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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P.

University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Lecture-11
Analysis and Design of Two-way Slab Systems (Two-way Slab with Beams & Two Way joist Slabs)
B Prof By: P f Dr. D Qaisar Q i Ali Civil Engineering Department NWFP UET Peshawar
drqaisarali@nwfpuet.edu.pk
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 1

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Topics Addressed
Moment Coefficient Method for Two way slab with beams
Introduction Cases Moment Coefficient Tables Reinforcement R i f t Requirements R i t Steps Example

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Topics Addressed
Two-way Joist Slab
Introduction Behavior Characteristics Basic Steps for Structural Design Example

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method (Introduction)

The Moment Coefficient Method included for the first time in 1963 ACI Code is applicable to two-way slabs supported on four sides of each slab panel by walls, steel beams relatively deep, stiff, edge beams (h = 3hf).

Although, not included in 1977 and later versions of ACI code, its continued use is permissible under the ACI 318-08 code provision (13.5.1). Visit ACI 13.5.1.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Ma,neg

Moment Coefficient Method


Moments:
Ma, neg = Ca, negwula2 Mb, neg = Cb, negwulb2

la
Mb,neg Mb,pos

Ma,pos Mb,neg Ma,neg

lb

Ma, pos, (dl + ll) = M a, pos, dl + M a, pos, ll = Ca, pos, dl wu, dl la2 + Ca, pos, ll wu, ll la2 Mb, pos, (dl + ll) = Mb, pos, dl + Mb, pos, ll = Cb, pos, dl wu, dl lb2 + Cb, pos, ll wu, ll lb2

Where Ca, Cb = Tabulated moment coefficients wu = Ultimate uniform load, psf la, lb = length of clear spans in short and long directions respectively.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Cases
Depending on the support conditions, several cases are possible:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Cases
Depending on the support conditions, several cases are possible:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Cases
Depending on the support conditions, several cases are possible:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Cases
Depending on the support conditions, several cases are possible:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Tables:

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Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Tables:

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Tables:

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Tables:

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Tables:

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Tables:

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Load Coefficient Table:

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Maximum spacing and minimum reinforcement requirement:

Maximum spacing (ACI 13.3.2):


smax = 2 hf in each direction.

Minimum Reinforcement (ACI 7.12.2.1):


Asmin = 0.0018 b hf for grade 60. Asmin = 0.002 b hf for grade 40 and 50.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Special Reinforcement at exterior corner of Slab

The reinforcement at exterior ends of the slab shall be provided as per ACI 13.3.6 in top and bottom layers as shown.

The positive and negative reinforcement in any case, should be of a size and spacing equivalent to that required for the maximum positive moment (per foot of width) in the panel.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method
Steps
Find hmin = perimeter/ 180 = 2(la + lb)/180 Calculate loads on slab (force / area) Calculate m = la/ lb Decide about case of slab, Use table to pick moment coefficients, Calculate moments and then design. Apply reinforcement requirements (smax = 2hf, ACI 13.3.2)

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment o e t Coe Coefficient c e t Method: et od Example a pe
A 100 60, 3-storey commercial building is to be designed. The grids of column plan are fixed by the architect.

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Two Way Slabs


Moment o e t Coe Coefficient c e t Method: et od Example a pe
Complete analysis of the slab is done by analyzing four panels

Panel I

Panel III

Panel III

Panel I

Panel II

Panel IV

Panel IV

Panel II

Panel I
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Panel III

Panel III

Panel I
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Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example p
A 100 60, 3-storey commercial building: Sizes and Loads.
Sizes:
Minimum slab thickness = perimeter/180 = 2 (20+25)/180 = 6 However, for the purpose of comparison, take hf = 7 Columns = 14 14 (assumed) Beams = 14 20 (assumed)

Loads:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

S.D.L = Nil ; Self Weight = 0.15 x (7/12) = 0.0875 ksf L.L = 144 psf ; wu = 0.336 ksf
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Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8
Ma,neg Mb,neg Mb,pos Ma,pos Ma,neg Mb,neg

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 0 039 Cb,posDL = 0.016

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Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 0 039 Cb,posDL = 0.016

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 0 039 Cb,posDL = 0.016

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Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 0 039 Cb,posDL = 0.016

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 0 039 Cb,posDL = 0.016

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 0 039 Cb,posDL = 0.016

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 0 039 Cb,posDL = 0.016 Ma,neg = 9.5 k-ft Ma,pos = 6.1 k-ft Mb,neg = 6.1 k-ft Mb,pos = 3.9 k-ft
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Panel I
Mb,neg

Ma,neg Mb,pos Ma,pos Ma,neg Mb,neg

For slab supported on Spandrals, Mneg,ext = 1/3Mpos

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Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 9 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.075 Cb,neg = 0.017 Ca,posLL = 0.042 Cb,posLL = 0.017 Ca,posDL = 0.029 0 029 Cb,posDL = 0.010 Ma,neg = 10.1 k-ft Ma,pos = 5.1 k-ft Mb,neg = 3.6 k-ft Mb,pos = 3.1 k-ft
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Panel II

Ma,neg Mb,neg Mb,pos Ma,pos Ma,neg Mb,neg

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Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 8 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.055 Cb,neg = 0.041 Ca,posLL = 0.044 Cb,posLL = 0.019 Ca,posDL = 0.032 0 032 Cb,posDL = 0.015 Ma,neg = 7.4 k-ft Ma,pos = 5.4 k-ft Mb,neg = 8.6 k-ft Mb,pos = 3.7 k-ft
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 32 Ma,neg Mb,neg Mb,pos Ma,pos Ma,neg Mb,neg

Panel III

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Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 2 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.065 Cb,neg = 0.027 Ca,posLL = 0.041 Cb,posLL = 0.017 Ca,posDL = 0.026 0 026 Cb,posDL = 0.011 Ma,neg = 8.7 k-ft Ma,pos = 4.9 k-ft Mb,neg = 5.7 k-ft Mb,pos = 3.2 k-ft
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Panel IV

Ma,neg Mb,neg Mb,pos Ma,pos Ma,neg Mb,neg

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Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Slab analysis summary
9.5 3.9 6.1 6.1 9.5 10.1 3.6 3.2 5.1 10.1 3.6 5.7 3.2 4.9 8.7 6.1 8.6 3.7 5.4 7.4 8.7 5.7 8.6 7.4

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Two Way Slabs


Moment Coefficient Method: Example
Slab Reinforcement Details
C A B B C A A B C B A B C C A B C B C C

A= #4 @ 12 B = #4 @ 6 C = #4 @ 4

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Two-Way Joist Slab

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Two-Way Joist
Introduction

A two-way joist system, or waffle slab, comprises evenly spaced concrete joists spanning in both directions and a reinforced concrete slab cast integrally with the joists.

Joist

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Two-Way Joist
Introduction

Like one-way joist system, a two way system will be qualified to be said as two-way joist system if clear spacing between ribs (dome width) does not exceed 30 in.

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Two-Way Joist
Introduction

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Two-Way Joist
Introduction

The joists are commonly formed by using Standard Square dome forms and the domes are omitted around the columns to form the solid heads.

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Two-Way Joist
Introduction

Standard Dome Data


Generally the dome for waffle slab can be of any size. However the commonly used standard domes are discussed as follows:

30-in 30-in square domes with 3-inch flanges; from which 6-inch wide joist ribs at 36-inch centers are formed: these are available in standard depths of 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 20 inches.

19 i h 19-inch 19-inch 19 i h square domes d with ith 2 -inch i h flanges, fl f from which hi h 5-inch wide joist ribs at 24-inch centers are formed. These are available in standard depths of 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 inches.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Introduction

Standard Dome Data

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Two-Way Joist
Behavior

The behavior of two-way joist slab is similar to a two way flat Slab system.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Characteristics

Dome voids reduce dead load Attractive ceiling (waffle like appearance) Electrical fixtures can be placed in the voids Particularly advantageous where the use of longer spans and/or heavier loads are desired without the use of deepened drop panels or supported beams.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Basic Steps for Structural Design

Step No. No 01 (Sizes): Sizes of all structural and non structural elements are decided.

Step No. 02 (Loads): Loads on structure are determined based on occupational characteristics and functionality (refer Appendix C of class notes).

Step No. No 03 (Analysis): Effect of loads are calculated on all structural elements.

Step No. 04 (Design): Structural elements are designed for the respective load effects following code provisions.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Sizes

Minimum Joist Depth


For Joist depth determination, waffle slabs are considered as flat slab (ACI 13.1.3, 13.1.4 & 9.5.3).

The thickness of equivalent flat slab is taken from table 9.5 (c). The thickness of slab and depth of rib of waffle slab can be then computed by equalizing the moment of inertia of equivalent flat slab to that of waffle slab. slab

However since this practice is time consuming, tables have been developed to determine the size of waffle slab from equivalent flat slab thickness.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Sizes

Minimum Joist Depth


Equivalent Flat Slab Thickness ACI 318-05 Sect. 9.5.3


Minimum thickness = ln/33

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Two-Way Joist
Sizes
Minimum Joist Depth
Slab and rib depth from equivalent flat slab thickness

Table 01: Waffle flat slabs (19" 19" voids at 2'-0")-Equivalent thickness
Rib + Slab Depths (in.) Equivalent Thickness te (in.) 8+3 8.89 8+4 10.11 10 + 3 10.51 10 + 4 11.75 12 + 3 12.12 12 + 4 13.38 14 + 3 13.72 14 + 4 15.02 16 + 3 15.31 16 + 4 16.64 Reference: Table 11-2 of CRSI Design Handbook 2002. Note: Only first two columns of the table are reproduced here.

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Two-Way Joist
Sizes
Minimum Joist Depth
Slab and rib depth from equivalent flat slab thickness
Table 02: Waffle flat slabs (30" 30" voids at 3'-0")-Equivalent thickness
Rib + Slab Depths (in.) Equivalent Thickness te (in.) 8+3 8.61 8+4 9.79 10 + 3 10.18 10 + 4 11.37 12 + 3 11.74 12 + 4 12.95 14 + 3 13.3 14 + 4 14.54 16 + 3 14.85 16 + 4 16.12 20 + 3 17.92 20 + 4 19.26 Reference: Table 11-2 of CRSI Design Handbook 2002. Note: Only first two columns of the table are reproduced here.

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Two-Way Joist
Sizes
Minimum Width of Rib
ACI 8.11.2 states that ribs shall be not less than 4 inch in width.

Maximum Depth of Rib


A rib shall have a depth of not more than 3 times the minimum width of rib.

Minimum Slab Thickness


ACI 8.11.6.1 states that slab thickness shall be not less than onetwelfth the clear distance between ribs, nor less than 2 in.

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Two-Way Joist
Loads
Floor dead load for two-way yj joist with certain dome size, , dome depth p can be calculated from the table shown for two options of slab thicknesses (3 inches and 4 inches).
Table 03: Standard Dome Dimensions and other Data
Dome Size Dome Depth (in.) 8 10 12 14 16 20 8 10 12 14 16 Volume of Void (ft3) 3.98 4 92 4.92 5.84 6.74 7.61 9.3 1.56 1.91 2.25 2.58 2.9 Floor Dead Load (psf) per slab thickness 3 inches 71 80 90 100 111 132 79 91 103 116 129 4 inches 90 99 109 119 129 151 98 110 122 134 148

30-in

19-in

Reference: Table 11-1, CRSI Design Handbook 2002

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Two-Way Joist
Loads
Floor dead load (wdj) for two-way two way joist can also be calculated as follows:
Volume of solid: Vsolid = (36 36 11)/1728 = 8.24 ft3 Volume of void: Vvoid = (30 30 8)/1728 = 4.166 ft3 Total Load of joists per dome: wdj = (Vsolid Vvoid) conc = ( 8.24 4.166) 0.15 = 0.61 kip Total Load of joists per sq. ft: wdj/ (dome area) = 0.61/ (3 3) = 0.0679 ksf = 68 psf 71 psf (from table 03) The difference is because sloped ribs are not considered.
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36

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Two-Way Joist
Loads
At locations where solid head is present, present the floor dead load can be calculated as follows:
If, wdj = dead load in joist area Wsh = dead load in solid head area = hsolid conc Wdj+sh = { {wshb + wdj(l2-b)}/ )} l2 a ln a Wdj+sh wdj Wdj+sh

l2

b a a
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Two-Way Joist
Loads
Factored loads can be calculated as: If wL = live load (load/area), then
Load out of solid head region wosh = 1.2 wdj + 1.6wL Load in solid head region wish = 1.2w 1 2 dj+sh+1.6w 16 L l2 b a a ln a Wish wosh Wish

wish wosh

wish

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Two-Way Joist
Analysis

ACI code allows use of DDM for analysis of waffle slabs (ACI R13.1). In such a case, waffle slabs are considered as flat slabs, with the solid head acting as drop panels (ACI 13.1.3).

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Analysis

Static moment calculation for DDM analysis:


Wish wosh Wish

wosh ln Mosh

ln

ln

Mish b a a

Mosh = woshl2ln2/8

Mish = (wish-wosh)ba2/2

l2

Mo = Mosh + Mish
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Two-Way Joist
Design

Design of slab for punching shear


The solid head shall be checked against punching shear. The critical section for punching shear is taken at a section d/2 from face of the column, where d is the effective depth at solid head.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Design

Design

of

slab

for

punching shear

Load on tributary area will cause punch out shear.

l1

Within tributary area, two types of loads are acting:


Solid head load Joist load

l2 shall be

d/2

Both

types

considered while calculating punching shear demand


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Two-Way Joist
Design

Design of slab for punching shear


Total area = l1 l2 Solid area = Asolid Joist part area (Aj) = (l1l2) -Asolid Critical perimeter area = Acp Vu =Ajwosh+ (Asolid Acp) wish Where, wosh = joist part load wish = load inside solid head l2

l1

d/2

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Design

Shear Strength of Slab in punching shear:


Vn = Vc + Vs Vc is least of:

4 (fc)bod (2 + 4/c) (fc)bod {(sd/bo +2} (fc)bod

c = longer side of column/shorter side of column s = 40 for interior column, 30 for edge column, 20 for corner columns

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Two-Way Joist
Design

Design of Joist for Beam Shear:


Beam shear Demand


Beam shear is not usually a problem in slabs including waffle slabs. However for completion of design beam shear may also be checked. Beam shear can cause problem in case where larger spans and heavier loads with relatively shallow waffle slabs are used.

The critical section for beam shear is taken at a section d from face of the column, where d is the effective depth at solid head.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Design

Design g of Joist for Beam Shear:


Beam shear capacity of concrete joist


Vn = Vc + Vs Vc is least of:

Stirrup

2 (fc)bribd

Vs = Avfy/bribs

If required, one or two single legged stirrups are provided in the rib to increase the shear capacity of waffle slab.

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Two-Way Joist
Design

Design for Flexure


The design of waffle slab is done by usual procedures. However, certain reinforcement requirements apply discussed next.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
ACI recommendations on reinforcement requirement of waffle slab:

ACI 10.6.7 states that if the effective depth d of a beam or joist exceeds 36 in., longitudinal skin reinforcement shall be provided as per ACI section 10.6.7.

According to ACI 13.3.2, for cellular or ribbed construction reinforcement shall not be less than the requirements of ACI 7.12.

As per ACI 7.12, Spacing of top bars cannot exceed 5h or 18 inches.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
ACI recommendations on reinforcement requirement of waffle slab:

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Other important points:

The amount of reinforcement and, and if necessary, necessary the top slab thickness can be changed to vary the load capacities for different spans, areas, or floors of a structure.

Each joist rib contains two bottom bars. Straight bars are supplied over the column centerlines for negative factored moment.

Bottom bar

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Two-Way Joist
Other important points:

For layouts that do not meet the standard 2-feet 2 feet and 3-feet 3 feet modules, it is preferable that the required additional width be obtained by increasing the width of the ribs framing into the solid column head.

The designer should sketch out the spacing for a typical panel p g as a p part of the early y and correlate with the column spacing planning.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Example: Design the slab system of hall shown in figure as waffle slab, according to ACI 318. Use Direct Design Method for slab analysis.

fc = 4 ksi fy = 60 ksi Live load = 100 psf

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Solution:

A 108 144 building, building divided into twelve (12) panels, panels supported at their ends on columns. Each panel is 36 36.

The given slab system satisfies all the necessary limitations for Direct Design Method to be applicable.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Step No 01: Sizes

Columns

Let all columns be 18 18.

Slab

Adopt 30 30 standard dome. Minimum equivalent flat slab thickness (hf) can be found using ACI Table 9 5 (c): 9.5 Exterior panel governs. Therefore, hf = ln/33 = [{36 (2 18/2)/12}/33] 12 = 12.45

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Step No 01: Sizes

Slab

The closest depth of doom that will fulfill the requirement of equivalent thickness of flat slab equal to 12.45 is 12 in. with a slab thickness of 4 in. for a dome size of 30-in.
Table: Waffle flat slabs (30" 30" voids at 3'-0")-Equivalent thickness Rib + Slab Depths (in.) Equivalent Thickness te (in.)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

8+3 8.61 8+4 9.79 10 + 3 10.18 10 + 4 11.37 12 + 3 11.74 12 + 4 12.95 14 + 3 13.3 14 + 4 14.54 16 + 3 14.85 16 + 4 16.12 20 + 3 17.92 20 + 4 19.26 Reference: Table 11-2 of CRSI Design Handbook 2002. Note: Only first two columns of the table are reproduced here.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Step No 01: Sizes

l = 36-0 = 432 Standard module = 36 36 No. of modules in 36-0: n = 432/36 = 12 Planning: First module is placed on interior column centerline and provided towards exterior ends of panel. In this way, width of exterior joist comes out to be 15.

Planning of Joist layout

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Step No 01: Sizes

Solid Head

Solid head dimension from column centerline = l/6 = 36/6 = 6 Total length of solid head= 2 6 = 12 As 3 3 module is selected, therefore 4 voids will make an interior solid head of 12.5 12.5.

Depth of the solid head = Depth of standard module = 12 + 4.5 = 16.5

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

73

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two-Way Joist
Step No 02: Loads

Floor (joist) dead load (wdj) = 109 psf = 0.109 0 109 ksf

Dome Size

Table: Standard Dome Dimensions and other Data Floor Dead Load (psf) per slab thickness Volume of Void Dome Depth (in.) (ft3) 3 inches 4 inches 8 10 12 14 16 20 8 10 12 14 16 3.98 4.92 5.84 6.74 7.61 61 9.3 1.56 1.91 2.25 2.58 2.9 71 80 90 100 111 132 79 91 103 116 129 90 99 109 119 129 151 98 110 122 134 148

30-in

19-in

Reference: Table 11-1, CRSI Design Handbook 2002

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Two-Way Joist
Step No 02: Loads
Floor (joist) dead load (wdj) = 109 psf = 0.109 0 109 ksf Solid Head dead load (wsh) = {(12 + 4.5)/12} 0.15 = 0.206 ksf Wdj+sh = {wshb + wdj(l2-b)}/l2 = {0.20612.5 + 0.109 (36 12.5)}/36 = 0.143 ksf
a ln Wdj+sh wdj Wdj+sh

l2

b = 12.5 a = 5.25 a
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Two-Way Joist
Step No 02: Loads
wL = 100 psf = 0.100 0 100 ksf Load out of solid head region wosh = 1.2 wdj + 1.6wL = 1.20.109 + 1.60.100 = 0.291 ksf Load in solid head region wish = 1.2wdj+sh+1.6wL = 1.2 0.143 + 1.6 0.100 = 0.33 ksf
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wish
l2 b a

wish wosh
a

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

Step 1: Marking E-W Interior Frame:

l1 = 36-0 0 ln = 34-6 l2 = 36-0

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

77

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

Step 01: Marking E-W Interior Frame


Design Span of frame (c/c) = l1 = 36 Design Length of frame = ln = 36 (2 18/2)/12 = 34.5 Width of frame = l2 = 36 Half column strip width = (Shorter span)/ 4 = 36/4 = 9

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

78

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

Step 2: Marking Column and Middle Strips

MS/2 = 9-0 a = 5-3 b= 12-6 CS/2 = 9-0 CS/2 = 9-0 MS/2 = 9-0
CS/2 = Least of l1/4 or l2/4 l2/4 = 36/4 = 9

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

79

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

Step 03: Static Moment Calculation


Mosh (outside head) = woshl2ln2/8 = 0.291 36 34.52/8 = 1557.56 ft-k Mish (solid head) = (wish wosh) ba2/2 = (0.330.291)12.55.252/2 = 6.70 ft-k Mo (total static moment) = Mosh + Mish = 1557.56 + 6.70 = 1564.26 ft-k

Note: Since normally, Mish is much smaller than Mosh the former can be conveniently ignored in design calculations

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

80

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

Step 04: Longitudinal distribution of Total static moment (Mo).

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

81

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

Step 05: Lateral Distribution of Longitudinal moment (L.M).


INT36 =0 {no interior beams} l2/l1 = 36/36 = 1 INT36l2/l1 = 0

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

82

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

Step 01: Marking E-W exterior Frame

l1 = 36-0 0 ln = 34-6

l2 = 18-0 + ( (9/12) ) = 18.75

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

83

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

Step 01: Marking E-W exterior Frame


Design Span of frame (c/c) = l1 = 36 Design Length of frame = ln = 36 (2 18/2)/12 = 34.5 Width of frame = l2 = 9 + 9 + (9/12) = 18.75 Half column strip width = (Shorter span)/ 4 = 36/4 = 9

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

84

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

Step 02: Marking Column and Middle Strips

l1 = 36-0 0 ln = 34-6

CS/2 = Least of l1/4 or l2/4 l2/4 = 36/4 = 9

MS/2 = 9-0 a = 5-3 3 b= 7-0 CS/2 = 9-0


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Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

Step 03: Static Moment Calculation


Mosh (outside head) = woshl2ln2/8 = 0.291 18.75 34.52/8 = 811.78 ft-k Mish (solid head) = (wish wosh) ba2/2 = (0.330.291)75.252/2 = 3.76 ft-k Mo (total static moment) = Mosh + Mish = 811.78 + 3.76 = 815.54 ft-k

Note: Since normally, Mish is much smaller than Mosh the former can be conveniently ignored in design calculations

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

86

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Analysis

Step 04: Longitudinal distribution of Total static moment (Mo).

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

87

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Analysis

Step 05: Lateral Distribution of Longitudinal moment (L.M) [Refer to ACI 13.6.4 to ACI 13.6.6].

EXT36 =0 {no exterior beams} l2/l1 = 36/36 = 1 EXT36l2/l1 = 0

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

88

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 03: Analysis

Analysis of N-S Interior and Exterior Frame will be same as E-W respective frames due to square panels.

N-S Exterior Frame l2 = 18-9 N-S Interior Frame l2 = 36-0

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

89

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 04: Design

For E-W Interior slab strip:


davg g = 12 + 4.5 1 (concrete cover) 0.75 (avg. bar dia) = 14.75 Asmin = 0.0018bte (Where te = equivalent flat slab thickness) Asmin = 0.0018 12 12.95 = 0.279 in2

Now, Equation used to calculate () in table below is as follows: Mu = fybdavg2{1 0.59fy/fc} = 0.9601214.752{1 0.5960/4}

After solving the above equation for , we get: = [140980.5 {(140980.5)2 (4 1247677 Mu 12)}]/2(1247677).(A)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

90

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 04: Design

For E-W Interior slab strip:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

91

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 04: Design

For E-W exterior slab strip:


davg g = 12 + 4.5 1 0.75 = 14.75 Asmin = 0.0018bte (Where te = equivalent flat slab thickness) Asmin = 0.0018 12 12.95 = 0.279 in2

Now, Equation used to calculate () in table below is as follows: Mu = fybdavg2{1 0.59fy/fc} = 0.9601214.752{1 0.5960/4}

After solving the above equation for , we get: = [140980.5 {(140980.5)2 (4 1247677 Mu 12)}]/2(1247677).(A)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

92

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 04: Design

For E-W exterior slab strip:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

93

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 04: Design

Design of N-S Interior and Exterior Frame will be same as EW respective frames due to square panels and also for the reason that davg is used in design.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

94

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 04: Design

Note: For the completion of design problem, the waffle slab should also be checked for beam shear and punching shear.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

95

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 05: Detailing (E-W Frames)

#6 @ 12

#6 @ 6 #6 @ 6

#6 @ 12

#6 @ 18 #6 @ 12

#6 @ 18 #6 @ 6

#6 @ 18 #6 @ 6

#6 @ 18 #6 @ 12

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

96

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 05: Detailing (N-S Frames)
#6 @ 12 #6 @ 18 #6 @ 12

#6 @ 6

#6 @ 18

#6 @ 6

#6 @ 6

#6 @ 18

#6 @ 6

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

97

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 05: Detailing (E-W Interior Frame)
18-0
#6 @ 6 c/c

Column Strip (Interior Frame); section taken over support


2 #7 Bars #6 @ 12 c/c

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

2 #7 Bars

Column Strip (Exterior Frame); section taken over support

98

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 05: Detailing (E-W Interior Frame)
18-0
#6 @ 18 c/c

Middle Strip (Interior Frame); Section taken over column line


2 #7 Bars #6 @ 18 c/c

2 #7 Bars
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Middle Strip (Exterior Frame); Section taken over column line 99

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 05: Detailing (E-W Exterior Frame)
9-0
#6 @ 6 c/c

2 #7 Bars

Column Strip (Interior Frame); section over support

#6 @ 12 c/c

2 #7 Bars
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Column Strip (Exterior Frame); section over support


100

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Joist Two-Way


Step No 05: Detailing (E-W Exterior Frame)
9-0
#6 @ 18 c/c

2 #7 Bars

Middle Strip (Interior Frame) ; section over support

#6 @ 18 c/c

2 #7 Bars
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Middle Strip (Exterior Frame); section over support


101

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

The End

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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