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VermiCompost

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1.1 General Introduct on !


Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials (those with plant and animal origins). Compost is used in gardening and agriculture as a soil amendment, and commercially by the landscaping and container nursery industries. It is also used for erosion control, land / stream reclamation, wetland construction , and as landfill cover (see compost uses). Compost is also used as a seed starting medium generally mixed with a small portion of sand for improved drainage.

"h# Co$po%t& Recycling the organic waste of a household into compost allows us to return badly needed organic matter to the soil. In this way, we participate in nature s cycle, and cut down on garbage going into burgeoning landfills.

"h# Co$po%t " th "or$%& !orm composting is a method for recycling food waste into a rich, dar", earth#smelling soil conditioner. $he great advantage of worm composting is that this can be done indoors and outdoors , thus allowing year round composting. It also provides apartment dwellers with a means of compost#ing. In a nutshell, worm compost is made in a container bedding and rich compost. filled with moistened red worms. %dd your food waste for a period of time, and the

worms and micro # organisms will eventually convert the entire contents into

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost 'er$ co$po%t 'er$ co$po%t (&arth worm compost) is an organic manure (bio# fertili'er) produced as the vermicast by earth worm feeding on biological waste material, plant residues. $his compost is an odorless, clean, organic material containing ade(uate (uantities of ), *, + and several micronutrients essential for plant growth. ,ermicompost is a preferred nutrient source for organic farming. It is eco#friendly, non#toxic, consumes low energy input for composting and is a recycled biological product. -ere Earthworms eat cow dung or farm yard manure along with other farm wastes and pass it through their body and in the process convert it into Vermicompost. The municipal wastes; non-toxic solid and liquid waste of the industries and household garbages can also be converted into Vermicompost in the same manner. Earthworms not only convert garbage into valuable manure but eep the environment healthy. !onversion of garbage by earthworms into compost and the multiplication of earthworms are simple process and can be easily handled by the farmers

"ig Earthworm

Earthworm #uring !omposting

,ermicomposting is a process that has been adopted throughout the world, but it is particularly popular in India. .any countries, such as %ustralia, the /0% and several &uropean countries, have developed thriving vermicomposting industries, but these cannot be compared with the enthusiasm to which India has

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VermiCompost ta"en to 1,ermi23.4riginally vermicomposting was carried out for the purpose of breeding and selling the worms (vermiculture), with the worms being used for fishing bait, and sometimes also for fish feeding. In recent years, people have become aware that earthworms, by their activity in the compost, are able to decompose and stabilise a wide variety of wastes. $his has changed the focus of many operators from producing earthworms to producing vermicompost , and many more operators have been attracted by the realisation that earthworms are capable of producing an extremely high (uality compost. 5urthermore, this product has become a highly sought#after, and valuable product.$he truth is that in practice the breeding of earthworms and processing organic wastes go hand in hand, and many vermicomposting businesses benefit greatly by developing by both aspects for maximum benefit. In the attempt by some, to mar"et commercial vermicomposting systems, exaggerated claims have sometimes been made about both the large number of earthworms that can be produced and the almost magical (uality of the resulting vermicompost. !hile many of these claims are 6ustified, and good vermicompost is incomparably good, some of these claims are still being researched. ,ermicomposting produces a premium price product, and it can therefore more economically be transported from the more remote regions to mar"et in towns where the demand for this product is high. If you have not tried growing with vermicompost we recommend that you try it soon.If you have a flower garden, grass or a vegetable garden, a compost tumbler is a very sound investment. It is basically a bin that you spin around to "eep your fertili'er turned without the need for bac"brea"ing pitchfor" wor". 7ou simply spin the bin and your compost is mixed, and there are many other advantages to buying a compost tumbler.

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost )o one wants a huge pile of compost sitting in his or her garden. $he compost tumbler can be placed in a discreet part of the garden. Compost tumblers also come in a variety of si'es and designs to compliment your personal taste. .ost compost tumblers come with attached wheels, ma"ing them easier to move around the garden. Instead of lugging a pitchfor" full of compost, you can move the compost tumbler to the desired area and empty the compost directly. % big problem with compost left out in the open air is that it dries (uic"ly in hot weather. Compost needs to be "ept damp, and this is easy to acheive with a compost tumbler. If the weather is wet, the compost "ept in the tumbler will not become heavy with water. %nother plus, especially for the neighbors, is that the compost tumbler eradicates the smell of open#air fertili'er. %ny smell from the compost will be "ept loc"ed inside the bin.$he compost tumbler will also be a great deterrent for pets or animals that roam around your garden. % compost tumbler also ma"es it easy to collect compost li(uid or, as it is sometimes "nown, compost tea. $his is not some new age type of drin"8 it is a nutrient filled li(uid produced by compost. It can easily be drained from the tumbler and used on your flowers, vegetables or grass. $he compost tumbler can also be set to disperse the li(uid straight into the ground.!ith the turn of a handle, your compost will be aired and mixed. $he tumbler ma"es compost ready to use more (uic"ly than an open#air pile of compost. 9epending on its si'e, the compost tumbler has the capability to produce up to :;; pounds (<;= "g) of compost in a year. Compost tumblers are an inexpensive, environmentally friendly way to "eep your garden loo"ing good.

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost 'er$ co$po%t n( and trad t onal co$po%t n( In traditional composting, the compost piles are mixed and aerated mechanically. !ith vermicomposting it is the earthworms that fragment, mix and help aerate the waste.!hile vermicomposting and traditional composting both involve the aerobic decomposition of organic matter by micro#organisms, there are important differences in the way the two processes are carried out. $he most notable is that whereas the temperature of composting piles can exceed >; ?C, vermicomposting is carried out at relatively low temperatures (under @A ?C). It is vitally important to "eep the temperature below BA ?C, otherwise the earthworms will be "illed. .any years experience of vermicomposting has shown that it can be a useful method of composting and one which is suited to a wide variety of wastes, but the process has both advantages and disadvantages compared with traditional composting.

Ad)anta(e% and d %ad)anta(e% o* )er$ co$po%t n( co$po%t n( o)er trad t onal co$po%t n(

O)er Trad t onal

4ne big advantage of using earthworms to compost waste is that the resulting compost often contains much more nitrogen and plant available nutrients than windrow compost. 5or this and other reasons, vermicompost has proven to be highly mar"etable. ,ermicomposts have are usually sold for three# to five#times the price for garden waste compost.In addition to the excellent compost produced, vermicomposting can produce a net excess of earthworms and these may be harvested for a variety of purposes. .any vermicomposting systems have been started or sold on the basis of the profits to be earned from selling the worms.$he primary disadvantage of vermiculture, is that it can ta"e many months, or even years, to build up a large wor"ing population of earthworms capable of vermicomposting significant

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost (uantities of waste. %s well as this, earthworms (sometimes in large numbers) tend to escape during damp weather conditions or when food is in short supply. .aintaining vermicomposting constant beds or illumination containers and helps sealing minimise the surface of

escape.!indrow

composting systems involve high operating temperatures and intense microbial activity, so that pathogens are destroyed. %s vermicomposting wor"s at relatively low temperatures, it is less easy to destroy most pathogens at lower temperatures. .any practitioners of vermiculture therefore use windrowing as the first stage of compost production, adding worms only in the final stages before the compost material is sent to mar"et. Complete elimination of pathogens during the vermicomposting process is not normally thought possible. It is recommended that wastes "nown to contain human pathogens, such as sewage sludge, are either pre#composted at controlled high temperatures before vermicomposting. or else the resulting casts should be saniti'ed as an additional final stage, before sale or use of the compost.

Ho+ 'er$ co$po%t % *or$ed&


$he worms eat, chew and churn up the waste. $he other organisms which accompany them also D. brea" it down. % simplified description of the overall mechanism is described belowC $he worms ingest organic matter, fungi, proto'oa, algae, nematodes and bacteria. $his is passed through the digestive tract. $he ma6ority of the bacteria and organic matter pass through undigested (although the organic matter has been ground into smaller particles). $his forms the casting along with metabolite wastes such as ammonium, urea and proteins. $he worms also secrete mucus, containing polysaccharides, proteins and other nitrogenous compounds. $hrough

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost the action of eating food and excreting their casts, worms create 1burrows3 in the material. $his in turn increases the available surface area and allows aeration. @. $here is an abundance of oxygen and nitrogenous compounds (urea, proteins and )-B) in the excreta (vermicast) and mucus secreted from the external tissues of the worms. 0ome bacteria re(uire oxygen (aerobic bacteria) whereas some ob6ect to oxygen and prefer its absence (anaerobic bacteria). %naerobic bacteria are responsible for the stench from stagnant drains, refuse sac"s and landfill sites. !ith the aerobic conditions in vermicompost, aerobic microbiological growth increases. It is believed that the initial burst of microbiological activity mainly consists of nitrogen fixing bacteria, nitrification bacteria, and to a lesser extent, aerobic bacteria. $his is based upon previously established information that burrow walls have a high proportion of the total nitrogen fixing bacteria and that casts have higher concentrations of soluble salts and greater nitrifying power. %ccompanying this microbiological growth is the brea"down of organic nitrogen compounds to ammonia and ammonium. $he good news is that the sweet smelling aerobic process overcomes the ugly smell of anaerobes. $hat is why worm compost piles (properly fed and maintained) smell so nice2 B. $he whole process consumes organic matter and creates a ruffled surface in the burrow walls. $he large surface area and improved aeration results in favorable conditions for obligate aerobes (such as *seudomonas spp., Eoogloea spp., .icrococcus spp. and %chromobacter spp.). $he continued growth of the microbiological population continues to increase the rate of decomposition of the material. %ir flows through the material more readily, minimi'ing the li"elihood of anaerobic biochemical reactions occurring. $his minimi'es the formation of sulfide and ammonia gasses, odors that are typically present if anaerobic conditions are established. 4b6ectionable odors disappear (uic"ly, due to microorganisms associated with the vermicast.

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost 'er$ ca%t '% . Che$ cal ,ert l -er%

Cr ter a *or Co$par %on .acro nutrient contents 0econdary nutrient contents .icro nutrient contents

Che$ cal ,ert l -er%

'er$ ca%t

.ostly contains only one () in Contains all i.e. nitrogen ()), urea) or at the most two () F * in phosphorus (*) F potassium (+) 9%*) nutrients in any one type of in sufficient (uantities chemical fertili'er )ot available Calcium (Ca), magnesium (.g) F sulphur (0) is available in re(uired (uantities Einc (En), boron (G), manganese (.n), iron (5e), copper (Cu), molybdenum (.o) and chlorine (Cl) also present -elps in the control of soil p- and chec"s the salinity and al"alinity in soil -elps in balancing the &C to improve plant nutrient adsorption ,ery high organic carbon and humus contents improves soil characteristics Increases moistures retention capacity of the soil Improves soil texture for better aeration ,ery high biological life improves the soil fertility and productivity on sustainable basis 0ufficient (uantity helps in better growth and production

)ot available

p- balancing

9isturb soil p- to create salinity and al"alinity conditions Creates imbalance in soil &C affecting nutrients assimilation

&C correction

4rganic carbon )ot available .oisture retention capacity 0oil $exture

Reduces moisture retention capacity of the soil 9amages soil texture to reduce aeration

Geneficial Reduces biological activities and bacteria F fungi thus the fertility is impaired *lant growth hormones )ot available

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost

Nutr ent .ro* le o* 'er$ co$po%t


Nutr ent
N(%) PO(%) O(%) "a(%) M$(%) Fe(ppm) Mn(ppm) &n(ppm) "u(ppm) "'N ratio

Vermicompost Farm Yard Manure


1.6 0.7 0.! 0.5 0.2 175.0 #6.5 2%.5 5.0 15.5 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.# 0.2 1%6.5 6#.0 1%.5 2.! (1.(

Nutr ent .ro* le o* 'er$ co$po%t

)(H) *4(H) +4(H) Ca(H) .g(H) 5e(ppm) .n(ppm) En(ppm) Cu(ppm) CC) ratio

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost

1./ O01ect )e% !


$o study the process of vermicompost. $o study vermicomost beneficial to farmers. $o study the role of vermicopost in maintainance of environment. $o study how it is economical and benificial. $o create awareness about vermicompost.

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost

1.2 H#pothe% % !
D. /se of epigeac ear hworms in the production of ,ermicompost. $his technology can be used for urban and rural waste recycling tIr cc), version of organic wastes to manure. @. ,ermicompost as manure in agricultural oras inoculums tot improving and maintaining soil fertility. B. &arthwormJs species tar the treatment of industrial wastes. <. &arthworms plays significant role in the biotic components olJ soil pi ocess, which include turning and mixing of soil. A. &arthwormJs species are used for treatment of different types of industrial effluents.

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost

1.3 Re%earch and Methodolo(# !


$he need of the hour is to review bac" our environment , which has been deteriorated by the use of agrochemicals. 5or manufacturing of vermicomposti various species are used a) &rurillus b) &isenia foetida c) *erionyx sansbaricus. 5or studying actual process of manufacturing of vermicopost we have visited !arana Gioearth (,ermicompost *lant). 5or the manufacturing of vermicompost different methods are used li"e pit method, two tan" method, four tan" method, rac" method warana vermi compost palnt only ran" method is used. D $en% on% o* 'er$ culture tan4 ! D. @. B. Kength of $an" !idth of $an" 9epth of $an" @; 5eets B 5eets @ 5eets

D a(ra$ o* Ideal 'er$ culture Tan4

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost

Chapter / RE.ORTING /.1 Stud# Area


"arana 5 oeart 'er$ co$po%t .lant !e were visited to the !arana Gioearth ,ermicompost *lant and observed following things about the plant. $his plant was established in year @;;B by !arana 0aha"ari /dyog 0amuha ,warananagar.$he no. of farmers benefited by this biofertili'ers and helps them to prevent ill effects of chemical fertili'ers. )ow#a#days sell of biofertili'ers is reached in "wintols of per day. $here are total <L rac"s arranged in two rows.&ach contain @B.;ne rac" produces DA "wintols (DA;; "g) of biofertili'ed soiKrate ofvermicomposted soil is DD;#D@; Rs per "wintoK4ne "wintol fertili'ed soil is re(uired for one acre farm.)ear about two months are re(uired for the conversion of normal soil to biofertili'ed soil.$he earthworms are externally induced to normal soiKthe price of earthworms is Ruppees @A; per "g.

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost

/./ D **erent t#pe o* the $anu*actur n(


method of below. . t $ethod Compost pit of any convenient dimension can be dug in the bac"yard or garden or in a field. $he most convenient pit of easily manageable si'e is @m x Dm x ;.>Am. M% tan" may be constructed with bric" and mortar with proper water outlets, or a plastic crate (L;; mm x B;; mm x B;; mm) with holes drilled at the bottom or empty wooden crates (deal wood boxes/apple cases) or well rings made of cement or clay of >A; mm diameter and B;; to <A; mm height can also be used with slight modifications in the thic"ness of layers used. If nothing is available then four worn out car#tyres be placed one above the other and composting started in it. $o ma"e it simpler it can also be done in a @A#litre buc"etN ,ermibed (vermes O earthworms 8 bed O bedding) is the actual layer of good moist loamy soil placed at the bottom, about DA; to @;; mm thic" above a thin Kayer (A; mm) of bro"en bric"s and coarse sand. &arthworms are introduced into the loamy soil, which the worms will inhabit as their home . %bout D;; earthworms (a combination of epigeics and anecics) may be introduced into a compost pit of about @m x Dm x ;.>Am, with a vermibed of about DA to @; cm thic". $he vermibed should always be "ept moist, but should never be flooded. the vermicompost are available. $hese methods are described

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VermiCompost Regular watering should be done to "eep the right amount of moisture in the pits. In L; to :; days the compost should be ready as indicated by the presence of earthworm castings (vermicompost) on the top of the bed.$he compost should be turned occasionally since this allows for aeration. If the weather is very dry it should be dampened periodically. $he pile should be moist not wet and soggy. ,ermicompost can now be harvested from the bin/pit. $he material should be placed in a heap in the sun so that most of the worms move down to the cool base of the heap. $he compost is then sieved before being pac"ed. . $he earthworms and the thic"er material, which remains on top of the sieve, goes bac" in the bin and the process starts again. Compost wor"s best with a mixture of coarse and fine materials, layered together. %n interesting fact is that it was Charles 9arwin who was one of the first persons who noted the importance of earthworms, more than a century ago. $hese Pcreepy#crawlyP creatures are the most useful gardeners. $hey brea" down dead plant material and other organic wastes, recycle the nutrients,and turn over the soil. 7ou can collect earthworms from your neighbourhood or get earthworms from nurseries. 4ne can also contact the local agriculturaldepartment, municipalities, and nurseries of the forest departments for earthworms. 0ince earthworms are now becoming big business one can also chec"in the firms/horticultures/nurseries, which deal in earthworms, but is always desirable to collect them yourselves. T+o tan4 $ethod %nother layering of waste over a period of time follows this and it ta"es about two months for the tan" to be filled. $his is then covered with a blac" polythen sheet. $he waste is now added to the second tan". $he polythene sheet is removed after DA to @; days, allowed to cool for a day and about local collected earthworms are released into to the approximately <A to L; days for the biomass be now DA; to @;; It ta"es into biomass.

converted

vermicompost. In the mean time the second tan" gets filled and starts decomposing. $he earth#worms from the first tan" by now start migrating into

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost the second tan" through the vents. ,ermicompost is harvested from the first tan", which is now again ready for being filled. $he tan" may be "ept closed with a steel mesh cover to "eep other animals away from damaging the set up. 4ut door plan re(uires about more method, as there D;#@;H are more worms than the indoor

predators and other climatic variables in open cage system. ,our tan4 $ethod $o simplify the loading procedure for composting in rural sectors where organic material four#tan" system the availability of in bul", a be set up can is not

based on a combination of biodung compost#ing method and vermitech techni(ue that enables continuous compost production using cattle dung produced daily at cattle sheds, weeds, leaf litter and other farm waste. % tan" <m x <m x Dm (l x b x h) is preferably made under shade of tree. $his is then divided into four e(ual parts with @@.Acm bric" walls that have vents to facilitate aeration as well as migration of earthworms from one tan" to another.$his unit is designed especially for the small farmer who approximately collects @; to B; "g of cattle or farm waste per day.

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost /.2 INTER'IE" SCHEDULE ! In our seurvey, we have as" various (uestion to farmerJs and we have geted such type of answers from them. %bout >;H of people "now about the environment. %bout BAH people have the area below @ acre and @AH of people have below A acre and other has above A acre. In !arana and +odoli place about =;H of people use flooding method form waterisation and D;H to use water dripping method and remain use sprin"ling method. %bout >AH farmer use chemicals fertili'ers, DAH use 57. and remaining uses vermicompost, LAH farmers donJt "now the ha'ards effect of chemical fertili'ers.

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost ")apter (

*+MM,-Y ,N. "ON"/+*0ON


(.1 *ummar1' The vast agricultural evolution accompanied by discovery of different chemical fertili$ers which are used to enhance yield of crops by means of providing high nutrients. %ut all advantages are associated with different

disadvantages.&ence the best alternative for chemical fertili$ers is %iofertili$ers li e Vermicompost. 't has numerous advantages .(n Vermiculture many research wor world. )ow*so many Vermicompost plants are established in world in which most useful speciese of Earthworms are cultured.+e have performed fleldwor in +arana %ioearth Vermicompost ,lant and were carried out in all over the

collected information reguarding Vermiculture. "rom this we were conclude that contents of Vermicompost gives more crop yield and it is economically cheap and eco-friendly.

2./ Conclu% on! -ecycling the organic waste of a household into compost

allows us to return badly needed organic matter to the soil. +orm composting is a method for recycling food waste into a rich* participate in

dar * earth-smelling soil conditioner. 'n this way* we

nature.s cycle* and cut down on garbage going into burgeoning

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost landfills 't improves the physical structure of the soil . 't improves the biological properties of the soil /enrichment of micro-

organisms* addition of growth hormones such as auxins and gibberellic acid* and addition of en$ymes* such as phosphates* cellulase* etc.0. 1o vermicompost is very important for soil*plants and clean environment.

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost

"ON"/+*0ON
+e conclude that there is an urgent need of public awareness regarding the benefits of use of vermin-compost over conventional fertili$ers* such as chemical fertili$ers* as vermi-compost is economical* eco-friendly* ecological. 2overnment participations is publici$ing vermi-compost must increase* a subsidy must be given for those farmers who use vermincompost* and this will ensure maximum number of farmer.s switching from chemical fertili$ers to vermin-compost.

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost

,NN23+-2
3. #o you now about environment4 5. &ow many acre of land you have4 6. +hich method you are using for waterisation4 7. +hich type of fertili$ers you are using4 8. #o you now about bio-fertili$ers /vermicompost04 9. :re you used vermicompost4 ;. #o you now the significance of vermicompost4 <. #o you now about harmful effects of chemical fertili$ers4

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost

RE,ERENCES
3= Vermicology > 1ultan :. Esmaile. 5= (rganic ?annure > 2aur :. !. 6= ?annures @ "ertili$ers > Aawal ar B. 1. 7= http>CCwww. Vermicompost.com 8= http>CCwww.googleCVE-?'!DETD-E.htm

T.K.C.P., Warananagar

VermiCompost

')#EF ")apter No. 3. 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.7 5. 5.3 5.5 5.6 6. 6.3 6.5 ")apter Name 0ntroduction and -esearc) Met)odo4o$1 2eneral 'ntroduction (bHective &ypothesis -esearch ?ethodology -eportin$ 1tudy :rea #ifferent Types of ?anufacturing 'nterview 1chedule *ummar1 and "onc4usion 1ummary !onclusion ,nne5ure -e6erences Pa$e No. G3 3G 33 35 36 37 39 3< 3<-3I 53 55

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