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Proposed by the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, the theory of psychosexual development describes how personality develops during

childhood. While the theory is well-known in psychology, it is also one of the most controversial theories. Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages in which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas. his psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as the driving force behind behavior. Psychoanalytic theory suggested that personality is mostly established by the age of five. !arly experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later in life. "f these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy personality. "f certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixation can occur. # fixation is a persistent focus on an earlier psychosexual stage. $ntil this conflict is resolved, the individual will remain %stuck% in this stage. For example, a person who is fixated at the oral stage may be over-dependent on others and may seek oral stimulation through smoking, drinking, or eating. Age Range: Birth to 1 Year Erogenous Zone: Mouth &uring the oral stage, the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. he mouth is vital for eating, and the infant derives pleasure from oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and sucking. (ecause the infant is entirely dependent upon caretakers )who are responsible for feeding the child*, the infant also develops a sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation. he primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process--the child must become less dependent upon caretakers. "f fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. +ral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking, or nail biting. Age Range: 1 to 3 years Erogenous Zone: Bowel and Bladder Control &uring the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements. he ma,or conflict at this stage is toilet training--the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. &eveloping this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence. #ccording to Freud, success at this stage is dependent upon the way in which parents approach toilet training. Parents who utili-e praise and rewards for using the toilet at the appropriate time encourage positive outcomes and help children feel capable and productive. Freud believed that positive experiences during this stage served as the basis for people to become competent, productive and creative adults. .owever, not all parents provide the support and encouragement that children need during this stage. Some parents' instead punish, ridicule or shame a child for accidents. #ccording to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes. "f parents take an approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested that an anal-expulsive personality could develop in which the individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive personality. "f parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive personality develops in which the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive. Age Range: 3 to 6 Years Erogenous Zone: Genitals &uring the phallic stage, the primary focus of the libido is on the genitals. #t this age, children also begin to discover the differences between males and females.

Freud also believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the mother/s affections. he +edipus complex describes these feelings of wanting to possess the mother and the desire to replace the father. .owever, the child also fears that he will be punished by the father for these feelings, a fear Freud termed castration anxiety. he term !lectra complex has been used to described a similar set of feelings experienced by young girls. Freud, however, believed that girls instead experience penis envy. !ventually, the child begins to identify with the same-sex parent as a means of vicariously possessing the other parent. For girls, however, Freud believed that penis envy was never fully resolved and that all women remain somewhat fixated on this stage. Psychologists such as 0aren .orney disputed this theory, calling it both inaccurate and demeaning to women. "nstead, .orney proposed that men experience feelings of inferiority because they cannot give birth to children. Age Range: 6 to Puberty Erogenous Zone: e!ual "eelings Are #na$ti%e &uring the latent period, the libido interests are suppressed. he development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm. he stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies and other interests. he latent period is a time of exploration in which the sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions. his stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence. Age Range: Puberty to &eath Erogenous Zone: Maturing e!ual #nterests &uring the final stage of psychosexual development, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. his stage begins during puberty but last throughout the rest of a person's life. Where in earlier stages the focus was solely on individual needs, interest in the welfare of others grows during this stage. "f the other stages have been completed successfully, the individual should now be well-balanced, warm and caring. he goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas.

Swiss psychiatrist 1arl 2ung believed that archetypes are models of people, behaviors or personalities. 2ung suggested that the psyche was composed of three components3 the ego, the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. #ccording to 2ung, the ego represents the conscious mind while the personal unconscious contains memories, including those that have been suppressed. he collective unconscious is a uni4ue component in that 2ung believed that this part of the psyche served as a form of psychological inheritance. "t contains all of the knowledge and experiences we share as a species.

'he (rigins o) Ar$hety*es


Where do these archetypes come from then5 he collective unconscious, 2ung believed, was where these archetypes exist. .e suggested that these models are innate, universal and hereditary. #rchetypes are unlearned and function to organi-e how we experience certain things. %#ll the most powerful ideas in history go back to archetypes,% 2ung explained in his book The Structure of the Psyche. % his is particularly true of religious ideas, but the central concepts of science, philosophy, and ethics are no exception to this rule. "n their present form they are variants of archetypal ideas created by consciously applying and adapting these ideas to reality. For it is the function of consciousness, not only to recogni-e and assimilate the external world through the gateway of the senses, but to translate into visible reality the world within us.% 2ung identified four ma,or archetypes, but also believed that there was no limit to the number that may exist.

'he el)
he self is an archetype that represents the unification of the unconsciousness and consciousness of an individual. he creation of the self occurs through a process known as individuation, in which the various aspects of personality are integrated. 2ung often represented the self as a circle, s4uare or mandala.

'he hadow
he shadow is an archetype that consists of the sex and life instincts. he shadow exists as part of the unconscious mind and is composed of repressed ideas, weaknesses, desires, instincts and shortcomings. his archetype is often described as the darker side of the psyche, representing wildness, chaos and the unknown. hese latent dispositions are present in all of us, 2ung believed, although people sometimes deny this element of their own psyche and instead pro,ect it onto others. 2ung suggested that the shadow can appear in dreams or visions and may take a variety of forms. "t might appear as a snake, a monster, a demon, a dragon or some other dark, wild or exotic figure.

'he Ani+a or Ani+us


he anima is a feminine image in the male psyche and the animus is a male image in the female psyche. he anima6animus represents the %true self% rather than the image we present to others and serves as the primary source of communication with the collective unconscious. he combination of the anima and animus is known as the sy-ygy, or the divine couple. he sy-ygy represents completion, unification and wholeness.

'he Persona
he persona is how we present ourselves to the world. he word %persona% is derived from a 7atin word that literally means %mask.% "t is not a literal mask, however. he persona represents all of the different social masks that we wear

among different groups and situations. "t acts to shield the ego from negative images. #ccording to 2ung, the persona may appear in dreams and take a number of different forms.

(ther Ar$hety*es
2ung suggested that the number of existing archetypes is not static or fixed. "nstead, many different archetypes may overlap or combine at any given time. he following are ,ust a few of the various archetypes that 2ung described3

'he )ather: #uthority figure8 stern8 powerful. 'he +other: 9urturing8 comforting. 'he $hild: 7onging for innocence8 rebirth8 salvation. 'he wise old +an: :uidance8 knowledge8 wisdom. 'he hero: 1hampion8 defender8 rescuer. 'he +aiden: "nnocence8 desire8 purity. 'he tri$,ster: &eceiver8 liar8 trouble-maker.