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SE1M90/6pp/Spring 2007 (1 handout)

UNIVERSITY OF SURREY
School of Engineering Postgraduate Programmes in Civil Engineering Level M Examination

Module SE1M90; 15 Credits

SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION

Time allowed: 3 hours

Spring 2007

Answer THREE questions only

Each question carries equal marks; where appropriate the mark carried by an individual part of a question is indicated in brackets [ ]. If a candidate attempts extra questions, all questions will be marked and the weaker solutions discarded so as to maximize the aggregate mark

Additional documents supplied to candidates: Soil-structure interaction data sheets Ordinary graph paper Reference documents candidates may use: None Please avoid the use of red and green inks Calculator restrictions: None [SEE NEXT PAGE]

SE1M90/6pp/Spring 2007 2

1.

An existing 3-storey office building with a single basement level is to be demolished and replaced with a new structure, which will be one storey higher and one basement level deeper. The building is in close proximity to an inclined escalator sha ft, which connects the ticket hall and platforms at an underground metro rail station, as shown in Figure 1. The soil profile comprises 1-2m of made ground, overlying a thick stratum of stiff, heavily overconsolidated clay that extends about 25m below station platform level. Ground water level coincides with the junction of the made ground and the clay.
A Existing building 3/F 2/F 1/F G/F
\\///\\//

<

Basement

\\///\\//

Escalator shaft

< A
Platform

SIDE ELEVATION

SECTION

A-A

Figure 1

Finite element (FE) analysis will be used to investigate the effects of the proposed demolition and reconstruction on the escalator shaft. The metro rail authorities have expressed particular concerns about stress changes in the shaft lining (bolted cast iron ring segments) and possible distortion of the shaft that could interfere with escalator operation. A preliminary plane strain analysis will be carried out on Section AA. (a) What types of finite element would be best suited to represent (i) the walls and floor slabs of the existing building, (ii) the soil, and (iii) the tunnel lining? [3] Identify two different ways in which the unloading effects of demolition and excavation could be modelled, and comment briefly on their relative merits. [4]

(b)

SE1M90/6pp/Spring 2007 3 The ratio h / v (= Ko) in the stiff clay is found to be around 2.5 in the vicinity of the escalator shaft. How would this be incorporated in the FE model? Also, explain briefly the geological mechanisms that produce this in-situ condition. [3] It is considered important that the constitutive model used for the clay is capable of reproducing nonlinear elastic stiffness at small strains. i) Identify a suitable constitutive model and outline its principal features. [2] ii) Explain how the parameters defining the model might be determined. [2] iii) Describe a possible solution strategy that the FE program could use in order to follow the nonlinear behaviour of the model. [2] What output from the FE analyses would be particularly helpful in assessing the likely risk to the escalator shaft? [2] The FE analysis was originally designed to model the construction phase only, assuming undrained conditions. In order to extend the analysis to consider postconstruction behaviour (due to long-term equalisation of excess pore water pressures), what changes will need to be made to the FE model, and what additional data will be required? [2]

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

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SE1M90/6pp/Spring 2007 4 An in-situ vertical loading test was carried out on a 0.305m 0.305m (= 1ft2 ) plate in a shallow test pit at a proposed site. Using the field observations recorded below, plot the load-displacement curve and hence determine Ks1. [5]
Pressure (kN/m2 ) Displacement (mm) Pressure (kN/m2 ) Displacement (mm) 0 0.00 80 4.09 10 0.35 90 5.44 20 0.68 100 7.28 30 1.03 110 9.76 40 1.37 116 13.34 50 1.82 119 17.54 60 2.41 120 23.27 70 3.12

2.

(a)

(b)

If the test in (a) was repeated with a larger plate but applying the same pressure increments, would you expect the same displacements to be observed? Explain your answer and state what the implications are for subgrade modulus as a fundamental soil parameter. [3] What is the significance of the parameter = 4 v(Bk/4EI) in the analysis of beams on elastic (Winkler spring) foundations? [2] For the concrete beam supported on clay shown in Figure 2, use Hetenyis method to estimate the vertical deflection, bending moment, and shear force at point A. The beam has a width of 0.80m and a depth of 300mm, and may be assumed to be of infinite length. [7]
concrete E = 21 GPa 350 kN-m/m 500 kN/m

(c)

(d)

A
* ///\\\///

* ///\\\///
1m

*
1m

clay k = 15 MN/m

Figure 2 NB: Data sheets for Hetenyis method are provided separately

(e)

The beam on elastic (Winkler spring) foundation problem can be approximated conveniently and accurately by the finite differences. Identify one advantage and one disadvantage of using a spreadsheet (e.g. Microsoft Excel) to set up and solve the resulting equations, compared with a high- level programming language (e.g. Fortran or C++). [3]

SE1M90/6pp/Spring 2007 5

3.

(a)

Sketch the typical variation of deflection, slope, moment, shear force and soil pressure along the axis of a single (free head) vertical pile in sand, which is acted upon by a substantial lateral load at the ground surface. [3] The laterally loaded pile can be modelled in much the same way as a beam on an elastic (Winkler spring) foundation, but there are some important differences. Identify these differences and explain how you would adapt a beam on elastic foundation analysis to cope with them. [3] Explain briefly what a p-y curve is, what sort of situations it might be used in, and how it is derived. [3] A steel H-pile of 14m total length is driven 12m into a stratum of medium dense sand with a relatively high water table. Calculate the deflection and rotation of the pile at ground level, if a horizontal load of 100 kN is applied to the very top of the pile. Soil and structure stiffness are given by Nh = 9.8 MN/m3 and Esteel = 200 GPa respectively; the second moment of area for the H-pile about the axis -4 4 relevant to the direction of loading is I = 2.184 10 m . If the embedded length were shortened by 4m (i.e. total length 10m, embedded 8m), what effect would this have on your calculations? Explain your answer. [5] A 3 4 group of driven precast concrete piles are connected by a reinforced concrete pile cap. The perimeter piles are raked whereas the central piles are vertical, as shown in the plan in Figure 3. The pile cap will be required to carry any combination of applied forces (F x, Fy , Fz ), and moments (M x, My , Mz ). x

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(NB: +z axis in the direction of view) y Figure 3 Describe the stages involved in setting up a system of stiffness equations linking the forces and moments applied to the pile cap, to the resultant displacements and rotations. Pay particular attention to the way in which the contribution of each individual pile is determined. [6]

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SE1M90/6pp/Spring 2007 6

4.

(a)

Sketch the individual deflected shapes of a rectangular raft foundation associated with the actions MX, MY, and MXY clearly showing the x and y axes. [3] One way of analysing a raft on an elastic foundation is to model it as a plate supported on Winkler springs. i) ii) Describe how the finite difference method could be used to set up such a model for solution in a computer program. [5] The use of a constant modulus of subgrade reaction with a uniformly loaded raft would lead to the same deflection being predicted everywhere, rather than the dished profile commonly observed. Identify one way of modifying the plate on springs model to overcome this deficiency. [2]

(b)

(c)

Column loads from a steel- framed building are to be transmitted to the ground via a 450mm thick reinforced concrete raft foundation. For the preliminary design, an analysis of the type described in part (b) has been carried out. i) An extract from the calculated displacement output for a 2m 2m region of the raft is as follows: Calculated displacements from raft analysis (all values in m)
x =8.0m Y = 5.0m Y = 6.0m Y = 7.0m 5.3853E-03 9.8052E-03 1.2289E-02 x = 9.0m 7.2986E-03 1.2288E-02 1.5091E-02 x = 10.0m 8.2925E-03 1.3044E-02 1.5942E-02

Using the appropriate finite difference templates, calculate MX and MY at grid point (9.0, 6.0). Youngs modulus E for the concrete raft is 22 GPa, and the Poissons ratio is 0.15. [4] ii) If the differential settlements calculated from part (b) are considered excessive, identify two ways in which the raft construction could be modified in order to reduce them. [2]

(d)

Piles are frequently used in conjunction with raft foundations. What purpose(s) do the piles serve in such a situation, and where might they be located to best effect? [4]

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