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BUILDING THE FORMULA FOR CALCULATING THE VAPOR OF THE LPG


LIQUID GENERATING IN THE EXPLOSION RISK OF LPG TANK
Ly Ngoc Minh1; Nguyen Van Quan2; Đinh Xuan Thang3
ABSTRACT:
The paper introduces the way for building of the formula to calculate the vapor of the
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) generating in the explosion risk of LPG tank.
INTRODUCTION:
Liquid stored under pressure above their normal boiling point temperature present
substantial problems because of flashing. If the tank, pipe, or other containment device
develops a leak or rupture, the liquid will partially flash in to vapor, sometimes
explosively.
When we assessment the risk of the gas explosion from the tank, pipe, equipment
of the LPG, we need to calculate the vapor of the LPG generating from the LPG liquid.
This paper will introduce the way to form the formula to calculating the LPG vapor
generating from the LPG liquid in the explosion.
I.CONDITIONS
 LPG equipment place in the atmosphere, pressure is 1 atm (1,01 bar);
 Commercial LPG;
 Assumes constant physical properties over the temperature range.
 Maximum allow working temperature of the LPG tank is 50oC (according to the
Vietnam standard)
II.DETERMINE THE RATE OF LPG LIQUID FLASHING
Flashing occurs so rapidly that the process is assumed to be adiabatic. The excess
energy contained in the superheated LPG liquid vaporizes the LPG liquid and lowers the
temperature to the new boiling point. If m LLPG is the mass of LPG liquid, C pLPG
, L ,1atm the heat

capacity of the LPG liquid (energy/mass.deg.), To be the temperature of the LPG liquid
before depressurization, and Tb is the depressurized boiling point of the LPG liquid, the
excess energy contained in the superheated LPG liquid is given by

1
Hochiminh University of Industry, Vietnam
2
Nation Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Vietnam
3
Hochiminh City Institute of Resource and Environment, Vietnam
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Q  m LLPG  C pLPG 
, L ,1atm  To , 50 o C  TB ,1atm
LPG LPG
 (a)

This energy vaporizes the LPG liquid. If rLLPG


V ,1atm is the heat of vaporization of the

LPG liquid, the mass of LPG liquid vaporized mv is given by

Q m LLPG  C pLPG 
, L ,1atm  To , 50 o C  TB ,1atm
LPG LPG

V 
m LLPG LPG
 LPG
(b)
rL V ,1atm rL V ,1atm

The fraction of the LPG liquid vaporized is

m LLPG C pLPG 
, L ,1atm  To , 50 o C  TB ,1atm
LPG LPG

V  
V
f LLPG (c)
m LLPG rLLPG
V ,1atm

III.DETERMINE THE LPG VAPOR GENERATING


The vapor of LPG generating is

V  C p , L .1atm   T0
250  mLLPG  TB ,1atm LPG 
LPG LPG

V LPG
 (d)
V
 LLPG
,1atm  r1atm
LPG

IV.CASE STUDY

, L ,1atm  2.25kJ / kg C ;
The tank contents the Propane (C3H8), capacity is the 100 ton. C pLPG o

T 0
LPG
Max
 
 50 o C ; TBLPG  42.1o C ; rLLPG
V ,1atm = 427.8 kJ/kg.

Substituting in to Eq. c gives

m LLPG , L ,1atm  To
C pLPG  LPG
 TBLPG 
2.25  50   42.1
V     0.484
V
f LLPG LPG LPG
mL rL V ,1atm 427.8

That is, only 48.4% of the mass of the original LPG liquid (in this case, propane) is
vaporized.
So, the LPG vapor generating is

V  C p , L .1atm   T0
250  mLLPG  TB ,1atm LPG 
LPG LPG
250  0.48 100 103
V LPG
   23529 m3
V
 LLPG
,1atm  r1atm
LPG
510

V.CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION


 There is only part of the mass of the original LPG liquid is vaporized.
 The paper introduces the way to building the formula to can calculate the vapor
generating from the explosion risk of the LPG tank.
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 The result of this calculation can use to determine the dispersion of the LPG vapor
in the air when assess the risk of the gas explosion from the tank, pipe, equipment of the
LPG.
 Research applying the result of the study to another liquid.