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Airline Reservation System

PRO1ECT REPORT
SUBMITTED FOR THE AWARD OF
BACHELOR OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
UNDER THE SUPERVISION
MEWAR INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT
Sec-4 Vasundra! "a#ia$ad %UP&
A''iliated to (audary (aran Sin) University! *eerut %U+P&

SU,*ITTED ,-
ARUN TYAGI
(92042034)
ASHEESH PANDEY
(Project Guide)
Airline Reservation System
Acknowledgement
(om.letin) a tas/ is never one-man e''ort+ It is o'ten te result o' invalua$le
contri$ution o' num$er o' individuals in a direct or indirect manner tat
el.s in sarin) a ma/in) success+
I ta/e tis o..ortunity to e0.ress my dee. sense o' )ratitude and 1ole
earted tan/s to my )uide Asheesh Pandey 'or teir valua$le )uidance and
/ee. interest and a''ection encoura)ement tou)t te 1or/++
2e ta/e tis o..ortunity to all tose 1o ave directly or indirectly el.ed
me durin) te course o' tis tas/++


INDEX
Airline Reservation System
CHAPTER NAME
CHAPTER 1 :Introduction / Objectives
3+3 Introduction
CHAPTER 2: System Analysis
4+3 System Analysis
4+4 Identi'ication o' Need
4+5 Preliminary Investi)ation
4+4 6easi$ility Study
4+4+3 Tecnical 6easi$ility
4+4+4 O.erational 6easi$ility
4+4+5 Economic 6easi$ility
4+4+5+3 (ost Estimation o' Te Pro7ect
4+4+4 Social 6easi$ility
CHAPTER 3: Software Engineering Paradigm
5+3 2ater'all *odel
CHAPTER 4: Software Requirements Specification
4+3 So't1are Re8uirements S.eci'ication
4+3+3 6unctional Re8uirements
4+3+4 Pur.ose o' te Document
4+3+5 Sco.e o' te Develo.ment Pro7ect
4+3+4 Overvie1 o' te Document
4+3+9 "eneral Descri.tion
4+3+: Hard1are Inter'ace Re8uirement
4+3+; Per'ormance Re8uirement
CHAPTER 5: Design
9+3 Desi)n O$7ectives
9+4 Introduction
9+5 So't1are Desi)n
9+4 Desi)n <uality (riteria
9+9 Desi)n (once.ts
9+9+3 To. do1n and ,ottom u. Strate)ies
9+: A$straction
9+; Re'inement
9+= *odularity
9+> Detailed Desi)n
9+>+3 Data Desi)n
9+>+3+3 Data Structures
Airline Reservation System
9+>+3+4 Tri))ers
9+>+4 Arcitectural Desi)n
9+>+4+3 (onte0t 6lo1 Dia)ram
9+>+4+4 Summary o' te *odules
9+>+4+5 Data 6lo1 Dia)rams
9+>+5 Inter'ace Desi)n
9+>+5+3 In.ut ? Out.ut 6orms
CHAPTER 6: Coding
CHAPTER 7: Code Efficiency
CHAPTER 8: Optimization of Code
CHAPTER 9: Validation Checks
CHAPTER 10: Testing
3@+3 Testin) O$7ectives
3@+4 Testin) Princi.les
3@+5 Testin) 6undamentals
3@+4 Test (ases A Test (riteria
3@+9 ,lac/ ,o0 Testin)
3@+: 2ite ,o0 Testin)
3@+; ,oundary Value Analysis
3@+= 6unctional Testin)
3@+> Structural Testin)
3@+3@ Bevels o' Testin)
3@+3@+3 Unit Testin)
3@+3@+4 Inte)ration Testin)
3@+3@+5 Re)ression Testin)
3@+3@+4 Validation Testin)
3@+3@+9 System A Acce.tance Testin)
CHAPTER 11: Implementation
CHAPTER 12: Maintenance
CHAPTER 13: Reports
CHAPTER 14: Bibliography
3+ INTRODU(TION
Airline Reservation System
It is a sam.le .ro7ect! 1ic so1s te 'unctionin) o' airline reservation o' any
air.ort+ In tis .ro7ect 1e use V, as 'ront end and Access as $ac/ end+
Te main o$7ectives 'or develo.in) tis .ro7ect areC
*ana)in) all main 'unctionin) o' airline reservation+
*ana)in) records o' customer as 1ell teir tic/et in'ormation+
*ana)in) 6li)t in'ormation+
*ana)in) user in'ormation+
4+ S-STE* ANAB-SIS
Airline Reservation System
2.1 SYSTEM ANALYSIS
System analysis is conducted 1it te 'ollo1in) o$7ectives in mindD
I+ Identi'y te customers need+
II+ Evaluate te system conce.t 'or 'easi$ility+
III+ Per'orm economic and tecnical analysis+
IV+ Allocate 'unctions to ard1are! so't1are! .eo.le! data$ase and oter system
elements+
V+ Esta$lis cost and scedule constraints+
VI+ (reate a system de'inition tat 'orms te 'oundation 'or all su$se8uent
en)ineerin) +
2.2 IDENTIFICATION OF NEED
Te analyst meets te customer and te end user%i' di''erent 'rom te customer&+
Te customer may $e a re.resentative o' te com.any 'or 1ic te so't1are is
$ein) develo.ed! or te mar/etin) de.artment o' te develo.in) com.any etc+ Here
te intent is to understand te .roduct o$7ectives and to de'ine te )oals to 'ul'ill
te re8uirements+
2.3 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION
Te .ur.ose o' te .reliminary investi)ation is to evaluate .ro7ect re8uests+ It is not
a desi)n study nor does it include te collection o' details to descri$e te $usiness
system in all res.ects+

Analysts 1or/in) on te .reliminary investi)ations sould accom.lis te
'ollo1in) o$7ectives D
Airline Reservation System
(lari'y and understand te .ro7ect re8uest+
Determine te si#e o' te .ro7ect+
Assess costs and $ene'its o' alternative a..roaces+
Determine te tecnical and o.erational 'easi$ility o' alternative a..roaces+
Re.ort te 'indin)s to mana)ement! 1it recommendations outlinin) te
acce.tance or re7ection o' te .ro.osal+
2.4 FEASIBILITY STUDY
Te conce.t o' 'easi$ility is to determine 1eter or not a .ro7ect is 1ort
doin)+ Te .rocess 'ollo1ed in ma/in) tis determination is called
'easi$ility study+ Once it as $een determined tat a .ro7ect is 'easi$le! te
system analyst can )o aead and .re.are te .ro7ect s.eci'ication 1ic
'inali#es .ro7ect re8uirements+
Types of feasibility
3+ Tecnical 6easi$ility
4+ O.erational 6easi$ility
5+ Economic 6easi$ility
4+ Social 6easi$ility
9+ *ana)ement 6easi$ility
:+ Be)al 6easi$ility
;+ Time 6easi$ility
Here 1e descri$e only 'e1 o' tese in detailD -
2.4.1 TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
Airline Reservation System
Tis is concerned 1it s.eci'yin) e8ui.ment and so't1are tat 1ill
success'ully satis'y te user re8uirement+ Tecnical needs o' te system
includeD -
6acility to .roduce out.uts in a )iven time
Res.onse time under certain conditions
A$ility to .rocess a certain volume o' transaction at a .articular .eriod
6acility to communicate data to distant location
In e0aminin) tecnical 'easi$ility! con'i)uration o' te system is )iven more
im.ortance tan te actual ma/e o' ard1are+ (on'i)uration sould )ive
te com.lete .icture a$out te systemEs re8uirementsD o1 many
1or/stations are re8uired! o1 tese units are interconnected so tat tey
could o.erate and communicate smootly+ 2at s.eeds o' in.ut and out.ut
sould $e acieved at .articular 8uality o' .rintin)+
Te com.uters are easily availa$le in almost all te .laces! even in villa)es+
Te ard1are needed to carry out tis .ro7ect include 1or/stations 1it :4
*, o' RA* and 4 ", HDD+
Te so't1are needed to carry out tis .ro7ect include Visual ,asic :+@ as
'ront end and Oracle = as $ac/end+ So te tecnolo)y re8uired to carry out
te .ro7ect is easily availa$le and a''orda$le! ence tis .ro7ect is
tecnically 'easi$le+
Due to all tese reasons im.lementation o' suc system $ecomes not only
'easi$le $ut re.uted to te or)ani#ation+
Airline Reservation System
2.4.2 OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY
Tis is mainly related to uman or)ani#ation and .olitical as.ects+ Te
.oints to $e considered areD -
2at can)es 1ill $e $rou)t 1it te systemF
2at or)ani#ational structures are distur$edF
2at ne1 s/ills 1ill $e re8uiredF Do te e0istin) sta'' mem$ers ave tese
s/illsF I' not! can tey $e trained in due course o' time
Tis 'easi$ility study is carried out $y a small )rou. o' .eo.le 1o are 'amiliar
1it in'ormation system tecni8ues! 1o understand te .arts o' $usiness tat are
relevant to te .ro7ect and are s/illed in system analysis and desi)n .rocess+
Tis .ro7ects are not develo.ed 7ust 'or 'un+ Tey are develo.ed on demand o' te
or)ani#ation 'or 1ic te system is $ein) develo.ed+ Tere'ore te cances o'
resistance 'rom te colle)e sta'' are almost nil+ Any distur$ance to te or)ani#ation
i' occurs 1ill $e advanta)eous to te or)ani#ation+ Also te time re8uired to carry
out a transaction 1ill $e reduced to a lar)e e0tent! 1ic 1ill ma/e te student
a..y and ceer'ul+ Te o.erators no1 1ill $e a$le to service more students tan
$e'ore in te same time .eriod+ Tere is no need to recruit ne1 sta'' to o.erate te
system+ Te e0istin) sta'' o' te colle)e can $e trained to interact 1it te system
1ic is a "UI $ased so't1are and is easy to use+ Hence te .ro7ect is
o.erationally 'easi$le+
2.4.3 ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY
Economic analysis is te most 're8uently used tecni8ue 'or evaluatin) te
Airline Reservation System
e''ectiveness o' a .ro.osed system+ *ore commonly /no1n as cost-$ene'it analysisG te
.rocedure is to determine te $ene'its and savin)s tat are e0.ected 'rom a
.ro.osed system and com.are tem 1it costs+ I' $ene'its out1ei) costs! a
decision is ta/en to desi)n and im.lement te system+
Cost-benefit analysis
Since cost .lays an im.ortant role in decidin) te ne1 system! it must $e identi'ied
and estimated .ro.erly+ ,ene'its are also o' di''erent ty.es and can $e )rou.ed on
te $asis o' advanta)es tey .rovide to te mana)ement+
Cost-saving benefit leads to reduction in administrative and o.erational costs+
Cost-avoidance benefits eliminate 'uture administrative and o.erational costs
Improved-service-level benefits are tose 1ere te .er'ormance o' te system is
im.roved $y a ne1 com.uter $ased metod e+)+ servicin) a customer in t1o
minutes rater tan 'ive to ten minutes is an e0am.le o' tis ty.e o' $ene'it+
Improved-information benefits is 1ere com.uter $ased metods lead to $etter
in'ormation 'or decision ma/in)
Direct Or Indirect Costs And Benefits
Direct costs are tose 1ic are directly associated 1it a system+ Tey are a..lied
directly to te o.erator+
Direct benefits also can $e s.eci'ically attri$uta$le to a )iven .ro7ect+
Indirect costs are not directly associated 1it a s.eci'ic activity in te system+ Tey
are o'ten re'erred to as overead e0.enses+
6or e0am.le cost o' s.ace to install a system! maintenance o' com.uter center!
eat! li)t and air-conditionin) are all tan)i$le costs $ut teir .ro.ortion is
Airline Reservation System
di''icult to calculate to a s.eci'ic activity li/e re.ort+
Indirect benefits are reali#ed as $y-.roducts o' anoter system+
2e can de'ine cost-$ene'it analysis asD -
3+ Tat metod $y 1ic 1e can 'ind and estimate te value o' te )ross $ene'its o' a
ne1 system s.eci'ication+
4+ Tat metod $y 1ic 1e 'ind and determine te increased o.eratin) costs associated
1it te )ross $ene'its
5+ Te su$traction o' tese o.eratin) costs 'rom te associated )ross $ene'its to arrive at
net $ene'its+
4+ Tat metod $y 1ic 1e 'ind and estimate te monetary value o' te develo.ment
costs tat .roduce te $ene'its
9+ Tose metods $y 1ic 1e so1 te time-relationsi. $et1een net $ene'its and
develo.ment costs as tey relate to cas 'lo1! .ay$ac/ on investment! and time-in
.rocess ta/in) into o.eration 'actors suc as in'lation etc+
2.4.3.1 COST ESTIMATION OF THE PRO1ECT
Te .rimary reason 'or cost and scedule estimation is to ena$le te client
or develo.er to .er'orm a cost-$ene'it analysis and 'or .ro7ect monitorin)
and control+ (ost and scedule estimates are also re8uired to determine te
sta''in) level 'or a .ro7ect durin) di''erent .ases+
(ost in a .ro7ect is due to te re8uirements 'or so't1are! ard1are! and
uman resources+ Hard1are resources are suc tin)s as te com.uter
time! terminal time and memory re8uired 'or te .ro7ect! 1ereas so't1are
resources include te tools and te com.ilers needed durin) develo.ment+
Te $ul/ o' te cost o' so't1are develo.ment is due to te uman resources
needed! and most cost estimation .rocedures 'ocus on tis as.ect+ *ost o'
Airline Reservation System
te estimates are determined in terms o' .erson-monts %P*&
Te .rimary 'actor tat controls cost is te si#e o' te .ro7ect! i+e+! te lar)er
is te .ro7ect! te i)er te cost and resource re8uirement+ Oter 'actors
tat a''ect te cost include .ro)rammer a$ility! e0.erience o' te develo.er
in te area o' interest! com.le0ity o' te .ro7ect! and relia$ility
re8uirements+
Te most common a..roac 'or estimatin) e''ort is to ma/e it a 'unction o'
a sin)le varia$le i+e+ ! te .ro7ect si#e+ Te e8uation o' e''ort is
E66ORT H a I SIJE
$
1ere a and $ are constants+ Also!
E66ORT H a I SIJE K $
*ost models ave used BO( %lines o' code& as te si#e measure+
Te (O(O*O %(onstructive (ost *odel& *odel estimates te total e''ort
in terms o' P* o' te tecnical .ro7ect sta''+ Te $asic ste.s in tis model
areD -
3& O$tain an initial estimate o' te develo.ment e''ort 'rom te Estimate o'
tousands o' delivered lines o' source code+
4& Determine a set o' 39 multi.lyin) 'actors 'rom di''erent attri$utes o' te
.ro7ect+
5& Ad7ust te e''ort estimate $y multi.lyin) te initial estimate 1it all te
multi.lyin) 'actors+
Te initial estimate is determined $y an e8uation o' te 'orm used in te
static sin)le-varia$le models! usin) LDBO( as si#e measure+
EFFORT a ` (KDLOC)
b
Airline Reservation System
Te values o' a and $ de.end on te .ro7ect ty.e+
Tere are 39 di''erent attri$utes! called cost driver attri$utes! tat determine te
multi.lyin) 'actorsD -
COST DRIVERS RATING
Very low Low Normal High Very high
PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES @+;9 @+== 3+@@ 3+39 3+4@
REB-! re8uired relia$ility @+>4 3+@@ 3+@= 3+3:
DATA! data$ase si#e @+;@ @+=9 3+@@ 3+39 3+5@
(PBM! .roduct com.le0ity
COMPUTER ATTRIBUTES 3+@@ 3+33 3+5@
TI*E! e0ecution time
constraint
3+@@ 3+@: 3+43
STOR! main stora)e constraint @+=; 3+@@ 3+39 3+5@
VITR! virtual macine volatility @+=; 3+@@ 3+@; 3+39
TURN! com.uter turnaround
time
PERSONNEL ATTRIBUTES 3+4: 3+3> 3+@@ @+=: @+;3
A(AP! analyst ca.a$ility 3+4> 3+35 3+@@ @+>3 @+=4
AEMP! a..lication e0.erience 3+44 3+3; 3+@@ @+=: @+;@
P(AP! .ro)rammer ca.a$ility 3+43 3+3@ 3+@@ @+>@
VEMP! virtual macine
e0.erience
3+34 3+@; 3+@@ @+>9
PRO1ECT ATTRIBUTES
*ODP! modern .ro)rammin)
.ractices
3+44 3+3@ 3+@@ @+>3 @+=4
TOOB! use o' S?2 tools 3+44 3+3@ 3+@@ @+>3 @+=5
S(HED! develo.ment scedule 3+45 3+@= 3+@@ 3+@4 3+3@
Te multi.lyin) 'actors 'or all 39 cost drives are multi.lied to )et te e''ort
ad7ustment 'actor %EA6&+ Te 'inal e''ort estimate! E! is o$tained $y multi.lyin)
te initial estimate 1it EA6D -
E H EA6 I E
i
Airline Reservation Project )enerally re8uire only one time investment 1ic are
Airline Reservation System
not muc 'or suc an industry+ Hard1are cost is $ecomin) very lo1 day $y day! so
tat com.uters are no1 easily a''orda$le+ 6or u.dation o' te system 1e re8uire
little money and resources+ It ma/es suc a .ro7ect economically 'easi$le+
2.4.4 SOCIAL FEASIBILITY
It is te determination o' 1eter a .ro.osed .ro7ect 1ill $e acce.ta$le to te
.eo.le or not+ Tis determination ty.ically e0amines te .ro$a$ility o' te .ro7ect
$ein) acce.ted $y te )rou. directly a''ected te .ro.osed system can)e+
To solve te actual .ro$lems in an industry settin)! a so't1are or a team o'
en)ineers must incor.orate a develo.ment strate)y tat encom.asses te .rocess!
metods! and tools layers+ Tis strate)y is o'ten re'erred to as a process model or a
software engineering paradigm+ A .rocess model 'or so't1are en)ineerin) is
cosen $ased on te nature o' te .ro7ect and a..lication! te metods and tools to
$e used and te controls and delivera$les tat are re8uired+
Te so't1are en)ineerin) .aradi)m tat 1e ave cosen 'or te .ro7ect is Waterfall
model.
5+ SO6T2ARE EN"INEERIN" PARADI"*
3.1 WATERFALL MODEL:
Airline Reservation System
Tis model is also /no1n as Binear Se8uential *odel or (lassic Bi'e (ycle *odel+
It states tat te .ases are or)ani#ed in a linear order+ 2it tis model! te
se8uence o' activities is .er'ormed in a so't1are develo.ment .ro7ect is D
Re8uirement Analysis
Pro7ect .lannin)
System desi)n
Detailed desi)n
(odin) and unit testin)
System inte)ration and testin)
Binear orderin) o' activities as some im.ortant conse8uences+ 6irst to clearly
identi'y te end o' a .ase and te $e)innin) o' te ne0t! some certi'ication
mecanism as to $e em.loyed at te end o' eac .ase+ tis is usually done $y te
some veri'ication and validation means tat 1ill ensure tat te out.ut o' a .ase is
consistent 1it te in.ut o' te .ase! and tat te out.ut o' te .ase is consistent
1it te overall re8uirements o' te system+ Te conse8uence o' te need 'or
certi'ication is tat eac .ase must ave some de'ined out.ut tat can $e
evaluated and certi'ied+ Te out.uts o' te .ases are o'ten called 1or/ .roducts
and are usually in te 'orm o' documents li/e re8uirements document or desi)n
document+ 6or te codin) .ase! te out.ut is code+
Tere are t1o $asic assum.tions 'or 7usti'yin) te linear orderin) o' te .ases in
te manner .ro.osed $y te 1ater'all model D
3+ 6or a success'ul .ro7ect resultin) in a success'ul .roduct! all .ases listed in te
1ater'all model must $e .er'ormed any1ay+
Airline Reservation System
4+ Any di''erent orderin) o' te .ases 1ill result in a less success'ul .roduct+
A success'ul so't1are .roduct is one tat satis'ies all te o$7ectives o' te
develo.ment .ro7ect+ Tese o$7ectives include satis'yin) te re8uirements and
.er'ormin) te develo.ment 1itin te time and cost constraints+
LIMITATIONS OF THE WATERFALL MODEL:
Te 1ater'all model altou) 1idely used! as received some criticism 1ic are as
'ollo1sD
Te 1ater'all model assumes tat te re8uirements o' a system can $e 'ro#en $e'ore
te desi)n $e)ins+ Tis is .ossi$le 'or te systems desi)ned to automate an e0istin)
manual system+ 6or our .ro7ect tis limitation o' te 1ater'all model as $ecome a
virtue+ ,ut 'or ne1 systems! determinin) te re8uirements is di''icult as te users
does not even /no1 te re8uirements+ Hence avin) uncan)in) re8uirements is
unrealistic 'or suc .ro7ects+
6ree#in) te re8uirements usually re8uires coosin) te ard1are+ A lar)e .ro7ect
mi)t ta/e a 'e1 years to com.lete+ I' te ard1are is selected early! ten due to te
s.eed at 1ic ard1are tecnolo)y is can)in)! it is li/ely tat te 'inal so't1are
1ill use a ard1are tecnolo)y on te ver)e o' $ecomin) o$solete+ Tis is clearly
not desira$le 'or suc e0.ensive .ro7ects+ Since our .ro7ect is a medium scale
.ro7ect! te cances o' ard1are $ecomin) o$solete are very lo1+
Te 1ater'all model sti.ulates tat te re8uirements $e com.letely s.eci'ied $e'ore
te rest o' te develo.ment can .roceed+ In some situations! it mi)t $e desira$le to
'irst develo. a .art o' te system com.letely and ten later enance te system in
.ases+
Airline Reservation System
It is a document driven .rocess tat re8uires 'ormal documents at te end o' eac
.ase+ Tis a..roac tends to ma/e te .rocess o' documentation eavy and is not
suita$le 'or many a..lications .articularly interactive a..lications 1ere
develo.in) ela$orate documents o' te user inter'aces is not 'easi$le+
6easi$ility Re.ort
Re8uirements Document
And Pro7ect Plan

System Desi)n
Document
Detailed Desi)n
Document
Pro)rams
Test Plan! Test Re.ort
A
*anuals
Installation Re.ort
System 'easi$ility



Re8uirement
Analysis A
Pro7ect
Plannin)
validation
System Desi)n

Veri'ication
Detailed Desi)n

Veri'ication

(odin)

Testin) A Inte)ration


Installation


O.erations A
*aintenance


Airline Reservation System
4+ SO6T2ARE RE<UIRE*ENTS SPE(I6I(ATION
4.1 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION
I. Introduction
A+ Pur.ose o' tis Document
,+ Sco.e o' te Develo.ment Pro7ect
(+ De'initions! Acronyms! and A$$reviations
D+ Re'erences
E+ Overvie1 o' te document
II. General description
A+ User Persons and (aracteristics
,+ Product Pers.ective
(+ Overvie1 o' 'unctional re8uirements
D+ Overvie1 o' Data Re8uirements
E+ "eneral constraints! Assum.tions! De.endencies and "uidelines
6+ User vie1 o' .roduct use
III. Specific Requirements
A+ E0ternal inter'ace re8uirements
,+ Detailed descri.tion o' 'unctional re8uirements
(+ Per'ormance re8uirements
D+ <uality attri$utes
E+ Oter re8uirements
IV. Behavioral Description
A+ System states
,+ Events and actions
V. Validation and criteria
A+ Per'ormance $ounds
,+ (lasses o' tests
(+ E0.ected so't1are res.onse
D+ S.ecial considerations
VI. Bibliography
VII. Appendix
Te introduction states te )oals and o$7ectives o' so't1are! descri$in) it in te conte0t
o' com.uter $ased system+ It may $e notin) more tan te so't1are sco.e o' te
.lannin) document+
Te information description .rovides a detailed descri.tion o' te .ro$lem tat te
so't1are must solve+ In'ormation content and relationsi.s! 'lo1 and structure are
Airline Reservation System
documented+ Hard1are! so't1are and uman inter'aces are descri$ed 'or e0ternal system
elements and internal so't1are 'unctions+
A descri.tion o' eac 'unction is re8uired to solve te .ro$lem! is .resented in te
functional description+
Te behavioral description section o' te s.eci'ication e0amines te o.eration o' te
so't1are as a conse8uence o' e0ternal events and internally )enerated control
caracteristics+

In validation criteria 1e s.eci'y! 1at classes o' tests must $e conducted to validate
'unction! .er'ormance and constraintsF (onstraints identi'y limits .laced on te so't1are
$y e0ternal ard1are! availa$le memory or oter e0istin) systems
Te bibliography contains re'erences to all documents tat relate to te so't1are+ Tese
include oter so't1are en)ineerin) documentation! tecnical re'erences! vendor
literature! and standards+
Te appendix contains in'ormation tat su..lements te s.eci'ication+ Ta$ular data!
detailed descri.tion o' al)oritms! carts and )ra.s are .resented as a..endices+
4.1.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
6unctional re8uirements s.eci'y 1ic out.uts sould $e .roduced 'rom te )iven in.uts+
Tey descri$e te relationsi. $et1een te in.ut and out.ut o' te system+ 6or eac
'unctional re8uirement! a detailed descri.tion o' all te data in.uts and teir source! te
units o' measure! and te ran)e o' valid in.uts must $e s.eci'ied+
All te o.erations to $e .er'ormed on te in.ut data to o$tain te out.ut sould $e
s.eci'ied+ Tis includes s.eci'yin) te validation cec/s on te in.ut and out.ut data +
4.1.2 PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT
Airline Reservation System
Te .ur.ose o' tis document is to convey te re8uirements o' te .ro7ect %as s.eci'ied
$y
te client& to te .ro)rammers to ensure tat te .ro)rammers understand and 'ul'ill te
re8uirements to te e0.ectation o' te client+
Secondly! tis document is used to ensure tat te develo.ment team understands te
re8uirements s.eci'ied $y te client+ Tis document 1ill act as te contract 'or all 'uture
develo.mentG all develo.ment s.a1ns 'rom and aderes to te details in te
re8uirements+ Te SRS also outlines te .er'ormance re8uirements tat may $e set and
re8uired $y te client?user+
References

So't1are En)ineerin) 6undamentals $y Ali ,e'oroo# and 6rederic/ N+ Hudson
%O0'ord University Press! 3>>:&+
So't1are En)ineerin)! A Pro)rammin) A..roac $y Pressman%4nd Edition! Prentice
Hall! 3>>4&+
An inte)rated a..roac to So't1are En)ineerin) $y Pan/a7 Nalote %Narosa Pu$lisin)
House! 4
nd
edition&+ URB o' ome .a)e is tt.D??111+s.rin)er-
ny+com?su..lements?7alote
6undamentals o' So't1are En)ineerin) $y (arlo "e##i! *edi Na#ayeri! Dino *andrioli
%Prentice Hall India&+

4.1.4 OVERVIEW OF DOCUMENT
Te remainder o' tis document descri$es te intended users tat 1ould $e e0.ected to
interact 1it te system 're8uently! and a sim.le .ro'ile o' eac user ty.e is .rovided as a
sam.le+ Tis document no1 1ill )o into more detail on te e0.ected users teir inter'ace
Airline Reservation System
and interaction 1it te .roduct and more on te tecnical a..roac and considerations
to $e im.lemented+
4.1.5 GENERAL DESCRIPTION
User Persons and Characteristics
Te .rimary users o' tis .roduct are te colle)e em.loyees! director .ers.ective
candidates+ *ost o' tem already ave some e0.erience in usin) com.uter com.onents
%mouse and /ey$oard&! and are 1illin) to learn and e0.lore under te su.ervision o'
teir su.eriors+ Te em.loyees ave ade8uate /no1led)e so tat tey can $e trained
easily to o.erate te system+
Overview of Functional Requirements
Our .roduct 1ill $e stand alone and 1ill ave an inter'ace! 1ic can $e accessed on
more tan one-com.uter at te same time! suc as com.uters connected 1it BAN+ Our
main )oal is to .resent 'acts on a com.reensive level! and ma/e it easier as 1ell+
4.1.6 HARDWARE INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS:
Our .roduct 1ill re8uire at least a Po1erP( *acintos or a Pentium class P( 1it :4
*, o' RA* %:4K recommended&! and color dis.lay+
Other Software Components:
O.eratin) SystemD 2indo1*E?NT?4@@@
Detail Description of Functional Requirements
Template for describing functional requirements
Airline Reservation System
Pur.ose A descri.tion o' te 'unctional re8uirement and its
motivations%s&
In.uts 1ic in.utsG in 1at 'orm?'ormat 1ill in.uts
arriveG 'rom 1at sources in.ut 1ill $e derivedG
le)al domains o' eac in.ut element
Processin) Descri$es te outcome rater tan te
im.lementationG include any validity cec/s on te
data! e0act timin) o' eac o.eration %i' needed&!
o1 to andle une0.ected or a$normal situations
Out.uts te 'orm! sa.e! destination! and volume o' te
out.utG out.ut timin)G ran)e o' .arameters in te
out.utG unit measure o' te out.utG .rocess $y
1ic te out.ut is stored or destroyedG .rocess 'or
andlin) error messa)es .roduced as out.ut+
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
Te so't1are is inerently desi)ned to andle multi.le users accessin) te same data$ase
system+ *ulti.le user sessions 1ill concurrently e0ist+ Eac session 1ill receive itOs o1n
tread o' e0ecution 1ic is invisi$le to all oter com.onents o' te system! $ut 1ill
.rovide relia$ility! e''iciency! and e0cellent res.onse time+ Te actual ca.acity o' users
tat te system can andle is out o' te sco.e o' tis document %tis is a systems issue
tat
sould $e considered at a maintenance ?administrator desi)n level&+
9+ DESI"N
Airline Reservation System
5.1 DESIGN OB1ECTIVES
Te .rimary o$7ective o' desi)n is to deliver te re8uirements as s.eci'ied in te
'easi$ility re.ort+ 6ollo1in) o$7ectives sould $e /e.t in mindD -
a) PRACTICALITY
Te system must $e sta$le and can $e o.erated $y .eo.le 1it avera)e intelli)ence+
b) EFFICIENCY
Tis involves accuracy! timeliness and com.reensiveness o' te system out.ut+
C) COST
It is desira$le to aim 'or a system 1it a minimum cost su$7ect to te conidition tat it
must satis'y all te re8uirements+
D) FLEXIBILITY
Te system sould $e modi'ia$le de.endin) on te can)in) needs o' te user+ Suc
modi'ications sould not entail e0tensive reconstruction or recreation o' so't1are+ It
sould also $e .orta$le to di''erent com.uter systems+
E) SECURITY
Tis is very im.ortant as.ect o' te desi)n and sould cover areas o' ard1are
relai$ility! 'all $ac/ .rocedures! .ysical security o' data and .rovision 'or detection o'
'raud and a$use+
5.2 INTRODUCTION
Airline Reservation System
Te aim o' system desi)n! 1ic is sometimes also re''erred to as top-level design, is to
identi'y te modules tat sould $e in te system! te s.eci'ications o' tese modules!
and
o1 tey interact 1it eac oter to .roduce te desired results+ At te end o' te system
desi)n all te ma7or data structures! 'ile 'ormats! out.ut 'ormats and te ma7or modules
in te system and teir s.eci'ications are needed+
5.3 SOFTWARE DESIGN
So't1are desi)n is an iterative .rocess trou) 1ic re8uirements are translated
into a P$lue.rintQ 'or constructin) te so't1are+ (aracteristics tat serve as a
)uide 'or te evaluation o' a )ood desi)nD -
3+ Te desi)n must im.lement all o' te e0.licit re8uirements contained in te
analysis model! and it accommodate all o' te im.licit re8uirements desired $y
te customer+
4+ Te desi)n must $e a reada$le! understanda$le )uide 'or tose 1o )enerate
code and 'or tose 1o test and su$se8uently maintain te so't1are+
5+ Te desi)n sould .rovide a com.lete .icture o' te so't1are! addressin) te
data! 'unctional! and $eavioral domains 'rom an im.lementation .ers.ective+
5.4 DESIGN QUALITY CRITERIA
3+ A desi)n sould e0i$it a ierarcical or)ani#ation tat ma/es
intelli)ent use o' control amon) te elements o' so't1are+
4+ A desi)n sould $e modular i+e+ te so't1are sould $e lo)ically
.artitioned into elements tat .er'orm s.eci'ic 'unctions and su$
'unctions+
Airline Reservation System
5+ A desi)n sould contain $ot data and .rocedural a$straction+
4+ A desi)n sould lead to modules tat e0i$it inde.endent
'unctional caracteristics+
9+ A desi)n sould lead to inter'aces tat reduce te com.le0ity o'
connections $et1een modules and 1it te e0ternal environment+
:+ A desi)n sould $e derived usin) a re.eata$le metod tat is
driven $y in'ormation o$tained durin) so't1are re8uirement
analysis+
All tese tin)s are im.lemented in our .ro7ect usin) o.tions on te main menu
screen+ Eac o.tion .rovides a di''erent /ind o' in'ormation! .rovidin) modular
a..roac+ Data is su$mitted to te data$ase as server side .ro)rammin)! 1ic
)ives a$straction to te data usin) middle tier conce.ts 1it 'ully O$7ect-Oriented
.ro)rammin)+
5.5 DESIGN CONCEPTS
A set o' 'undamental so't1are desi)n conce.ts as evolvedD -
3+ 2at criteria can $e used to .artition so't1are into individual
com.onentsF
4+ Ho1 is 'unction or data structure detail se.arated 'rom a conce.tual
re.resentation o' te so't1areF
5+ Are tere uni'orm criteria tat de'ine te tecnical 8uality o' a
so't1are desi)nF
5.5.1 TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM UP STRATEGIES
A system consists o' com.onents! 1ic ave te com.onents o' teir o1n!
indeed
a system is a ierarcy o' com.onents+ Te i)est level com.onent corres.onds
to te total system+
Airline Reservation System
A to.-do1n desi)n a..roac starts 1it identi'yin) te ma7or com.onents o' te
system! decom.osin) tem into teir lo1-level com.onents and iteratin) until te
desired level o' detail is acieved+ To.-do1n desi)n metods o'ten result in some
'orm o' ste.1ise re'inement+ Startin) 'rom an a$stract desi)n! in eac ste. te
desi)n is re'ined to a more concrete level! until 1e reac a level 1ere no more
re'inement is needed and te desi)n can $e im.lemented directly+
A $ottom-u. desi)n a..roac starts 1it desi)nin) te most $asic or .rimitive
com.onents and .roceeds to i)er-level com.onents tat use tese lo1er-level
com.onents+ ,ottom-u. metods 1or/s 1it layers o' a$straction+ Startin) 'rom
te very $ottom! o.erations tat .rovide a layer o' a$straction are im.lemented+
Te o.erations o' tis layer are ten used to im.lement more .o1er'ul o.erations
and a still i)er layer o' a$straction! until te sta)e is reaced 1ere te
o.eration su..orted $y te layer are tose desired $y te system+
5.6 ABSTRACTION
PTe .sycolo)ical notion o' Pa$stractionQ .ermits one to concentrate on a .ro$lem at
some level o' )enerali#ation 1itout re)ard to irrelevant lo1 level detailsG use o'
a$straction also .ermits one to 1or/ 1it conce.ts and terms tat are 'amiliar in te
.ro$lem environment 1itout avin) to trans'orm tem to an un'amiliar structure+++Q
a. Procedural abstraction
b. Data abstraction
a) PROCEDURAL ABSTRACTION
It is a named se8uence o' instructions tat as a s.eci'ic and limited 'unction+
Airline Reservation System
b) DATA ABSTRACTION
It is a named collection o' data tat descri$es a data o$7ect+
5.7 REFINEMENT
Ste.1ise re'inement is a to.-do1n strate)y and te arcitecture o' a .ro)ram is
develo.ed $y successive re'inin) levels o' .rocedural details
PIn eac ste. o' re'inement! one or more instructions o' te )iven .ro)ram are
decom.osed into more detailed instructions+ Tis successive decom.osition or
re'inement o' s.eci'ications terminates 1en all instructions are e0.ressed in
terms o' an underlyin) com.uter or .ro)rammin) lan)ua)esC As tas/s are
re'ined! so te data may ave to $e re'ined! decom.osed! or structured! and it is
natural to re'ine te .ro)ram and te data s.eci'ications in .arallel+Q
Every solution is al1ays re'ina$le de.endin) on time .eriod and availa$ility o'
in'ormation+
5.8 MODULARITY
P*odularity is te sin)le attri$ute o' so't1are tat allo1s a .ro)ram to $e
intellectually mana)ea$leQ+ *onolitic so't1are canEt $e easily )ras.ed $y a
reader+ Te num$er o' control .ats! s.an o' re'erence! num$er o' varia$les! and
overall com.le0ity 1ould ma/e understandin) close to im.ossi$le+
STRUCTURED DESIGN
Airline Reservation System
Structured desi)n metodolo)y vie1s every so't1are system as avin) some in.uts tat
are converted into te desired out.uts $y te so't1are system+ Te so't1are is vie1ed as
a
trans'ormation 'unction tat trans'orms te )iven in.uts into te desired out.uts! and te
central .ro$lem o' desi)nin) tis trans'ormation 'unction+ Due to tis vie1 o' so't1are!
te structured desi)n metodolo)y is .rimarily 'unction oriented and relies eavily on
'unctional a$straction and 'unctional decom.osition+ Te a..raoc $e)ins 1it a system
s.eci'ication tat identi'ies in.uts and out.uts and descri$es te 'unctional as.ects o' te
system+ Te ne0t ste. is te de'inition o' te modules and teir relationsi. 1it one
anoter in a 'orm called a structure cart! usin) data dictionary and oter structured
tools+
Entity-relationship diagram
Te E-R dia)ram ena$les a so't1are en)ineer to 'ully s.eci'y te data o$7ects tat are
in.ut and out.ut to?'rom a system! te attri$utes tat de'ine te .ro.erties o' tese
o$7ects! and te relationsi. $et1een te o$7ects+ Te 'ollo1in) a..roac is ta/enD -
3+ Durin) re8uirements )aterin)! customers are as/ed to list te Ptin)sQ
tat te a..lication or $usiness .rocess addresses+ Tese Ptin)sQ evolve into a
list o' in.ut and out.ut data! o$7ects as 1ell as e0ternal entities tat .roduce or
consume in'ormation+
4+ Ta/in) te o$7ects one at a time! te analyst and customer de'ine 1eter
or not a connection %unnamed at tis sta)e& e0ists $et1een te data! o$7ect+
and oter o$7ects+
5+ 2erever a connection e0ists! te analyst and customer create one or more
o$7ect-relationsi. .airs+
Airline Reservation System
4+ 6or eac o$7ect-relationsi. .air! cardinality and modality are e0.lored+
9+ Ste.s 4 trou) 4 are continued iteratively until all o$7ect-relationsi.
.airs ave $een de'ined+ It is common to discover omissions as tis .rocess
continues+ Ne1 o$7ects and relationsi.s 1ill invaria$ly $e added as te
num$ers o' iterations )ro1s+
:+ Te attri$utes o' eac entity are de'ined+ An entity-relationsi. dia)ram is
'ormali#ed in revie1+
;+ Ste.s 3 trou) ; are re.eated until data modelin) is com.lete+
DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS AND DATA DICTIONARY
D6DOs are commonly used durin) .ro$lem analysis+ Data 'lo1 dia)rams are not limited
to .o$lem analysis 'or so't1are re8uirement s.eci'ication+
A D6D so1s te 'lo1 o' data trou) te system+ It vie1s a system as a 'unction tat
trans'orms te in.uts into desired out.uts+ Te D6D aim to ca.ture te trans'ormations
tat ta/e .lace 1itin a system to te in.ut data so tat eventually te out.ut data is
.roduced+ Te a)ent tat .er'orms te trans'ormation o' data 'rom one state to anoter is
called a .rocess %or $u$$le&+ Te .rocesses are so1n $y named circles and data 'lo1s
are re.resented $y named arro1s enterin) or leavin) te $u$$les+ A rectan)le re.resents
a sourcs or sin/ and is a net ori)inator or consumer o' data+
It sould $e .ointed out tat D6D is not a 'lo1cart+ A D6D re.resents te 'lo1 o' data!
1ile a 'lo1cart so1s te 'lo1 o' control+ A D6D does not re.resent .rocedural
in'ormation+ In dra1in) te D6D te desi)ner as to s.eci'y te ma7or trans'orms in te
.at o' te data 'lo1in) 'rom in.ut to out.ut+
DATA DICTIONARY
Data dictionary is a re.ository o' various data 'lo1s de'ined in data 'lo1 dia)ram+ Te
Airline Reservation System
associated data dictionary states .recsiely te structure o' eac data 'lo1 in D6D+
Altou) te 'ormat o' dictionaries varies 'rom tool to tool! most consists o' te
'ollo1in) in'ormationD
Name R te .rimary name o' te data or control item! te data store or an e0ternal
entity
Alias R oter names used 'or te 'irst entry
2ere-used?o1-used R a listin) o' te .rocesses tat used te data or control item

and o1 it is used %E+)+ in.ut to te .rocess! out.ut 'rom te .rocess! as a store! as an
e0ternal entity&
(ontent descri.tion R a notation 'or re.resentin) content
Su..lementary in'ormation R oter in'ormation a$out data ty.es! .reset values %i'
/no1n&! restrictions o' limitation
5.9 DETAILED DESIGN
Durin) detailed desi)n! te internal lo)ic o' eac o' tese modules s.eci'ied in system
desi)n is decided+ Durin) tis .ase 'urter details o' data structures and al)oritmic
desi)n o' eac o' te modules is s.eci'ied+ Te lo)ic o' a module is s.eci'ied in a i)-
level desi)n descri.tional lan)ua)e! 1ic is inde.endent o' te tar)et lan)ua)e in 1ic
so't1are 1ill eventually $e im.lemented+
5.9.1 DATA DESIGN
Te Data desi)n trans'orms te in'ormation domain model created durin) analysis into
Airline Reservation System
te data structures! tat 1ill $e re8uired to im.lement te so't1are+ Te data o$7ects and
te relationsi.s de'ined in te entity relationsi. dia)ram and te detailed data content
de.icted in te data dictionary .rovide te $asis 'or te data desi)n activity+
5.9.1.1 DATA STRUCTURES (TABLES ETC. ) OF ALL MODULES
-:Data Structures ( Tables ) Of Each Module :-
Table Name :- FLIGHT
Field Name Description Field Type Field size Nullability
6li)tSNo 6li)t Num$er+ Varcar4+ 4@+ Not Null+
6li)tSName+ 6li)t Name+ Varcar4+ 5@+ Not Null+
Source+ 6li)t Source Varcar4+ 4@+ Null+
Destination 6li)t Destination Varcar4T 4@+ Not Null+
Days 6li)t Runnin) Days Varcar4+ 5@+ Null+
Route+ 6li)t Route Varcar4 4@ Not Null+
Primary key :- Flight Not+
Table Name :- Fare
Field Name Description Field Type Field size Nullability
6SNo 6li)t Num$er Varcar4+ 5@+ Not Null+
6SName 6li)t Name Varcar4+ 4@+ Not Null+
EMS6are E (lass 6are Rate Num$er 3@!4 Not Null+
,S6are , (lass 6are Rate Num$er 3@!4 Not Null+
Primary Key :- F_No
Table Name :- Ticket
Airline Reservation System
Field Name Description Field Type Field size Nullability
TSNo+ Tic/et Num$er Varcar4+ 5@+ Not Null+
6SNo+ 6li)t Num$er Varcar4+ 5@+ Not Null+
6SName 6li)t Name Varcar4 5@ Not Null+
Source Source Place Varcar4 4@ Not Null+
Destination Destination Place Varcar4 4@+ Not Null+
Date Date o' 7ourney Date = Not Null+
Name Passen)er Name Varcar4 5@ Not Null+
A)e A)e Num$er 4 Not Null+
Se0 Se0 (ar 9 Not Null+
SeatSNo Seat Num$er Varcar4 3@ Not Null
6are 6are O' 6li)t Num$er 3@!4 Not Null
Status Tic/et Status Varcar4 34 Not Null+
Primary Key :- T_No
Table Name :- User_Pwd
Field Name Description Field Type Field size Nullability
USId User Id Varcar4+ 5@+ Not Null
P1d Pass1ord Varcar4 5@ Not Null+
Primary Key :- StateSName+
5.9.2 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
Arcitectural desi)n re.resents te structure o' data and .ro)ram com.onents tat are
re8uired to $uild a com.uter $ased system+ It considers te arcitectural style tat te
system 1ill ta/e! te structure and .ro.erties o' te com.onents tat constitute te
system! and te interrelationsi.s tat occur amon) all arcitectural com.onents o' a
system+ Te arcitectural desi)n de'ines te relationsi. $et1een ma7or structural
elements o' te so't1are! te P desi)n .atternsQ tat can $e used to acieve te
re8uirements tat ave $een de'ined 'or te system! and te constraints tat a''ect te
1ay in 1ic arcitectural desi)n .atterns can $e a..lied+ Te arcitectural desi)n
Airline Reservation System
re.resentation-te 'rame1or/ o' a com.uter $ased system-can $e derived 'rom te
system s.eci'icaion! te analysis model and te interaction o' su$systems de'ined 1itin+
DFD FOR PASSENGER REGISTRATION
PASSEN"E
Airline Reservation System
DFD FOR CHANGE PASSWORD
Ne1 Pass1ord
In'ormation
U.datin) Pass1ord
Valid User 6or Ne1
Pass1ord
User Enter Teir Id And Pass1ord
6or (an)in) Pass1ord
Accessin) User In'o
Invalid Pass1ord
Invalid Data
Invalid 6li)t
6ee In'ormation
Accessin) 6are Detail
Valid 6li)t 6or 6are In'o
Valid Data
Accessin) (ourse
Detail
Storin) Seat Details
Storin) Passen)er In'o
Passen)er Enter Teir In'ormation
6or Re)istration+
Data Validity
Process
Flight Validity
6are In'o
3 Passenger
2 Flight
3 Fare
USER
User_Id And
Password
Validity Process
Pass1ord
U.dation Process
1 User_Id
Airline Reservation System
DFD FOR CHANGE PASSWORD
:+ 6OR*S 2ITH (ODIN"
Invalid User *atced
Invalid User Ty.e *atced
Accessin) User In'ormation
Accessin) User In'ormation
Valid User 6or Ty.e *atcin)
User Enter Teir Pass1ord A UserSid 'or o.enin)
te a..lication
USER
Password
Validity
Process
User Type
Validity
Process
3 USERSID
Airline Reservation System
Private Su$ cmd(ancelS(lic/%&
End
End Su$
Private Su$ cmdOLS(lic/%&
Data3+Recordset+*ove6irst
2ile Not Data3+Recordset+EO6
I' Te0t3+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%@& S
And Te0t4+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%3& Ten
Unload *e
'rmS.las+So1
E0it Su$
End I'
Data3+Recordset+*oveNe0t
2end
*s),o0 UInvalid Pass1ord+++++VU! v$(ritical
Te0t3+Set6ocus
SendLeys UWHO*EXKWENDXU
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
Dim s As Inte)er
Dim / As Dou$le
Dim $ As Inte)er
Private Su$ Timer3STimer%&
Select (ase /
(ase @D l$3+6ore(olor H v$Red
l$4+6ore(olor H v$-ello1
(ase 5D l$3+6ore(olor H v$-ello1
l$4+6ore(olor H v$Red
(ase :D l$3+6ore(olor H v$,lue
l$4+6ore(olor H v$,lac/
(ase >D l$3+6ore(olor H v$,lac/
l$4+6ore(olor H v$,lue
(ase 34D l$3+6ore(olor H v$2ite
l$4+6ore(olor H v$"reen
(ase 39D l$3+6ore(olor H v$"reen
l$4+6ore(olor H v$2ite
End Select
/ H / K @+9
Airline Reservation System
I' / Y 3= Ten
/ H @
End I'
End Su$
Private Su$ Timer4STimer%&
$ H $ K 3
P"3+Value H $
I' $ Y >> Ten
Unload *e
*DI6orm3+So1
End I'
End Su$
Dim a As Inte)er
Private Su$ adduserS(lic/%&
6orm3+So1
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
Private Su$ calculatorS(lic/%&
Sell %UcDZ2INDO2SZ(alc+e0eU&! v$*a0imi#ed6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ can)e.ass1ordS(lic/%&
6orm5+So1
End Su$
Private Su$ deleteuserS(lic/%&
6orm4+So1
End Su$
Private Su$ e0celS(lic/%&
Sell %UcDZPro)ram 6ilesZ*icroso't O''iceZO''iceZE0celU&!
v$*a0imi#ed6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ e0itS(lic/%&
s H *s),o0%UR U Sure 2ant To Beave+++FU! v$<uestion K v$-esNo&
I' s H v$-es Ten
*s),o0 UTan0 6or Noinin) *e VU! v$In'ormation
End
Else
*s),o0 UTan0 6or Still Usin)+++++U! v$In'ormation
End I'
End Su$
Private Su$ 'li)ten8uiryS(lic/%&
6orm;+So1
End Su$
Private Su$ 'li)tmasterS(lic/%&
6orm:+So1
End Su$
Private Su$ *DI6ormSUnload%(ancel As Inte)er&
Airline Reservation System
s H *s),o0%UR U Sure 2ant To Beave+++FU! v$<uestion K v$-esNo&
I' s H v$-es Ten
*s),o0 UTan0 6or Noinin) *e VU! v$In'ormation
(ancel H @
Else
*s),o0 UTan0 6or Still Usin)+++++U! v$In'ormation
(ancel H 3
End I'
End Su$
Private Su$ note.adS(lic/%&
Sell %U(DZ2INDO2SZNOTEPAD+EMEU&! v$*a0imi#ed6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ .o1er.ointS(lic/%&
Sell %UcDZPro)ram 6ilesZ*icroso't O''iceZO''iceZPo1er.ntU&!
v$*a0imi#ed6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ reservationS(lic/%&
6orm9+So1
End Su$
Private Su$ tic/etScancelS(lic/%&
6orm>+So1
End Su$
Private Su$ tic/eten8uiryS(lic/%&
6orm=+So1
End Su$
Private Su$ Timer3STimer%&
I' *DI6orm3+2indo1State H 3 Ten
I' a *od 4 H @ Ten
*DI6orm3+(a.tion H UU
Else
*DI6orm3+(a.tion H UAirline Reservation System%ARS&+U
End I'
Airline Reservation System
a H a K 3
I' a Y 3@ Ten
a H 3
End I'
End I'
End Su$
Private Su$ trainen8uiryS(lic/%&
6orm=+So1
End Su$
Private Su$ trainmasterS(lic/%&
6orm:+So1
End Su$
Private Su$ 1ordS(lic/%&
Sell %UcDZPro)ram 6ilesZ*icroso't O''iceZO''iceZ2in1ordU&!
v$*a0imi#ed6ocus
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
Private Su$ (ommand3S(lic/%&
I' (ommand3+(a.tion H UAAddU Ten
Te0t3+Set6ocus
(ommand3+(a.tion H UASaveU
ElseI' (ommand3+(a.tion H UASaveU Ten
I' Te0t4+Te0t H Te0t5+Te0t Ten
s H *s),o0%UR U Sure 1ant To Save+++FU! v$<uestion K v$-esNo&
I' s H v$-es Ten
Data3+Recordset+AddNe1
Data3+Recordset+6ields%@& H Te0t3+Te0t
Data3+Recordset+6ields%3& H Te0t4+Te0t
Data3+Recordset+U.date
*s),o0 URecord Saved+++VU! v$In'ormation
Te0t3+Te0t H UU
Te0t4+Te0t H UU
Te0t5+Te0t H UU
Te0t3+Set6ocus
(ommand3+(a.tion H UAAddU
End I'
Airline Reservation System
E0it Su$
Else
*s),o0 U,ot Pass1ord Not *atced+++++VU! v$(ritical
Te0t5+Set6ocus
SendLeys UWHO*EXKWENDXU
End I'
End I'
End Su$
Private Su$ (ommand4S(lic/%&
Unload *e
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
Private Su$ (ommand3S(lic/%&
Data3+Recordset+*ove6irst
2ile Not Data3+Recordset+EO6
I' Te0t3+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%@& S
And Te0t4+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%3& Ten
s H *s),o0%UR U Sure 2ant To Delete Tis Record+++FU! v$<uestion K
v$-esNo&
I' s H v$-es Ten
Data3+Recordset+Delete
*s),o0 URecord Deleted+++VU! v$In'ormation
Te0t3+Te0t H UU
Te0t4+Te0t H UU
Te0t3+Set6ocus
End I'
E0it Su$
End I'
Data3+Recordset+*oveNe0t
2end
*s),o0 URecord Not 6ound+++VU! v$(ritical
Te0t3+Te0t H UU
Te0t4+Te0t H UU
Te0t3+Set6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ (ommand4S(lic/%&
Unload *e
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
Private Su$ (ommand3S(lic/%&
I' (ommand3+(a.tion H UAEDITU Ten
Te0t3+Set6ocus
(ommand3+(a.tion H UASAVEU
ElseI' (ommand3+(a.tion H UASAVEU Ten
Data3+Recordset+*ove6irst
2ile Not Data3+Recordset+EO6
I' Data3+Recordset+6ields%@& H Te0t3+Te0t S
And Data3+Recordset+6ields%3& H Te0t4+Te0t Ten
I' Te0t5+Te0t H Te0t4+Te0t Ten
Data3+Recordset+Edit
Data3+Recordset+6ields%3& H Te0t5+Te0t
Data3+Recordset+U.date
*s),o0 URecord Saved++++VU! v$In'ormation
Te0t3+Te0t H UU
Te0t4+Te0t H UU
Te0t5+Te0t H UU
Te0t4+Te0t H UU
Te0t3+Set6ocus
Airline Reservation System
(ommand3+(a.tion H UAEDITU
Else
*s),o0 UPass1ord Not *atced++++VU! v$(ritical
End I'
E0it Su$
End I'
Data3+Recordset+*oveNe0t
2end
*s),o0 URecord Not 6ound+++++VU! v$(ritical
Te0t3+Te0t H UU
Te0t4+Te0t H UU
Te0t5+Te0t H UU
Te0t4+Te0t H UU
Te0t3+Set6ocus
End I'
End Su$
Private Su$ (ommand4S(lic/%&
Unload *e
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
Dim d$ As Data$ase
Dim rs As Recordset
Dim iSno As Inte)er
Private Su$ dis.%&
On Error "oTo cec/
6or i H @ To ;
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H rs+6ields%i&
Ne0t
E0it Su$
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Private Su$ save%&
On Error "oTo cec/
6or i H @ To ;
rs+6ields%i& H Te0t3%i&+Te0t
Ne0t
E0it Su$
Airline Reservation System
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Private Su$ (md3S(lic/%&
On Error "oTo cec/
I' rs+EO6 [Y True Ten
rs+*ove6irst
(all dis.
End I'
E0it Su$
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Private Su$ (md4S(lic/%&
On Error "oTo cec/
rs+*ovePrevious
I' rs+,O6 H True Ten
rs+*oveBast
End I'
(all dis.
E0it Su$
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Private Su$ (md5S(lic/%&
On Error "oTo cec/
rs+*oveNe0t
I' rs+EO6 H True Ten
rs+*ove6irst
End I'
(all dis.
E0it Su$
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
Private Su$ (md4S(lic/%&
On Error "oTo cec/
I' rs+EO6 [Y True Ten
rs+*oveBast
(all dis.
End I'
E0it Su$
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Private Su$ (md9S(lic/%&
I' (md9+(a.tion H UADDU Ten
(md3+Ena$led H 6alse
(md4+Ena$led H 6alse
(md5+Ena$led H 6alse
(md4+Ena$led H 6alse
(md:+Ena$led H 6alse
(md;+Ena$led H 6alse
(md=+Ena$led H 6alse
(md9+(a.tion H USAVEU
6or i H @ To ;
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H UU
Ne0t
Te0t3%@&+Set6ocus
Else
(md9+(a.tion H UADDU
Res H *s),o0%Usave tis record FU! v$In'ormation K v$-esNo&
(md3+Ena$led H True
(md4+Ena$led H True
(md5+Ena$led H True
(md4+Ena$led H True
(md:+Ena$led H True
(md;+Ena$led H True
(md=+Ena$led H True
I' Res H v$-es Ten
rs+AddNe1
(all save
rs+U.date
Airline Reservation System
rs+Re8uery
Else
Set rs H d$+O.enRecordset%Uselect I 'rom 6li)tU&
(all dis.
End I'
End I'
End Su$
Private Su$ (md:S(lic/%&
I' (md:+(a.tion H U*ODI6-U Ten
(md3+Ena$led H 6alse
(md4+Ena$led H 6alse
(md5+Ena$led H 6alse
(md4+Ena$led H 6alse
(md9+Ena$led H 6alse
(md;+Ena$led H 6alse
(md=+Ena$led H 6alse
(md:+(a.tion H UUPDATEU
ElseI' (md:+(a.tion H UUPDATEU Ten
Res H *s),o0%Umodi'y tis recordFU! v$In'ormation K v$-esNo&
(md3+Ena$led H True
(md4+Ena$led H True
(md5+Ena$led H True
(md4+Ena$led H True
(md9+Ena$led H True
(md:+Ena$led H True
(md;+Ena$led H True
(md=+Ena$led H True
I' Res H v$-es Ten
rs+Edit
(all save
rs+U.date
(md:+(a.tion H U*ODI6-U
Else
(all dis.
End I'
End I'
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
Private Su$ (md;S(lic/%&
On Error "oTo cec/
Res H *s),o0%UDelete tis recordFU! v$In'ormation K v$-esNo&
I' Res H v$-es Ten
rs+Delete
6or i H @ To ;
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H UU
Ne0t
rs+*ove6irst
(all dis.
End I'
E0it Su$
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Private Su$ (md=S(lic/%&
Unload *e
End Su$
Private Su$ (ommand3S(lic/%&
6orm4+So1
End Su$
Private Su$ 6ormSBoad%&
Ba$el34+(a.tion H U6BI"HT *ASTER 6OR*U
Set d$ H O.enData$ase%U(DZAIRBINEZAirlines+md$U&
Set rs H d$+O.enRecordset%Uselect I 'rom 6li)tU&
I' rs+EO6 H True Ten
*s),o0 UTere Is No RecordU! v$(ritical
Else
6or i H @ To ;
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H rs+6ields%i&
Ne0t
End I'
End Su$
Private Su$ Timer3STimer%&
Dim a As Inte)er
Airline Reservation System
a H Ba$el34+Be't
a H a - 3@@
I' a [ -4;:@ Ten
a H 33==@
End I'
Ba$el34+Be't H a
End Su$
Dim d$ As Data$ase
Dim rs As Recordset
Private Su$ (md3S(lic/%&
On Error "oTo cec/
I' rs+EO6 [Y True Ten
rs+*ove6irst
(all dis.
End I'
Airline Reservation System
E0it Su$
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Private Su$ (md4S(lic/%&
On Error "oTo cec/
rs+*ovePrevious
I' rs+,O6 H True Ten
rs+*oveBast
End I'
(all dis.
E0it Su$
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Private Su$ (md5S(lic/%&
On Error "oTo cec/
rs+*oveNe0t
I' rs+EO6 H True Ten
rs+*ove6irst
End I'
(all dis.
E0it Su$
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Private Su$ (md4S(lic/%&
On Error "oTo cec/
I' rs+EO6 [Y True Ten
rs+*oveBast
(all dis.
End I'
E0it Su$
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
Private Su$ (md9S(lic/%&
I' (md9+(a.tion H UADDU Ten
(md3+Ena$led H 6alse
(md4+Ena$led H 6alse
(md5+Ena$led H 6alse
(md4+Ena$led H 6alse
(md:+Ena$led H 6alse
(md;+Ena$led H 6alse
(md=+Ena$led H 6alse
(md9+(a.tion H USAVEU
6or i H @ To 4
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H UU
Ne0t
Te0t3%@&+Set6ocus
Else
Res H *s),o0%Usave tis record FU! v$In'ormation K v$-esNo&
(md3+Ena$led H True
(md4+Ena$led H True
(md5+Ena$led H True
(md4+Ena$led H True
(md:+Ena$led H True
(md;+Ena$led H True
(md=+Ena$led H True
I' Res H v$-es Ten
(md9+(a.tion H UADDU
rs+AddNe1
(all save
rs+U.date
rs+Re8uery
Else
Set rs H d$+O.enRecordset%Uselect I 'rom 6areU&
(all dis.
End I'
End I'
End Su$
Private Su$ dis.%&
6or i H @ To 4
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H rs+6ields%i&
Ne0t
Airline Reservation System
End Su$
Private Su$ save%&
On Error "oTo cec/
6or i H @ To 4
rs+6ields%i& H Te0t3%i&+Te0t
Ne0t
E0it Su$
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Private Su$ (md:S(lic/%&
I' (md:+(a.tion H U*ODI6-U Ten
(md3+Ena$led H 6alse
(md4+Ena$led H 6alse
(md5+Ena$led H 6alse
(md4+Ena$led H 6alse
(md9+Ena$led H 6alse
(md;+Ena$led H 6alse
(md=+Ena$led H 6alse
(md:+(a.tion H UUPDATEU
ElseI' (md:+(a.tion H UUPDATEU Ten
Res H *s),o0%Umodi'y tis recordFU! v$In'ormation K v$-esNo&
(md3+Ena$led H True
(md4+Ena$led H True
(md5+Ena$led H True
(md4+Ena$led H True
(md9+Ena$led H True
(md:+Ena$led H True
(md;+Ena$led H True
(md=+Ena$led H True
I' Res H v$-es Ten
rs+Edit
(all save
rs+U.date
(md:+(a.tion H U*ODI6-U
Else
(all dis.
Airline Reservation System
End I'
End I'
End Su$
Private Su$ (md;S(lic/%&
On Error "oTo cec/
Res H *s),o0%UDelete tis recordFU! v$In'ormation K v$-esNo&
I' Res H v$-es Ten
rs+Delete
6or i H @ To 4
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H UU
Ne0t
rs+*ove6irst
(all dis.
End I'
E0it Su$
cec/D
Resume Ne0t
End Su$
Private Su$ (md=S(lic/%&
Unload *e
End Su$
Private Su$ Timer3STimer%&
Dim a As Inte)er
a H Ba$el34+Be't
a H a - 3@@
I' a [ -4;:@ Ten
a H 33==@
End I'
Ba$el34+Be't H a
End Su$
Private Su$ 6ormSBoad%&
Ba$el34+(a.tion H U6li)t 6are 6ormU
Set d$ H O.enData$ase%A..+Pat K UZAirlines+md$U&
Set rs H d$+O.enRecordset%Uselect I 'rom 6areU&
I' rs+EO6 H True Ten
Airline Reservation System
*s),o0 UTere Is No RecordU! v$(ritical
Else
6or i H @ To 4
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H rs+6ields%i&
Ne0t
End I'
End Su$
Private Su$ (md3S(lic/%&
Randomi#e
I' (md3+(a.tion H UNE2 TI(LETU Ten
Te0t3+Te0t H UU
Te0t4+Te0t H UU
Te0t:+Te0t H UU
Te0t;+Te0t H UU
Airline Reservation System
(om$o3+Te0t H USelect (lassU
Te0t3+Set6ocus
(md3+(a.tion H USAVEU
ElseI' (md3+(a.tion H USAVEU Ten
Data3+Recordset+*ove6irst
2ile Not Data3+Recordset+EO6
I' Data3+Recordset+6ields%@& H Te0t3+Te0t Ten
Select (ase (om$o3+Te0t
(ase UE-(BASSU
$ H Data3+Recordset+6ields%:&
I' $ Y @ Ten
Data5+Recordset+*ove6irst
2ile Not Data5+Recordset+EO6
I' Data3+Recordset+6ields%@& H Te0t3+Te0t Ten
( H Val%Te0t>+Te0t& I Val%Data5+Recordset+6ields%3&&
"oTo OUT
End I'
Data5+Recordset+*oveNe0t
2end
*s),o0 U6ARE DETAIB NOT AVAIBA,BE+++U! v$(ritical
E0it Su$
OUTD
Data4+Recordset+AddNe1
/ H Int%Rnd%3@@@& I 3@@@@& I 3@@@
Data4+Recordset+6ields%@& H /
Data4+Recordset+6ields%3& H Te0t3+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%4& H Te0t4+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%5& H (om$o4+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%4& H (om$o5+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%9& H DTPic/er3+Value
Data4+Recordset+6ields%:& H (om$o3+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%;& H Te0t:+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%=& H Te0t;+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%>& H (om$o4+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%3@& H $
Data4+Recordset+6ields%33& H (
Data4+Recordset+6ields%34& H U(ON6IR*EDU
Data4+Recordset+U.date
*s),o0 URE(ORD SAVED+++++U! v$In'ormation
Airline Reservation System
*s),o0 UUR TI(LET IN6OR*ATION+++++U
*s),o0 UTI(LET NO D U A / A U AND SEAT NO H U A $
Data3+Recordset+Edit
Data3+Recordset+6ields%:& H $ - 3
Data3+Recordset+U.date
(all (BEAR
Else
*s),o0 USEAT NOT AVAIBA,BE++++++VU! v$(ritical
E0it Su$
End I'
(ase U,-(BASSU
$ H Data3+Recordset+6ields%;&
I' $ Y @ Ten
Data5+Recordset+*ove6irst
2ile Not Data5+Recordset+EO6
I' Data3+Recordset+6ields%@& H Te0t3+Te0t Ten
( H Val%Te0t>+Te0t& I Val%Data5+Recordset+6ields%4&&
"oTo OUT3
End I'
Data5+Recordset+*oveNe0t
2end
*s),o0 U6ARE DETAIB NOT AVAIBA,BE+++U! v$(ritical
E0it Su$
OUT3D
Data4+Recordset+AddNe1
/ H Int%Rnd%3@@@& I 3@@@@& I 3@@@
Data4+Recordset+6ields%@& H /
Data4+Recordset+6ields%3& H Te0t3+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%4& H Te0t4+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%5& H (om$o4+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%4& H (om$o5+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%9& H DTPic/er3+Value
Data4+Recordset+6ields%:& H (om$o3+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%;& H Te0t:+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%=& H Te0t;+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%>& H (om$o4+Te0t
Data4+Recordset+6ields%3@& H $
Data4+Recordset+6ields%33& H (
Data4+Recordset+6ields%34& H U(ON6IR*EDU
Airline Reservation System
Data4+Recordset+U.date
*s),o0 URE(ORD SAVED+++++U! v$In'ormation
*s),o0 UUR TI(LET IN6OR*ATION+++++U
*s),o0 UTI(LET NO D U A / A U AND SEAT NO H U A $
Data3+Recordset+Edit
Data3+Recordset+6ields%;& H $ - 3
Data3+Recordset+U.date
(all (BEAR
Else
*s),o0 USEAT NOT AVAIBA,BE++++++VU! v$(ritical
E0it Su$
End I'
End Select
E0it Su$
End I'
Data3+Recordset+*oveNe0t
2end
*s),o0 URE(ORD NOT 6OUND+++U! v$(ritical
End I'
End Su$
Private Su$ (md5S(lic/%&
Unload *e
End Su$
Private Su$ (om$o3S(lic/%&
Te0t:+Set6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ (om$o4S(lic/%&
(om$o5+Set6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ (om$o5S(lic/%&
DTPic/er3+Set6ocus
Select (ase (om$o4+Te0t
(ase UNe1 DeliU
Airline Reservation System
Select (ase (om$o5+Te0t
(ase U*um$aiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3:@@U
(ase UPatnaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U>@@U
(ase ULol/attaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U34@@U
(ase U(ennaiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U4@@@U
(ase UNai.urU
Te0t>+Te0t H U:@@U
(ase UA7merU
Te0t>+Te0t H U;@@U
(ase U,o.alU
Te0t>+Te0t H U33@@U
(ase UTrivendramU
Te0t>+Te0t H U49@@U
(ase U,an)loreU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3>@@U
(ase UHydra$adU
Te0t>+Te0t H U43@@U
End Select

(ase U*um$aiU
Select (ase (om$o5+Te0t
(ase UNe1 DeliU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3:@@U
(ase UPatnaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U>@@U
(ase ULol/attaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U34@@U
(ase U(ennaiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U9@@U
(ase UNai.urU
Te0t>+Te0t H U4@@@U
(ase UA7merU
Te0t>+Te0t H U43@@U
(ase U,o.alU
Te0t>+Te0t H U;@@U
Airline Reservation System
(ase UTrivendramU
Te0t>+Te0t H U39@@U
(ase U,an)loreU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3@@@U
(ase UHydra$adU
Te0t>+Te0t H U33@@U
End Select
(ase UPatnaU
Select (ase (om$o5+Te0t
(ase UNe1 DeliU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3:@@U
(ase U*um$aiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U>@@U
(ase ULol/attaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U34@@U
(ase U(ennaiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U9@@U
(ase UNai.urU
Te0t>+Te0t H U4@@@U
(ase UA7merU
Te0t>+Te0t H U43@@U
(ase U,o.alU
Te0t>+Te0t H U;@@U
(ase UTrivendramU
Te0t>+Te0t H U39@@U
(ase U,an)loreU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3@@@U
(ase UHydra$adU
Te0t>+Te0t H U33@@U
End Select
(ase ULol/attaU
Select (ase (om$o5+Te0t
(ase UNe1 DeliU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3:@@U
(ase U*um$aiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U>@@U
(ase UPatnaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U34@@U
(ase U(ennaiU
Airline Reservation System
Te0t>+Te0t H U9@@U
(ase UNai.urU
Te0t>+Te0t H U4@@@U
(ase UA7merU
Te0t>+Te0t H U43@@U
(ase U,o.alU
Te0t>+Te0t H U;@@U
(ase UTrivendramU
Te0t>+Te0t H U39@@U
(ase U,an)loreU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3@@@U
(ase UHydra$adU
Te0t>+Te0t H U33@@U
End Select
(ase U(ennaiU
Select (ase (om$o5+Te0t
(ase UNe1 DeliU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3:@@U
(ase UPatnaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U>@@U
(ase ULol/attaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U34@@U
(ase U*um$aiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U9@@U
(ase UNai.urU
Te0t>+Te0t H U4@@@U
(ase UA7merU
Te0t>+Te0t H U43@@U
(ase U,o.alU
Te0t>+Te0t H U;@@U
(ase UTrivendramU
Te0t>+Te0t H U39@@U
(ase U,an)loreU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3@@@U
(ase UHydra$adU
Te0t>+Te0t H U33@@U
End Select
(ase UNai.urU
Select (ase (om$o5+Te0t
Airline Reservation System
(ase UNe1 DeliU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3:@@U
(ase UPatnaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U>@@U
(ase ULol/attaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U34@@U
(ase U(ennaiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U9@@U
(ase U*um$aiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U4@@@U
(ase UA7merU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3@@U
(ase U,o.alU
Te0t>+Te0t H U;@@U
(ase UTrivendramU
Te0t>+Te0t H U39@@U
(ase U,an)loreU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3@@@U
(ase UHydra$adU
Te0t>+Te0t H U33@@U
End Select
(ase UA7merU
Select (ase (om$o5+Te0t
(ase UNe1 DeliU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3:@@U
(ase UPatnaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U>@@U
(ase ULol/attaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U34@@U
(ase U(ennaiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U9@@U
(ase U*um$aiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U4@@@U
(ase UNai.urU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3@@U
(ase U,o.alU
Te0t>+Te0t H U;@@U
(ase UTrivendramU
Te0t>+Te0t H U39@@U
Airline Reservation System
(ase U,an)loreU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3@@@U
(ase UHydra$adU
Te0t>+Te0t H U33@@U
End Select
(ase U,o.alU
Select (ase (om$o5+Te0t
(ase UNe1 DeliU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3:@@U
(ase UPatnaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U>@@U
(ase ULol/attaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U34@@U
(ase U(ennaiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U9@@U
(ase U*um$aiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U4@@@U
(ase UA7merU
Te0t>+Te0t H U43@@U
(ase UNai.urU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3>@@U
(ase UTrivendramU
Te0t>+Te0t H U39@@U
(ase U,an)loreU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3@@@U
(ase UHydra$adU
Te0t>+Te0t H U33@@U
End Select
(ase UTrivendramU
Select (ase (om$o5+Te0t
(ase UNe1 DeliU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3:@@U
(ase UPatnaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U>@@U
(ase ULol/attaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U34@@U
(ase U(ennaiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U9@@U
(ase U*um$aiU
Airline Reservation System
Te0t>+Te0t H U4@@@U
(ase UA7merU
Te0t>+Te0t H U43@@U
(ase U,o.alU
Te0t>+Te0t H U;@@U
(ase UNai.urU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3>@@U
(ase U,an)loreU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3@@@U
(ase UHydra$adU
Te0t>+Te0t H U5@@U
End Select
(ase U,an)loreU
Select (ase (om$o5+Te0t
(ase UNe1 DeliU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3:@@U
(ase UPatnaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U>@@U
(ase ULol/attaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U34@@U
(ase U(ennaiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U9@@U
(ase U*um$aiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U4@@@U
(ase UA7merU
Te0t>+Te0t H U43@@U
(ase U,o.alU
Te0t>+Te0t H U;@@U
(ase UNai.urU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3>@@U
(ase UTrivendramU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3@@@U
(ase UHydra$adU
Te0t>+Te0t H U5@@U
End Select
(ase UHydra$adU
Select (ase (om$o5+Te0t
(ase UNe1 DeliU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3:@@U
Airline Reservation System
(ase UPatnaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U>@@U
(ase ULol/attaU
Te0t>+Te0t H U34@@U
(ase U(ennaiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U9@@U
(ase U*um$aiU
Te0t>+Te0t H U4@@@U
(ase UA7merU
Te0t>+Te0t H U43@@U
(ase U,o.alU
Te0t>+Te0t H U;@@U
(ase UNai.urU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3>@@U
(ase U,an)loreU
Te0t>+Te0t H U3@@@U
(ase UTrivendramU
Te0t>+Te0t H U5@@U
End Select
End Select
End Su$
Private Su$ (om$o4S(lic/%&
(md3+Set6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ DTPic/er3S(an)e%&
(om$o3+Set6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ 6ormSBoad%&
Ba$el34+(a.tion H URESERVATION 6OR*U
(om$o4+AddItem %UNe1 DeliU&
(om$o4+AddItem %U*um$aiU&
(om$o4+AddItem %UPatnaU&
(om$o4+AddItem %ULol/attaU&
(om$o4+AddItem %U(ennaiU&
(om$o4+AddItem %UNai.urU&
(om$o4+AddItem %UA7merU&
Airline Reservation System
(om$o4+AddItem %U,o.alU&
(om$o4+AddItem %UTrivendramU&
(om$o4+AddItem %U,an)loreU&
(om$o4+AddItem %UHydra$adU&
(om$o5+AddItem %UNe1 DeliU&
(om$o5+AddItem %U*um$aiU&
(om$o5+AddItem %UPatnaU&
(om$o5+AddItem %ULol/attaU&
(om$o5+AddItem %U(ennaiU&
(om$o5+AddItem %UNai.urU&
(om$o5+AddItem %UA7merU&
(om$o5+AddItem %U,o.alU&
(om$o5+AddItem %UTrivendramU&
(om$o5+AddItem %U,an)loreU&
(om$o5+AddItem %UHydra$adU&
End Su$
Private Su$ Te0t3SBost6ocus%&
Data3+Recordset+*ove6irst
2ile Not Data3+Recordset+EO6
I' Te0t3+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%@& Ten
Te0t4+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%3&
(om$o4+Set6ocus
E0it Su$
End I'
Data3+Recordset+*oveNe0t
2end
*s),o0 U6li) Not 6ound+++VU! v$(ritical
Te0t3+Set6ocus
SendLeys UWomeXKWendXU
End Su$
Private Su$ Timer3STimer%&
Dim a As Inte)er
a H Ba$el34+Be't
a H a - 3@@
I' a [ -5@@@ Ten
a H 35@@@
Airline Reservation System
End I'
Ba$el34+Be't H a
End Su$
Private Su$ (BEAR%&
Te0t3+Te0t H UU
Te0t4+Te0t H UU
(om$o3+Te0t H UU
(om$o4+Te0t H UU
(om$o5+Te0t H UU
(om$o4+Te0t H UU
(md3+Set6ocus
(md3+(a.tion H UNE2 TI(LETU
Unload *e
6orm9+So1
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
Private Su$ (md3S(lic/%&
Data3+Recordset+*ove6irst
2ile Not Data3+Recordset+EO6
I' Te0t3%@&+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%@& Ten
6or i H 3 To ;
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%i&
Ne0t
E0it Su$
End I'
Data3+Recordset+*oveNe0t
2end
*s),o0 URecord Not 6ound+++++VU! v$(ritical
6or i H @ To ;
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H UU
Ne0t
Te0t3%@&+Set6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ (md4S(lic/%&
6or i H @ To ;
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H UU
Ne0t
Te0t3%@&+Set6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ (md5S(lic/%&
Unload *e
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
Private Su$ (ommand3S(lic/%&
Data3+Recordset+*ove6irst
2ile Not Data3+Recordset+EO6
I' Te0t3%@&+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%@& Ten
6or i H 3 To 33
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%i&
Ne0t
Ba$el34+(a.tion H UTic/et Status H U A Data3+Recordset+6ields%34&
E0it Su$
End I'
Data3+Recordset+*oveNe0t
2end
*s),o0 URecord Not 6ound+++++VU! v$(ritical
6or i H @ To 33
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H UU
Ne0t
Te0t3%@&+Set6ocus
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
Private Su$ (ommand4S(lic/%&
Unload *e
End Su$
Private Su$ (ommand5S(lic/%&
6or i H @ To 33
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H UU
Ne0t
Ba$el34+(a.tion H UU
Te0t3%@&+Set6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ (ommand3S(lic/%&
Data3+Recordset+*ove6irst
2ile Not Data3+Recordset+EO6
I' Te0t3%@&+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%@& Ten
Airline Reservation System
6or i H 3 To 33
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%i&
Ne0t
Ba$el34+(a.tion H UTic/et Status H U A Data3+Recordset+6ields%34&
E0it Su$
End I'
Data3+Recordset+*oveNe0t
2end
*s),o0 URecord Not 6ound+++++VU! v$(ritical
6or i H @ To 33
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H UU
Ne0t
Te0t3%@&+Set6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ (ommand4S(lic/%&
Unload *e
End Su$
Private Su$ (ommand5S(lic/%&
6or i H @ To 33
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H UU
Ne0t
Ba$el34+(a.tion H UU
Te0t3%@&+Set6ocus
End Su$
Private Su$ (ommand4S(lic/%&
Data3+Recordset+*ove6irst
2ile Not Data3+Recordset+EO6
I' Te0t3%@&+Te0t H Data3+Recordset+6ields%@& Ten
s H *s),o0%UR U SURE TO (AN(EB THIS TI(LET+++FU! v$<uestion K
v$-esNo&
I' s H v$-es Ten
Data3+Recordset+Delete
*s),o0 UTI(LET (AN(EBBED+++++VU! v$In'ormation
6or i H @ To 33
Te0t3%i&+Te0t H UU
Airline Reservation System
Ne0t
Ba$el34+(a.tion H UU
Te0t3%@&+Set6ocus
E0it Su$
End I'
End I'
Data3+Recordset+*oveNe0t
2end
End Su$
Airline Reservation System
;+ (ODE E66I(IEN(-
,y te e''iciency o' a .ro)ram 1e mean! te amount o' com.utin) resources and code
re8uired $y a .ro)ram to .er'orm its 'unction+ E''iciency is te de)ree to 1ic te
so't1are ma/es o.timal use o' system resources as indicated $y te 'ollo1in)
su$attri$utes D
3+ time $eaviour and
4+ resource $eaviour+
Te code o' our .ro7ect is e''icient in te sense tat it re8uires minimal num$er o'
com.utin) resources 1ic are easily availa$le and a''orda$le to .er'orm its 'unctions+
Also te code re8uried $y eac inde.endent 'unction is also minimal+
Airline Reservation System
=+ OPTI*IJATION O6 (ODE
,y o.timi#ation o' code 1e mean tat o1 e''iciently 1e ave used te di''erent
structures o' te codin)+ To acieve code o.timi#ation in our .ro7ect 1e ave declared
all te varia$les used in te .ro7ect on a module+ 2e ave declared all te varia$les as
.u$lic so tat tey can $e used as and 1en re8uired 1itout redeclarin) tem+ Also
several su$routines as $een declared .u$lic on te module so tat tey can $e used
any1ere in te .ro7ect 1en re8uired! tus ma/in) o.timal use o' te code+
Airline Reservation System
>+ VABIDATION (HE(LS
Tere are various 'orms in tis .ro7ect tat are $ein) used to su$mit data to te
data$ase+ In order to reduce errors! 1e ave a..lied a lot o' validation cec/s on various
te0t $o0es suc as amount $o0es! date $o0es etc+ so tat only valid data can $e entered in
tese te0t $o0es+ Also 1e ave a..lied certain constraints on ta$les in oracle! $ut i' any
o' te constraint is violated $y te user trou) oracle 1e cannot com.el te user to
can)e te ty.ed tat error! 'or tis 1e ave .laced tese validations cec/s+ Tese
validation cec/s also el.s us to reduce ty.o)ra.ical errors+ Tese validations cec/s
also .ressuri#e te user to 'ill tose 'ields tat canEt $e le't $lan/+ Tese cec/s also
convert te al.a$ets into teir suita$le case e+)+ e-mail address 'ields 1ill acce.t every
caracter in lo1er case! no matter 1eter it is entered 1it ca.s loc/ on or o''+
Some o' te validation cec/s used in tis .ro7ect are as 'ollo1sD
VALIDATION CHECK ON AMOUNT BOXES:
Te only valid caracters tat can $e entered in $o0es acce.tin) amounts are di)its 'rom
@ to > and decimal%+&+ ,ac/s.ace /ey is also allo1ed 'or editin) .ur.oses+ 6urtermore i'
an amount $o0 as a ma0imum len)t o' 34 caracters and a user 1ants to enter only
inte)er num$er in tis $o0 ten tis $o0 1ill acce.t only a ten di)it inte)er num$er 'rom
te user and te num$er 1ill $e converted into te 'ormat >>>>>>>>>>+>> + It 1ill el. us
in reducin) te errors 1en te data is su$mitted to te data$ase+ In te a$sence o' tis
cec/! 1e could encounter errors li/e te entered value is too lar)e 'or te column+
Airline Reservation System
VALIDATION CHECK ON NAME BOXES:
Te only valid caracters tat can $e entered in te te0t $o0es acce.tin) te name o' te
customers suc as 'irst name ! middle name and last name are al.a$ets 'rom a to # or in
u..er case letters 'rom A to J+ ,ac/s.ace /ey is also allo1ed 'or editin) .ur.oses+ No
matter 1eter te caracter are entered in lo1er case or in u..er case tey 1ill $e
converted automatically to u..er case letters 'or consistency .ur.oses+
VALIDATION CHECK ON COMBO BOXES:
2e ave also used some com$o $o0es! suc as 'or city! state and .ro'ession on some
'orms+ 2e ave a..lied a validation cec/ on tese $o0es so tat a user is allo1ed to
only select a value 'rom tese $o0es+ Te user canEt enter any value oter tan tat
availa$le in te com$o $o0+ Tis el.s us in restrictin) customers 'rom enterin) invalid
values+
VALIDATION CHECK ON DATE BOXES:
Tere are several te0t $o0es acce.tin) dates 'rom users on various 'orms in our .ro7ect+
Dates .lay a very im.ortant role in our .ro7ect $ecause te only $asis to determine
1eter a customer 1o 1as minor at te time o' o.enin) te account! as $ecome
mature or not! are te dates+ 6urtermore transaction dates are also very im.ortant 'or
daily $ac/u.s+ Eac user as its o1n 'ormat o' 1ritin) dates e+)+ a user may enter date in
te 'ollo1in) 'ormatsD 39-@>-4@@4! 39-@>-@4! 39?@>?4@@4! 39?@>?@4 or se. 39! 4@@4 and
many more+ Tis may cause a .ro$lem+ So 1e ave restricted te date 'ormat to
dd?mm?yyyy+ I' te user doesnEt enter te date in te s.eci'ied 'ormat! a messa)e 1ill $e
dis.layed to te user tat te 'ormat 'or te date is dd?mm?yyyy+ Also te ? 1ill a..ear
automatically a'ter every t1o caracters i+e+ a slas ? 1ill a..ear automatically a'ter te
Airline Reservation System
user as entered a valid value 'or te day and ne0t slas 1ill a..ear automatically a'ter
te valid value o' mont+ 2e ave also a..lied a cec/ so tat te user canEt enter an
invlid value 'or te day! mont and year+ 6or e0am.le i' a user enters 54 or more 'or te
value o' day! a messa)e 1ill $e dis.layed so1in) tat te value 'or day canEt $e )reater
tan 53+ Similarly i' a user enters a value 35 or more 'or te mont! an a..ro.riate
messa)e 1ill $e dis.layed+ Also i' te value o' te day is 4> or more tan 4> and te
value 'or te mont is @4! an a..ro.riate messate 1ill $e dis.layed and te te0t $o0 1ill
$e made $lan/+ Te only valid values 'or te year are 3>@3 and more+ Te system 1ill not
acce.t dates avin) year less tan or e8ual to 3>@@+ Te date 1ill also $e cec/ed 'or te
validity o' lea. year+ In te case o' a lea. year a date suc as 4>?@4?4@@@ is valid
$ecause in a lea. year! 6e$ruary is o' 4> days+ In tis 1ay 1e ave reduced te $urden
o' mana)in) di''erent date 'ormats+
Airline Reservation System
3@+ TESTIN"
Durin) system testin)! te system is used e0.erimentally to ensure tat te so't1are does
not 'ail+ S.eci'ic test data are in.ut 'or .rocessin)! and te results e0amined+ It is
desira$le to discover any sur.rises $e'ore te or)ani#ation im.lements te system and
de.ends on it+
10.1 TESTING OB1ECTIVES :
3+ Testin) is a .rocess o' e0ecutin) a .ro)ram 1it te intent o' 'indin) an error
+
4+ A )ood test case is one tat as a i) .ro$a$ility o' 'indin) an as yet undiscovered
error+
5+ A success'ul test is one tat uncovers an as yet undiscovered error+
10.2 TESTING PRINCIPLES :
3+ All tests sould $e tracea$le to te customerEs re8uirements+
4+ Tests sould $e .lanned lon) $e'ore te testin) $e)ins+
5+ Testin) sould $e)in Pin te smallQ and .ro)ress to1ards Pin te lar)eQ+
4+ E0austive testin) is not .ossi$le+
9+ To $e most e''ective! testin) sould $e conducted $y an inde.endent tird .arty+
TESTING
In so't1are develo.ment .ro7ect! errors can $e in7ected at any sta)e durin)
develo.ment+ ,ecause code is te only .roduct tat can $e e0ecuted 're8uently
and 1ose actual $eavior can $e o$served! testin) is te .ase 1ere te
remainin) errors 'rom all te .revious .ases must $e detected+ Testin) .er'orms
Airline Reservation System
a critical role 'or 8uality assurance and 'or ensurin) te relia$ility o' so't1are+
Durin) testin)! te .ro)ram to $e tested is e0ecuted 1it a set o' test cases! and
te out.ut o' te .ro)ram 'or te test cases is evaluated to determine i' te
.ro)ram is .er'ormin) as e0.ected+ Due to tis a..roac! dynamic testin) can
only ascertain te .resence o' errors in te .ro)ramG te e0act nature o' errors is
not usually decided $y testin)+
Testin) a lar)e system is a com.le0 activity! so 'or a .ro7ect! incremental testin)
is )enerally .er'ormed! in 1ic com.onents and su$systems o' te system are
tested se.arately $e'ore inte)ratin) tem to 'orm te system 'or system testin)+
Tis 'orm o' testin) introduces ne1 issues o' o1 to select com.onents and o1
to
com$ine tem to 'orm systems and su$systems+
10.3 TESTING FUNDAMENTALS
ERROR
It re'ers to te discre.ancy $et1een a com.uted! o$served! or measured value and
true! s.eci'ied or teoretically correct value i+e+ it re'ers to te di''erence $et1een
te actual out.ut o' te so't1are and te correct value+
FAULT
It is a condition tat causes a system to 'ail in .er'ormin) its re8uired 'unction+ A
'ault is te $asic reason 'or so't1are mal'unction and is synonymous 1it te
commonly used term $u)+
Airline Reservation System
FAILURE
It is te ina$ility o' a system or com.onent to .er'orm a re8uired 'unction
accordin) to its s.eci'ication+ A So't1are 6ailure occurs i' te $eavior o' te
so't1are is di''erent 'rom te s.eci'ied $eavior+ 6aults ave te .otential to
cause 'ailures and teir .resence is a necessary $ut not su''icient condition 'or
'ailure to occur+

10.4 TEST CASES AND TEST CRITERIA
Ideally! 1e 1ould li/e to determine a set o' test cases suc tat success'ul
e0ecution o' all o' tem im.lies tat tere are no errors in te .ro)ram+ Tis ideal
)oal canEt usually $e acieved due to .ractical and teoretical constraints+ Eac
test case costs money! as e''ort is needed to )enerate te test case! macine time
is needed to e0ecute te .ro)ram 'or tat test case! and more e''ort is needed to
evaluate te results+
An ideal test case set is one tat succeeds only i' tere are no errors in te
.ro)ram+ One .ossi$le ideal set o' test cases is one tat includes all te .ossi$le
in.uts to te .ro)ram+ Tis is o'ten called e0austive testin)! o1ever it is
im.ractical and in'easi$le+
6or a )iven .ro)ram P and its s.eci'ication S! a test selection criterion s.eci'ies
te conditions tat must $e satis'ied $y a set o' test cases T+ 'or e0am.le! i' te
criterion is tat all statements in te .ro)ram $e e0ecuted at least once durin)
testin)! ten a set o' test cases T satis'ies tis criterion 'or a .ro)ram P is te
e0ecution o' P 1it T ensures tat eac statement in P is e0ecuted at least once+
Tere are t1o 'undamental .ro.erties 'or a testin) criterionD relia$ility and
Airline Reservation System
validity+ A criterion is relia$le i' all te sets o' test cases tat satis'y te criterion
detect te same errors+ A criterion is valid i' 'or any error in te .ro)ram tere is
some set satis'yin) te criterion tat 1ill reveal te error+
Testin) can $e mainly o' t1o ty.es D
10.5 BLACK BOX TESTING :

2en 1e /no1 te s.eci'ied 'unction tat a .roduct as $een desi)ned to .er'orm! tests
can $e conducted tat demonstrate eac 'unction is 'ully o.erational 1ile at te same
time searcin) 'or errors in eac 'unction+ A $lac/ $o0 test e0amines some 'undamental
as.ect o' a system 1it little re)ard 'or te internal lo)ical structure o' te so't1are+
,lac/ $o0 testin) also called $eavioral testin)! 'ocuses on te 'unctional re8uirements
o' te so't1are+ ,lac/ $o0 testin) attem.ts to 'ind errors in te 'ollo1in) cate)oriesD
a& Incorrect or missin) 'unctions+
$& Inter'ace errors+
c& Errors in data structures or e0ternal data$ase access+
d& ,eaviour or .er'ormance errors+
e& Initiali#ation and termination errors+
10.6 WHITE BOX TESTING :
2en 1e /no1 te internal 1or/in)s o' a .roduct! tests can $e conducted to ensure tat
internal o.erations are .er'ormed accordin) to s.eci'ications and all internal
com.onents ave $een ade8uately e0ercised+ Tis testin) is sometimes called as )lass
$o0 testin)+ Usin) 1ite $o0 testin) metods! te so't1are en)ineer can derive test cases
tat
a& )uarantee tat all inde.endent .ats 1itin a module ave $een e0ercised at least
once
$& e0ercise all lo)ical decisions on teir true and 'alse sides
Airline Reservation System
c& e0ecute all loo.s at teir $oundaries and 1itin teir o.erational $ounds
d& e0ercise internal data structures to ensure teir validity
In tis .ro7ect our main em.asis is on 1ite $o0 testin) +
In order to test loo.s! 1e used te loop testing tecni8ue 1ic is a 1ite $o0 testin)
tecni8ue+ *ost o' te loo.s used in tis .ro7ect $elon) to te cate)ory o' sim.le loo.s+
2e a..lied te 'ollo1in) set o' tests to test loo.s! 1ere n is te ma0imum num$er o'
allo1a$le .asses trou) te loo.+
3+ S/i..ed te loo. entirely+
4+ Allo1ed only one .ass trou) te loo.+
5+ Allo1ed t1o .assed trou) te loo.+
4+ Allo1ed m .assed trou) te loo. 1ere m [ n+
9+ Allo1ed n-3! n! nK3 .asses trou) te loo.+
In order to test te control 'lo1 structures suc as i' conditions etc+ 1e used te
condition testing tecni8ue+ Te condition testin) metod 'ocuses on testin) eac
condition in te .ro)ram+ (ondition testin) strate)ies ave t1o advanta)es+ 6irst!
measurement o' test covera)e o' a condition is sim.le+ Second! te test covera)e o'
conditions in a .ro)ram .rovides )uidance 'or te )eneration o' additional tests 'or te
system+ Branch testing is te sim.lest condition testin) strate)y+ 6or a com.ound
condition ( 1ic is com.osed o' t1o or more sim.le conditions! $oolean o.erators and
.arentesis! te true and 'alse $rances o' ( and every sim.le condition in ( need to $e
e0ecuted at least once+
10.7 BOUNDARY VALUE ANALYSIS :
6or reasons tat are not com.letely clear! a )reater num$er o' errors tend to occur at te
Airline Reservation System
$oundaries o' te in.ut domain rater tan in te \centerE+ It is 'or tis reason
tat $oundary value analysis as $een develo.ed as a testin) tecni8ue+
,oundary value analysis leads to a selection o' test cases tat e0ercise $oundin)
Values+ 2e used tis a..roac to test several control statements in our .ro7ect+
"uidelines 'or $oundary value analysis are as 'ollo1sD
3+ I' an in.ut condition s.eci'ies a ran)e $ounded $y values a and $! test cases sould $e
desi)ned 1it values a and $ and 7ust a$ove and 7ust $elo1 a and $+
4+ I' an in.ut condition s.eci'ies a num$er o' values! test cases sould $e develo.ed
tat e0ercise te minimum and ma0imum num$ers+ Values 7ust a$ove and $elo1
minimum and ma0imum are also tested+
5+ A..ly te same )uidelines to out.ut conditions+
4+ I' internal .ro)ram data structures ave .rescri$ed $oundaries! $e certain to desi)n a
test case to e0ercise te data structure at its $oundary+
10.8 FUNCTIONAL TESTING :
In 'unctional testin)! te structure o' te .ro)ram is not considered+ Test cases
are decided solely on te $asis o' te re8uirements or s.eci'ications o' te
.ro)ram or module! and te internals o' te module or te .ro)ram are not
considered 'or selection o' test cases+ Due to its nature! 'unctional testin) is o'ten
called! P$lac/ $o0 testin)Q+
10.9 STRUCTURAL TESTING :
In te structural a..roac! test cases are )enerated $ased on te actual code o'
Airline Reservation System
te .ro)ram or module to $e tested+ Tis structural a..roac is sometimes called
P)lass $o0 testin)Q+
10.10 LEVELS OF TESTING :
Te $asic levels are unit testin)! inte)ration unit testin)! and system and
acce.tance testin)+
10.10.1 UNIT TESTING :
In tis di''erent modules are tested a)ainst te s.eci'ications .roduced durin)
desi)n 'or te modules+ Unit testin) is essentially 'or te veri'ication o' te code
.roduced durin) te codin) .ase and its )oal is to test te internal lo)ic o' te
modules+ It is ty.ically done $y te .ro)rammer o' te module+ Structural testin)
is $est suited 'or tis level+
In our .ro7ect eac 'orm 1or/s li/e a unit+ Some 'orms are used to dis.lay te
data stored in te data$ase and some 'orms are user to su$mit data to te
data$ase+ ,e'ore su$mittin) te data to te data$ase! it is tested individually
usin) 'ront end ca.a$ilities+ Te tests tat occurred as .art o' te unit tests are as
'ollo1sD
3+ Te module inter'ace 1as tested to ensure tat in'ormation .ro.erly 'lo1s
into and out o' te .ro)ram unit under test+
4+ Te local data structures 1ere e0amined to ensure tat data stored tem.orarily
maintains its inte)rity durin) all ste.s in an al)oritmEs e0ecution+
5+ ,oundary conditions 1ere tested to ensure tat te module o.erates .ro.erly
at $oundaries esta$lised to limit or restrict .rocessin)+
4+ All inde.endent .ats trou) te control structure 1ere e0ercised to ensure
tat all statements in a module ave $een e0ecuted at least once+
9+ 6inally! all error andlin) .ats 1ere tested+
Airline Reservation System
10.10.2 INTEGRATION TESTING :
Inte)ration testin) is a systematic tecni8ue 'or constructin) te .ro)ram
structure 1ile at te same time conductin) tests to uncover errors associated
1it inter'acin)+ Te o$7ective is to ta/e unit tested com.onents and $uild a
.ro)ram structure tat as $een dictated $y desi)n+
Inte)ration can $e eiter to. do1n or $ottom do1n+
To. do1n inte)ration testin) is an incremental a..roac to construction o'
.ro)ram structure+ *odules are inte)rated $y movin) do1n1ard trou) te
control ierarcy! $e)innin) 1it te main control module+ *odules su$ordinate
to te main control module are incor.orated into te structure in eiter a de.t
'irst or $readt 'irst manner+
,ottom u. inte)ration testin) $e)ins construction and testin) 1it atomic
modules %i+e+ com.onents at te lo1est levels in te .ro)ram structure&+ ,ecause
com.onents are inte)rated 'rom te $ottom u.! .rocessin) re8uired 'or
com.onents su$ordinate to a )iven level is al1ays availa$le and te need 'or
stu$s is eliminated+
In our .ro7ect! 1e ave used te $ottom u. a..roac+ 2en all te 'orms 1ere
tested inde.endently! tey 1ere inte)rated to 'orm a module+
10.10.3 REGRESSION TESTING :
Eac time a ne1 module is added as .art o' inte)ration testin)! te so't1are
can)es+ Ne1 data 'lo1 .ats are esta$lised! ne1 I?O may occur! and ne1
control lo)ic is invo/ed+ Tese can)es cause .ro$lems 1it 'unctions tat
Airline Reservation System
.reviously 1or/ed 'la1lessly+ In te conte0t o' an inte)ration test strate)y!
re)ression testin) is te re-e0ecution o' some su$set o' tests tat ave already
$een conducted to ensure tat can)es ave not .ro.a)ated unintended side
e''ects+ Re)ression testin) 1as used 're8uently in our .ro7ect+
10.10.4 VALIDATION TESTING :
At te culmination o' inte)ration testin)! so't1are is com.letely assem$led as a
.ac/a)e! inter'acin) errors ave $een uncovered and corrected! and a 'inal series
o' so't1are testsR validation testin)R may $e)in+ Validation can $e de'ined in
many 1ays! $ut a sim.le de'inition is tat validation succeeds 1en so't1are
'unctions in a manner tat can $e reasona$ly e0.ected $y te customer+
10.10.5 SYSTEM AND ACCEPTANCE TESTING :
System testin) is actually a series o' di''erent tests! 1ose .rimary .ur.ose is to
'ully e0ercise te com.uter $ased systems+ Altou) eac test as a di''erent
.ur.ose! all 1or/ to veri'y tat system elements ave $een .ro.erly inte)rated
and .er'ormed allocated 'unctions+ Te 'ollo1in) ty.es o' system tests are
1ort1ile 'or so't1are $ased systems D recovery testin)! security testin)! stress
testin)! .er'ormance testin)+ At tis level o' testin)! te entire so't1are system is
tested+ Te re'erence document 'or tis .rocess is te re8uirement document+ Its
)oal is to veri'y i' te so't1are meets its re8uirements+ It is essentially a
validation e0ercise! and in many situations it is te only validation activity+
Acce.tance testin) is sometimes .er'ormed 1it realistic data o' te client to
demonstrate te so't1are is 1or/in) satis'actorily+ Testin)! ere 'ocuses on te
Airline Reservation System
e0ternal $eavior o' te system! te internal lo)ic o' te .ro)ram are not
em.asi#ed+ (onse8uently! mostly 'unctional testin) is .er'ormed at tese levels+
A'ter sel' testin)! it is tested $y te di''erent .ersons .resent in te la$ and sta''
mem$ers alon) 1it students and acce.ted $y tem+

Airline Reservation System
In )eneral! testin) commences 1it a test .lan and terminates 1it acce.tance
testin)+ A test .lan is a )eneral document 'or te entire .ro7ect tat de'ines te
sco.e! a..roaces to $e ta/en! and te scedule o' testin) as 1ell as identi'ies te
test items 'or te entire testin) .rocess and te .ersonnel res.onsi$le 'or di''erent
activities o' testin)+
Te in.uts 'or 'ormin) te test .lan areD -
3& Pro7ect .lan
4& Re8uirement Document
5& System Desi)n Document
Te .ro7ect .lan is needed to ma/e sure tat te test .lan is consistent 1it te
overall .lan 'or te .ro7ect and te testin) scedules matces tat o' te .ro7ect
.lan+
Client Needs
Requirements
Design
Code
Acceptance Testing
System Testing
Integration Testing
Unit Testing

Airline Reservation System
Te re8uirement document and te desi)n document are te $asic documents
used 'or selectin) te test units and decidin) te a..roaces to $e used 'or
testin)+
A test .lan sould contain te 'ollo1in) testin)D -
Test unit s.eci'ication
6eatures to $e tested
A..roaces 'or testin)
Test delivera$les
Scedule
Personnel allocation
TEST UNIT :
A test unit is a set o' one or more modules to)eter 1it associated data! tat are
'orm a sin)le com.uter .ro)ram and tat are te o$7ects o' testin)
FEATURES TO BE TESTED :
It includes all so't1are 'eatures and com$ination o' 'eatures tat sould $e tested+
A S?2 'eature is a so't1are caracteristic s.eci'ied or im.lied $y te
re8uirements or desi)n documents+ Tese may include 'unctionality! .er'ormance!
desi)n constraints! and attri$utes+
APPROACH FOR TESTING :
It s.eci'ies te overall a..roac to $e 'ollo1ed in te current .ro7ect+ Te
tecni8ues tat 1ill $e used to 7ud)e te testin) e''ort sould also $e s.eci'ied+

Airline Reservation System
TESTING DELIVERABLES :
Testin) Delivera$les sould $e s.eci'ied in te test .lan $e'ore te actual testin)
$e)ins+ Delivera$les could $e a list o' test cases tat 1ere used! detailed results o'
testin)! test summary re.ort! test lo) and data a$out covera)e+
SCHEDULE :
A scedule s.eci'ies te amount o' time and e''ort to $e s.ent on di''erent
activities o' testin)! and testin) o' di''erent units tat ave $een identi'ied+
PERSONNEL ALLOCATION :
It identi'ies te .ersons res.onsi$le 'or .er'ormin) te di''erent activities+

Airline Reservation System
33+ I*PBE*ENTATION
A crucial .ase in te system li'e cycle is te success'ul im.lementation o' te ne1
system
desi)n+ Im.lementation includes all tose activities tat ta/e .lace to convert 'rom te
old system to te ne1 one+ Te ne1 system may $e com.letely ne1! re.lacin) an
e0istin)
manual or automated system or it may $e ma7or modi'ication to an e0istin) system+ In
eiter case ! .ro.er im.lementation $ecomes necessary so tat a relia$le system $ased on
te re8uirements o' te or)ani#ation can $e .rovided+ Success'ul im.lementation may not
)uarantee im.rovement in te or)ani#ation usin) te ne1 system! $ut im.ro.er
installation 1ill .revent it+ It as $een o$served tat even te $est system canEt so1
)ood result i' te analysts mana)in) te im.lementation do not attend to every im.ortant
details+ Tis is an area 1ere te systems analysts need to 1or/ 1it utmost care+
Tis system 1ill $e im.lemented usin) V, :+@ as 'ront end and Oracle = as $ac/ end
and
2indo1s >= as te .lat'orm+
6or te success'ul im.lementation o' a system! te trainin) o' te users o' te system
.lays an im.ortant role+ ,ecause even 1ell desi)ned system can succeed or 'ail $ecause
o' te 1ay te are o.erated and used+ Tere'ore! te 8uality o' te trainin) received $y
te .ersonnel involved 1it te system in various ca.acities el.s or inders and may
even .revent te success'ul im.lementation o' mana)ement in'ormation system+ Tose
1o are directly or indirectly related 1it te system develo.ment 1or/ must /no1 in
detail 1at teir roles 1ill $e! o1 tey can ma/e e''icient use o' te system and 1at
te

Airline Reservation System
system 1ill or 1ill not do 'or tem+ Tere'ore $ot system o.erators and users need
trainin)+
SYSTEMS OPERATORS TRAINING :
Runnin) o' te system success'ully de.end on te .ersonnel 1or/in) in te com.uter
center+ Tey are res.onsi$le 'or .rovidin) te necessary su..ort+ Teir trainin) must
ensure tat tey are a$le to andle all .ossi$le o.erations! $ot routine and e0tra-
ordinary in nature+ O.erators trainin) sould include suc 'undamentals as o1 to turn
te e8ui.ment on and use it! o1 to .o1er o'' and a /no1led)e o' 1at constitutes
normal o.eration+ Te o.erators sould also $e trained on di''erent ty.e o'
mal'unctionin)! o1 to reco)ni#e tem and 1at ste.s sould $e ta/en 1enever tey
arise+ As .art o' teir trainin)! o.erators sould $e )iven $ot a trou$lesootin) list tat
identi'ies .ossi$le .ro$lems and remedies 'or tem! as 1ell as te names and tele.one
num$ers o' individuals to contact 1en une0.ected or unusual .ro$lem arise+ Trainin)
also involves 'amiliari#ation 1it run .rocedures! 1ic involves 1or/in) trou) te
se8uence o' activities needed to use a ne1 system on an on)oin) $asis+
USER TRAINING :
User may $e trained on use o' e8ui.ment! .articularly in te case 1ere! 'or e0am.le! a
micro-com.uter is in use and te individual involved is $ot o.erator and user+ In suc
cases ! users must $e )iven trainin) on o1 to o.erate te system also+ <uestions tat
may $e trivial to te analyst! suc as o1 to turn on a terminal! o1 to insert a dis/ette
into a micro-com.uter! or 1en it is sa'e to turn o'' te e8ui.ment 1itout dan)er o' data
loss! are si)ni'icant .ro$lems to ne1 users 1o are not 'amiliar 1it com.uters+
Tis is also te case 1it our system+ In most o' te cases! user trainin) deals 1it te

Airline Reservation System
o.eration o' te system itsel'! 1it .ro.er attention )iven to data andlin) tecni8ues+ It
is im.erative tat users $e .ro.erly trained in metods o' enterin) transactions! editin)
data! 'ormulatin) in8uiries! deletin) and insertin) o' records+ No trainin) is com.lete
1itout 'amiliari#in) users 1it sim.le systems maintenance activities+ 2ea/ness in any
as.ect o' trainin) may lead to a1/1ard situations tat cause user 'rustration and errors+
In our .ro7ect also it is necessary to train users on o1 to commit te transactions+
Trainin) o' o.erators and users can $e or)ani#ed in several di''erent 1ays+ *ost
im.ortant 1ays to train users are
Vendor and in-service trainin)
In-ouse trainin)
O'ten te $est source o' trainin) on e8ui.ment is te vendor 1o su..lies te e8ui.ment+
*ost vendors o''er e0tensive educational .ro)rams as .art o' teir services+ In te case
o' our .ro7ect too! 1eEll .rovide trainin) to te users o' our .ro7ect+
(onversion is also im.ortant in te im.lementation .ase+ (onversion is te .rocess o'
can)in) 'rom te old system to te ne1 one+ It must $e .ro.erly .lanned and e0ecuted+
6our metods o' conversion are common in use+ Tey are D
3+ Parallel systems
4+ Direct conversion
5+ Pilot systems
4+ Systems .ase-in
Eac metod sould $e considered in te li)t o' te o..ortunities tat it o''ers and
.ro$lems tat it may create+ Ho1ever! it may $e .ossi$le tat sometimes! 1e may $e

Airline Reservation System
'orced to a..ly one metod over oters! even tou) oter metods may $e more
$ene'icial+ In )eneral! systems conversion sould $e accom.lised in sortest .ossi$le
time+ Bon) conversion .eriods create .ro$lems 'or all .ersons involved includin) $ot
analysts and users+
PARALLEL SYSTEMS :
Te most secure metod o' convertin) 'rom an old to ne1 system is to run $ot systems
in
.arallel+ Under tis a..roac! users continue to o.erate te old system in te usual
manner $ut tey also start usin) te ne1 system+ Tis metod is te sa'est one+
DIRECT CONVERSION :
Tis metod converts 'rom te old system to te ne1 system a$ru.tly! sometimes over a
1ee/end or even midni)t+ Te old system is used until a .lanned conversion day! 1en
it
is re.laced $y te ne1 system+ Tere are not .arallel activities+
PILOT SYSTEM :
Pilot a..roac is o'ten .re'erred in te case o' te ne1 system 1ic involves ne1
tecni8ues or some drastic can)es in or)ani#ation .er'ormance+ In tis metod! a
1or/in) version o' te system is im.lemented in one .art o' te or)ani#ation! suc as a
sin)le 1or/ area or de.artment+
PHASE-IN METHOD :
Tis metod is used 1en it is not .ossi$le to install a ne1 system trou)out an
or)ani#ation all at once+ it allo1s some users to ta/e advanta)e o' te ne1 system early+

Airline Reservation System
Also it allo1s trainin) and installation 1itout unnecessary use o' resources+
Te .ro7ect develo.ed $y us sould $e im.lemented usin) te .arallel systems
conversion
metod+
34+ *AINTENAN(E
*aintenance is te eni)ma o' system develo.ment+ It olds te so't1are industry ca.tive!
tyin) u. .ro)rammin) resources+ Analyst and .ro)rammers s.end more time maintainin)
.ro)rams tan tey do 1ritin) tem+
Te so't1are 1ill de'initely under)o can)e once it is delivered to te customer+ Tere
can $e many reasons 'or tis can)e to occur+ (an)e could a..en $ecause o' some
une0.ected in.ut values into te system+ In addition! te can)es in te system could
directly a''ect te so't1are o.erations+ Te so't1are sould $e develo.ed to
accommodate can)es tat could a..en durin) te .ost im.lementation .eriod+
A'ter te installation .ase is com.leted and te user sta'' is ad7usted to te can)es
created $y te system evaluation and maintenance $e)ins+
Evaluation
System is evaluated to te )reat e0tent and te user re8uirements are met+ 2at 1e
s.eci'ied in te .er'ormance criteria as $een acieved+ 2e also ta/e 'eed$ac/ 'rom te
user a$out te so't1are and are tey 'ully satis'ied+ Te criticism 'rom te users! and
su))estions 'or im.rovement are also invited to ma/e our so't1are more relia$le+
Maintenance
Sould System $e modi'iedF
Tis 8uestion arises 1en te system is need to $e modi'ied accordin) to te user i' e
1ants to ma/e can)es $ecause o' .reviously uncorrected errors+ 2e ave 'our ty.es o'
maintenance accordin) to 1ic users ma/e can)es in te so't1are-
Ada.tive maintenance

Airline Reservation System
Per'ective maintenance
(orrective maintenance
Preventive maintenance
Adaptive maintenance
Ada.tive maintenance means can)in) te .ro)ram 'unction+
Over time! te ori)inal environment %e+)+! (PU! O.eratin) system! $usiness rules!
e0ternal .roduct caracteristics& 'or 1ic te so't1are 1as develo.ed is li/ely to
can)e+ Ada.tive maintenance results in modi'ication to te so't1are to accommodate
can)es to its e0ternal environment+
Perfective Maintenance
It means enancin) te .er'ormance or modi'yin) te .ro)rams to res.ond to te userEs
additional or can)in) needs+
Corrective Maintenance
It means re.airin)! .rocessin) or .er'ormance 'ailure or ma/in) can)es $ecause o'
.reviously 'alse assum.tions+
Even 1it te $est 8uality assurance activities! it is li/ely tat te user 1ill uncover
de'ects in te so't1are+ (orrective maintenance can)es te so't1are to correct de'ects+
Preventive maintenance
(om.uter so't1are deteriorates due to can)es! and $ecause o' tis .reventive
maintenance! o'ten called so't1are reen)ineerin)! must $e conducted to ena$le te
so't1are to serve te needs o' its end users+ In essence! .reventive maintenance ma/es
can)es to com.uter .ro)rams so tat tey can $e more easily corrected! ada.ted! and
enanced+
Enhancement

Airline Reservation System
It means addin)! modi'yin)! or redevelo.in) te code to su..ort can)es in te
s.eci'ications+ It is necessary to /ee. u. 1it can)in) user needs and te o.erational
environment+
As so't1are is used! te user 1ill reco)ni#e additional 'unctions tat 1ill .rovide $ene'it+
Per'ective maintenance e0tends te so't1are $eyond its ori)inal 'unctional re8uirements+
35+ REPORTS

Airline Reservation System

Airline Reservation System
IIIIIIIIIIIIIII

Airline Reservation System
34+ ,I,BIO"RAPH-
*asterin) Visual ,asic :
Autor%s& D Evan)elos Petroutsos
Pu$liser D ,P, Pu$lications
Oracle D Te (om.lete Re'erence
Autor%s& D Ro$ert Loc
Pu$liser D Tata *c"ra1-Hill
S<B! PB?S<B Te Pro)rammin) Ban)ua)e o' Oracle
Autor%s& D Ivan ,ayross
Pu$liser D ,P, Pu$lications
So't1are En)ineerin) A PractitionerEs A..roac %'i't edition&
Autor%s& D Ro)er S+ Pressman
Pu$liser D Tata *c"ra1-Hill
6undamentals O' So't1are En)ineerin)
Autor%s& D (arlo "e##i! *edi Na#ayeri! Dino *andrioli
Pu$liser D Prentice Hall o' India