITEM AND POSSIBLE POINTS SCORE
ROUNDS
Completing within I minute ................. 10
1* Opened fire in 20 seconds ................. 15
Truck 50 Correct procedure and technique of fire ......... 15
(6x6 ft) Cal .50 Each hit on target (maximum 7 hits) ........... 10
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 110 TOTAL
Completing within 5.5 seconds ............... 5
Opened fire in 15 seconds ................. 15
2 Fire commands, crew duties, and technique
Troops 75 Coax of fire ..................... 20
Target effect (cut 10-point increments for
less than maximum) ........ 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 110 TOTAL
Completing within 55 seconds ...............
Opened fire within 15 seconds ............... 15
3 Fire commands, crew duties, and technique
Machinegun 60 Coax of fire .......................... 20
Each hit on target (maximum 7 hits) ............ 10
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 110 TOTAL
Completing within 55 seconds ............... 5
Opened fire within 15 seconds ............... 15
4 Fire commands, crew duties, and technique
Moving 60 Coax of fire ....... 20
Truck Each hit on the targt (maximum 7 hits) .......... 10
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 110 TOTAL
Completing within 55 seconds ............... 5
Opened fire in 15 seconds ................. 15
5 Fire commands, crew duties, and technique
Troops 75 Coax of fire ............................. 20
Target effect (cut in 10-point increments for
less than maximum) ..................... 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 110 TOTAL
Completing within 1 minute ................. 10
Opened fire in 20 seconds ................. 15
6 50 Correct procedure and technique of fire ......... 15
Suspected Cal .50 Target effect (cut in 10-point increments for
Area less than maximum) .................... 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 110 TOTAL
*Zeroing accomplished prior to firing exercise 1 TOTAL SCORE
on table VIA.
Minimum Satisfactory Score ............................................ 460 points.

EXAM.INER OFFICER IN CHARGE

Figure 133. Score card for table VIA and VIB.

AGO 6398A
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lated but should be made known to (2) Radio communication is maintained
crew). The target appears and is en- between the safety officer and the fir-
gaged with the caliber .50 machine- ing tanks. An examiner rides each fir-
gun. The exercise must be completed ing tank and has communication with
within 1 minute after target identi- the crew and the safety officer.
fication. (3) The firing tank should move at least
(2) Exercise 2 (troops). The targets ap- 50 meters between exercises.
pear and are engaged with the coaxial (4) Upon completion of the last exercise,
machinegun as the tank continues to all weapons are cleared.
move. The exercise must be completed
within 55 seconds from target identi- g. The examiner times and scores the tank
fication. When the exercise is com- crew, using the binocular to determine target
pleted, the tank continues to move. effect. An appropriate score card is shown in
figure 133.
(3) Exercise 3 (machinegun). The target
appears and is engaged with the co-
axial machinegun as the tank contin- 216. Table VIB-Crew Machinegun
ues to move. The exercise must b Exercises (Night)
completed within 55 seconds from tar- a. The purpose of these exercises is to develop
get identification. When the exercise crew coordination and the ability to engage
is completed, the tank continues to moving and stationary targets with tank ma-
move. chineguns from a moving and stationary tank
at night with artificial illumination. This table
(4) Exercise 4 (moving truck). The mov- may be conducted on the same range used for
ing target appears. The tank halts
and engages the target with the co- table VIA, Crew Machinegun Exercises (Day).
axial machinegun. The exercise must b. Each crew makes a dry run of the exer-
be completed within 55 seconds from cises before its firing run. This can be done in
the command to halt the tank. When conjunction with the firing run of another tank.
the exercise is completed, the tank On the dry run, the examiner indicates the loca-
moves out. tion of the targets and what each target repre-
(5) Exercise 5 (troops). The targets ap- sents.
pear and are engaged with the coaxial c. The tank crew inspects its vehicle and
machinegun as the tank continues to equipment, and establishes communication with
move. The exercise must be completed the safety officer. Two searchlight tanks should
within 55 seconds from the time the be used on the flanks of the firing lanes to illu-
tank commander identifies the target. minate the targets. If possible, flicker illumina-
(6) Exercise 6 (suspected area). The cali- tion should be used. In those units equipped
ber .50 machinegun is reloaded, if with infrared-visible light kits at least one coax
necessary, and the examiner desig- machinegun exercise and one caliber .50 ma-
nates a suspected area. The tank com- chinegun exercise will be with infrared illumi-
mander reconnoiters by fire, using the nation.
caliber .50 machinegun, while the tank d. The same procedure, ammunition, scoring,
is moving. The exercise must be com- and control outlined in table VIA is used except
pleted within 1 minute. Time starts that no zeroing is authorized for table VIB.
when the tank commander identifies
the target area.
217. Table VIIA-Crew Field Firing
f. The following control measures are ap- Exercises (Day)
plied: a. The purpose of these exercises is to develop
(1) The safety officer follows the firing the crew's ability to engage moving and sta-
tanks in a radio equipped vehicle. tionary targets during daylight with all tank
190
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weapons and to prepare the crew for testing on range to the targets. If time and personnel per-
table VIIIA. mit the dry run may be scored by using indi-
cated portion of each exercise of table VIIA
b. The crew is required to move over a desig-
score card (fig. 134).
nated course and engage a series of targets.
All firing crews are briefed on the conduct of d. Points for each exercise are given as fol-
the course. The briefing should include informa- lows: (No partial credit is given except as indi-
tion on what each target represents and the cated.)
designated battlesight should be announced. An
outline of the exercises is shown in table VIIA. (1) Exercises 1, 3, and 4.
The sequence may be varied to suit the avail- (a) First round fired within 15 seconds:
able range facilities. The main gun targets 30.
should be alternated so that the gunner will be (b) Completed within 45 seconds: 10.
required to change ammunition settings on the (c) Fire commands and crew duties
computer, or refer to different range scale lines (cut 5 points for each error): 35.
on the range drum. Time for each exercise be- (d) Target hit with either round: 50.
gins when the tank commander can identify the
(e) Additional target hit: 30.
target and his tank is in a position to fire
safely, as determined by the examiner. In those (2) Exercise 2.
instances when the crew has not identified the (a) Opened fire within 15 seconds: 20.
target before the opening fire time has elapsed, (b) Completed within 55 seconds: 5.
the examiner will point out the target and the
(c) Fire commands, crew duties, and
crew will lose opening fire time. Communication technique of fire (cut 5 points for
will be established by the tank commander with
each error): 25.
the safety officer.
(d) Target hits (10 points for each tar-
c. Each crew makes a dry run of the exer- get hit, up to a maximum of 7 hits):
cises before making the first firing run. This 70.
can be done in conjunction with a firing run
of another tank. On the dry run the examiner (3) Exercise 5.
indicates the location of the targets and what (a) Opened fire within 15 seconds: 20.
each represents, but he does not reveal the (b) Completed within 75 seconds: 5.
Table VIIA
Possible score: 925
Minimum satisfactory score: 650

Range in No. of
Exercise Weapon meters rounds Target description Scoring

Verifying
zero Main gun ---- Zeroing range ---- '1 a Zeroing panel ---------- None
Operational Coax MG . _
200-400 --------
... 15 (12x12-ft. panel) ------ None
Checks ---- Cal .50 MG 200-400 10 (3x5-ft. panel) -------- None
1 Main gun 900-1,100 2a Moving tank (6x6-ft. 155
panel).
2 Coax MG . . 600-800
.. ..... 100 Moving
. truck (3x5-ft. 120
panel).
3 Main gun ---- 1,500-2,000 ---
_ - 2b Antitank (6x6-ft. panel)- 155
4 Main gun ---- 1,500-1,800 ------ 2a Stationary tank (6x6-ft. 155
panel).
5 Coax MG ---- 200-400 --------- 100 Troops (14 E-type) ---- 120
6 Cal .50 MG .. . 1,200-1,400 . .
50 .... Truck **(3x5-ft. panel) _ 120
7 Cal .50 MG --- 1,000-1,200 …------ 50 Troops (10 E-type) -.-- 100

a-TP-T.
b-HE or HEP.
*A round not fired during exercises will be used to verify zero.
**6x6-ft. pande for tank using the flexible mounted cal .50 MG.

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(c) Fire commands, crew duties, and seconds. After completing the exer-
technique of fire (cut 5 points for cise, the tank commander gives the
each error): 25. order to move out.
(d) Target effect (cut in increments of (3) Exercise S (antitank). The tank com-
10 points for failure to get target mander observes the target, halts the
effect on each of the 7 portions of tank, and the tank crew engages the
the target area): 70. target with the main gun. The first
(4) Exercise 6. round must be fired within 15 seconds
(a) Opened fire within 20 seconds: 20. after the exercise begins. The second
(b) Completed within 1 minute: 5. round is fired and points are awarded
(c) Procedure and technique of fire (cut for an additional hit. The exercise
5 points for each error): 25. must be completed within 45 seconds.
(d) Target hits (10 points for each tar- After completing the exercise, the
get hit, up to a maximum of 7 hits): tank commander gives the order to
70. move out.
(5) Exercise 7. (4) Exercise 4 (tank). The tank com-
(a) Opened fire within 20 seconds: 20. mander observes the target, halts the
(b) Completed within 1 minute: 5. tank, and the tank crew engages the
(c) Procedure and technique of fire (cut target with the main gun. The first
5 points for each error): 25. round must be fired within 15 seconds
(d) Target effect (cut in increments of after the exercise begins. The second
10 points for failure to get effect on round is fired and points are awarded
each of 5 portions of the target for an additional hit. The exercise
area): 50. must be completed within 45 seconds.
After completing the exercise the tank
e. Upon verifying zero and completing opera- commander gives the order to move
tional checks, the tank commander is directed
to move the tank to the starting point. The
out.
exercises are conducted as follows: (5) Exercise 5 (troops). The tank com-
mander observes the targets. The tank
(1) Exercise 1 (moving tank). The mov- crew engages the targets with the co-
ing target moves out. The tank com-
axial machinegun while moving. Fir-
mander observes the target, halts the
ing must commence within 15 seconds
tank, and the tank crew engages the after the exercise begins. The exercise
target with the main gun. The target
must be completed within 1 minute.
may be engaged using a locally estab-
lished battlesight and lead, or by rang- (6) Exercise 6 (truck). The tank com-
ing on the target and using the appro- mander observes the target, halts the
priate lead. The first round must be tank, and engages the target with the
fired within 15 seconds after the exer- caliber .50 machinegun. Firing must
cise begins. The second round is fired commence within 20 seconds after the
and points are awarded for an addi- exercise begins. The exercise must be
tional hit. The exercise must be completed within 1 minute. After com-
completed within 45 seconds. After pleting the exercise, the tank com-
completing the exercise, the tank com- mander gives the order to move out.
mander gives the order to move out. (7) Exercise 7 (troops). The tank com-
(2) Exercise 2 (moving truck). The tank mander observes the targets. The tank
commander observes the target, halts commander engages the targets with
the tank, and the tank crew engages the caliber .50 machinegun while the
the target with the coaxial machine- tank is moving. Firing must com-
gun. Firing must commence within 15 mence within 20 seconds after the
seconds after the exercise begins. The exercise begins. The exercise must be
exercise must be completed within 55 completed within 1 minute.

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UNIT TANK CREW
COMMANDER

DATE GUNNER
DRIVER _
LOADER _
925 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE VIIA--CREW FIELD FIRING EXERCISES (DAY) POSSIBLE

EXERCISE OF ITEM AND POSSIBLE POINTS SCORE


ROUNOS
#First round ired within 15 seconds .......... 30
1* # Fire commands and crew duties ............. 35
Moving 2 Completed with 45 seconds ................ 10
Tank Main Gun Trrget hit ........................... 50
Additional target hit ..................... 30
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 155 TOTAL
#Opened lire in s15 seconds ................ 20
2 Completed within 55 seconds .............. S5
Moving 100 Coax #Fire commands, crew duties, and technique
Truck of fire (maximum) ...................... 25
Each hit on target, 10 points (maximum of
7 hits) ............................ 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL
*First round ired within 15 seconds .30
#Fire commands and crew duties ............. 35
3 2 Completed within 45 seconds .............. 10
Antitank Main Gun Target hit ........................... 50
Additional target hit ..................... 30
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 155 TOTAL
*First rountmd
fired within 15 seconds .......... 30
Wfire commands and crew duties ............. 35
4 2 Completed within 45 seconds .............. 10
Tank Main Gm Target hit ........................... 50
Additional target hit .................... 30
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 155 TOTAL
#Opened fire in 15 seconds ................ 20
Completed within 75 seconds .............. 5
S #Fire commands, crew duties, and technique
Troops 100 Coax of fire (maximum) ..................... 25
Target effect (maximum) ................. 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL
fOpened fire in 20 seconds ................ 20
Completed within I minute ................ 5
6 50 Wrocedure and technique of lire (maximum) ...... 25
Antitank Cal .50 Each hit on target 10 points (maximum of
7 targets) .......................... 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL
#Opened fire in 20 seconds ................ 20
7 50 Completed within I minute ................ S
Troops Cal .5S0 Procedure and technique of fire ............. 25
Target effect (maximum) ................. 50
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 100 TOTAL

TOTAL SCORE
Minimum Satisfactory Score ...................................... 650 peints.

EXAMINER OFFICER IN CHARGE

*Verifying zero and operational checks of machineguns are accomplished prior to firing exercise.
#These parts of exercise can be used to score dry run fo information only.
Maximum possible (dry rum)--375 points.
Suggested minimum satlsfactory--250 points.

Figure 134. Score card for table VIIA.

AGO 6398A 193


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f. The following control measures are ap- (2) When tank hulls or other hard targets
plied: are used for the main gun exercises,
(1) The safety officer follows the firing the examiner will score the target hits.
tank in a radio equipped vehicle and (3) The examiner determines time for
controls the speed of the firing tank each exercise.
between exercises. (4) The examiner scores firing procedures
(2) Radio communications are maintained of the tank crew. An appropriate
between the safety officer and the fir- score card is shown in figure 134.
ing tank. An examiner rides on the
firing tank and has communication 218. Table VIIB-Crew Field Firing
with the tank crew and the safety Exercises (Night)
officer.
(3) The firing tank should move at least a. The purpose of these exercises is to de-
150 meters between exercises at a velop the crew's ability to engage moving and
speed of 10-12 MPH. stationary targets at night with all tank weap-
ons, and to prepare the crew for the test on
(4) Upon completion of the last exercise, table VIIIB. The same range used for table
and before clearing the range fan, all VIIA may be used for table VIIB.
weapons will be cleared by the tank
crew and checked by the examiner. b. The crew is required to move over a desig-
nated course and engage a series of illuminated
g. Scoring will be as follows: targets. A tank-mounted searchlight, hand-held
(1) Scoring personnel will physically or rifle flare, and mortar or artillery shells,
score exercises 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Ex- are used for illumination. The searchlight
ercises 5 and 7 will be scored by the equipped tank accompanies the firing tank. All
examiner. firing crews are briefed on the conduct of the

Table VIIB
Possible score: 1,025
Minimum satisfactory score: 615
Range in No. of Target Method of
Exercise- Weapon meters rounds description illumination Scoring

1 Main gun __ 1,500-2,000 (simulated None Troops (simu- None (range card) 100
for QE). lated) (range
card).
2 Main gun -- 900-1,100 - -_________
2a Moving tank Tank searchlight _ 155
(6x6-ft. panel).
3 Coax MG ..
_ 600-800 __--_______ 100 Moving truck Tank searchlight__ 120
(3x-ft. panel).
4 Coax MG __ 400-800 .. 100 ........
Troops (14 E- Tank searchlight__ 120
type).
5 Main gun _ 900-1,100 ....---- 2 b Antitank (6x6-ft. Tank searchlight _ 155
panel).
6 Cal .50 MG _ 1,000-1,200 ____--__ 50 Troops (10 E- Tank searchlight__ 100
type).
7 Main gun -- 1,500-2,000 - -_______2 a Stationary tank 3 illuminating 155
(6x6-ft. panel). shells.
8 Cal .50 MG - 1,000-1,400 -------- 50 Truck (3x5-ft. Tank searchlight _ 120
panel)**.

a-TP T.
b-HE or HEP.
*One main gun, one machinegun coax. and one caliber .50 machinegun exereise will be fired with infrared illumination in units
equipped with infrared-visible light kits.
-*6x6-ft. panel used in those units with flexible mounted caliber .50 machineruns.

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ccurse. The briefing should include informa- technique of fire (cut 5 points for
tion on what each target represents, illuminat- each error): 25.
ing procedures, and the designated battlesight (d) Target hits (10 points for each tar-
should be announced. An outline of the exer- get hit, up to a maximum of 7
cises is shown in table VIIB. The sequence hits): 70.
may be varied to suit the available range facil-
ities. The main gun targets should be alternated (4) Exercise 4.
so that the gunner will be required to change (a) Opened fire within 25 seconds: 20.
ammunition settings on the computer, or refer (b) Completed within 90 seconds: 5.
to different range scale lines on the range drum. (c) Fire commands, crew duties, and
The time for each exercise begins when the technique of fire (cut 5 points for
targets are illuminated effectively and the tank each error): 25.
is in a position to fire safely as determined by (d) Target effect (cut in increments of
the examiner. In those instances when the crew 10 points for failure to get target
has not identified the target before the opening effect on each of the 7 portions of
fire time has elapsed, the examiner will point the target area): 70.
out the target and the crew will lose opening (5) Exercise 6.
fire time. Communication will be established
by the tank commander with the safety officer. (a) Opened fire within 30 seconds: 20.
(b) Completed exercise within 75 sec-
c. Each crew will make a dry run of the onds: 5.
exercises before making the first firing run. (c) Procedure and technique of fire
This can be done in conjunction with the firing (cut 5 points for each error): 25.
run of another tank. On the dry run the ex- (d) Target effect (cut in increments of
aminer indicates the location of the targets 10 points for failure to get target
and what each represents, but he does not re- effect on each of the 5 portions of
veal the range to the targets. the target area): 50.
d. Points for each exercise are given as fol- (6) Exercise 8.
lows: (No partial credit is given except as in- (a) Opened fire within 30 seconds: 20.
dicated.) (b) Completed within 75 seconds: 5.
(1) Exercise 1. (c) Procedure and technique of fire
(a) Completed within 90 seconds: 20. (cut 5 points for each error): 25.
(d) Target hits (10 points for each tar-
(b) Fire commands and crew duties get hit, up to a maximum of 7
(cut 5 points for each error): 30. hits): 70.
(c) Accuracy of lay (25 points for ele-
vation and 25 points for deflection; e. After the tank crew has been ordered
both within 1 mil): 50. to move out, the exercises are conducted as fol-
lows:
(2) Exercises 2, 5, and 7.
(a) Opened fire within 25 seconds: 30. (1) Exercise 1 (range card). The tank
(b) Completed within 1 minute: 10. occupies a prepared position. A range
card, prepared by examiner personnel,
(c) Fire commands and crew duties is given to the tank commander of the
(cut 5 points for each error): 35. firing tank. The tank crew simulates
(d) Target hit with either round: 50. engaging a target with one round of
(e) Additional target hit: 30. ammunition, using range card data
(3) Exercise 3. as designated by the examiner. The
exercise must be completed within 90
(a) Opened fire within 25 seconds: 20. seconds. Time starts with the gun laid
(b) Completed within 1 minute: 5. on the reference point, and the azi-
(c) Fire commands, crew duties, and muth indicator and gunner's aid
AGO 6398A 195
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zeroed. The exercise is completed (6) Exercise 6 (troops). The target area
when the gunner announces ON THE is illuminated with a searchlight tank
WAY. After completing the exercise, employing flicker illumination. The
the tank commander gives the order tank commander halts the firing tank
to move out. and engages the target with the cal-
(2) Exercise 2 (moving tank). The target iber .50 machinegun. Firing must com-
is illuminated by a searchlight tank mence within 30 seconds after the ex-
employing continuous illumination. ercise begins. The exercise must be
The tank commander halts the firing completed within 75 seconds. After
tank, and the crew engages the target completing the exercise the tank com-
with- the main gun. The first round mander gives the order to move out.
must be fired within 25 seconds after (7) Exercise 7 (tank). The target is il-
the exercise begins. The second round luminated by three illuminating shells.
is fired and points are awarded for an The tank commander halts the firing
additional hit. The exercise must be tank and the crew engages the tar-
completed in 1 minute. After complet- get with the main gun. The first
ing the exercise, the tank commander round must be fired within 25 seconds
gives the order to move out. after the exercise begins. The second
(3) Exercise 3 (moving truck). The tar- round is fired and points are awarded
get is illuminated with a searchlignt for an additional hit. The exercise
tank employing continuous illumina- must be completed within 1 minute.
tion. The tank commander halts the After completing the exercise the tank
firing tank and the crew engages the commander gives the order to move
target with the coaxial machinegun. out.
Firing must commence within 25 sec- (8) Exercise 8 (truck). The target is il-
onds. The exercise must be completed luminated with a searchlight tank
within 1 minute. After completing the employing flicker illumination. The
exercise, the tank commander gives tank commander halts the firing tank
the order to move out. and engages the target with the cal-
(4) Exercise 4 (troops). The target area iber .50 machinegun. Firing must
is illuminated by a flare or a search- commence within 30 seconds after the
light tank employing flicker illumina- exercise begins. The exercise must be
tion. The firing tank crew engages the completed within 75 seconds. After
targets with the coaxial machinegun completing the exercise the tank com-
while moving. Firing must commence mander gives the order to move out.
within 25 seconds after the exercise f. Control Measures.
begins. The exercise must be com-
pleted within 90 seconds. (1) The safety officer follows the firing
tank in a radio equipped vehicle and
(5) Exercise 5 (antitank). The target is controls the speed of the firing tank
illuminated by a searchlight tank em- between exercises.
ploying flicker illumination. The tank
commander halts the firing tank and (2) Radio communications are maintained
between the safety officer, search-
the crew engages the target with the
main gun. The first round must be light tank, forward observer, and fir-
fired within 25 seconds after the ex- ing tank. An examiner rides on the
ercise begins. The second round is firing tank and has communications
fired and points are awarded for an with the firing tank crew and the
additional hit. The exercise must be safety officer.
completed within 1 minute. After com- (3) The firing tank should move at least
pleting the exercise, the tank com- 150 meters between exercises at a
mander gives the order to move out. speed of 10-12 MPH.
AGO 6398A
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UNIT TANK CREW
COMMANDER
DATE GUNNER

DRIVER
LOADER
1,025 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE VIIB--CREW FIELD FIRING EXERCISES (NIGHT) POSSIBLE
P
NUMBER
OF ITEM AND POSSIBLE POINTS SCORE
iCrimwleted within 1 minute and 30 seconds ..... 20
None WFire commands and crew duties .. . 30
I &Iiange eCoeect elevation (within 1 mil) ... 25
Troops . card) fonect deflection (within 1 mil) .. Z......
25
_ '_ TTALPISIr.S E EXERCISE
TOTAi POSStBLE 100 TOTAL
4Opened lire in 25 seconds ................ 30 R-
2 f WFire commands and crew duties .... '. ... 35
.· - !,
Moving 2 Completed exercise within 1 minute ....... 10;
Tank Main Gri Target hit ............. '.......... ; .... 50
Additional target hit ............. 30 -
EXERCISE
TA TA o nc c .. . r )e 4
#Opmned fire in 25 seconds ................ 20
3 Completed in 1 minute ................... 5
Moving 100 Coax WFire commands, crew duties and technique
Truck of fire (maximum) ...................... 25
Each hit on target 10 points (maximum of
7 hits) ............................ 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL
IOpened fire in 25 seconds .............. 20
Completed in 1 minute and 30 seconds........ 5
4 WiFire commands, crew duties, and technique
Troops 100 Coax of fire (maximu) ...................... 25
Target effect (maximuml .................. 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL
#Opened fire In 25 seconds .............. 30
WFire conmiands and crew duties ............. 35
5 2 Completed exercise within 1 minute .......... 10
Antitank Main Gn Target hit ........................... 50
Additional target hit..................... 30
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 155 TOTAL
40Qpened fire in 30 seconds .20
Completed within 1 minute and 15 seconds ..... 5
6 SO Procedure and technique of fire (maximum)...... 25
Troops Cal .50 Target effect (maximum) ................. 50
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 100 TOTAL
#Opened fire in 25 seconds ................ 30
Wire commands and crew duties ............. 35
7 2 Completed exercise within 1 minute .......... 10
Tank Main Gun Target hit ........................... 50
Additional target hit ..................... 30
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBiLE 155 TOTAL
#Opened fire in 30 seconds ................ 20
8 50 Completed within 1 minute and 15 seconds ..... 5
Truck Cal .50 WProcedure and technique of fire (maximum) ..... 25
Each hit on a target 10 points (maximum
of 7 hits) ........................... 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL

TOTAL SCORE
Minimum Satisfactory Score ............................................ 615 points.

EXAMINER OFFICER IN CHARGE

#These parts of exercises can be used to score dry rutn for Information only.
Maximum possible (dry run)--475 points.
Suggested minimum satisfactory--340 points.

Figare 135. Score card for table VIIB.

AGO 6398A
197
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g. The method of illumination may be varied targets with all tank weapons during daylight.
to conform with local conditions and admin- This table, in conjunction with table VIIIB, is
istrative requirements. However, at least one the basis for the crew classification; therefore,
target must be illuminated by illuminating there will be no dry or practice runs.
shells.
b. The crew is required to move over desig-
h. Scoring. nated course and engage a series of targets. A
(1) Scoring personnel will physically sample range layout is shown in figure 148.
score exercises 2, 3, 5, 7, and 8. Ex- The terrain should be different from that used
ercises 1, 4, and 6 will be scored by in tables VIIA and VIIB; however, if range
the examiner. When tank hulls or facilities are limited, the same terrain may be
otl1r
2 alrd; to.9ets are used for the used with the route of movement and target
m:i:, gun exe- ises, the examiner will locations varied. All firing crews are briefed
,.a I:mgat hits.
Do on the conduct of the course and the tactical
12) - * examiner determines time for situation, including the mission of the tank
- - exercise. crew. The briefing should include information
) le examiner scores the firing pro- on what each target represents and a desig-
cedures of the tank crew. An appro- nated battlesight should be announced. The
priate score card is shown in figure sequence of the exercises may be varied to fit
135. the available range facility. The main gun tar-
gets should be alternated so that the gunner will
219. Table VIIIA-Crew Proficiency be required to change ammunition settings on
Exercises (Day) the computer, or resort to different range
a. The purpose of this exercise is to test the scale lines on the range drum. An outline of the
crew's ability to engage moving and stationary course is shown in table VIIIA. Time for each
Table VIIIA
Possible score: 1,200
Minimum satisfactory score: 840

Exercise Weapon Range in meters No. of rounds Target decription Scoring

Verifying Main gun ____ Zeroing range ---- 2 a Zeroing panel ____ None
zero.
Operational Coax MG ---- 200400 --------- 15 3x5-ft. panel _____ None
check.
Operational Cal .50 MG __ 500 _- __ .______ 10 3xS-ft. panel _____ None
check.
1 Coax MG ____ 200-400 _________ 1o0 Troops (14 E-type) 120
2 Main gun _____ 1,500-2,000 ________ 2. Tank (6x6-ft. 155
panel).
3 Cal .50 MG ___ 1,000-1,200 -_______ 50 Troops (10 E-type) 100
4 Coax MG __. 500-600 _________ 100 Troops (14 E-type) 120
5 Main gun _____ 900-1,100 ________ 2b Antitank (3x5 ft. 155
panel).
6 Main gun _____ 900-1,100 ------- 2a Moving tank 155
(6x6-ft. panel).
7 Cal .50 MG ___ 1,000-1,200 ___.____ 50 Truck (3x5-ft. 120
panel) *.
8 Coax MG _... 500-800 _________ 100 Moving truck 120
(6x6-ft. panel).
9 Main gun ____ 1,500-2,000 ------- 2b House (6x6-ft. 155
panel).
a-TP-T.
b- HE or HEP.
-- x6.-ft. panel used in those units with flexible mounted cal .i5 machineguns.

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exercise begins when the target is marked by (c) Fire commands, crew duties, and
a blast or the tank commander can identify the technique of fire (cut 5 points for
target and his tank is in a position to fire each error): 25.
safely, as determined by the examiner. In those (d) Target hits (10 points for each tar-
instances when the crew has not identified the get hit, up to a maximum of 7
target before the opening fire time has elapsed, hits): 70.
the examiner will point out the target and the
crew will lose opening fire time. d. The tank commander is directed to move
the tank to the zeroing panel and halt. The
c. Points for each exercise are as follows: crew fires two rounds with the main gun at
(No partial credit is given except as indicated.) a zeroing panel for verification of zero. The
(1) Exercises 1 and 4. crew makes an operational check with the co-
(a) Opened fire within 15 seconds: 20. axial machinegun, by firing 15 rounds at a
(b) Completed within 75 seconds: 5. 3 by 5-ft. panel. The tank commander makes
an operational check with the caliber .50 ma-
(c) Fire commands, crew duties, and chinegun by firing 10 rounds at the same 3 by
technique of fire (cut 5 points for 5-ft. panel. Upon completion of the verification
each error): 25. of zero and operational checks, the tank com-
(d) Target effect (cut in increments of mander moves the tank to the starting point
10 points for failure to get target for the table. The exercises are conducted as
effect on each of the 7 portions of follows:
the target area): 70.
(1) Exercise 1 (troops). The tank com-
(2) Exercises 2, 5, 6, wand 9. mander observes the targets. The tank
(a) First round fired within 15 seconds: crew engages the targets with the
30. coaxial machinegun while the tank is
(b) Completed within 45 seconds: 10. moving. Firing must commence with-
(c) Fire commands and crew duties in 15 seconds after the exercise be-
(cut 5 points for each error): 35. gins. The exercise must be completed
(d) Target hit with either round: 50. within 75 seconds.
(e) Additional target hit: 30. (2) Exercise 2 (tank). The tank com-
(3) Exercise 3. mander observes the target, halts the
(a) Opened fire within 20 seconds: 20. tank, and the tank crew engages the
(b) Completed within 1 minute: 5. target with the main gun. The first
(c) Procedure and technique of fire round must be fired within 15 seconds
(cut 5 points for each error): 25. after the exercise begins. The second
(d) Target effect (cut in increments of round is fired and points are awarded
10 points for failure to get target for an additional hit. The exercise
effect-on each of the 5 portions of must be completed within 45 seconds.
the target area): 50. After completing the exercise, the
tank commander gives the order to
(4) Exercise 7. move out.
(a) Opened fire within 20 seconds: 20. (3) Exercise 3 (troops). The tank com-
(b) Completed within 1 minute: 5. mander observes the targets. The tank
(c) Procedure and technique of fire commander engages the targets with
(cut 5 points for each error): 25. the caliber .50 machinegun while the
(d) Target-hits (10 points for each tar- tank is moving. Firing must com-
get hit, up to a maximum of 7 mence within 20 seconds after the ex-
hits): 70. ercise begins. The exercise must be
(5) Exercise 8. completed within 1 minute.
(a) Opened fire within 15 seconds: 20. (4) Exercise 4 (troops). The tank com-
(b) Completed within 55 seconds: 5. mander observes the targets. The tank
AGO 6398A 199
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crew engages the targets with the co- (9) Exercise 9 (house). The tank com-
axial machinegun while the tank is mander observes the target, halts the
moving. Firing must commence with- tank, and the tank crew engages the
in 15 seconds after the exercise be- target with the main gun. The first
gins. The exercise must be completed round must be fired within 15 seconds
within 75 seconds. after the exercise begins. The second
(5) Exercise 5 (antitank). The tank com- round is fired and points are awarded
mander observes the target, halts the for an additional hit. The exercise
tank, and the tank crew engages the must be completed within 45 seconds.
target with the main gun. The first After completing the exercise, the
round must be fired within 15 sec- tank commander gives the order to
onds after the exercise begins. The move out.
second round is fired and points are e. Control measures are the same as for
awarded for an additional hit. The ex- table VIIA.
ercise must be completed within 45
seconds. After completing the exer- f. Where range safety requirements will al-
cise, the tank commander gives the low, all targets should be surprise targets, i.e.,
order to move out. their location is not known by the crew being
tested and one target only is visible at a time.
(6) Exercise 6 (moving tank). The tank Depending on the materials available, targets
commander observes the target, halts should be activated by demolitions, by being
the tank, and the tank crew engages moved into view, by pop-up techniques, by be-
the target with the main gun. The first ing hidden behind terrain features, until the
round must be fired within 15 seconds firing tank reaches a certain position on the
after the exercise begins. The second course, or by a combination of these methods.
round is fired and points are awarded
g. Scoring will be as follows:
for an additional hit. The exercise
must be completed within 45 seconds. (1) Scoring personnel will physically score
After completing the exercise, the exercises 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Exer-
tank commander gives the order to cises 1, 3, and 4 will be scored by the
move out. examiner. When tank hulls or other
hard targets are used for the main
(7) Exercise 7 (truck). The tank com- gun exercises, the examiner scores the
mander observes the target, halts the target hits.
tank, and engages the target with the
(2) The examiner determines time for
caliber .50 machinegun. Firing must each exercise.
commence within 20 seconds after the
exercise begins. The exercise must be (3) The examiner scores the firing pro-
completed within 1 minute. After com- cedures of the tank crew. An appro-
pleting the exercise, the tank com- priate score card is shown in figure
mander gives the order to move out. 136.
(8) Exercise 8 (moving truck). The tank 220. Table VIIIB-Crew Proficiency
commander observes the target, halts Exercises (Night)
the tank, and the tank crew engages a. The purpose of these exercises is to test
the target with the coaxial machine- the crew's ability to engage moving and station-
gun. Firing must commence within ary targets with all tank weapons at night.
15 seconds after the exercise begins. This table, in conjunction with table VIIIA,
The exercise must be completed with- is the basis for the crew classification; there-
in 55 seconds. After completing the fore, there is no dry or practice run. The same
exercise, the tank commander gives range used for table VIIIA may be used for
the order to move out. table VIIIB.
200 AGO 6398A
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UNIT TANK CREW
COMMANDER

DATE GUNNER

DRIVER
LOADER

1,200 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE VIIIA--CREW PROFICIENCY EXERCISES (DAY) POSSIBLE
NUMBER
EXERCISE OF ITEM AND POSSIBLE POINTS SCORE
ROUNDS
Opened fire within 15 seconds .............. 20
Completed within 75 seconds ............... S
1* Fire commands, crew duties, and technique
Troops 100 Coax of fire (maximum) ...................... 25
Target effect (maximum) ................... 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL
First arod fired within 15 seconds ........... 30
Fire commands and crew duties .............. 35
2 2 Completed within 45 seconds ............... 10
Tank Main Gun Target hit ............................ SO
Additional target hit .................... 30
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 155 TOTAL
Opened fire within 20 seconds .............. 20
Completed within 1 minute ................. 5
3 50 Procedure and technique of fire (maximn) ....... 25
Troops Cal .50 Target
effect (maxim un) ................... 50
EXERCISE-
TOTAL POSSIBLE 100 TOTAL
Opened fire within 15 seconds .............. 20
Completed within 75 seconds ............... 5
4 Fire commands, crew duties, and technique
Troops 100 Coax of fire (maximrni)...................... 25
Target effect (maximu)................... 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL
First round fired thin 15 seconds ........... 30
Fire commands and crew duties .............. 35
5 2 Completed within 45 seconds ............... 10
Antitank Main Gun Target hit ............................ 50
Additional target hit ..................... 30
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 155 TOTAL
Firstround fired within 15 seconds ........... 30
Fire commands and crew duties .............. 35
6 2 Completed within 45 seconds ............... 10
Moving Tank Main Gun Target hit ............................ 50
Additional target hit ..................... 30
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 155 OTAL
Opened fire in 20 seconds ................ 20
Completed within 1 minute ................. 5
7 SO5 Procedure and technque of fire (maxim)....... 25
Truck Cal .50 Each hit on target 10 points (maximum of
7 hits) ............................. 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL
Opened fire in 15 seconds ................. 20
Completed within 55 seconds ............... 5
8 Fire commands, crew duties, and technique
Moving 100 Coax of fire (maximum). ........... 25
Truck Each hit on target 10 points (maximunof
7 hits) ............................. 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL
First round fired within 15 seconds ........... 30
Fire commands and crew duties .............. 35
9 2 Completed within 45 seconds ............... 10
House Main Gun Target hit ............................ 50
Additional target hit ..................... 30
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 1955 TTAL

TOTAL SCORE
Minimum Satisfactory Score .................................. .......... 840 points.

EXAMINER
%Verifyingzeroof main gun and operational check of machineguns will be accomplished prior to first exercise.

Figure 136. Score card for table VIIIA.

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Table VIIIB
Possible score: 1,200
Minimum satisfactory score: 720

Range in No. of Method of


Exercise Weapon meters rounds Target description illumination Scoring

Verifying Main gun ____ 1,200 _____ 2a Zeroing panel Tank searchlight None
zero.
Operational Coax MG ____ 200-400 15 3x5-ft. panel _______ Tank searchlight None
check.
Operational Cal .50 MG ._ 500 ---- 10 3x5-ft. panel _______ Tank searchlight None
check.
1 Coax MG ____ 200-400 _ 100 Troops (14 E-type) _ Flare …--------- 120
2 Main gun 900-1,000_ 2- Tank (6x6-ft. panel) - Tank searchlight 155
3 Cal .50 MG _ 1,000-1,300_ 50 Troops (10 E-type) - Tank searchlight 100
4 Coax MG ---- 400-600 100 Troops (14 E-type) _ Tank searchlight 120
5 Main gun ____ 1,400-1,600_ 2b Antitank (6x6-ft. 3 illuminating 155
panel). shells.
6 Main gun ____ 900-1,100_ 2 a, Moving tank Tank searchlight 155
(6x6-ft. panel).
7 Cal .50 MG __ 800-1,000_ 50 Truck (3x5-ft. Tank searchlight 120
panel) *.
8 Coax MG 600-800 _ 100 Moving truck Tank searchlight 120
(6x6-ft. panel).
9 Main gun ____ 1,200-1,400_ 2b Antitank (6x6-ft. Tank searchlight 155
panel).

a-TP-T.
b-HE or HEP.
*One main gun, one coax MG, and one caliber .50 M eercise will be fired with infrared illumination in units equipped with
infrared-visible light kits.
**6x6-ft. panel used in those units with flexible mounted cal .50 machineguns.

b. The crew is required to move over a desig- c. Points for each exercise are given as fol-
nated course and engage a series of illuminated lows: (No partial credit is given except as in-
targets. A tank-mounted searchlight, hand- dicated.)
held or rifle flare, and mortar or artillery shells (1) Exercises 1 and 4.
are used for illumination. All firing crews are (a) Opened fire within 25 seconds: 20.
briefed on the conduct of the course and the (b) Completed within 90 seconds: 5.
tactical situation, including the mission of the (c) Fire commands, crew duties, and
tank crew. The briefing should include informa- techniques of fire (cut 5 points for
tion on what each type of target represents, each error): 25.
on illuminating procedures, and the announce- (d) Target effect (cut in increments of
ment of a battlesight should be made. The 10 points for failure to get target
sequence of the exercise may be varied to fit effect on each of the 7 portions of
existing range facilities. The main gun targets the target area): 70.
should be alternated so that the gunner will be
(2) Exercises 2, 5, 6, and 9.
required to change ammunition settings on the
computer, or refer to different range scale lines (a) First round fired within 25 seconds:
30.
on the range drum. An outline of the exercise
is shown in table VIIIB. The time for the ex- (b) Completed within 1 minute: 10.
ercise begins when the targets are effectively (c) Fire commands and crew duties
illuminated, as determined by the examiner. (cut 5 points for each error): 35.
In those instances when the crew has not identi- (d) Target hit with either round: 50.
(e) Additional target hit: 30.
fied the target before the opening fire time has
elapsed, the examiner will point out the target (3) Exercise 3.
and the crew will lose opening fire time. (a) Opened fire within 30 seconds: 20.
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(b) Completed exercises within 75 sec- pleting the exercise the tank com-
onds: 5. mander gives the order to move out.
(c) Procedure and technique of fire (3) Exercise 3 (troops). The target area
(cut 5 points for each error): 25. is illuminated with a searchlight tank
(d) Target effect (cut in increments of employing flicker illumination. The
10 points for failure to get target tank commander halts the firing tank
effect on each of the 5 portions of and engages the target with the cal-
the target area): 50. iber .50 machinegun. Firing must com-
(4) Exercise 7. mence within 30 seconds after the
(a) Opened fire within 30 seconds: 20. exercise begins. The exercise must be
(b) Completed within 75 seconds: 5. completed within 75 seconds. After
(c) Procedure and technique of fire completing the exercise the tank com-
(cut 5 points for each error): 25. mander gives the order to move out.
(d) Target hits (10 points for each tar- (4) Exercise 4 (troops). The target area
get hit, up to a maximum of 7 hits): is illuminated with a searchlight em-
70. ploying flicker illumination. The tank
(5) Exercise 8. crew engages the targets with the
(a) Opened fire within 25 seconds: 20. coaxial machinegun while the tank
(b) Completed within 1 minute: 5. is moving. Firing must commence
(c) Fire commands, crew duties, and within 25 seconds after the exercise
technique of fire (cut 5 points for begins. The exercise must be com-
each error): 25. pleted within 90 seconds.
(d) Target hits (10 points for each tar- (5) Exercise 5 (antitank). The target is il-
get hit, up to a maximum of 7 luminated by three illuminating shells.
hits): 70. The tank commander halts the firing
tank and the crew engages the tar-
d. After the tank crew has been ordered to get with the main gun. The first round
move out, the exercises are conducted as fol- must be fired within 25 seconds after
lows: the exercise begins. The second round
(1) Exercise 1 (troops). The target area is fired and points are awarded for
is illuminated by a flare or with a an additional hit. The exercise must
searchlight tank employing flicker il- be completed within 1 minute. After
lumination. The firing tank crew en- completing the exercise the tank com-
gages the targets with the coaxial ma- mander gives the order to move out.
chinegun while the tank is moving. (6) Exercise 6 (moving tank). The target
Firing must commence within 25 sec- is illuminated by a searchlight tank
onds after the exercise begins. The employing continuous illumination.
exercise must be completed within 90 The tank commander halts the firing
seconds. tank, and the crew engages the target
(2) Exercise 2 (tank). The target is il- with the main gun. The first round
luminated with a searchlight tank em- must be fired within 25 seconds after
ploying flicker illumination. The tank the exercise begins. The second round
commander halts the firing tank and is fired and points are awarded for
the crew engages the target with the an additional hit. The exercise must
main gun. The first round must be be completed within 1 minute. After
fired within 25 seconds after the ex- completing the exercise the tank com-
ercise begins. The second round is mander gives the order to move out.
fired and points are awarded for an (7) Exercise 7 (truck). The target is il-
additional hit. The exercise must be luminated with a searchlight tank em-
completed within 1 minute. After com- ploying flicker illumination. The tank
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commander halts the firing tank and istrative requirements. However, at least one
engages the target with the caliber target must be illuminated by illuminating
.50 machinegun. Firing must com- shells.
mence within 30 seconds after the ex-
ercise begins. The exercise must be g. Scoring will be as follows:
completed within 75 seconds. After (1) Scoring personnel will physically
completing the exercise the tank com- score exercises 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.
mander gives the order to move out. Exercises 1, 3, and 4 will be scored
(8) Exercise 8 (moving truck). The target by the examiner. When tank hulls or
is illuminated with a searchlight tank other hard targets are used for the
employing continuous illumination. main gun exercises, the examiner will
The tank commander halts the firing score target hits.
tank and the crew engages the target (2) The examiner determines the time for
with the coaxial machinegun. Firing each exercise.
must commence within 25 seconds
after the exercise begins. The exercise (3) The examiner scores the firing pro-
cedures of the crew. An appropriate
must be completed within 1 minute.
score card is shown in figure 137.
After completing the exercise, the
tank commander gives the order to
move out. 221. Crew Classification
(9) Exercise 9 (antitank). The target is Classification of tank crews is based on the
illuminated by a searchlight tank em- combined scores of tables VIIIA and VIIIB
ploying flicker illumination. The tank (para. 219 and 220). The indicated minimum
commander halts the firing tank and satisfactory score must be attained on each
the crew engages the target with the table, or a combined score of 1,800 points if
main gun. The first round must be the score on one table is below satisfactory, in
fired within 25 seconds after the ex- order for a classification of marksman or bet-
ercise begins. The second round is ter to be awarded. Arms qualification badges
fired and points are awarded for an are not awarded for crew classifications; how-
additional hit. The exercise must be ever, notations indicating crew position and
completed within 1 minute. After crew classification will be entered on individual
completing the exercise the tank com- qualification records.
mander gives the order to move out..
Cre'w clssification Score
e. Control measures are the same as for Total possible ____________________________ 2,400
table VIIB. Expert ________________________________--2,000
Sharpshooter ___________________________-
- 1,800
f. The method of illumination may be varied Marksman _-__-__---__ ___________. 1,560
to conform with local conditions and admin- Unqualified .-------------------------
Below 1,560

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UNIT TANK CREW
COMMANDER
DATE GUNNER

DRIVER

LOADER

1,200 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE VIIIB--CREW PROFICIENCY EXERCISES (NIGHT) POSSIBLE

NUMBER
EXERCISE OF ITEM AND POSSIBLE POINTS SCORE
ROUNDS
Opened fire within 25 seconds .............. 20
Completed within 1 minue and 30 seconds ...... 5
1* Fire command, crew duties, and technique of
Troops (.....
100 Coax fire (maximum ................... 25
Target effect (maximmn)................... 70

TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL


First rond fired within 25 seconds ........... 30
2 2 Fire commands and crew duties .............. 35
Tank Main Gun Completed within minute ................. 10
Target hit ............. : .............. 50
Additional target hit ............... ..... 30

TOTAL POSSIBLE 155 TOTAL


upenew tire wiLlin JU seconds .............. L
Completed within minute................. 5
3 50 Procedure and technique of fire (maxiwmu) ....... 25
Troops Cal .50 Target effect (maximimn)................... 50
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 100 TTAL
Opened fire within 25 seconds ........... 20
Completed within I minute and 30 seconds ...... 5
4 Fire commands, crew duies, and technique
Troops 100 Coax of fire(maximun) ...................... 25
Target effect (maximan) ................... 70
EXERCISE
TOTALPOSSIBLE 120
First round fired within 25 seconds........... 30
5 2 Fire commands and crew duties .............. 35
Antitank Main Gun Completed within minute ................. 10
Target hit ............................ 50
Additional target hit ........ 30.............
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 155 TOTAL
First rod lired within 2 seconds . .........
6 Fire commands and crew duties .............. 35
Moving 2 Completed within I minte ................. 10
Tank Main Gun Target hit ............................. 50
Additional target hit ..................... 30
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 155 TOTAL
Opened lire within U secnds .............
Completed within 1 mindte ...... ..... 5
7 50 Procedure and technique ol fire (maximm) ....... 25
Truck Cal .50 Each hit on target 10 points (maximin of
7 hits) .......... ................... 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL
Opened fire within 25 seonds ............. 20
Completed within minute ................. 5
8 Fire commands, crew duties, and technique
Moving 100 Coax of fire (maximtn) ...................... 25
Truck Each hit on target 10 points(maximun of
7 hits) ............................. 70
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 120 TOTAL
First rotnd fired within 25 seconds ........... 30
9 2 Fire commands and crew duties ............ .. 35
Antitank Main Gun Completed within 1 .................
minute 10
Target hit ................... 5.........
50
Additional target hit ............ ......... 30
EXERCISE
TOTAL POSSIBLE 155 TOTAL

TOTAL SCORE I

Minimum Saisfactory Score ............................................ 720 points

OFFICER IN CHARGE

*erifying zero Ior main gunand oerational checks for machineguns areaccomplished prior to firing exercise 1.

Figure 157. Score card for table VIIIB.

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CHAPTER 20

FAMILIARIZATION AND PRACTICE FIRING

Section I. FAMILIARIZATION FIRING

222. General Ammunition

a. The objective of a familiarization course Coaxial machine.un Cal .50 Main gun
is to give required personnel training in the ap-
Ball 4 1. 4-1, HE or
plication of the fundamentals in the conduct of Table MLB MLB MLB HEP TP-T
direct fire. A familiarization course does not
qualify them as gunners and it does not replace I-III a _____ 52
X b ___ 50 50 2 2
qualification firing. For personnel to fire famil-
iarization, see AR 370-5. Total __ 52 50 50 2 2

b. Before personnel are permitted to fire the a-Subcaliber firing is the same as tables I-111 section III, chap-
ter 18 except that the tables are fired only once.
familiarization course, a minimum of 28 hours b-Five rounds of TP T per tank will be required to establish
of preliminary instruction should be given cov- the zero of the tank gun, if it has not previously been established.
ering the following subjects: 8eventy-five rounds of coaxial machinegun and 50 rounds of caliber
.50 machinegun ammunition will be required per tank for zeroing if
(1) Weapons mechanical training: 6 hours. not accomplished previously.
(2) Turret familiarization: 8 hours. 223. Table I-111--Subcaliber Familiarization
(3) Conduct of fire (direct fire only): 4 Exercises
hours. a. The purpose of these exercises is to famil-
(4) Range card preparation and use: 4 iarize personnel with laying and firing the tank
hours. gun with a correct sight picture and adjusting
k5) Nonfiring exercises, including sight fire before firing service ammunition.
adjustment, direct laying, adjustment b. In these exercises the individual, as gun-
of fire, crew drill, manipulation exer- ner, will fire the subcaliber tables as prescribed
cises, and tracking and leading exer- in paragraphs 205 through 208 except that he
cises: 4 hours. will fire each table only one time.
(6) Tank crewman preliminary gunnery
examination: 2 hours. 224. Table IX-Service Familiarization Firing
Note. The preliminary gunnery examina- a. These exercises are designed to familiarize
tion must be successfully completed by per- the individual with the methods and procedures
sonnel before participating in firing exer- involved in firing tank weapons at stationary
cises (para. 187-204). targets. Firing commences from the established
c. Familiarization firing consists of firing zero for the main gun. Examiner personnel
tables I-III (subcaliber) and table IX (main zero the machineguns before service familiari-
gun and machinegun) one time only. Timing zation exercises.
and scoring is maintained for instruction and b. The exercises are conducted as follows:
information only. (1) First-round hit (primary sight). The
examiner issues an initial fire com-
d. Ammunition required to fire one indi- mand and indexes (announces on
vidual through the familiarization tables is tanks not equipped with a range
shown in the following chart. finder) the correct range. The indi-

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vidual as gunner, engages the target completed within 1 minute after the
with one round. He should obtain a command to fire.
first-round hit and complete the ex- (5) Caliber .50 machinegun exercise. The
ercise within 10 seconds after the examiner designates the target. The
command to fire. individual loads the caliber .50 ma-
(2) First-round hit exercise (secondary chinegun and engages the target,
sight). This exercise is fired and timed adjusting fire by observation of the
in the same manner as in the first beaten zone. The exercise should be
exercise except that the range is an- completed within 2 minutes after tar-
nounced and the secondary sight is get identification.
used. c. The exercises are scored as shown in table
(3) Primary method of adjustment exer- IX.
cise. The examiner issues an initial d. Points for each exercise are given as fol-
fire command and induces a 200-meter lows:
(yard) range error into the range (1) Exercises 1 and 2.
finder or announces an erroneous (a) Completed exercise within 10 sec-
range on tanks not equipped with a onds of the initial command FIRE:
range finder. The individual lays and 10.
fires two rounds, adjusting by the pri- (b) Target hit: 15.
mary method of adjustment if possi- (2)Exercise 3.
ble. The exercise should be completed (a) Completed exercise within 20 sec-
within 20 seconds after the command onds of the initial command FIRE:
to fire. 10.
Note. The second round is fired even (b) Target hit with second round: 15.
though a first-round hit is obtained. If the (3) Exercise 4.
individual is unable to sense the first round, (a) Completed exercise within 1 minute
he announces LOST, and the examiner
issues a subsequent fire command. The indi- of the initial command FIRE: 5.
vidual then fires the second round, using (b) Correct technique of adjustment: 5.
the alternate method of adjustment. No (c) Effective target coverage: 15.
additional time is allowed. (4) Exercise 5.
(4) Coaxial machinegun exercise. The ex- (a) Completed exercise within 2 min-
aminer issues an initial fire command utes of target identification: 5.
and the individual engages the target (b) Correct technique of adjustment: 5.
with the coaxial machinegun and ad- (c) Effective target coverage: 15.
justs the fire by observation of the e. See figure 138 for illustration of appropri-
beaten zone. The exercise should be ate score card.

Table IX
Possible score: 125
Range in meters No. of Method of
Exereise Target (yards) rounds Sight djustment Scoring

1 6x6-ft. panel ---------- 1,400-1,600 .. a1


.-.
1 .... Primary __- (First-round hit)----. 25
2 6x6-ft. panel ---------- 1,400-1,600 . . . 1t Secondary
a.... (First-round hit)----. 25
3 3xs-ft. panel . 1,200-1,400
......... ---..... b2 Primary __ Primary ........... 25
4 10 E-type ............. 500-800 - . .......
c50 Infinitye __ Primary ........... 25
5 10 E-type 1,000-1,200 -- d 50 Cal. 50 Primary . 25
..........

a-TP-T.
b-HE or HEP.
-Coaxial machincun. 4-1, MLB.
d-Cliber .50 maachinegn, 4-1. MLB.
e-Prinma sight i. used on tanks not uipped with aearate coaxial machinegun sight.

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UNIT NAME

DATE GRADE SN
125 POINTS
SCORE CARD: TABLE IX--SERVICE FAMILIARIZATION FIRING POSSIBLE
COMPLETED IN 1ST RD HIT OR 2D RD CORRECT
EXERCISE POSSIBLE TIME LIMIT TGT EFFECT HIT TECHNIQUE SCORE
1

2
3 TH
4
5
TOTAL SCORE
Notes. 1. Ten points for completing in following time limits:
Exercises 1 and 2: 10 seconds from initial command FIRE.
Exercise 3: 20 seconds from initial command FIRE.
Five points for completing in following time limits:
Exercise 4: 1 minute from initial command FIRE.
Exercise 5: 2 minutes from target identification.
2. Fifteen points for first-round hit in exercises 1 and 2 and for effective target
coverage in exercises 4 and 5.
3. Fifteen points for second-round hit in exercise 3.
4. Five points for correct technique of adjustment in exercises 4 and 5.

EXAMINER OFFICER IN CHARGE

Figure 138. Score card for table IX.

Section II. PRACTICE FIRING

225. General practice firing can be found in TA 23-100.


a. Tank gunnery practice firing is performed nery proficiency that has been attained. A
by personnel who have a current classification practice course does not requalify an individual
in tank gunnery as a result of firing the quali- or take the place of qualification firing. Prac-
fication course. The objective of a practice tice firing should be conducted at least once
course is to maintain and improve the gun- annually and, preferably, every training quar-
course is conducted. Ammunition available for ter except the quarter when the qualification
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course is conducted. Ammunition available for of the tables in the qualification course either
prractice firing can be found in TA 23-100. as written or as modified by the unit com-
mander. A practice course is devised on the
b. Crewmen who are eligible to participate
mar do ewig o pardticnatl basis of the needs of the unit and range facili-.
pr. .criewmengo
in practice firing may so withh no additional
tr aining except that considered necessary by ties, training time, and ammunition available
th aiuningt conScoring
ecethatder and timing are for instruction and in-
formation available. Scoring and timing are for
instruction and information only. At least one-
22'26. Practice Firing Exercises third of all practice firing should be conducted
Practice firing consists of firing any or all at night.

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PART SEVEN
OPERATION OF TANK RANGES

CHAPTER 21
ESTABLISHING TANK RANGES

Section I. INTRODUCTION

227. General manuals, and field manuals concerning weapons


a. Range firing is the type of training that and ammunition, local range regulations, and
most closely approximates the ultimate in com- unit SOP's.
bat-the destruction of the enemy. Realistic
training is achieved by the use of live ammuni- 228. Purpose
tion on organized ranges. Tank ranges are of
various types. Some are permanent, such as The purpose of this chapter is to-
those at armor training centers, while others a. Provide procedures and guidance for es-
are temporary. Range sites are designed for tablishing and conducting tank firing ranges.
specific purposes, types of weapons, and par-
ticular firing exercises. b. Supplement other publications by provid-
b. Commanders must understand and comply ing additional information and safety measures
with the provisions of AR 385-63, technical to be used in the conduct of tank firing ranges.

Section II. ESTABLISHING TANK FIRING RANGES


229. General necessary for the using unit to establish the
firing line and safety limits on the ground.
The area required for establishing a range
Each range is designed for specific purposes,
for firing tank guns is dependent upon the cali-
types of weapons and ammunition, and particu-
ber of the weapons, the types of ammunition lar firing exercises; it cannot be used for other
to be fired, and the exercises to be conducted.
types of firing unless approved by competent
authority. Requests to use such facilities must
230. Permanent Tank Firing Ranges include the information required by post range
A permanently established tank firing range regulations. Commanders or instructors in
is one that has been designated a post facility, charge of firing must be familiar with the es-
and for which there is a surface danger area tablished surface danger area diagram for the
diagram designating a firing line or area and range.
safety limits, both on a map of the area and
on the ground. Permanent ranges may exist in
various stages of completeness. Normally, if 231. Temporary Tank Firing Ranges
the range is used frequently, the firing line and A temporary tank firing range is one that
safetly limits will be clearly marked. However, has been approved for a particular tank firing
if the ranges are used infrequently, it may be exercise and, because of limited use or inter-
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ference with other ranges, has not been estab- Note. The maximum prescribed elevation is normally
lished as a permanent range. These ranges are 15' for direct fire. See AR 385-63 for exceptions and
designed for specific purposes or specific types for indirect-fire limits.
of weapons and ammunition. Normally a tem- k. Date of preparation.
porary range is established for firepower dem- 1. Preparing agency.
onstrations, live fire exercises and combat
ranges. Requests to establish and use a tem- m. Maps, to be included with overlay.
porary tank firing range (unlike permanent n. Miscellaneous information as required by
ranges) normally must be accompanied by a local regulations.
surface danger area diagram to inform range
personnel of the specific requirements and area 233. Establishing a Temporary Range
desired. When the request has been approved,
it is normally the using unit's responsibility to a. Range control must approve the surface
establish the firing line or area and safety lim- danger area diagram submitted by the officer
its on the ground. The procedure for conduct- in charge (OIC), before firing is conducted on
ing these type ranges is the same as for per- a temporary range. In establishing a temporary
manent range facilities, subject to any addi- range, the OIC must consider the following
tional restrictions or requirements imposed by factors:
the approving authority. (1) The firing line, or all main gun firing
positions if the tank moves between
232. Surface Danger Area Diagram target engagements, are surveyed to
an accuracy of 1/1000.
Requests for firing in any area for which (2) Safety limit markers designate the
there is no established range (or when the fir- firing limits of each range or firing
ing exercise to be conducted will not conform position, and are placed on the azi-
to the limitations of an established range) will
be accompanied by a surface danger area di4-
gram (fig. 139). This diagram is made in ovei-
lay form in accordance with AR 385-63, and
illustrates the firing line or area and safety
limits for firing a particular type weapon and
ammunition for specific exercises in a givep
area. It should include the following informa-
tion:
a. Date and time of firing.
b. Type of weapons and ammunition.
c. Moving or stationary vehicles.
d. Moving or stationary targets.
e. Coordinates of firing points or lines.
f. Azimuth of right and left firing limits.
g. Location of safety markers (coordinates).
h. Minimum range at which weapons will be
fired.
i. Maximum range at which weapons will
be fired.
j. Range of weapon at maximum prescribed
elevation (considering the ammunition to be
fired with the greatest range). Figure 139. Surface danger area diagram.

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OVERLAY: Tank Range No. 5.
MAPS: KENTUCKY, 1:25,000, FORT KNOX. PITTS POINT, COLESBURG,
and VINE GROVE.
(b) When possible, safety markers are
ORGANIZATION TO FIRE: 1/31 Armor. placed at the zeroing range for the
DATE AND TIME OF FIRING: 0730 to 1630 hours, 2 June 1960. tank so that they may be used for
TYPE OF WEAPON AND AMMUNITION: Caliber .30 and caliber .50 boresighting, and for adjustment of
MG-boll ond tracer; 90.mm gun-AP-T and HE-T.
Stationary tonks firing at field targets, stationar panels. and
target image coincidence (TIC) or
moving torgets. adjustment of internal correction
FIRING POINT COORDINATES: system (ICS). Safety markers also
Lef end-596101. Riiht end-597191.
are placed on the last terrain fea-
FIRING LIMITS:
Grid azimuth for left firing limit-1-.071 mils. ture visible from the firing line.
Grid azimuth for right firing limit-1,507 mils. (c) To designate the limits of fire on
Inn.r sofety marker (common impact area).
Outr safety marker.
combat ranges over rolling terrain,
MINIMUM RANGE: 100 yards for MG, and 500 yards for tank gun. painted poles about 5 feet high can
MAXIMUM RANGE OF WEAPON: Range of weapon firing cactridge, be used. These poles are placed ap-
AP*T. T33E7, at 15 degrees (267m)-12,800 yards. proximately every 200 meters along
MISCELLANEOUS:
Officer in charge of firing is responsible far raising and lowering
the left and right limits of fire,
range flag and manning roadblock as indicated. from the start to the end of the ma-
PREPARED: 18 Aug, 1963, 53, 1/31 Armor neuver area. These poles are in
addition to the safety markers men-
Sign..ture ___.,YnIt
d. L. SMITH tioned above.
Major, Armor
S3 (5) When a range is first established, an
Figure 139--Continued. airspace request must be forwarded
through channels, to prevent aircraft
muth (line) limiting the target angle from flying over the range. This nor-
(fig. 139). mally is accomplished by post range
(3) If survey equipment is not available, personnel.
the firing line, (firing positions) and (6) Targets must be positioned in the
safety limit markers are marked as impact area in a manner so as to
accurately as possible, using the larg- preclude tanks firing above the maxi-
est scale map available and an aiming mum allowable elevation when engag-
circle. ing the targets during all exercises.
(4) On ranges with a wide firing line,
inner safety markers are used to keep (7) Live fire exercises conducted on tem-
the firing within the impact area. If porary ranges require the officer in
two inner safety markers are used, charge, safety officer, and tank in-
tanks right of center on the firing line structor examiners to exercise ex-
use the left inner marker and the treme care that weapons are pointed
right outer marker as their safety into the impact area at all times, and
limits. Tanks left of center use the that all rounds land initially in the
right inner marker and the left outer impact area.
marker (fig. 139). (a) Mechanical stops can be used to
(a) To avoid confusion, inner and outer restrict the movement of the cupola-
markers are painted a different mounted caliber .50 machinegun for
color. Red and white poles are nor- elevation and deflection.
mally used for outer markers and (b) Chalk marks placed on the tank
black and yellow poles for inner turret will assist control personnel
markers. Safety markers are in restricting the movement of the
painted a design similar to that of turret in deflection.
barber poles and are of sufficient b. Field firing exercises or live fire exercises
size to be visible to the naked eye must be strictly controlled by the OIC. The OIC
from the firing line. (Solid color must insure that all personnel are instructed
safety markers may also be used.) on the problems involved in live fire exercises.
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CHAPTER 22
CONDUCT OF RANGE FIRING

Section I. PREPARATION AND DUTIES OF THE OFFICER IN CHARGE

234. Preparation e. How Will the Firing Be Conducted? The


An officer in charge (OIC) is designated for firing is conducted in accordance with a lesson
each firing range. When given the mission of plan prepared by the OIC. The OIC has many
conducting range firing, the officer in charge references available to assist him in preparing
analyzes his mission and begins planning to the lesson plan. The basic guidance for the
conduct the firing exercise. The range firing preparation of a lesson plan is found in FM
mission may be simply stated by the comman- 21-6. The procedures for range safety and
der to the OIC, or the commander may include range firing are listed in AR 385-63, and this
detailed guidance. In either instance, the OIC manual. For further assistance, the OIC re-
must determine the answer to the questions fers to the post range regulations, unit SOP,
who, what, when, where, and how. and training directives. Finally the OIC re-
fers to the technical manuals and field man-
a. Who Will Fire? The personnel to fire may uals pertaining to the weapons and ammuni-
be limited to the OIC's company, or it may be tion to be fired.
necessary for the OIC to conduct the firing ex-
ercises for personnel from other units in the 235. Planning Requirements
battalion or squadron. Occasionally, armor After the OIC has determined who, what,
units are required to sponsor and conduct fir- when, and where, he prepares a tentative plan
ing for many units of battalion size. for the conduct of range firing. He considers
b. What Type of Firing Will Be Conducted? the following requirements in his tentative
Armor units conduct qualification, familiariza- planning:
tion, and practice firing. The OIC determines a. Ammunition. The ammunition required
the exercises, and types of weapons to be fired. for tank gunnery firing exercises is stated in
c. When Will the Firing Occur? Normally paragraph 184. The OIC coordinates with the
ranges are tightly scheduled and units are noti- unit S3, to determine the availability of train-
fied well in advance of the dates for range fir- ing ammunition as authorized by TA 23-100.
ing. The unit's training schedule and post b. Tanks. The number of tanks required de-
range firing bulletin will indicate the dates for pends on the size of the firing line, and the
range firing. number of personnel to fire. Each crew if pos-
d. Where Will the Firing Be Conducted? The sible, fires from their assigned tank.
specific range or ranges will be designated to c. Targets. Targets are described in detail
the OIC. Firing is normally conducted from for each exercise in paragraphs 254-256. De-
permanent ranges (para. 230). However, if a pending on local policy, the OIC may be able to
temporary range is to be established, the pro- obtain the targets from a central range supply
cedure outlined in paragraph 231 is followed. In facility. If not available, the targets must be
addition to listing the dates for firing, the post constructed by unit personnel. Salvaged ve-
range firing bulletin will specify the ranges to hicles or equipment add realism to range firing
be used by the OIC, and the weapons and and should be used if available. The OIC should
ammunition that may be fired on the assigned designate a NCO to obtain the targets and
range. supervise placing them in the impact area.
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Finally, if a moving target is required, the responsibilities. The duties of the
OIC determines who is responsible for its oper- safety officer are outlined in para-
ation. graph 245.
d. Supplies. Special supplies and equipment (2) Noncommissioned officer in charge.
should be requisitioned well in advance of the The noncommissioned officer in charge
firing date. The unit supply NCO normally as- (NCOIC) supervises the various de-
sists the OIC in requisitioning and maintaining tails connected with range firing. The
the various items of range supplies. Special NCOIC may be the unit first sergeant
items to be considered by the OIC include stop or a platoon sergeant. Some of the
watches, public address sets, battery command- duties normally assigned to the
der scopes for scoring targets, and cleaning NCOIC are as follows: He insures
materials. that targets, supplies, and ammuni-
e. Transportation. Transportation require- tion are obtained and properly placed
quirements are coordinated with the unit S4. on the range. Personnel are normally
Personnel can move to the ranges on their moved between the firing line and con-
tanks, trucks, or a combination of both. De- current training under the super-
tailed plans should be made for transporting vision of the NCOIC. The NCOIC in-
ammunition to the range, and removing brass, sures that maintenance personnel are
wooden boxes, and trash from the range. The readily available at all times, and he
OIC works with the unit S4 or support platoon supervises the movement of spare
leader to insure that ammunition arrives on the tanks to the firing line on order of
range at the scheduled time. If necessary, the the OIC. After weapons have been
OIC organizes a detail to load and unload cleared by the safety officer disabled
the ammunition vehicles of the support pla- tanks are moved off the firing line,
toon. under the supervision of the NCOIC.
Personnel arriving after firing has be-
f. Medical Support. A trained aidman must gun, because of guard duty or fatigue
be present on all live firing ranges. In addition, duty report to the NCOIC. The
a vehicle capable of transporting a litter pa- NCOIC assigns them to firing tanks
tient must be present on the range. Normally, as directed by the OIC. Additionally,
a frontline ambulance is used; however, other the NCOIC will insure that personnel
types of vehicles such as the ¾%-ton truck, or required to leave before the end of
armored personnel carrier may be used. If the firing for guard duty, etc., are re-
aidman or litter vehicle leaves the range, fir- leased in sufficient time to report for
ing is halted until a replacement is obtained. the required formation.
Helicopter evacuation is available on many
posts in the event a serious injury occurs. The (3) Ammunition NCO. To insure that am-
procedure for requesting helicopter evacuation munition is obtained and properly
will be stated in the post range regulations. placed on the range, the OIC desig-
Medical support is arranged through the unit nates an NCO to work with the am-
S4 or battalion/squadron medical section. munition. This NCO works closely
with the members of the support pla-
g. Assistants. The OIC will require several toon to insure that the correct type
assistants to help him organize and conduct and amount of ammunition is placed
the range firing. The assistants must know on each range. A diagram should be
their jobs and understand exactly what the given to the ammunition NCO by the
OIC expects them to do. The assistants and OIC, illustrating the placement of am-
their duties are listed below. munition on the range (figs. 140 and
(1) Safety officer. The safety officer, 141). The ammunition NCO insures
normally a platoon leader from the that each tank to fire receives one lot
OIC's company, is responsible to as- number of main gun ammunition and
sist the OIC in carrying out his safety that empty wooden boxes are properly
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stamped and turned-in, in accordance OIC prepares a tentative plan for the conduct
with post supply procedures. of firing. Before the plan is finalized, how-
(4) Target NCO. The OIC designates one ever, he inspects the range to insure that the
noncommissioned officer to supervise range facilities will support the firing. The
the placement of targets in the impact following items are checked by the OIC during
area. The target NCO insures that the his reconnaissance.
targets are the size specified by the (1) The route and condition of roads and
OIC, and that they are placed at the bridges between the motor park and
correct range from the firing line. The the range are determined. Each post
OIC normally prepares a diagram normally has designated a prescribed
showing the location of targets in the tank route that must be followed.
impact area to assist the target NCO (2) The OIC uses the surface danger area
in correctly placing the targets. The diagram to insure that the firing line
target NCO insures that the moving is marked and that the safety markers
target is operable, if required, and or "barber poles" are positioned
that a trained operator is available. properly. On stationary tank ranges
Before entering the impact area, the the firing line may consist of a con-
target NCO checks with range control crete pad or an area covered with
to obtain permission. Upon leaving crushed gravel. Normally both ends
the impact area, he notifies range con- of the firing line are marked with
trol. poles driven into the ground. On mov-
(5) Tank instructors. Tank instructors ing tank ranges the firing points are
(examiners) are selected to control normally marked by painted poles
the firing on each tank and concur- placed in the ground alongside the fir-
rent training. Tank instructors must ing lane or road. The limits of the
be thoroughly trained in the proced- impact area are defined by the safety
ure for firing each exercise and safety markers or barber poles. If the safety
procedures. The tank instructors re- markers are missing, range control
quire extensive training to insure must be notified. The OIC determines
uniformity in the conduct of the fir- the number of tanks to be placed on
ing. Their duties are outlined in para- the firing line. Sufficient space is left
graphs 246, 247. between tanks to prevent obscuration
(6) Scorers. To insure uniform scoring of caused from firing to disturb the tanks
all targets, the OIC may form a scor- on either side of the firing tank. Dust
ing detail. This detail is responsible on the firing line can be reduced by
for scoring all firing as instructed by soaking the area with water, oil, or
the OIC. When the firing is conducted calcium chloride. Additionally, ade-
for many company or battalion size quate space between tanks will per-
units it may be necessary to appoint mit ammunition to be stacked as il-
an officer as chief scorer. This officer lustrated in figure 140. The control
supervises the scoring detail and cer- tower is checked by the OIC, or if a
tifies the posted scores. tower is not available the OIC may
(7) Mess personnel. Based on the train- use an armored personnel carrier as a
ing schedule, the officer in charge ar- control point.
ranges with the mess personnel to (3) The communication facilities on the
insure the troops are fed. The OIC range are checked. The OIC insures
may obtain and erect tents as tem- that he can communicate with range
porary mess halls on the firing ranges. control, either by telephone or radio,
as stated in the range regulations, and
236. Reconnaissance of the Range personnel in the impact area, such as
a. Based on his analysis of the mission, the target operators, demolition men, or
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scorers. If wire is layed into the outlining in detail the procedure for operating
impact area, the OIC insures that it the range. The lesson plan follows the format
is placed as far away from targets as outlined in FM 21-6 and includes the follow-
possible, to avoid having it "shot out" ing:
during the range firing. (1) Objectives and standards of the range
(4) The OIC checks the pole from which firing.
the red streamer will be displayed to (2) The exercises to be fired and the de-
insure that a streamer can be flown. tailed procedure to be followed.
(5) A misfire bunker will be located near (3) Plan for movement to and from the
the firing line. The OIC checks the range.
condition of the misfire bunker and (4) Schedule for firing and concurrent
notifies range control if it is in need training.
of repair.
(5) References.
(6) The OIC selects an area away from
the noise of the firing line for con- (6) List of necessary equipment and per-
current training, and a mess area. sonnel.
(7) The OIC checks the target area and (7) Annexes that may be prepared for the
prepares a diagram showing the following personnel:
placement of targets in the impact (a) Tank instructor guide.
area to be given to the target NCO. (b) Safety procedure or SOP.
(c) Diagram of placement of targets in
(8) The OIC or safety officer inspects each impact area.
range barrier shown on the surface
danger area diagram to insure that it (d) Guide for concurrent training (if
applicable).
is in serviceable condition, and can
be placed across the road before fir- (e) Diagram of organization of firing
ing. If a range guard is required, the line, showing placement of ammo,
OIC prepares a written list of in- tanks, etc.
structions to be given to the range b. The OIC gives a copy of the complete les-
guard. It may be necessary for the son plan to the safety officer and NCOIC.
range guards to be in contact with Other assistants receive copies of the annexes
range control by either radio or tele- pertaining to their duties. A copy of the lesson
phone. If this is required the OIC plan is normally available on the range to brief
provides the necessary communica- inspectors, or visiting personnel. The lesson
tions equipment. During inclement plan is used by the OIC to brief the firing
weather a shelter tent is used by the personnel. Additionally, the lesson plan pro-
range guard, if he is to remain in vides an excellent checklist that the OIC can
position for a considerable time. Ad- use to insure that all supplies have been loaded
ditionally, the OIC arranges with the and brought to the range.
mess personnel to feed the range
guards. 238. Preparation of Range Facilities
b. Upon his return from the range recon- a. After the OIC has inspected the range,
naissance, the OIC notifies the unit S3 or range completed his plans, and prepared his lesson
control of the deficiencies he noted on the range. plan, he insures that all deficiencies have been
The OIC insures that the deficiencies have been corrected. Before firing, the OIC checks the
corrected before the scheduled date of firing. post range firing bulletin, to insure that he has
authorization to fire the type of weapons and
237. Preparation of Lesson Plan ammunition required by his firing exercise.
a. After completing his reconnaissance of b. Before firing, the OIC conducts any neces-
the range the OIC finalizes his plan for the sary training for his assistants. Coordination is
conduct of firing. He prepares a lesson plan normally continuous with the S3 and S4, to in-
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sure that ammunition and transportation is in the impact area the day before firing. This
available. enables the target detail to work during day-
light, and assists them in placing the targets
c. Final planning before the day of firing is in the proper position. Although it is often
made with mess, supply, and maintenance per- necessary for the target detail to install tar-
sonnel. gets in the impact area during the hours of
d. If possible the OIC has the targets placed darkness it is not desirable.

Section II. CONDUCT OF FIRING

239. General the ammunition comprising the basic load. If


The duties of the OIC during range firing are ammunition to be fired is the same type as
presented in the following paragraphs. There found in the basic load, approval should be re-
is no set sequence in which the actions must quested to exchange with basic load. The OIC
occur, and they may be done simultaneously. may assist the safety officer in checking the
The procedure depends on the orders of the weapons. Tank crews will unbox the ammuni-
OIC, and the type of firing being conducted. tion and perform a prepare-to-fire check on
their tanks.
240. Required Publications c. Range guards are posted in accordance
The following publications are normally re- with post range regulations and the surface
quired on tank firing ranges: danger area diagram.
a. AR 385-63. d. All personnel to fire are given a detailed
b. Post range regulations. briefing by the OIC. The briefing is normally
given at a vantage point from which the firer
c. Surface danger area diagram. can see the firing line and the impact area.
The OIC normally places the references, the les- The briefing for field firing exercises tables
son plan, and pertinent manuals in a briefcase VIIA and VIIB and VIIIA and VIIIB may be
to protect them from the elements. given, using a sand table representation of the
range. The OIC discusses the purpose, objec-
241. Opening the Range tives, standards, and firing procedures to be
a. The OIC and his assistants may move to followed. The OIC reviews the tank gunnery
the range before the arrival of the firers, or techniques applicable to the type of firing be-
the company may road march to the range as a ing conducted. He discusses:
unit. The NCOIC normally supervises the place- (1) Initial fire commands.
ment of the tanks on the firing line and con- (2) Crew duties.
current training area. Any last minute details (3) Sensings.
or problems are resolved by the OIC with his
assistants on the range. The OIC normally (4) Methods of adjusting fire.
conducts a briefing for his assistants upon (a) Burst on target.
their arrival on the range. (b) Alternate method.
b. After the tanks have been positioned, and Safety precautions are given to the firers. If
the assistants briefed by the OIC, the safety the OIC desires, the safety officer may brief
officer inspects all weapons to be fired, and the the firers on proper range safety procedures.
DA Form 2408-4, "Weapon Record Data," if The safety precautions should be stated in the
the main gun is to be fired, (para. 245a(3)). If lesson plan, possibly as an annex (para. 237).
a basic load of ammunition is kept aboard the The OIC issues score cards to the firers at this
unit's tanks, a sufficient amount of the basic time.
load must be off-loaded to provide room for e. Before requesting permission to fire, the
ammunition to be fired. Care must be taken to OIC checks the following:
avoid mixing the ammunition to be fired, with (1) That all road guards or range guards
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have been posted, and the red ence. The misfire is reported in accordance with
streamer (blinking red light at night) the post range regulations. The OIC insures
is displayed. that the range is continuously policed during
(2) That a trained aidman, with first aid firing. Trash and empty cartridge cases are re-
kit, litter, and vehicle capable of moved by the ammunition NCO as vehicles are
transporting a litter patient is pres- made available.
ent on the range. d. If the firing cannot be completed within
(3) That all personnel are clear of the the time specified by the range firing bulletin,
impact area. the OIC calls range control and requests per-
(4) That no obstructions exist between the mission to continue firing.
firing line and impact area that may
cause a detonation of a filled projec- 243. Closing the Range
tile (HE-T, HEP-T, HEAT-T). a. Upon completion of firing the OIC insures
f. The OIC obtains permission to fire from that all weapons are clear, and that all live
range control. The name of the individual at ammunition (except basic combat loads) has
range control granting permission, and the been removed from the firing tanks. Normally
time of the conversation, are recorded by the the safety officer clears the weapon, or he may
OIC. This will avoid difficulties later in the be assisted by the OIC.
day if anyone questions the OIC's authority to b. The OIC notifies range control that firing
fire. has been completed. The OIC notes the name of
the individual at range control accepting the
242. Conducting the Firing Exercises message, and the time of the conversation.
a. The OIC controls the firing, and conducts c. The OIC critiques the firers. The weapons
the exercises according to his lesson plan. Per- are cleaned, after they have cooled, by the
sonnel move from the firing line to concurrent firers as outlined in the applicable technical
training on order of the OIC, under the super- manuals and lubrication orders.
vision of the NCOIC. d. During the firing, the ammunition NCO
b. All accidents are investigated by the OIC continuously separates the empty cartridge
or safety officer and necessary reports sub- cases, trash, and boxes. If the range is policed
mitted to higher headquarters. If it is neces- during the firing the amount of time required
sary to evacuate an injured firer, using the to clear the range after firing will be shortened.
litter vehicle, the OIC ceases firing until an- The OIC insures that all trash, empty cartridge
other litter vehicle is available on the range. If cases, etc., are removed from the range as ex-
available, the OIC may request a helicopter to peditiously as possible. Prior planning with the
evacuate injured personnel. S4 or support platoon leader will insure that
c. Misfires on the main gun are removed by the necessary vehicles are available. Ammuni-
the OIC or safety officer after the proper mis- tion is turned in as prescribed by local regula-
fire procedure has been followed. All personnel, tions.
except those necessary to remove the misfire e. The OIC prepares any reports required by
dismount from the tank. The OIC or safety local SOP. He insures that the number of
officer places the misfire in the misfire bunker, rounds fired through the main gun are prop-
and records the lot number for future refer- erly entered on the DA Form 2408-4.

Section III. DUTIES OF THE SAFETY OFFICER


244. General is to prevent any normally safe condition or
A safety officer (SO) normally is detailed to procedure from deteriorating into an unsafe
assist the officer in charge in fulfilling his act, whenever he sees such a possibility. The
safety responsibilities. The safety officer's 4duty safety officer assists the OIC in planning and
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conducting the firing. He may be from the same be fired, exceeds the estimated re-
unit as the OIC. maining life of the gun tube, ar-
rangements must be made to have
245. Duties of the Safety Officer Ordnance re-evaluate the remaining
Basic duties may vary, and are as stated by life of the gun tube.
the OIC. To assist the OIC the safety officer (b) That the recoil mechanism has been
may prepare the safety annex for the range exercised within the past 6 months,
firing lesson plan. During the range reconnais- either through firing or using a
sance the safety officer may assist the OIC by mechanical means as prescribed by
checking the misfire bunker, control tower, TB ORD 303.
pole for the red streamer, and any other items (4) After checking the weapons the safety
specified by the OIC. The safety officer may officer insures that the tank instruc-
also conduct training in range safety for the tors and firers know the safety limits
tank instructors, and firers. During the con- and the maximum allowable elevation.
duct of range firing, the safety officer will not He checks to insure that each firing
be assigned any duties that will interfere with tank has a green, red, and orange
his primary responsibility for range safety. flag. The flag sets are an item of
Normally the OIC and safety officer work OEM, and must be available as an
together checking weapons and handling mis- aid in controlling the firing.
fires. The duties of the safety officer are out- b. Conducting the Firing.
lined below:
(1) The safety officer normally operates
a. Opening the Range. from the control tower on stationary
(1) After the tanks have been placed on tank ranges. From this position, he
the firing line, and the OIC has com- has excellent observation of the firing
pleted briefing his assistants the line and impact area. Additionally, at
safety officer checks the weapons to the control tower the safety officer
be fired. The machineguns are checked has all the means of communication
by running a cleaning rod with a available to him. Hence, he can im-
clean patch through the barrel. This mediately correct personnel who may
procedure insures that the barrels are become careless on the firing line.
free of obstructions, and that any ex- (2) On moving tank ranges the safety offi-
cess oil is removed. cer normally rides in the control jeep
(2) The main gun is checked to insure that behind the firing tank. From the con-
it is free of obstructions, and there trol vehicle the safety officer can best
are no visible defects in the gun tube. supervise the firing and insure that
The bore evacuator and muzzle attach- proper safety procedures are followed.
ment (if present) are checked to in- (3) The safety officer displays a green flag
sure that they are properly secured. from the control tower or control ve-
(3) The safety officer insures that a DA hicle, until the OIC gives permission
Form 2408-9, "Proof Acceptance to commence firing. At this time the
Record," is present in the equipment safety officer then displays a red flag.
log book of each firing tank. He then (4) During the conduct of the firing the
checks the DA Form 2408-4 for the safety officer insures that the follow-
following: ing procedures are enforced:
(a) That there are sufficient rounds re- (a) Ammunition is handled correctly
maining to be fired from the main (para. 253).
gun to enable the tank to be used (b) Personnel mount and dismount from
throughout the firing exercise. If the tanks correctly.
the number of EQUIVALENT (c) No smoking near the tanks or am-
FULL CHARGE (EFC) rounds to munition.
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(d) Misfires are handled as stated in officer checks the following:
AR 385-63. (a) That all weapons are clear, and all
(e) Accidents are investigated promptly, ammunition (except basic combat
as ordered by the OIC. Accidents
are reported as directed by the OIC, loads) has been removed from the
or in accordance with the unit's firing tanks.
SOP. (b) That firing personnel do not have
(f) Weapons are pointed into the im- any live ammunition or ammuni-
pact area at all times, and are not tion components in their possession.
fired above maximum elevation. (c) That any rounds placed in the mis-
(g) Personnel are clear of the danger
area, except as authorized in AR fire bunker were reported in accord-
385-63 (target operators, scorers, ance with post range regulations.
demolition personnel). (2) The safety officer assists the OIC, in
(h) All range regulations are enforced. closing the range, and in addition to
c. Closing the Range. the above, he performs any other
(1) Upon completion of firing the safety duties ordered by the OIC.

Section IV. DUTIES OF THE TANK INSTRUCTOR/EXAMINER

246. General of recoil and keep their bodies entirely


The tank instructor on each firing tank acts inside the turret basket.
as a teacher or trainer during the practice part (6) Misfires are reported promptly to the
of the tank gunnery qualification course. For OIC.
record firing the tank instructor serves as the (7) DA Form 2408-4 is completed prop-
examiner. The tank instructor conducts the erly, and entries are correct for the
firing as directed by the OIC. Normally the OIC day's firing.
prepares an annex to the range lesson plan, (8) All live ammunition (except basic
listing step by step the procedures to be fol- combat loads) is removed from the
lowed by the tank instructor. In addition to tank upon completion of the firing.
training or examining the firers, the tank b. Tank Commander's Position.
instructor insures compliance with all safety
procedures. (1) Keep fingers off the firing trigger un-
less firing.
247. Safety Procedures (2) Be prepared to override the gunner
a. General. with power controls if he is commit-
ting an unsafe act (on tanks equipped
(1) No smoking near tanks or ammuni- with a tank commander's override).
tion.
(3) Remain clear of the recoil of main gun.
(2) No standing on top of the turret.
(3) Personnel mount stationary tanks on c. Gunner's Position.
a firing line from the right rear (right (1) Keep fingers off the firing triggers un-
center on tanks with exposed til ready to fire.
mufflers). (2) Do not fire unless target is clearly
(4) The driver be alert when personnel are identified.
mounting the tank on moving tank (3) Do not fire until after hearing the
ranges. Firers mount over the right loader announce UP.
front slope of the tank (opposite the (4) Select the proper firing switch.
coaxial machinegun). (5) Announce ON THE WAY and pause 1
(5) All personnel keep clear of the path second before firing.
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(6) In case of a misfire or stoppage, turn (4) Use the ramming and extracting tool
off the firing switch and announce to close the breech when a round is
MISFIRE (STOPPAGE). not being loaded, to remove a stuck
d. Loader's Position. round, and to chamber a round that
has failed to chamber during loading
(1) Insure that ammunition is properly of the weapon.
stowed and secured, and that the (5) Remain clear of the recoil of the main
primer is protected at all times. gun.
(2) Use asbestos gloves to handle hot (6) Remain clear of empty cartridge cases
brass. as they are ejected from the breech-
(3) Do not throw empty brass out of the ring.
turret unless the area alongside the e. Driver's position. Insure driver's head re-
tank is clear. mains clear of moving gun.

Section V. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND METHODS OF


CONTROLLING TANK RANGE FIRING
248. General the weapons and ammunition represent data
This section lists the safety precautions that within prescribed safety limits.
must be followed on all tank firing ranges. The c. The range must be scheduled for the type
safety requirements are given to the firers weapon and ammunition to be fired. This sched-
before the conduct of the range firing. The uling appears in the post range firing bulletin.
safety annex of the lesson plan can be pre- d. Range guards and barriers will be posted
pared, using this section as a guide. The con- as directed by local regulations.
trol methods presented in this section, are
those used on all tank ranges. e. A red streamer or blinking red light at
night, will be displayed during firing exercises.
249. Safety Precautions in Tank f. No firing of nonstabilized tank main
Range Firing armament during movement of the tank.
a. The commander of the unit or units that g. Firing over the heads of personnel from
are firing is the officer in charge (OIC). He is moving vehicles is prohibited.
responsible for the development of the maneu-
ver and the firing phase to insure rigid com- h. Weapons will not be loaded (or half-
pliance with range regulations and safety loaded) until a command to do so has been
rules and practices, and for establishment of an given.
overall safety program. The OIC procures i. Before machinegun firing, all bolts will be
from the range control officer the authorized opened and a cleaning rod with a dry patch
and assigned position areas or firing lines, im- run through, and removed from the muzzle
pact areas, and surface danger area. Addi- end of each machinegun barrel.
tionally the OIC is responsible for ascertain-
j. All trees or other obstructions in the line
ing the competence and for final acceptance of
of fire that might cause an explosion of an
safety officers. During Army training tests,
HE, HEAT, or HEP round at close range,
the chief umpire is the OIC; at all other times must be removed.
the OIC is as previously described.
b. The safety officer is the direct representa- k. Care must be taken when firing the cali-
tive of the officer in charge of firing and will ber .50 machinegun to preclude hitting the
not be assigned other duties while acting in main gun.
this capacity. He must be competent and prop- i. In emergencies, anyone may give the com-
erly instructed in the performance of his mand CEASE FIRE. Firing will cease im-
duties. He is responsible for the final deter- mediately, regardless of the source of the
mination that, before firing, settings placed on command.
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m. When CEASE FIRE is ordered, breech- safety officer in the control tower, and the
blocks will be opened, and machineguns un- tank instructors on the firing tanks.
loaded and the bolt held to the rear by lock- c. Wire is preferred for communication with
ing or with T-blocks. target operators, and demolition personnel in
Caution: If a round has been in a hot weap- the impact area. Wire can also be used to con-
on, and a cease fire is given, the tank instruc- trol searchlight tanks, when illuminating from
tor will not allow the round to be removed. In- a stationary position. In all cases, the OIC
stead, he notifies the OIC and requests permis- plans for at least two means of communication
sion to fire the round. If firing of the weapon with personnel in the impact area, to avoid a
is inadvisable, it is kept pointed at the target halt in the firing if one method of communica-
area. If the main gun is involved, the crew tion fails.
evacuates the tank until the weapon is cool. d. Within the tank, control is exercised by
n. After machineguns are fired and before use of the tank interphone system.
they are removed from the tank or dis- e. The flag displayed at the control point in-
mounted, each gun will be inspected to insure dicates whether firing may be conducted. A red
that it is not loaded. flag means firing may be conducted; a green
o. Tank weapons must always be elevated flag means firing may not be conducted.
after firing, so that any accidental discharge of f. The flags displayed on a firing tank indi-
the guns resulting from a failure to clear the cate the following:
guns will go above personnel moving about in (1) Red. Tank is engaged in firing. The
front of the tank. This procedure, however, weapons must be pointed at the tar-
does not eliminate the necessity for clearing get area.
the guns. (2) Green. All tank weapons are clear and
250. Communication and Control in Tank elevated. Any live ammunition in the
tank is properly stowed.
Range Firing Note. Normally ammunition is loaded
a. The post range officer normally controls aboard the tank when the green flag is dis-
all ranges by the use of wire or radio communi- played; however, this will be at the discre-
cation. The control system is for the purpose of tion of the officer in charge.
obtaining clearance to fire, making reports, co- (3) Orange. Tank has a malfunction. This
ordinating with other ranges, and ceasing fire. flag is used only in conjunction with
The range communication system allows for either the red or green flag.
immediate shutdown of all ranges in the event (4) Red and green. Tank is preparing to
of an emergency. fire. All weapons are clear, but not
elevated; the crew is performing a
b. The OIC controls firing by the use of nonfiring exercise.
signal flags, radio, telephone, pyrotechnics, pub- (5) Red and orange. Tank has a malfunc-
lic address sets, flashlights, and hand and arm tion or misfire, but the weapons are
signals. Signal flags are displayed at the con- not clear and they are pointed at the
trol point and on firing tanks during range target area.
firing. At night a series of predetermined (6) Green and orange. Tank has a mal-
flashlight signals can be used by the OIC or function. All weapons are clear.

Section VI. HANDLING OF MAIN GUN AMMUNITION


251. General information on ammunition is contained in
This section describes the handling of am- TM 9-1903.
munition on tank ranges. Ammunition must be 252. Arrangement of Ammunition and
properly handled to prevent damage to the Containers on Tank Firing Ranges
ammunition and injury to personnel. Detailed a. Ammunition boxes and expended
222 AGO 6398A
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Figure 140. Arrangement of ammunition and containers for stationary firing.

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cartridge cases for stationary tank firing are large part of the container and remove it from
stacked as shown in figure 140 and for moving the round, holding the round steady with the
tank ranges as shown in figure 141. other hand. Place one hand around the projec-
tile, pick up the round (primer end up), flip
b. Ammunition is laid on a tarp, with the off the cap, and place the right hand over the
projectile pointing down range, and stacked primer. Then carry the round in this manner
no more than two layers high. On stationary to the tarpaulin or the tank.
tank ranges, the front edge (toward the b. The proper method of unpacking and
muzzle) of the tarpaulin is kept free, so that
handling 105-mm ammunition packed in metal
it can be folded back over the ammunition, and containers is to first remove the safety clip.
the gun's muzzle blast will not uncover the am- Then turn the cap l/4-turn counterclockwise and
munition. remove. Use the same unpacking method as
stated for 90-mm and 76-mm ammunition for
253. Unpacking and Handling Ammunition 105-mm ammunition packed in fiber containers
a. The proper method of unpacking and and wooden boxes. The cartridge can now be
handling 90-mm and 76-mm ammunition is to removed from the container. Once the round of
remove the fiber containers from the wooden ammunition has been removed, handle it with
boxes, place cap end of container on the the primer up and cover it in the same manner
ground, and remove the tape. Pull up on the as 90-mm ammunition.

Section VII. TARGETS

254. General be constructed of metal, plywood, or some simi-


lar type of material. Any of these items in-
There are two general categories of targets
for tank gunnery ranges, those for subcaliber crease the permanency of the target and hits
can be determined more accurately. Olive drab
firing and those for service firing. Both types
are discussed in this section. cloth instead of white cloth may be used to in-
crease the difficulty of locating targets. When
targets are placed close to each other, a num-
255. Subcaliber Firing Targets
(fig. 142) ber, letter, or color code (or combination of
these) may be painted on the targets to fa-
cilitate target location and identification.
256. Service Firing Targets
(fig. 143) 257. Scoring
For qualification firing, the size of the tar- Whenever possible, targets are physically
gets must conform to the dimensions outlined scored in tank gunnery range firing. Marking
in each table. To add realism during service the holes in each target will avoid confusion in
firing, tank hulls or other salvaged vehicles scoring targets. Machinegun holes in silhouette
should be used as targets. Target panels may targets can be covered with pasters, or simply
be constructed to look like some type of com- marked with colored chalk or pencil. Main gun
bat vehicle, or vehicle silhouettes may be hits can be scored by marking each hole with
painted on panel targets, but the scoring of paint, or recording on a diagram each target
hits on such targets must be limited to an hit. Main gun hits may also be pasted over or
area of a size specified in the qualification patched.
tables. When panel targets without marking
are used in training, they should be designated 258. Target Layout Subcaliber Firing
as a specific type of combat target by the in- Subcaliber exercises are fired at a distance
structor or examiner, when appropriate, so of 60 meters. A single range site can be estab-
that the tank commander will be required to lished to facilitate the firing of all subcaliber
make a decision as to the type of ammunition tables at one location. A target layout for sub-
to use. In addition to cloth, panel targets may caliber firing is shown in figure 144.
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4-
J -j

2Q (Q3

FEET- 0

0 Q5

INITIAL LAY, BURST-ON-TARGET,


ZEROING SILHOUETTE AND AND ALTERNATE METHOD OF
RANGE CARD FIRE ADJUSTMENT SILHOUETTE

STATIONARY TARGETS

Figure 142. Targets for nubcaliber firing.

259. Target Layout Service Firing a. Stationary target range (fig. 145).
Service exercises are fired at distances up to b. Moving target range (fig. 146).
3,500 meters. To meet the requirements of tank e. Crew field firing range (fig. 147).
gunnery training, service ranges must be of
various types. d. Crew proficiency range (fig. 148).

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6'

Figure 142-Continued.

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BORESIGHTING AND ZEROING E-TYPE


TARGET FOR THE MAIN GUN
(USE 12 FEET X 12 FEET TAR-
GET WHEN POSSIBLE) 48 INCH BORESIGHTING AND ZEROING ZEROING TARGET FOR
CIRCLE FOR ZEROING. TARGET FOR THE CUPOLA- THE COAX MACHINEGUN.
MOUNTED MACH IN EGUN.

6'

IF
ii
E-TYPE F-TYPE
1* a·I6'

MAIN GUN TARGETS MACHINEGUN TARGETS


(CAN BE USED ALSO AS MACHINEGUN TARGETS)

Figure 143. Targets for service firing.

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TARGET LAYOUT FOR SUBCALIBER EXERCISES, TANK


GUNNERY QUALIFICATION COURSE

ADJUSTMENT OF FIRE
CAn.LIGr CvCflCFtC EXERCISES
LEROInt
6 6 iN

' ,' ' A '..


I I I""I ' I I I I I I 1
INITIAL LAY MOVING TARGET , MOVING-TARGET TRACK
EXERCISES EXERCISES
I
I
ITABLE I I L TABLEi'J' TABLE m -
I

60 METERS I I
I II
I I II
I I II
I
I
IIl
III
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I II
_ I _

II

FIRING LINE

Figure 144. Subcaliber range layout.

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OUTER
OUTER SAFETY
SAFETY MARKER

Figure 145. Stationary target range layout.

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SAFETY PERMITTING, SEARCHLIGHT TANKS MAY BE PLACED TO THE


SIDES AND DOWN RANGE TO PROVIDE EFFECTIVE ILLUMINATION.

Figure 146. Moving target range layout.

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Figure 147. Crew field firing range layout.

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Figure 148. Crew proficiency range layout.

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APPENDIX I
REFERENCES

1. Field Manuals
FM 6-40 Field Artillery Cannon Gunnery.
FM 6-135 Adjustment of Artillery Fire by the Combat Soldier.
FM 17-1 Armor Operations.
FM 17-15 Tank Units, Platoon, Company, and Battalion.
FM 17-30 The Armored Division Brigade.
FM 17-79 Tank, 90-MM Gun, M48.
FM 17-80 Tanks, 76-MM Gun, M41 and M41A1.
FM 17-95 The Armored Cavalry Regiment.
FM 20-60 Battlefield Illumination.
FM 21-5 Military Training.
FM 21-6 Techniques of Military Instruction.
FM 21-30 Military Symbols.
FM 23-55 Browning Machineguns, Caliber .30, M1917A1, M1919A4.
FM 23-65 Browning Machinegun, Caliber .50 HB, M2.

2. Technical Manuals
TM 9-1300-203 Ammunition for Antiaircraft, Tank, Antitank, and Field Artillery Weap-
ons.
TM 9-1305-200 Small-Arms Ammunition.
TM 9-1900 Ammunition General.
TM 9-1903 Care, Handling, Preservation, and Destruction of Ammunition.
TM 9-2350-201-12 Operators and Organizational Maintenance Manual, Tank, Combat, Full-
Tracked, 76-MM Gun, M41, M41A1, and Trainer, Tank Gunnery, 76-
MM Gun, M17.
TM 9-2350-215-10 Operator's Manual, Tank, Combat, Full-Tracked: 105-MM Gun, M60 and
M60A1 w/e; and Trainer, Tank Gunnery, Medium, XM30.
TM 9-2350-224-10 Operator's Manual, Tank, Combat, Full-Tracked, 90-MM Gun, M48A3.
TM 9-6166 Operation and Organizational Maintenance, Aiming Circle, M2.
TM 9-7012 Operational and Organization Maintenance, Tank Combat, Full-Tracked,
90-MM Gun, M48 and M48A1 and M48C, and Tank, Combat, Full-
Tracked, Flamethrower, M67.
TM 9-7022 Operator and Organizational Maintenance Manual, Tank, Combat, Full-
Tracked, 90-MM Gun, M48A2, and M48A2C; and Tank, Combat, Full-
Tracked, Flamethrower, M67A1.
TM 38-750 Army Equipment Record Procedures.
3. Regulations
AR 320-5 Dictionary of United States Army Terms.
AR 320-50 Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes.
AR 370-5 Qualification in Arms (Qualification and Familiarization).
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AR 385-63 Safety (Safety Regulations for Firing Ammunition for Training, Target
Practice, and Combat).
AR 672-5-1 Awards.

4. DA Pamphlets
DA Pam 108-1 Index of Army Motion Pictures, Film Strips, Slides, and Phono-Record-
ings.
DA Pam 310-Series Military Publications (Indexes).

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APPENDIX II
TANK IN THE ARTILLERY ROLE

1. General concealed if possible, are required to


Tank guns are not normally used in the allow tanks to be moved without delay
artillery (indirect fire) role. This is due to the and to permit resupply.
high velocity, flat trajectory, and short tube (3) Provide hardstanding with level
life of tank guns and the small bursting radius ground.
of the ammunition. However, under exceptional (4) Permit, 6,400-mil traverse, so that
circumstances, a command decision may be tank crews can fire in any direction.
made to employ tanks in an indirect-fire role (5) Allow proper dispersion of tanks.
under the operational control of the supporting b. To occupy a firing position rapidly and
field artillery. The tank unit may either be at- smoothly, the platoon leader's tank moves in
tached, or given a reinforcing mission. The field on the right with each succeeding tank taking
artillery unit is responsible for fire control, position to the left. Tanks are positioned ap-
communication, and survey. Whether attached proximately 35 meters apart laterally, but not
or reinforcing, the tank unit must retain the in a straight line; staggering the tanks pro-
capability of immediately reverting to its pri- vides fire coverage in depth, permits firing to
mary role of offensive combat. Therefore, the the flanks, and provides passive defense against
tank unit's basic load will not be used for in- enemy fire (fig. 50).
direct fire, and when such employment is con-
templated, ammunition is stockpiled before- 3. Determining Minimum Elevation
hand. The tank platoon is the basic fire unit in a. General. Upon occupation of the position,
an artillery fire role. The tank platoon leader the crew of each tank determines minimum
or company commander is normally responsible elevation. Minimum elevation is the lowest ele-
for selecting and occupying a firing position vation at which the gun can be fired with as-
and for laying the tank guns parallel. surance that all projectiles will clear the mask
to the front, including allowance for the safety
2. Selection and Occupation of of friendly troops occupying the mask, when
Firing Positions
appropriate. Tanks are not permitted to fire
a. When selecting a position for artillery- below minimum elevation.
type fire, the commander of the tank unit con-
b. Determining Minimum Elevation for the
siders the immediate mission, future mobile
missions, and the security of his command. Tank. The crew determines minimum elevation
The following are characteristics of a good fir- for a tank gun by combining the following fac-
ing position for tanks in the artillery role: tors:
(1) Angle of site to mask. This is the
(1) Located so fire can be placed on tar- angle between the horizontal and the
gets in the assigned sector. The posi- line of the bore when the gun is laid
tion must be well forward, behind a on the highest point of the mask (fig.
mask providing cover, but not so near 151). Determine it as follows:
a hill mask that close-in targets can- (a) With the breech open, the loader
not be engaged (fig. 149). sights along the bottom of the
(2) Located so tank units can revert tube as the gunner elevates the gun
rapidly to their primary role of offen- until the loader's line of sight just
sive combat. Multiple access routes, clears the highest part of the mask.

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Iz

4,2

4;

I-

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2
I R
3
APPROX
75
METERS
L - - a

APPROX 140 METERS

Figure 150. Positioning platoon for indirect fire.

The loader continues to sight along (2) Elevation for range to mask. Deter-
the bottom of the tube while the mine the elevation for range from the
gunner traverses the gun between firing position to the top of the mask
the limits of the firing sector to in- for HE or HEP ammunition as fol-
sure that the highest part of the lows (fig. 151):
mask has been selected. (a) Determine the range to the mask by
(b) With the gun laid on the highest the most accurate means available.
point of the mask, the gunner (b) Obtain the mil elevation for that
measures the existing elevation of range from the tabular firing table
the gun by using the gunner's (or the ballistic computer), and
quadrant. This reading is recorded record it to the nearest one-tenth
to the nearest tenth of a nil as the of a mil as elevation for range to
angle of site to mask. mask.
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A. ANGLE OF SITE (TO MASK) (ANGLE 1)

B. ELEVATION FOR RANGE (ANGLE 2)

... C.EARANCE FACTOR (ANGE 3)

C. CLEARANCE FACTOR (ANGLE 3)

D. TROOP SAFETY FACTOR (ANGLE SUBTENDED


BY S METERS AT THE RANGE TO THE
MASK) (ANGLE 4)

E. MINIMUM ELEVATION IS THE SUM OF.


THE FOUR ANGLES.

Figure 151. Determining minimum elevation.

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(3) Clearance factor. To insure positive Note. Minimum distances from objects
clearance of the mask when firing, re- presenting magnetic attraction:
High tension power lines _ 150 meters.
cord a 2-mil clearance factor (fig.
Tanks, armored vehicles _ 75 meters.
151). Trucks, or telegraph lines __ 40 meters.
(4) Troop safety factor (fig. 151). If the Barbed wire, steel helmets,
mask is occupied by friendly troops, small arms, etc. _ ______10 meters.
include a safety factor in the mini- Employ the following procedure to
mum elevation. The safety factor con- lay tank guns parallel on a grid azi-
sists of the value, expressed in mils, muth:
of a height of 5 meters at the range (a) The aiming circle operator sub-
to the mask. Determine it by using the tracts the given grid azimuth from
mil relation (para. 156). the declination constant of the in-
strument, adding 6,400 mils if
c. Computation of Minimum Elevation (fig. necessary; for example:
151). When the mask is not occupied by 1. Declination constant is 200.
friendly troops, the minimum elevation con- 2. Announced azimuth is 4,000.
sists of three elements: 200 declination constant
(1) Angle of site. +6,400
(2) Elevation for range to mask. 6,600
(3) 2-mil clearance factor. -4,000 Grid azimuth
When the mask is occupied by friendly troops, 2,600 Clockwise angle between
the minimum elevation consists of four ele- the given grid azimuth
ments: and magnetic north.
(1) Angle of site. (b) With the instrument level, the oper-
(2) Elevation for range to mask. ator indexes the result on the azi-
(3) 2-mil clearance factor. muth and micrometer scales. Using
the lower motion, he centers the
(4) Troop safety factor. compass needle. The 0-3,200 line of
If the sum of the elements is fractional, round the aiming circle is now pointing
off the sum to the next higher whole mil. along the given grid azimuth.
d. Platoon Minimum Elevation. Each tank (c) The operator then commands AIM-
commander reports his minimum elevation to ING POINT THIS INSTRUMENT,
the platoon leader as soon as it is determined. DIRECTION OF FIRE ... (points
The highest minimum elevation reported is in the direction of fire). Subsequent
established as the minimum elevation for the procedure and commands are iden-
platoon and is recorded by each tank comman- tical to those stated in (2) below.
der for reference. When a tank commander/ This procedure can also be used
gunner receives a quadrant elevation that falls when tank guns are to be laid
below the established platoon minimum eleva- parallel on a magnetic azimuth, by
tion, he ceases fire and announces BELOW first converting this azimuth to a
MINIMUM ELEVATION. grid azimuth, and then following
the steps outlined in (2) below.
4. Laying Tank Guns Parallel (2) Tanks and target (or reference point)
a. Aiming Circle Method. visible. When the tanks and the target
(1) Laying for direction by grid azimuth area are both visible to the aiming
(aiming circle method). When tanks circle operator, use the following pro-
are to be laid parallel on a grid azi- cedure:
muth and an aiming circle is used for (a) The operator levels the aiming
this purpose, set up the instrument circle and zeroes the azimuth and
at a point that is sufficiently distant micrometer scales. Using the lower
from all magnetic attractions. motion, he sights on the target (a

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point in the target area or a refer- the resetter knob. Aiming stakes
ence point in line with the firing may be placed out for each tank.
position and the target). He then When every tank has completed this
commands AIMING POINT THIS procedure the tank guns are layed
INSTRUMENT, DIRECTION OF parallel in the direction of fire.
FIRE . . . (points out direction of
fire). b. Reciprocal Laying. If an aiming circle is
(b) Each gunner lays the boresight not available, tank guns can be laid parallel in
cross of his telescope on the tele- the direction of fire by reciprocal laying. Re-
scope reflector or center of the aim- ciprocal laying is a procedure by which the
ing circle, using his gun controls. 0-3,200 line of an instrument (azimuth indi-
The azimuth indicator is then set cator, etc.) and the axis of the tube of a weap-
at zero with the resetter knob. on are laid parallel, or the tube of one weapon
When this has been accomplished, is laid parallel to another and in the same di-
the tank commander announces rection, or the 0-3,200 line of one instrument
NUMBER (ONE), READY. is laid parallel to another.
Note. The hand light can be used to (1) The gunner of the base tank (number
illuminate the reflector on the aiming three tank) alines his telescope in the
circle to aid gunners in laying at night.
direction of the target by laying on a
(c) Using the upper motion, the aiming point that is in line with the target, or
circle operator lays the vertical line by laying on aiming stakes placed in
of the telescope reticle on the center line with the target. The gunner then
of the telescope port of tank num- zeroes his azimuth indicator.
ber one.
(d) The aiming circle operator reads (2) The tank commander of the base tank
the existing deflection from the azi- commands NUMBER TWO, LAY ON
muth and micrometer scales and an- ME, and the gunners of the center
nounces: (base) tank and tank on the immedi-
Example. NUMBER ONE, DE- ate right (number two) traverse un-
FLECTION ONE til both telescopic sights are alined
THREE FOUR ZERO. on each other.
Note. It may be necessary to take this (3) The tank commander of the base tank
reading from the lower scales of the aim- points in the direction of fire and
ing circle in order to obtain a deflection announces his existing azimuth indi-
announcement of less than 3,200 mils.
The aiming circle operator repeats cator reading.
this process for each tank. Example. NUMBER TWO, DEFLEC-
TION ONE THREE
(e) The tank commander repeats the de- FOUR ZERO.
flection reading received from the
aiming circle operator. The gunner (4) The tank commander receiving the
traverses his turret until the azi- command repeats it so that the tank
muth indicator reading corresponds commander who originated the de-
to the announced deflection. flection can hear it and announce a
Note. Repeating an announced deflec- correction if it was repeated errone-
tion permits the aiming circle operator to ously. The tank commander of the
detect errors and allows him to issue tank being laid parallel adds the direc-
corrections immediately. tion of fire (LEFT or RIGHT) to the
(f) As each tank is laid the aiming command that he received. The gun-
circle operator commands AIM- ner of the right tank (number two)
ING POINT, AIMING POST, DE- indexes the announced reading on the
FLECTION ZERO, REFERRED. azimuth indicator by using the reset-
Upon this command, each gunner ter knob. He indexes the deflection
zeroes his azimuth indicator, using reading on the scale opposite to the
AGO 6398A 241
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direction of fire. For example, if the request of the observer. The initial fire com-
gun must be traversed right to move mand originates at the fire direction center and
toward the desired direction of fire, consists of six elements, issued in the same
then the left half of the azimuth scale sequence as the initial fire command for direct
is used. He then traverses the turret fire.
in the prescribed direction until zero
is indicated on the azimuth indicator. a. Alert Element. This element alerts the
The gun of the right tank is now unit for the fire mission and designates the unit
parallel to the gun of the base tank or tanks to fire. The base tank fires alone when
and the direction of fire. The crew of an adjustment is necessary; the remainder of
the base tank repeats this procedure the tanks follow the commands but do not fire.
to lay the gun of the tank on the left This is announced as PLATOON ADJUST,
(number four). Tanks 2 and 4 then NUMBER THREE. If no adjustment is neces-
lay tanks 1 and 5 in the same manner
sary, the command PLATOON is given, or the
used by the base tank.
number designation of tanks to fire is an-
5. Initial Fire Command nounced, followed by FIRE MISSION. The
The initial fire command for tanks employed alert element further indicates whether VOL-
in an artillery role is based on the initial fire LEY or SALVO fire will be employed.

I I
I
I I
4l
I

'i- A_
I = I
I
I
I I

II

Il

1[i
I,
Figure 152. Sheaf--nornal (dotted line) converged (solid line).

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Note. In radio communications the callwords are direction is announced as DEFLEC-
used in place of unit designation or tank number. TION 124 LEFT, or if 124 mils right
(1) Volley fire. This is the firing of a speci- of the registration point, as DEFLEC--
fied number of rounds by each firing TION 3076 RIGHT.
tank. Once the initial command to fire (2) To fire a converged sheaf (a fire pat-
has been issued, the number of rounds tern where all bursts in the target
specified are fired rapidly without any area are planned to occur at a common
further command. Normally, volley point (fig. 152) ) each tank is given a
fire is employed if the type of fire is separate deflection.
not specified. Example. To fire at a target that is
(2) Salvo fire. This is the successive firing on a deflection of 3076 R for the base
by two or more tanks at a prescribed tank (number 3), the following com-
time interval. The command for salvo mand is given: CONVERGED
fire is SALVO RIGHT (LEFT). Upon SHEAF, NUMBER ONE, DEFLEC-
receipt of the command FIRE, the TION 3090 RIGHT; NUMBER TWO,
right (left) flank tank of the unit DEFLECTION 3083 RIGHT; NUM-
fires, followed in 2-second intervals BER THREE, DEFLECTION 3076
by each adjacent tank in succession. RIGHT; NUMBER FOUR, DE-
To vary the time interval it is neces- FLECTION 3069 RIGHT; NUMBER
sary to specify the time. For example, FIVE, DEFLECTION 3062 RIGHT.
PLATOON, SALVO RIGHT, FIVE- This fire pattern is used only when
SECOND INTERVAL. firing for effect.
b. Ammunition Element. The ammunition e. Range Element. When an elevation quad-
element is announced in the standard term- rant is used, range is announced as quadrant
inology used for direct fire. In addition, when elevation to the nearest mil. If a gunner's
FIRE FOR EFFECT is ordered, the number quadrant is used, quadrant elevation may be
of rounds to be fired is announced. announced in tenths of mils at the discretion
of the fire control officer. Quadrant elevation
c. Description Element. This is announced is announced as QUADRANT PLUS (SO
for morale purposes and to maintain uni- MUCH) if plus and QUADRANT MINUS (SO
formity with the initial fire command for di- MUCH) if minus.
rect fire. f. Execution Element. Tanks fire at the com-
d. Direction Element. mand of the fire control officer (FCO). The
(1) To fire a normal (parallel) sheaf (a command to fire is preceded by the announce-
pattern where the lines of fire are ment AT MY COMMAND. When tank com-
parallel proportionately to the dis- manders of all firing tanks have signified
tance between firing tanks, normally readiness by giving the proper hand (flag)
35 meters (fig. 152) the direction ele- signal or by announcing READY, the FCO
ment is announced as a deflection commands FIRE. The individual tank com-
(azimuth indicator reading) left or mander uses hand (flag) signal to signify when
right of the registration point (zero rounds are fired.
deflection). Thus, when a target is Examples of initial fire command - Tanks
124 mils left of the registration point, employed in the artillery role.
Alert PLATOON ADJUST, NUMBER 3 PLATOON, FIRE MISSION
Ammunition HEP 2 ROUNDS HE
Description TROOPS TRUCKS
Direction DEFLECTION 2814 RIGHT DEFLECTION 66 LEFT
Range QUADRANT PLUS 116 QUADRANT PLUS 88
Execution AT MY COMMAND .. . FIRE AT MY COMMAND ... FIRE

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Alert NUMBER 2, 3, AND 4, PLATOON, SALVO RIGHT
FIRE MISSION
Ammunition 3 ROUNDS HE 1 ROUND HEP
Description ANTITANK TROOPS
Direction DEFLECTION 44 LEFT DEFLECTION 1234 LEFT
Range QUADRANT PLUS 52 QUADRANT PLUS 120
Execution AT MY COMMAND ... FIRE AT MY COMMAND ... FIRE

6. End of Mission a. Alert. All tank crews designated to fire


When a fire mission has been completed, the or adjust are alerted for the fire mission. Crew-
fire direction center announces CEASE FIRE, men assume their positions and prepare to
END OF MISSION, indicating that no further follow commands. The tank commander re-
firing will be accomplished. peats each element of the fire command to the
crew.
7. Subsequent Fire Commands b. Ammunition. All loaders select the desig-
a. When the tank is used in the artillery nated ammunition and set the fuze, if neces-
role, subsequent fire commands are given for sary. Only the tanks designated to fire are
the adjustment of rounds. The subsequent fire loaded; commanders of nonfiring tanks an-
command follows the same sequence as the nounce DO NOT LOAD before repeating the
initial fire command and, with the exception of ammunition element of the fire command.
range (QE) and execution (always given), Loaders announce UP when the gun is loaded.
includes only those elements that have changed c. Description. Tank commanders repeat
from the initial or preceding subsequent fire this element to the crew.
command.
d. Direction. All gunners traverse in the
b. The following example outlines the appropriate direction until the announced de-
various elements of a subsequent fire com- flection is indexed on the azimuth indicator.
mand and provides examples of their employ- The gunner then repeats deflection.
ment.
Element When announced
e. Range. All gunners index the announced
quadrant elevation and then center the bubble
Alert ______Tanks to fire a given mission
have been changed, i.e., in the quadrant, using the manual elevation
tank number 3 fired for controls. The bubble must be centered after
adjustment; all tanks in the gun has been loaded to insure an accurate
lay of the weapon. The gunner now repeats
the platoon are now to fire
for effect. quadrant reading. Tank commanders of firing
Ammunition ___When a change in the type of tanks signify their readiness by announcing
ammunition or fuze is de- READY or by giving a prearranged signal to
sirea. the fire control officer (FCO).
Description ___ Not repeated during the same f. Execution. After announcing AT MY
fire mission. COMMAND and receiving the appropriate
Direction When changed. READY signal from all tank commanders, the
Range ___-- Always announced. FCO commands FIRE. Gunners announce ON
Execution -____Always announced. THE WAY and fire; the FCO in turn, reports
ON THE WAY to the observer. After firing
8. Crew Firing Duties, Tank in the the initial round, successive rounds are fired
Artillery Role as specified in the fire command. When more
To obtain speed in firing while retaining than one volley has been ordered, the loader
accuracy, tank crews perform firing duties in loads immediately after the gun is fired. The
a logical sequence as the fire command is is- gunner checks his lay after the gun is loaded,
sued. Each element of the fire command re- re-lays if necessary, and announces READY to
quires specific actions by the crew. the tank commander. All subsequent com-

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mands to fire are given by the tank com- checks the lay of the gun, turns off the gun
mander; the crew continues to fire rapidly switch, and stands by. Tank commanders re-
until the specified number of rounds are ex- port, or signal ROUNDS COMPLETE to the
pended. After the last round is fired, the FCO, or inform him of any malfunctions, such
loader stands by, but does not load; the gunner as misfires.

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INDEX

Pararaphbs Page Paragraphs Pages


Accurate laying and firing _____ 56, 86 51, 73 Ammunition-Continued
Acquisition, target ____________ 65-70 60 Element (with weapon or
Conduct of exercises ------ 178 154 searchlight) in fire
Course layout -____________ 177 153 commands:
Platoon ................. 119 105 Direct fire _____.____ 78 67
Responsibilities and duties Platoon -------------- 125 112
of crew _______________ 66 60 Range card lay _______ 111 98
Training ---------- --- _ 176 153 Tanks in the artillery
role ____-__.________ App. II 236
Actions of individual tanks in For qualification firing ---- 184 158
massed fire _________-______ 121,122 106 Machinegun:
Machinegun:
Adjustment of fire tank crew: Belting __-_-_-__-_____ 31-34 27
Direct fire: Cartridge types, cal .30_ 33 28
Initial fire commands __ 76 67 Cartridge types, cal. 50_ 34 29
Leading _______----_-- 79 69 Cartridge types, 7.62-mm 32 28
Machineguns: Identification --------- 35 29
Coaxial -------------- 6 4 Special uses - -____________
24, 94-96 22, 86
Caliber .50 ----------- 7 6 Tank gun:
From a moving tank ___ 6 4 Classification --------- 11 9
Moving targets: Fuzes ............... 10, 12-14, 8, 10, 14,
Alternate method ----- 92 79 17, 20-21 19, 22, 23
Primary method ------ 91 79 23, 24, 26
Stationary targets: Lot numbers ______________ 29 25
Alternate method ----- 92 79 Painting and marking --_-- 29, 31, 35 25, 27, 29
Primary method ______ 91 79 Projectiles:
Subsequent fire Antipersonnel,
command ___________ 92 79 antimateriel -------- 11, 19-24 9, 19
Tracking - -___________ 91 79 Armor-defeating ______ 11, 15-18 9, 12
Adjustment, sight. (See Sight, Nomenclature ........ 12, 13 10
direct fire.) _________________ 54 48 Special purpose _______ 11, 25-28 9,23
Aerial observation ----_------- 119 105 Stowage plan ---- _---_ 30 25
Aiming: Antipersonnel, antimateriel
Circle: projectiles ______________ 11, 19-24 9, 19
Intersection._._._...- 160 141 Angle of site _._____________ App. II 236
Laying tank guns Apparent speed _______________ 79 69
parallel --.... Apr p. 236 Application:
Data chart ___------------ 45, 144 34 Alternate method of adjust-
Stakes ------------------- App.II 286 ment -............... 92 79
Primary method of adjust-
Aim-off -- -------------- 82 71 ment __---_------------- 91 79
Alert element in fire commands: Armament:
Direct ....... ----------._ 77 67 Machineguns ............ 3,5,7 4, 6
Platoon ----------- --- 124 112 M ain -------------------- 3, 4, 54, 56 4, 48, 51
Range card _______________ 111 98 Area fire _____________________ 111 98
Tank in the artillery role __ App . I 236 Armor, equivalent thickness ---- 16, 18 12, 15
Alternate method of adjustment. Armor-defeating projectiles ____ 11, 15-18 9, 12
(See Adjustment of fire.) Armor-piercing discarding
Ammunition: sabot ammunition.
Arrangement, unpacking, (See SABOT ammunition.)
and handling tank firing _ 251- 253 222 Armored vehicles:
Capabilities - -___-___-___-
_ 15 ,28, 12, 24 Classification for target
31 -34 27 engagement ------------ 68 60
Changing ---------------- 85 , 97 72, 88 Destruction. (See Destruc-
Complete round ----------- 10 8 tion of targets.)

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Paragraphs Pages Paragraphs Pages
Arrangement and handling of Checklist:
ammunition for tank firing ___ 251--253 222 Officer in charge of tank
Artificial illumination -------___ 50, 125, 42, 112, range firing _____________ 234-243 213
183 157 Safety officer _____________ 245 219
Auxiliary fire control equipment: Safety precautions -------- 249 221
Azimuth indicator -------- 49 38 Tank instructor ----------- 247 220
Instruments ............. 4V6-49 38 Chemical energy projectiles ____ 17 14
Quadrants_ _-_-_____-__-__ 477,48 38 Circular range card ___________ 102 92
Azimuth indicator ------------ 49 38 Classification:
Ammunition ........... 11 9
Background, tank ____________ 158 1iS Target ------------------- 68 60
Ballistic: Weapons qualification ----- 183 157
Reticle __.___.___.______ 45 34 Clearance factor -------------- App. II 236
U nit --------------------- 41 32 Coaxial machinegun ___________ 5 4
Banks, rotating --------------- 13, 16,17, 10, 12, 14, Employment ............. 5, 6, 54, 4, 48, 67,
20, 222,26 19, 21, 23 78,122 106
Base: Coincidence range finder _______ 171 148
Tank ---------------- App. II 236 Training procedures and
Battlesight ................ 97 88 techniques ___--_--______ 171 148
Bias, range .............- 174 151 Use ___------------------- 38 30
Binoculars: Combat tracking ______________ 146 126
Description .............. 165 144 Command:
Focusing............... 166 145 Fire. (See Fire commands.)
Observing ___-__-_____-__ 167 146 Light .............. 78,125 67,112
Use...................... 37, 156, 30, 13132, Commander, tank. (See Crew.)
165, 167 144, 146 Communication and control for
Body, projectile --------------- 13, 16, 17, 10, 12, 14, tank range firing ----------- 250 222
213, 21, 22, 26 19, 21, 23 Components, ammunition ------ 10, 12-14 8, 10
Boresighting ------------------ 53, 54 48 Concentrations ________________ 134 117
Coaxial machinegun ------- 54 48 Conduct of:
Cupola-mounted machinegun 54 48 Direct fire (daylight) ______ 76-98 67
E xercise ------------------ 147, 192, 127, 1663, Direct fire (at night and
193 164 with artificial illumination) 99-116 90
Main gun ----------------- 54 48 Fire trainer ............ 144 124
Searchlight . ......... 54 48 Platoon fire ............. 117-137 105
Subcaliber range ......... 206 171 Tank in the artillery role __ App. II 236
Test ................. 192,193 163, 164 Conducting:
Bourrelet, projectile ___________ 13, 16, 17 10, 12, 14 Tank range firing --------- 239-247 217
Bunkers and pillboxes, Control and communication for
engagement ............... 18, 23 15, 22 tank range firing ------------ 250 222
Burst-on-target . ......... 91 79 Converged sheaf ---.......... App. II 236
Conversion table ______________ 15 12
C factor __-___________________ 92 79 Correct sight picture __________ 86 73
Canister ammunition ---------- 22 21 Correcting fire commands ------ 85, 93, 123 72, 83, 111
Use -- ----- --- ---- -- -- ---- 23 22 Correction:
Cant _________________________ 60 54 Deflection …__ 92 79
Range ................ 92 79
Capabilities of ammunition ---- 15-28, 12, 27 Course:
31-34 Familiarization firing ------ 222-224 206
Cards, range ------------------ 99-103 90 Practice firing .......... 225-226 208
Care: Qualification firing -------- 205-221 171
Azimuth indicator _________ 49 38 Target acquisition --.------ 177 153
Binocular .............. 167 146 Coaxial machinegun. (See
Center of vulnerability ________ 86 73 Machinegun.)
Changing ammunition (fuze) _- 20, 85, 98 19, 72, 2.88 Crew:
Field firing ............. 214-221 187
Characteristics:
Firing duties:
Range card firing positions _ 100 90 71 65
Direct fire …..........
Tank firing positions ------- 64 57 Range card fire --..... 111 98
Tank in the artillery role __ App. II 2236 215-220 188
Exercises -------------
Chart, aiming data __________ 45, 144 84, 124 Nonfiring exercises ---- 151, 152 130

AGO 6398A