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Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems by A. Faghri & Y.

Zhang
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Chapter 6
Melting and Solidification
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems by A. Faghri & Y. Zhang
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Chapter 6: Melting and Solidii!ation
6." #ntrodu!tion

Melting and solidification find application in the


geophysical sciences; industrial forming
operations such as casting and laser drilling; and
latent heat energy storage systems.

Melting and solidification processes can be


classified as one of the three types: one-region,
two-region, and multiple-region.
6." #ntrodu!tion
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems by A. Faghri & Y. Zhang
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Chapter 6: Melting and Solidii!ation

The classification depends on the properties of the


phase change material !CM" in#ol#ed and on the initial
conditions.

$or a single-component !CM, melting or solidification


occurs at a single temperature.

!ure water, for e%ample, melts at a uniform temperature


of &C, while pure n-'ctadecane C()*+)" melts at ,)
C.

$or the solid-li-uid phase change process of a !CM with


a single melting point, the solid-li-uid interface appears
as a clearly-obser#able sharp border.

.nitial conditions for the solid-li-uid phase change


process of a single-component !CM determine whether
the problem will be classified as a one- or two-region
problem.
6." #ntrodu!tion
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems by A. Faghri & Y. Zhang
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Chapter 6: Melting and Solidii!ation

$or the melting or solidification" process, if the


initial temperature of the !CM e-uals the melting
point, the temperature in the solid li-uid" phase
remains uniformly e-ual to the melting point
throughout the process.

.n this case, only the temperature distribution in


the li-uid solid" phase needs to be determined.

Thus, the temperature of only one phase is


un/nown and the problem is called a one-region
problem.

$ig. 6.( shows the temperature distribution of


one-dimensional, one-region melting and
solidification problems.
6." #ntrodu!tion
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems by A. Faghri & Y. Zhang
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Chapter 6: Melting and Solidii!ation 6." #ntrodu!tion
Figure 6.1 One-region melting an solii!i"ation.
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems by A. Faghri & Y. Zhang
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Chapter 6: Melting and Solidii!ation

$or the melting process, if the initial temperature of the


!CM is below the melting point of the !CM or abo#e, for
solidification", the temperature distribution of both the
li-uid and solid phases must be determined; this is called
a two-region problem.

$ig. 6., shows the temperature distribution of one-


dimensional two-region melting and solidification
problems.

$or a multi-component !CM, the solid-li-uid phase


change process occurs o#er a range of temperatures
T
ml
, T
m2
", instead of at a single temperature.

The !CM is li-uid if its temperature is abo#e T


m2
and
solid when its temperature is below T
m1
. 0etween the
solid and li-uid phases there is a mushy zone where the
temperature falls within the phase change temperature
range T
ml
, T
m2
".
6." #ntrodu!tion
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems by A. Faghri & Y. Zhang
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Chapter 6: Melting and Solidii!ation 6." #ntrodu!tion
Figure 6.# T$o-region melting an solii!i"ation.
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems by A. Faghri & Y. Zhang
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Chapter 6: Melting and Solidii!ation

Successful solution of phase change problems in#ol#ing


these substances re-uires determination of the
temperature distribution in the li-uid, solid, and mushy
1ones; therefore, these are referred to as multi-region
problems.

The temperature distribution of one-dimensional


solidification in a multi-component !CM is shown in $ig.
6.+, where it can be seen that the solution re-uires trac/ing
two interfaces.

.n solid-li-uid phase change problems, the location of the


solid-li-uid interface is un/nown before the final solution is
obtained and this presents a special difficulty.

Since the interface mo#es during melting or solidification,


such problems are referred to as moving boundary
problems and always ha#e time as an independent
#ariable.
6." #ntrodu!tion
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems by A. Faghri & Y. Zhang
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Chapter 6: Melting and Solidii!ation 6." #ntrodu!tion
Figure 6.% Solii!i"ation o! a multi"omponent P&M
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems by A. Faghri & Y. Zhang
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Chapter 6: Melting and Solidii!ation 6." #ntrodu!tion
Figure 6.' &onu"tion- an "on(e"tion- "ontrolle melting