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Project In MAPEH

Mary Joy Y. Cerantes VIII-11 Mrs. Angelica Libera

a.)Modern Technologies That Help In The Control Of Disease 1.Modern Treatment 2.Acupuncture 3.Endorphin 4.Fibris 5.Cobalt 60 7.Chemotheraphy 8.Radiation 9.Liquid Nitrogen 10.Transplant

Acupuncture is a collection of procedures involving penetration of the skin with needles to stimulate certain points on the body. In its classical form it is a characteristic component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been categorized as a complementary health approach.[1] According to traditional Chinese medicine, stimulating specific acupuncture points corrects imbalances in the flow of qi through channels known as meridians.[2]Scientific investigation has not found any histological or physiological correlates for traditional Chinese concepts such as qi, meridians, and acupuncture points,[n 1][6][7] and some contemporary practitioners use acupuncture without following the traditional Chinese approach.[8][9]

Although minimally invasive, the puncturing of the skin with acupuncture needles poses problems when designing trials that adequately controls forplacebo effects.[10][11][12] A number of studies comparing traditional acupuncture to sham procedures found that both sham and traditional acupuncture were superior to usual care but were themselves equivalent. These findings are apparently at odds with traditional Chinese theories regarding acupuncture point specificity.[13] Existing evidence does not rule out the possibility that the effects of acupuncture may be entirely due to placebo.[14][15][16]

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass orbypass surgery is a surgical procedure performed to relieve angina and reduce the risk of death from coronary artery disease. Arteries or veins from elsewhere in the patient's body are grafted to the coronary arteries to bypass atherosclerotic narrowings and improve the blood supply to the coronary circulation supplying the myocardium (heart muscle). This surgery is usually performed with the heart stopped, necessitating the usage ofcardiopulmonary bypass; techniques are available to perform CABG on a beating heart, so-called "off-pump" surgery.

Endorphins ("endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid peptides that function as neurotransmitters.[1] They are produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during exercise,[2] excitement, pa in, spicy food consumption, love, andsexual activity,[3][4] and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a feeling of well-being.

The term implies a pharmacological activity (analogous to the activity of the corticosteroid category of biochemicals) as opposed to a specific chemical formulation. It consists of two parts: endoand -orphin; these are short forms of the words endogenous andmorphine, intended to mean "a morphinelike substance originating from within the body."[5] The term "endorphin rush" has been adopted in popular speech to refer to a feeling of exhilaration that can be brought on by pain, danger, or other forms of stress,[2] supposedly due to the influence of endorphins. When a nerve impulse reaches the spinal cord, endorphins that prevent nerve cells from releasing more pain signals are released.

Cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs, digestive tract, and other areas of the body. It is one of the most common chronic lung diseases in children and young adults. It is a life-threatening disorder.

Cobalt therapy or cobalt-60 therapy is the medical use of gamma rays from cobalt60 radioisotopes to treat conditions such as cancer.

Patient receiving cobalt-60 therapy.

Because the cobalt machines were expensive and required specialist support they were often housed in cobalt unit

Chemotherapy is a milestone in cancer treatments. It applies chemo drugs to kill


tumor cells, suppresses the growth & proliferation of cancer cells, and improves the differentiation of cancer cells. Chemotherapy is currently considered as a main therapy for cancer; however, because of the reason that conventional chemotherapy can result in decreased immunity and normal tissue cells damage. Patients are more and more desired to have a therapy that may not do great damage or severe side effects to the body

Radiation therapy (in American English and Canada ), radiation oncology, or radiotherapy (in the UK, and Australia), sometimes abbreviated to XRT or DXT, is the medical use of ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells. Radiation therapy may be curative in a number of types of cancer if they are localized to one area of the body. It may also be used as part of adjuvant therapy, to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a primary malignant tumor (for example, early stages of breast cancer). Radiation therapy is synergistic withchemotherapy, and has been used before, during, and after chemotherapy in susceptible cancers.

Liquid nitrogen is extremely cold. It will freeze any living tissue it comes into contact with. Applying small amounts of liquid nitrogen to various skin problems is now a standard treatment. Warts and verrucas, skin tags, small fleshy growths and similar small 'lumps and bumps' on the skin are ideal for liquid nitrogen treatment.

Organ transplantation is the moving of an organ from one body to another or from a donor site to another location on the patient's own body, for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or absent organ. The emerging field of regenerative medicine is allowing scientists and engineers to create organs to be re-grown from the patient's own cells (stem cells, or cells extracted from the failing organs). Organs and/or tissues that are transplanted within the same person's body are called autografts. Transplants that are recently performed between two subjects of the same species are called allografts. Allografts can either be from a living or cadaveric source.

b.)Modern Apparatus

1.X-ray 2.Laser 3.Keycell-bio-energizer 4.Electrocaridiography 5.Electroencephalography 6.Ultrasound 7.Scanner

X-Ray or Medical imaging has led to improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous medical conditions in children and adults. There are many types - or modalities - of medical imaging procedures, each of which uses different technologies and techniques. Computed tomography (CT), fluoroscopy, and radiography ("conventional X-ray" including mammography) all use ionizing radiation to generate images of the body. Ionizing radiation is a form of radiation that has enough energy to potentially cause damage to DNA and may elevate a persons lifetime risk of developing cancer.

CT, radiography, and fluoroscopy all work on the same basic principle: an X-ray beam is passed through the body where a portion of the X-rays are either absorbed or scattered by the internal structures, and the remaining X-ray pattern is transmitted to a detector (e.g., film or a computer screen) for recording or further processing by a computer. These exams differ in their purpose:

Radiography - a single image is recorded for later evaluation. Mammography is a special type of radiography to image the internal structures of breasts. Fluoroscopy - a continuous X-ray image is displayed on a monitor, allowing for realtime monitoring of a procedure or passage of a contrast agent (dye) through the body. Fluoroscopy can result in relatively high radiation doses, especially for complex interventional procedures (such as placing stents or other devices inside the body) which require fluoroscopy be administered for a long period of time. CT - many X-ray images are recorded as the detector moves around the patient's body. A computer reconstructs all the individual images into cross-sectional images or slices of internal organs and tissues. A CT exam involves a higher radiation dose than conventional radiography because the CT image is reconstructed from many individual X-ray projections.

Laser medicine is the use of various types of lasers in medical diagnosis, treatment, or therapy. Types of lasers used in medicine include in principle anylaser design, but especially:cancer diagnosis[5] and treatment[6]ophthalmology (includes L asik and laser photocoagulation)optical coherence tomography[10]prostatectomysurgery[10]

Keycell bio energizer Keycell was invented by Dr. Rudolfo Y. Almanzorprof of medicine of University of the Philippines (UP) sometime in the mid 1970s. Much research was done and many successful results were seen. Keycell is a herbal combination and acts to increase the energy of the human cell. This increase is a result of the action of the Keycell formula to increase the production of ATP in the cell.

An electrocardiogram (ECG) records the electrical activity of the heart. The heart produces tiny electrical impulses which spread through the heart muscle to make the heart contract. These impulses can be detected by the ECG machine. You may have an ECG to help find the cause of symptoms such as palpitations or chest pain. Sometimes it is done as part of routine tests - for example, before you have an operation. The ECG test is painless and harmless. (The ECG machine records electrical impulses coming from your body - it does not put any electricity into your body.)

Therapeutic ultrasound refers generally to any type of ultrasonic procedure that uses ultrasound for therapeutic benefit. This includes HIFU,lithotripsy, targeted ultrasound drug delivery, trans-dermal ultrasound drug delivery, ultrasound hemostasis, cancer therapy, and ultrasound assistedthrombolysis[1] [2] It may use focused ultrasound (FUS) or unfocused ultrasound. Ultrasound is a method of stimulating the tissue beneath the skin's surface using very high frequency sound waves, between 800,000 Hz and 2,000,000 Hz, which cannot be heard by humans.

Radionuclide scanning, also called nuclear medicine scanning, is a test that produces pictures (scans) of internal body parts using small amounts of radioactive material. This test is used to provide images of organs and areas of the body that cannot be seen well with standard X-rays. Many abnormal tissue growths, such as tumors are particularly visible using radionuclide scanning. A radiologista doctor who is specially trained to use X-rays and other imaging techniques to diagnose and treat illness and diseaseinterprets this test.