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Thirteenth Edition

Thirteenth Edition

University of San Francisco

Heinz Weihrich

University of San Francisco

Mark V. Cannice

University of California Los Angeles

Harold Koontz

Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited


NEW DELHI
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Tata McGraw Hill


Published by the Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited, 7 West Patel Nagar, New Delhi 110 008. Management: A Global and Entrepreneurial Perspective, 13e Copyright 2010, by Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise or stored in a database or retrieval system without the prior written permission of the publishers. The program listings (if any) may be entered, stored and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication. This edition can be exported from India only by the publishers, Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited ISBN-13: 978-0-07-070072-7 ISBN-10: 0-07-070072-9 Managing Director: Ajay Shukla HeadHigher Education Publishing: Vibha Mahajan Publishing ManagerB&E/HSSL: Tapas K Maji Assistant Sponsoring Editor: Hemant K Jha Development Editor: Shalini Negi Assistant Manager (Editorial Services): Anubha Srivastava Senior Copy Editor: Sneha Kumari Senior Production Manager: Manohar Lal Production Executive: Atul Gupta General ManagerMarketing (Higher Ed): Michael J Cruz Product Manager: Vijay S Jagannathan Senior Product Specialist: Daisy Sachdeva General ManagerProduction: Rajender P Ghansela Assistant General ManagerProduction: B L Dogra Information contained in this work has been obtained by Tata McGraw Hill, from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither Tata McGraw Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and neither Tata McGraw Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that Tata McGraw Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought. Typeset at The Composers, 260, C.A. Apt., Paschim Vihar, New Delhi 110 063 and printed at SDR Printers, A-28, West Jyoti Nagar, Loni Road, Shahdara, Delhi 110 094. Cover Design: Kapil Gupta **

About the Authors


Heinz Weihrich is Professor Emeritus of Global Management and Behavioral Science at the University of San Francisco (USF). He received his doctorate from the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and an honorable doctorate from San Martin University in Peru. He was a visiting scholar at the University of California in Berkeley, the Harvard Business School, and the KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology) Business School in Seoul, Korea. His elds of work are management, international management, and behavioral science. Prof. Weihrich has taught at Arizona State University, UCLA, and in countries such as Austria, China (Beijing and Shanghai), Egypt, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, and Thailand. He has also been a faculty member at the Graduate School of Business in Zurich, Switzerland and at the China European International Business School (CEIBS) in Shanghai, China. He is a visiting professor at Peking University in Beijing, the East China University of Science and Technology (ECUST) in Shanghai, and the University of Applied Science in Ludwigshafen, Germany. He has authored more than 90 books, including its various editions and translations, and is the co-author of the classic Management: A Global Perspective, formerly co-authored by the late Horold Koontz and the late Cyril ODonnell (translated into 16 languages in its various editions), Management: A Global and Entrepreneurial Perspective, and Essentials of Management (also in several language editions). The book Management has been the best-seller around the world for many years and has been the best-seller in the Spanish-language edition for more than 25 years. Another book, Management ExcellenceProductivity Through MBO, discusses a goal-driven, successoriented management system. The book has been translated into Chinese, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, and Spanish languages. Over 140 of his articles have been published in the United States and overseas in several languages in journals such as Human Resource Planning, Journal of Systems Management, Management International Review, Long Range Planning, The Academy of Management Executive, and the European Business Review (Analyzing the Competitive Advantages and Disadvantages of Germany with the TOWS Matrixan Alternative to Porters Model was selected as the most outstanding paper in 1999). His current research interests are in improving the global competitiveness of enterprises and nations, strategic management, managerial excellence, and career strategy. In addition to pursuing his academic interests. Dr Weihrich has been active in management consulting as well as in management and organizational development in the United States, Europe, Africa, and Asia. His consulting, business and teaching experiences include working with companies such as Eastman Kodak, Volkswagen,

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About the Authors

Hughes Aircraft, ABB (Switzerland), Mercedes-Benz, China Resources Co., Guangdong Enterprises (China), and the Institute Pembangunan Keusahawanan (Malaysia). He has given many speeches on global management topics in the United States, Europe, Asia, Mexico, and Peru. He has been elected as a Fellow of the International Academy of Management, the highest honor conferred by the international management movement. For more biographical information on this author see International Businessmens Whos Who, Men of Achievement, Dictionary of International Biography, International Leaders in Achievement, Whos Who in California, Whos Who in American Education, Marquis Whos Who in the West, Whos Who in America, Whos Who in the World, Five Thousand Personalities of the World, and his web site at http://www. usfca.edu/facstaff/weihrichh/ Mark V. Cannice, Ph.D. is an internationally recognized scholar, teacher, and speaker on entrepreneurship and venture capital. He is a Professor of Entrepreneurship and Innovation with the University of San Francisco School of Business and Professional Studies, where he has been recognized for outstanding research, teaching, and service. He is also the Founder and Executive Director of the USF Entrepreneurship Program (recognized among the nations leading entrepreneurship programs). Prof. Cannice writes the widely-followed quarterly Silicon Valley Venture Capitalist Condence Index Report which is published by ProQuest, carried globally on Bloomberg Professional Services in 125 countries (Bloomberg ticker symbol: USFSVVCI), and has been referenced in the Economist, Wall Street Journal, New York Times, Xinhua News Service, Reuters, Der Spiegel, CNBC, National Public Radio, and many other media. He writes a similar quarterly report on the Chinese venture capital industry, China Venture Capitalist Condence Index ReportTM (Bloomberg ticker symbol: CVCCI). Professor Cannices research in venture capital and technology management has been published in many leading academic journals (e.g. Management International Review, Journal of High Technology Management Research, Venture Capital: An International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, etc.) Prof. Cannice has advised and lectured governmental organizations and universities from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America on entrepreneurial education, given keynote address to CEO/CTO, attorney, and private equity manger audiences, and advised numerous start-up ventures. He has been a Visiting Professor at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (2006) and Peking University (2005)Chinas top two universities. He founded and directed the prestigious international business plan competitions at the University of San Francisco and the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. He also founded his own company, Pacic Business Development, Inc., an international trading rm. He also served nine years as a Naval Flight Ofcer in the U.S. Navymost notably as a Patrol Plane Mission Commander throughout the Pacic, and was promoted to Commander in the U.S. Naval Reserves. He holds a Ph.D. and M.S. from Indiana University Kelley School of Business, an MBA from USF, and a B.S. from the United States Naval Academy (Annapolis).

About the Authors

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Harold Koontz was an active as a business and government executive, university professor, company board chairman and director, management consultant, lecturer to the top management of organizations worldwide, and an author. From 1950 he was Professor of Management and from 1962 Mead Johnson Professor of Management at UCLA; from 1978 to 1982 he was World Chancellor at the International Academy of Management. He was the author or coauthor of 19 books and 90 journal articles, including this book, which was originally called Principles of Management. His Board of Directors and Effective Management was given the Academy of Management Book Award in 1968. After his doctorate at Yale, Dr Koontz served as Assistant to the Trustees of the New Haven Railroad, Chief of the Trafc Branch of the War Production Board, Assistant to the Vice-President of the Association of American Railroads, Assistant to the President of Trans World Airlines, and Director of Sales for Convair. He acted as management consultant for, among others, Hughes Tool Company, Hughes Aircraft Company, Purex Corporation, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, Occidental Petroleum Corporation, and General Telephone Company. Professor Koontzs honors included election as a Fellow of the American Academy of Management and the International Academy of Management and a term of service as President of the former. He received the Mead Johnson Award in 1962 and the Society for Advancement of Management Taylor Key Award in 1974 and is listed in Whos Who in America, Whos Who in Finance and Industry, and Whos Who in the World. He passed away in 1984.

In memory of Harold Koontz A pioneer in management education who untangled the management theory jungle by organizing managerial knowledge according to the management functions, the framework used in todays popular textbooks. To my wife Ursula Heinz Weihrich To my family Mark Cannice

Preface
The objective of this book is to prepare men and women for an exciting, challenging, and rewarding managerial career. For many years, previous editions of this book have been bestsellers globally. The Latin American editions have been bestsellers in the Spanish-speaking world for more than a decade. This book has had an international orientation long before it became fashionable to do so. The 13th edition builds on that tradition, but it not only adds much new information pertinent to the 21st century, but also includes the very important topic of entrepreneurship. The entrepreneurial viewpoint is integrated throughout the book. As the title, Management: A Global and Entrepreneurial Perspective, indicates, the book takes an international view of managing. At the same time, we realize that it is an entrepreneurial spirit that drives much organizational and personal success. Through our research, travels, and teaching in many countries, we have learned from students, managers, and professors and listened to their challenges. Consequently, they have responded by using this book, which has been translated into 16 languages. The international perspective is essential because national barriers are crumbling and new alliances among companies and peoples are being formed. In this edition, as in previous ones, we have drawn from our business experiences and integrate theory with practice. We also now highlight the Silicon Valley entrepreneurial perspective in this text. Through our experience of working with many leaders in the entrepreneurial eco-system of Silicon Valley, we strive to include an innovative perspective to the practice of management not found in other management texts. Beyond the discussion of managerial issues in the Americas, attention is given to topics in the European Union and Asia, regions that are sometimes neglected in other management textbooks.

WHO WILL BENEFIT FROM THIS BOOK?

All persons who work in organizations and entrepreneurs will benet from learning about contemporary managing. They include students in colleges and universitieswho will one day join organizationsaspiring managers, managers who want to become more effective, other professionals who want to understand the organization in which they work, and entrepreneurs who need to learn how to plan new businesses and communicate their competitive edge to investors. This book is for people in all kinds of organizations, such as governments, health-care providers, educational institutions, and other not-for-prot enterprises. The managerial functions are essentially the same for rst-line supervisors, middle managers, and top executives. To be sure, there are considerable variations in the environment, scope of authority, and types of problems in the various positions. Yet all managers undertake the same basic functions to obtain results by establishing an environment for effective and efcient performance of individuals working together in groups.

ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK

As in previous editions, managerial knowledge is classied according to the functions of planning, organizing, stafng, leading, and controlling. A systems model, used throughout the book, integrates

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these functions into a system; it also links the enterprise with its environment. The suggested open systems view is even more important now than in the past, as the external environment has become more challenging through internationalization and more open to communication over the Internet. Part 1 covers the basis of global management theory and practice; it also introduces the systems model that serves as the framework of this book. To provide the perspective of the book, Part 1 includes chapters on management and its relations to the external environment, social responsibility, and ethics. Moreover, to emphasize the international orientation, it also includes a chapter on global, comparative, and quality management. Parts 2 through 6 discuss the managerial functions of planning, organizing, stafng, leading, and controlling. The relevant principles, or guides, for each function are summarized in Appendix A at the end of the book. The entrepreneurial and international perspectives of managing are emphasized upon in each of the parts closing section. Specically, the closings for Parts 1 to 6 have an international and entrepreneurial focus section that gives special attention to important issues such as China as a new economic power and the entrepreneurial environment of Silicon Valley. To exemplify the global competitiveness of automobile companies, a global car industry case is presented in each part closing, and to assist new entrepreneurs, we include a business plan outline in the format expected by business professionals in Silicon Valley.

REVISION WORK IN THIS EDITION

While material that was well received over the years has been retained, much new information has been added. For example, this edition builds on the strong characteristics of previous editions, such as breadth, depth, the use of examples, and cases; at the same time, many modern ideas, techniques, and features have been added, especially those providing an Asian perspective of managing. The discussion and application of entrepreneurship is carried on throughout the book not just added to it. In revising this book, we have responded to three major inuences. One is the valuable feedback from teachers, scholars, and students in the United States and abroad who have used past editions of this book at various levels of academic and practical management education in a wide variety of universities and enterprises. Another major inuence to which we have responded is the great volume of research, new ideas, and advanced techniques, especially those being applied to management from the behavioral, social, and physical sciences as well as information technology. The nal inuence on the new edition has come from entrepreneurs, venture capitalists, and attorneys who generously shared their experiences. The emphasis is on managerial practice based on sound theory. Although not all changes can be mentioned here, certain revision work should be pointed out. All chapters have been updated with current international and entrepreneurial perspectives on management. New interviews with leading entrepreneurs, venture capitalists, executives, and attorneys from Silicon Valley have been included to bring current and deep insights to the principal of managing entrepreneurially. Furthermore, signicant additional focus on the managerial environment in India and China has been included through cases and perspectives throughout the text. New theoretical content on the blue ocean strategy, balanced scorecard, and decision-making heuristics has been introduced as they apply to the management function. The integration of the Value Chain concept with the systems approach to management has also been added to provide a deeper appreciation for the power of these approaches to management. Part 1 (Chapters 1 to 3) now includes a discussion on management during the global nancial crisis and the pursuit of energy independence as well as cases on China and the EU. Part 2 (Chapters 4 to 6) presents new cases on management in India as well as numerous interviews and insights from Silicon

Preface

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Valley. The various issues of organizing are considered in Part 3 (Chapters 7 to 10) focusing on topics such as the boundaryless organization as practiced by General Electric along with new insights into the management of intellectual property for competitive advantage. Stafng issues are examined in Part 4 (Chapters 11 to 13) with the identication of the best companies to work for as well as the most admired companies based on research by Fortune magazine along with a discussion of human resource management in India and Silicon Valley. The managerial function of leading is discussed in Part 5 (Chapters 14 to 17). Focus on Tata and Cisco has been included along with a perspective on the impact of proper corporate communications. Part 6 (Chapters 18 to 20) deals with the managerial function of controlling, includes new perspectives on managing for operational efciency and effectiveness as well as new theoretical content on the balanced scorecard approach and value chain activities. Two appendixes are at the end. The rst summarizes the principles, or guides, for the managerial functions of planning, organizing, stafng, leading, and controlling in Appendix A. The principles allow students and managers to check whether organizational problems can be traced to the violation of managerial principles. The second Appendix (B) is even more specic, identifying specic areas critical for the success of managers and organizations. The Management Excellence Survey can be used for managerial and organizational development. The purpose of both appendixes is to facilitate the integration of theory with practice.

LEARNING AIDS

To aid learning, each chapter is organized as follows. It begins with the objectives that are to be accomplished after reading the chapter. The text in the left margins gives an overview of the key points in the chapter. It also aids in reviewing key concepts. Included in the margins as well are websites to refer readers to further information related to the organization or topic under discussion. The use of international and entrepreneurial perspectives illustrates the concepts, principles, and theories presented. Each chapter concludes with a summary and a list of key ideas and concepts for review. To relate these ideas and concepts to the real world, exercises and action steps are suggested. Readers are encouraged to make use of the World Wide Web by conducting Internet research. A case with questions ends each chapter. What makes this book different from many other management textbooks is the addition of the closing section in each of the six parts. Each of the closings contains an international focus discussion with a challenging topic, a current entrepreneurial discussion, and a global car industry case. These closings, together with the discussion of international management issues throughout the book, give the book a truly global perspective of management theory and practice.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The late Dr. Harold Koontz is sorely missed. At a memorial session at an Academy of Management meeting, Professor Ronald Greenwood stated that Howdy Koontz was many years ahead of his time. Indeed, his inspiration and guidance popularized the classication of management knowledge according to managerial functions, a framework now used around the world. He will never be forgotten for his contributions to management, preserved in his numerous articles and his many books, which have been continuously updated. Professor Koontz and we are indebted to so many persons contributing to the various editions that a complete acknowledgment would be encyclopedic. Many scholars, writers, and managers are acknowl-

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edged through references in the text. Many managers with whom we have served in business, government, educational, and other enterprises have contributed by word and example. Thousands of managers in all kinds of enterprises in various countries have honored us over the years by allowing us to test our ideas in executive training classes and lectures. Especially helpful were the many executives around the world who generously shared their international experiences. For example, the managers in executive programs in Switzerland, Kuwait, Malaysia, Thailand, China, and Hong Kong provided us with opportunities to learn about their cultures and their managerial practices. Specically, the students and executives at the China Europe International Business School (CEIBS) in Shanghai, Peking University in Beijing, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, and Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok provided valuable insights into managerial practices in their countries. Moreover, to those executives with whom we have been privileged to work as directors, consultants, or teachers, we are grateful for the opportunity to gain the clinical practice of managing. Many colleagues, scholars, managers, and students have contributed their ideas and suggestions to this book. The late Professor Keith Davis of Arizona State University was particularly generous with his time. Weihrichs mentors at the University of California, Los Angeles, especially Professor George S. Steiner, have done much to stimulate the interest in the development of the TOWS Matrix for strategic planning. Professors Peter F. Drucker, George S. Odiorne, and Gene Seyna, to whom Weihrichs book Management Excellence: Productivity through MBO has been dedicated, have sharpened the thinking about goal-driven management systems and managerial productivity. In previous editions, special appreciation was expressed to those who contributed in many important ways. While they are not named here, their contributions have been important for this edition too. We thank the many executives, venture capitalists, entrepreneurs, and attorneys who generously provided their insightful perspectives to make this book more vital and valuable to its readers. We would like to thank the many adopters and contributors to the best-selling Spanish-language editions of Management: A Global Perspective and the many people at McGraw-Hill Interamericana who were involved in publishing previous editions. They have contributed greatly to make the book a bestseller in the Spanish-speaking world. For this edition we would like to express our appreciation to all the people at Tata McGraw Hill in India for their interest in and contribution to our book. Finally, we thank our wives Ursula and Gay for their continuing support. HEINZ WEIHRICH MARK CANNICE

List of Figures
Chapter 1
Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Time spent in carrying out managerial functions Skills and management levels Approaches to management The management process, or operational, approach Inputoutput model Systems approach to management 6 6 17 22 22 24

Chapter 2
Figure 2.1 The organization and its external environment 38

Chapter 3
Figure Figure Figure Figure 3.1 Forms of international business 3.2 The Baldrige award criteria framework: dynamic relationships 3.3 The European Foundation for Quality Management model for business excellence C1.1 TWOS Matrix for the competitive situation of China 59 75 77 85

Chapter 4
Figure Figure Figure Figure 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Close relationship of planning and controlling Steps in planning Relationship of objectives and the organizational hierarchy Systems approach to management by objectives 96 101 105 110

Chapter 5
Figure Figure Figure Figure 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Strategic planning process model TOWS Matrix for strategy formulation Dynamics of the TOWS Matrix Business portfolio matrix 19 123 125 127

Chapter 6
Figure Figure Figure Figure 6.1 Bases for selecting from among alternative courses of action 6.2 The nature of problems and decision making in the organization C2.1 TOWS matrixA conceptual model C2.2 TOWS matrix for India 143 145 156 157

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List of Figures

Figure C2.3 Figure C2.4 Figure C2.5

TOWS Matrix for Chrysler Corporation before the merger TOWS Matrix for Daimler-Benz before the merger TOWS Matrix for Daimler-Chrysler after the merger

166 167 168

Chapter 7
Figure 7.1 Formal and informal organizations Figure 7.2 Organization structures with narrow and wide spans Figure 7.3 Management by processes Figure 7.4 The organizing process 175 177 183 185

Chapter 8
Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 A functional organization grouping (in a manufacturing company) A territorial, or geographic, organization grouping (in a manufacturing company) Customer departmentation (in a large bank) A product organization grouping (in a manufacturing company) Matrix organization (in engineering) Typical strategic business unit organization (in a large industrial chemical company) 192 193 194 195 197 198

Chapter 9
Figure 9.1 Centralization and decentralization as tendencies 210

Chapter 10
Figure 10.1 Formal and informal or informational organizations 225

Chapter 11
Figure Figure Figure Figure 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Systems approach to stafng Manager inventory chart Personnel actions based on manager supply and demand within the enterprise Systems approach to selection 245 247 248 255

Chapter 12
Figure 12.1 Figure 12.2 The appraisal process Formulation of a career strategy 276 285

Chapter 13
Figure Figure Figure Figure 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Manager development process and training Analysis of training needs Moving an organizational equilibrium A model of the organization development process 295 296 304 307

List of Figures

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Chapter 14
Figure 14.1 Maslows hierarchy of needs Figure 14.2 Comparison of Maslows and Herzbergs theories of motivation Figure 14.3 Porter and Lawlers motivation model Figure 14.4 Equity theory Figure 14.5 Objective or goal setting for motivation 330 332 334 335 336

Chapter 15
Figure 15.1 The ow of inuence with three leadership styles Figure 15.2 The managerial grid Figure 15.3 Continuum of managernonmanager behavior Figure 15.4 Fiedlers model of leadership Figure 15.5 Pathgoal approach to leadership effectiveness 357 359 361 364 366

Chapter 16
Figure 16.1 Increased complexity of relationships through increase in group size Figure 16.2 Which comparison line is the same length as the standard line? 381 383

Chapter 17
Figure 17.1 Figure 17.2 Figure 17.3 The purpose and function of communication A communication process model Information ow in an organization 392 393 396

Chapter 18
Figure 18.1 Figure 18.2 Figure 18.3 Feedback loop of management control Comparison of simple feedback and feedforward systems System of inputs for feedforward inventory control 429 432 433

Chapter 19
Figure 19.1 Transition from a Gantt chart to PERT Figure 19.2 PERT owchart Figure 19.3 Matrix for e-commerce 449 451 465

Chapter 20
Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 20.1 Operations management system 20.2 Inventory control model 20.3 Sample Value Chain Activities and Managerial Actions for a Computer Manufacturer C6.1 The future of global management matrix C6.2 Illustration of Milestones and Financing to Achieve Rapid Growth and Liquidity 477 482 490 498 502

List of Tables
Chapter 1
Table 1.1 Table 2.1 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 The emergence of management thought Arguments For and Against Social Involvement of Business Managing Domestic and International Enterprises Five Dimensions of Behavior 12 43 58 66 107 108 178 214 227 235 237 250 280

Chapter 2 Chapter 3

Chapter 4
Table 4.1 Examples of nonveriable and veriable objectives Table 4.2 Checklist of manager objectives

Chapter 7
Table 7.1 Table 9.1 Factors inuencing the span of management Advantages and limitations of decentralization

Chapter 9 Chapter 10
Table 10.1 Illustrations of organization culture and management practice Table C3.1 Comparison of Business Entities Table C3.2 Intellectual Property Overview

Chapter 11
Table 11.1 Table 12.1 Table 19.1 Major U.S. federal laws governing equal employment opportunity Sample questions for appraising managers as managers An Example of the Balanced Scorecard Approach for Operationalizing Strategic Objectives Examples of operations systems Mass production versus lean production managerial practices

Chapter 12 Chapter 19
453 478 487

Chapter 20
Table 20.1 Table 20.2

List of Perspectives
Chapter 1
International Perspective: Who Manages Best in 2008, the Year of the Global Financial Crisis? International Perspective: Asia Business Week Ranking of the Top 50 Companies Entrepreneurial Perspective: The Fastest-Growing Companies International Perspective: The Wisdom of Peter Drucker 7 8 10 15

Chapter 2
International Perspective: How Do Companies Provide Service in Times of an Economic Crisis? 39 International Perspective: The Third Wave: The Knowledge Age 39 International Perspective: The Bhopal Plant in India 40 International Perspective: The Greening of GM 41 International Perspective: Social Responsiveness at Infosys 42 Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with David Epstein, Management Consultant with Epstein Advisors, on Social Responsibility in Entrepreneurial Management 44 International Perspective: Energy IndependenceThe Need of the Time 45 International Perspective: Harley Davidson Motorcycles for the Rich in India 45 International Perspective: Scandals and Corporate Governance 46 International Perspective: Code of Ethics for Government Service 47 International Perspective: Truth in Advertising Regulations Differ in Various Countries 50 Entrepreneurial Perspective: Ethics and Trust for the Entrepreneur and Investor 51

Chapter 3
International Perspective: Cheap Cars are In Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Bryant Tong, Venture Capitalist Partner with Nth Power, on Cultural Differences and Entrepreneurial Management International Perspective: Multinational Challenges and Opportunities in India for Companies like Wipro Entrepreneurial Perspective: Can eBays Success Continue? International Perspective: Thailands Competitive Advantage: Pickup Trucks International Perspective: Is There a European Management Model? International Perspective: Are Japanese Workers Happy? International Perspective: A Comparison of China and India International Perspective: Is China Losing Its Competitive Advantage? International Perspective: General Motorss (GM) Expansion in India 60 61 62 63 65 68 70 72 72 73

xxii List of Perspectives

Chapter 4
International Perspective: Bill Fords Global Policy Decision International Perspective: Procedures and Rules Imposed by the Outside International Perspective: Planning Hurdles for the $2,500 Nano Car International Perspective: Evaluating Alternative Courses for the Indian Automakers to Mitigate the Environmental Impact Entrepreneurial Perspective: Writing a Business Plan for a New Venture International Perspective: Public Goal Setting May be Risky, But it Worked at Nissan Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Bryant Tong, Managing Director with Nth Power 98 99 102 103 103 108 109

Chapter 5
International Perspective: Value- and Policy-driven Samsung Strives for Global Recognition Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Jon B. Fisher, Co-founder of Bharosa, an Oracle Corporation company Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Art Ciocca, Chairman of the Wine Group International Perspective: Where Did All the Saturns Go? International Perspective: Zipcar International Perspective: Corporate Strategy at the Tata Group Entrepreneurial Perspective: Buying Skype, eBays Mistake? 117
120 121 124 127 128 129

Chapter 6
International Perspective: Decisions, Decisions, Decisions International Perspective: The Battle of the Titans: Boeing vs. Airbus Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Jeb Miller, Venture Capitalist Partner with JAFCO Ventures, on the Investment Decision Process International Perspective: Boeings Decision to Go Digital in Developing the 777 International Perspective: IBMs Louis Gerstner as Decision Maker Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Girish Acharya, Engineering Director in SRIs Articial Intelligence Center, on Managing for Innovation International Perspective: Innovation in India: Micronancing International Perspective: Learning Innovation from Emerging Countries International Perspective: How 3M Fosters Innovation 139 141 142 145 146 147 148 149 149

Chapter 7
Entrepreneurial Perspective: What Is in Your Future? International Perspective: Post-it Note Pads International Perspective: Reengineering and Lean Production at Starbucks? 180 181 183

Chapter 8
International Perspective: Organizing the Chrysler Fiat Strategy International Perspective: Organizational Challenges at the TATA Conglomerate 196 199

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Entrepreneurial Perspective: Structuring a Start-up Company Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Dr. Clara Tao, Director of Consumer Insights, Tragon, on Aligning Organizational Structure with Market Intelligence

200 201

Chapter 9
International Perspective: Empowerment at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel International Perspective: Line or Staff ? What Is Your Career Goal? Entrepreneurial Perspective: Managing Entrepreneurial Managers 208 209 210

Chapter 10
Entrepreneurial Perspective: How to Create a Value-based Organization Culture International Perspective: Corporate Structure and Culture at Acer in Taiwan and around the World Entrepreneurial Perspective: Metaphors may Reveal Implicit Organizational Culture for Entrepreneurs and Investors 227 228 230

Chapter 11
International Perspective: Looking for a Company to Work For? Try Infosys Entrepreneurial Perspective: Why Leave a Dream Job at Microsoft? International Perspective: Wipros Development Center in Atlanta International Perspective: Managing Human Resources at Wal-Mart Perspective: What Do You Do after you Retired to Get Fired? International Perspective: Where Do Chinese Companies Recruit? Entrepreneurial Perspective: How to Staff an Entrepreneurial Firm? International Perspective: HRM in India and Other Countries International Perspective: Creating an Environment that People Enjoy International Perspective: The Future of Work 248 249 252 253 255 260 261 265 265 267

Chapter 12
Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Shomit Ghose, Venture Capitalist Partner with Onset Ventures, on Evaluating Managers of Venture-backed Portfolio Firms International Perspective: How About a Twitter Performance Evaluation? International Perspective: Pay for Performance at Lincoln Electric International Perspective: What is Your Career Path? International Perspective: Career Planning in the New Economy 277 279 283 287 288

Chapter 13
International Perspective: International Perspective: International Perspective: International Perspective: Indias Leadership Needs Managing Human Resources at PriceWaterhouseCoopers in China How to Get into the Business School of Your Choice Thinking about the Future at Singularity University 294 296 299 300

xxiv List of Perspectives International Perspective: Ciscos Talent Development in India and Elsewhere International Perspective: Making Management Education Relevant Entrepreneurial Perspective: How Do Entrepreneurial Managers Initiate Change In Their Firms? International Perspective: Successful Teamwork International Perspective: Wal-Marts Global Learning 302 302 305 307 308

Chapter 14
International Perspective: Disillusioned Middle Managers International Perspective: Self-motivation Entrepreneurial Perspective: How to Manage Entrepreneurial Managers International Perspective:The Other Side of the Coin International Perspective: Executive Pay for Performance International Perspective: QWL in Action 327 328 331 339 340 341

Chapter 15
Perspective: Jim Sinegal, Costcos CEO A Leader with Heart or Smart? International Perspective: Leadership on the New York Hudson River International Perspective: Leadership at Southwest Airlines International Perspective: Canons Fumio Mitarai: Not the Typical Japanese CEO International Perspective: Meet Wipros Azim Premji, Indias Leading High-Tech Architect International Perspective: Ratan N. TataLeadership at the TATA Group Entrepreneurial Perspective: The Body Shop International International Perspective: Leadership at Italian ITALTEL Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Tom Lounibos, CEO of Soasta on Leadership Entrepreneurial Perspective: Leadership at the Chinese Haier Group and Volkswagen 351 352 352 354 355 356 358 360 365 367

Chapter 16
International Perspective: Corporate Governance Entrepreneurial Perspective: Advisory Boards for New Ventures International Perspective: What People Say about Committees International Perspective: Pressure toward Conformity: How Would You Respond? Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Mr. Reginald Chatman, Senior Manager of Corporate Quality Solutions, Cisco Systems, on Managing Work Teams 377 378 380 382 385

Chapter 17
International Perspective: Cross-Cultural Barriers Entrepreneurial Perspective: Accepting Negative Feedback International Perspective: Management by Walking Around International Perspective: Lack of Upward Communication Can Be Disastrous International Perspective: Can a Person Fearful of Public Speaking Become the Head of the Largest Publicly-Owned Corporation? International Perspective: Country Differences in Explicit and Implicit Communication 394 395 396 397 399 401

List of Perspectives

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International Perspective: The Multi-Lingual CEO Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Lori Teranishi, Co-Principal, VPG, LLP, on Developing an Effective Enterprise Communication Strategy International Perspective: Learning from Newscasters

Chapter 18
International Perspective: Special Considerations in Controlling International Companies International Perspective: Examples of Feedback Systems Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Dan Gordon, Co-Founder, Gordon Biersch Brewing Company, on Controlling for Product Quality International Perspective: Planning and Controlling at Grupo Modelo Entrepreneurial Perspective: Interview with Tom Lounibos, CEO of Soasta on Controlling 425 428 430 434 435

Chapter 19
Entrepreneurial Perspective: In New Ventures Cash is King International Perspective: Planning and Control in Engineering International Perspective: Will China Assume the Role of India in IT Outsourcing? International Perspective: UPSFrom Time Management to Information Technology (IT) International Perspective: Netbooks: The Product for Difcult Economic Times? International Perspective: Ciscos Approach to Convergence International Perspective: Apples iPhone a Truly Global Product International Perspective: WiMax a Break-Through Technology? International Perspective: Mobile Phone Services 447 450 454 457 458 460 461 463 465

Chapter 20
International Perspective: GEs Transformation from Products to Services Entrepreneurial Perspective: Google Brings Quality Measures to the Advertising Industry International Perspective: Volkswagens High Operating CostsShould VW Refocus Its Strategy? International Perspective: How an Information System Facilitates Operations International Perspective: GEs Contribution to Indias Outsourcing Boom International Perspective: Quality Circles in Japan International Perspective: Managing Quality for Success International Perspective: Merging the Production Systems of Daimler and ChryslerA Mission Possible? International Perspective: The Future of the Global Car Industry International Perspective: The Interconnected Global Supply Chain Management 475 476 480 480 484 485 486 488 489 491

Visual
1
Management: Science, Theory, and Practice
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. explain the nature and purpose of management 2. understand that management, as used in this book, applies to all kinds of organizations and to managers at all organizational levels 3. recognize that the aim of all managers is to create a surplus 4. identify the trends in information technology and globalization 5. explain the concepts of productivity, effectiveness, and efciency 6. describe the evolution of management and some recent contributions to management thought 7. describe the various approaches to management, their contributions, as well as their limitations 8. show how the management process, or operational process, approach to management theory and science has a basic core of its own and draws from other approaches 9. realize that managing requires a systems approach and that practice must always take into account situations and contingencies 10. dene the managerial functions of planning, organizing, stafng, leading, and controlling 11. understand how this book is organized

Learning Objectives Each chapter begins with learning objectives which outline what each chapter aims at achieving and what the reader should know on its completion.

220 Part 3 Organizing


In organizing, there is no one best way; it depends on the specic situation.

Organizing involves developing an intentional structure of roles for effective performance. It requires a network of decision and communication centers for coordinating efforts toward group and enterprise goals. To work, an organization structure must be understood, and principles must be put into practice. As emphasized earlier, in organizing, as elsewhere in managing, there is no one best way. What works will always depend on the specic situation.

AVOIDING MISTAKES IN ORGANIZING BY PLANNING


Establishment of objectives and orderly planning are necessary for good organization.

As with the other functions of managing, establishment of objectives and orderly planning are necessary for good organization. As Lyndall Urwick said in his classic book The Elements of Administration, Lack of design [in organization] is illogical, cruel, wasteful, and inefcient.1

Margin Notes These notes in the text margins give an overview of the key points in the chapter. They also aid in reviewing key concepts. Also included in the margins are websites for readers to refer to for further information related to the organization or the topic under discussion.

Planning for the Ideal


The search for an ideal organization to reect enterprise goals under given circumstances is the impetus to planning. The search entails charting the main lines of organization, considering the organizational philosophy of the enterprise managers (e.g., whether authority should be centralized as much as possible or whether enterprise operations should be divided into semi-independent product or territorial divisions), and sketching out consequent authority relationships. The ultimate form established, like all other plans, seldom remains unchanged, and continual remolding of the ideal plan is normally necessary. Nevertheless, an ideal organization plan constitutes a standard; and by comparing the present structure with it, enterprise leaders know what changes should be made when possible. An organizer must always be careful not to be blinded by popular notions in organizing because what may work in one enterprise may not work in another. Principles of organizing have general application, but the background of each enterprises operation and needs must be considered in applying these principles. Organization structure needs to be tailor-made.

Modification for the Human Factor


If the available personnel do not t into the ideal structure and cannot or should not be pushed aside, the only choice is to modify the structure to t individual capabilities, attitudes, or limitations. Although this modication may seem like organizing around people, in this case one is rst organizing around the goals to be met and activities to be undertaken and only then making modications for the human factor. Thus, planning will reduce compromising the necessity for principal whenever changes occur in personnel.

Advantages of Organization Planning


Planning the organization structure helps determine future personnel needs and required training programs.

Planning the organization structure helps determine future personnel needs and required training programs. Unless it knows what managerial personnel will be needed and what experience should be demanded, an enterprise cannot intelligently recruit people and train them. Furthermore, organization planning can disclose weaknesses. Duplication of effort, unclear lines of authority, overlong lines of communication, excessive red tape, and obsolete practices show up best when desirable and actual organization structures are compared.

Walkthrough
478 Part 6 Controlling
Table 20.1 Examples of operations systems

Inputs

Transformation
Assembling bicycles Lectures, cases, experiential exercises, term papers Consulting: data collection and analysis, evaluation of alternatives, selection of an alternative, recommendation

Outputs
Completed bicycles Students with enhanced knowledge, skills, and attitudes Consultants report recommending course of action

Plant, factory machines, people, materials Students with limited knowledge, skills, and attitudes Client problem

Tables and Figures The gures illustrate the concepts discussed in the chapter, while the tables give details pertaining to these concepts..

Planning Operations
The objectives, premises, and strategies of an enterprise (discussed in Part 2) determine the search for and the selection of a product or service as its output. In this discussion, the production of physical products is emphasized, but the concepts can also be applied to the provision of services. After an end product has been selected, the specications are determined and the technological feasibility of producing it is considered. The design of an operations system requires decisions concerning the location of facilities, the process to be used, the quantity to be produced, and the quality of the product.
Figure 14.1 Maslows hierarchy of needs

Still another example of in-house development is the IBMs Peace Corps -Type Training.6 IBM is well known for its classroom training of its personnel. But the real world is different from the classroom. Therefore, the HR department initiated a program that is modeled after the US Peace Corps program. The objective of the program is to teach managers how the real world works. In this innovative program, IBMers spend a month in countries such as India, Brazil, Malaysia, South Africa and others to learn about the culture and to become a kind of global citizen. This means living in circumstances different from their home country not luxury hotels with CNN connections, but guest houses eating local food. Program participants work in teams with local governments, universities, businesses to help them upgrade their technologies and improving the water quality. This one-month program will not make the participants instant global experts, but they learn that the earth is atter in which people from different cultures work together to achieve common goals.

International Perspective: Thinking about the Future at Singularity University7

Boxed Items Boxes containing International and Entrepreneurial Perspectives illustrate the concepts, principles, and theories presented in each chapter.

Located at the NASA Ames Research Center in California, Singularity University is not a traditional university. Instead, the aim is to attract executives who deal with disruptive technologies in the rapidly-changing environment dealing with such topics as robotics. The participants work in small groups to explore new ideas. Applicants from some 60 countries explore, for example, the future of the application of artificial intelligence to assume certain functions of the brain.

Readings, Television, Video Instruction, and Online Education8


Another approach to development is planned reading of relevant and current management literature. This is essentially self-development. A manager may be aided by the training department, which often develops a reading list of valuable literature. This learning experience can be enhanced through discussion of articles and books with other managers and the superior. Increasingly, management and other topics are featured in television instruction programs. For certain programs, college credits can be obtained. Moreover, videotapes on a variety of subjects are available for instruction and learning in the university or company classroom.
Do Do Do

we have something to offer that competitors do not? we wish to take legal steps to discourage competition? we need, and can we supply, supporting services? What are the best pricing strategy and policy for our operation? How can we best serve our customers?

Entrepreneurial Perspective: Buying Skype, eBays Mistake?25


The acquisition of Skype at a very high price, may have been a mistake by the otherwise very successful Margaret Whitman, eBays CEO. Skypes internet venture was a new phenomenon in 2005. By 2007/2008 Skype was not the success envisioned. The integration with eBays main business was not done well. Perhaps even more important was Googles entry into the market enabling people to find buyers for their goods. Moreover, Google began providing online payment and telephone service that compete with eBays Skype and PayPal.

Visual
Summary
Leading is the process of inuencing people so that they will contribute to organizational and group goals. People assume different roles, and there is no average person. While working toward goals, a manager must take into account the dignity of the whole person. Motivation is not a simple concept; rather, it pertains to various drives, desires, needs, wishes, and other forces. Managers motivate by providing an environment that induces organization members to contribute.

Exercises/Action Steps
1. The instructor may take a survey in the class and ask students to respond to two questions: (1) Can you describe in detail when you felt exceptionally good about your job? and (2) Can you describe in detail when you felt exceptionally bad about your job? Students should write their answers on a h f Th h d d l h ld b d h h h d db d k

Internet Research
1. Surf the Internet for the term motivation. You will get many hits. Select one for class discussion.

Key Ideas and Concepts for Review


Leading Human factors in managing Individual dignity Motivation

References
1. This is also one of the important messages in the Second DraftPastoral Letter on Catholic Social Teaching and the U.S. Economy, October 7, 1985, and Economic Justice for All: Catholic Social Teaching and the U.S. Economy (Washington, DC: National Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1996). 2. See also http://www.management-issues.com/2006/8/24/research/organisations-get thumbs-downfrom-disillusioned-managers.asp, accessed February 3, 2007 and http://www.blackwell-synergy. com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2934.2005.00612.x?cookieSet=1, accessed February 3, 2007. 3. Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960). For reviews of his works, see www.lib.uwo.ca/business/dougmcgregor.html, accessed October 2, 2006.

For Discussion
1. What is motivation? How does effective managing take advantage of, and contribute to, motivation? 2. What are Theory X and Theory Y assumptions? State your reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with these assumptions. What are some misunderstandings of these theories?

Chapter-end Features Summary: Each chapter concludes with a summary which gives a gist of the chapter. This will be helpful for the reader to have a quick review of the main points of the chapter. Key Ideas and Concepts for Review: A list of important terms and concepts has been given at the end of each chapter. This will help readers recapitulate what all has been dealt with in the different topics covered. For Discussion: These questions will encourage readers to think about and discuss the topics taught in the chapter. Exercises/Action Steps: These exercises will encourage readers to relate the ideas and concepts given in the chapter to the real world. Internet Research: This part lists out addresses of some websites which will be useful to readers for further knowledge both broader and in-depth. References: A comprehensive list of material for further reading is provided at the end of each chapter, which will help the readers in upgrading their knowledge.

International Case Wal-Mart in America and around the Globe13


By 2001, Wal-Mart had become the second largest company in the world in terms of sales. (The largest is Exxon Mobil). It is also the biggest private employer in the world. Moreover, the company has one of the most sophisticated logistic systems controlled by computers. Yet its headquarters are located in a small town in Bentonville, Arkansas. The small-town orientation in its business approach contributed to its value-based success story. Success did not come by accident; rather, it is based on careful planning of a unique strategy, a simple organization structure, an effective human resource policy, an inspiring leadership style initiated by founder Sam Walton, and a clever use of information technology to manage its inventory. When the company made mistakes, it learned from them. One concern is whether the strategy of invading rural areas will also work in the urban areas of America and in the global environment.

The Background
It all began in 1962 in a small town in Arkansas when Sam Walton noted the need for serving customers in small towns. Retailers such as Kmart and Sears focused on big towns. This created an opportunity for Wal-Mart to fill peoples needs in rural areas. This small-town orientation is reflected in the companys values, which emphasize maintaining good relationships with staff as well as suppliers. Sam Waltons values and his philosophy of simplicity and frugality live on after his death. The focus on cost savings enables the company to offer everyday low prices, which has become the familiar company slogan.

International Case Each chapter ends with a case with questions. This case exemplies the concepts discussed in this chapter, and its questions help in initiating discussion on the topic.

Walkthrough
84
Part 1 The Basis of Global Management Theory and Practice

Part Closing The entrepreneurial and international perspectives of managing are emphasized upon in each of the parts closing section. Each of the closings contains an international focus discussion with a challenging topic, a current entrepreneurial discussion, and a global car industry case.
Appendix A Summary of Major Principles

The Basis of Global and Entrepreneurial Management


The closing part first focuses on the global environment. We will illustrate the international environment by the rising economic power of China (referring to the Peoples Republic of China in this book). The unique aspects of the entrepreneurial environment in the Silicon Valley near San Francisco in California will then be analyzed. Finally, the discussion will conclude with the global car industry case.

International Focus

ChinaThe New Economic Giant1

During the past 25 years, China has been transformed from a Marxist system to an entrepreneurial force. It has been a breathtaking transformation since the country opened its doors. Its continual hyper-growth of 9 to 10 percent annually was achieved without excessive inflation. With this growth rate and a population of about one-fifth of the world total, China attracts significant amounts of foreign investment. The revolutionary economic development, spearheaded first by the late Deng Xiaoping (who, by the way, was not an economist) and continued by the then President Jiang Zemin, was accompanied by rising expectations. It was only in 1992 that the goal of the market economy (although a socialistic one) was declared. In his path-setting speech to the 15th Party Congress on September 12, 1997, Mr. Jiang announced some sweeping changes. His plan was to convert most of the 305,000 state-owned companies to shareholding firms that would be exposed to international competition. Although the issue of ownership was only vaguely mentioned, some companies declared bankruptcy. At that time, state-owned companies still produced about 40 percent of industrial output; but they used most of the available capital, thus constraining more productive, flexible, privately owned firms. Still, the 1,000 largest firms remained under the control of the government; however, most of them would have to compete in the marketplace. Thus, Mr. Jiang had to deal with the industry dinosaurs on which 100 million workers depended for their living. Although the 1997 speech may have laid the basis for the future direction of China, yet Mr. Jiang made an even bolder statement at the July 1, 2001 party meeting, when he suggested that the party should engage capitalists to increase its influence and cohesiveness.2 The plan was to form large corporations operating in industries such as high-tech electronics, telecommunication, and petrochemicals. China is already a major exporter of appliances, garments, and several lower-end products. To implement the ambitious plan, China has to reduce the tariffs on many goods to operate in the WTO. Shanghai and Hong Kong can become financial centers rivaling those in London, Tokyo, and New York. However, the ambitious plans are accompanied by the risk of massive unemployment which, in turn, could result in political unrest. Therefore, if many firms close down in the transformation process, those adversely affected must be taken care of. Provisions have to be made for helping them meet housing and medical expenses as well as for pensions, benefits that were previously granted by their employers. Besides providing a social safety net, workers also need to be trained for the demands created by the market economy.

Part 1 Closing

505

Appendix A
Summary of Major Principles or Guides for the Managerial Functions of Planning, Organizing, Stafng, Leading, and Controlling

Although a complete set of empirically proven, interrelated principles has not been discovered and codied, experience and observation of managing indicate certain fundamental managerial principles or guides. They not only provide managers with a conceptual scheme but also indicate to scholars areas for research. To be sure, the key abstractions need to be applied with due consideration for the situation-and this is an art. In this appendix, the principles, which perhaps would be more appropriately ll d id pp i d ( hi yb k i ) di h i lf i f g

Appendix Two appendices are given at the end. Appendix A summarizes the principles, or guides, for the managerial functions of planning, organizing, stafng, leading, and controlling. These principles allow students and managers to check whether organizational problems can be traced to the violation of managerial principles. Appendix B identies specic areas critical for the success of managers and organizations. The Management Excellence Survey can be used for managerial and organizational development. The purpose of both appendices is to facilitate the integration of theory with practice.

Appendix B
Management Excellence Survey

INTRODUCTION

Broadly speaking, the objectives of management education are (1) to increase managerial knowledge, (2) to improve skills in the analysis of cases and in conducting research, (3) to examine ones attitudes and their impact on managing, and (4) to transfer knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the workplace. In short, then, management education aims to make managers and students of management more effective in their performance.

Name Index

This index contains the names of people, organization, and products Car Share, 127 I-GO, 127 WeCar, 127 3M, 150, 182 ABC, 407 Academy of Management, 53 Bank of America, 397 Barnard, Chester, 12, 175 Barrett, Craig R., 269 BASF, 300 Becker, Gary, 314 Belardo, Salvatore, 50 Bellisario, Marisa, 88, 362

Index A two-level comprehensive name index and subject index will aid the readers in locating the entries in the text accurately and easily.

Subject Index

Achievement needs, 338, 387 Achievement-oriented leadership, 366 Action plans, 118, 288 Afliation, or acceptance, needs, 330, 332, 337, 338, 341 Alliances (of companies), 59, 60, 121, 124 Alliances (of countries), 6364 Alternatives: determination of, 102 development of, 139 evaluation of, 138, 139 identication of, 138 planning &, 111, 138 selection from, 138, 141 Appraisal: approaches to, 274280 criteria, 273

see also Centralization; Decentralization; Recentralization Authority-level principle, 508 Autocratic leaders, 356 B2B transactions, 9, 464 B2C transactions, 9, 464 Balance, principle of, 508 Behavior modication (motivation approach), 337 Benchmarking, 308, 427, 498 Best practices, 308, 311 Biological needs, 331 Board of directors, 105, 377, 378 Body language see Nonverbal communication Boundaryless organizations, 201 Bounded rationality, 139

Brief Contents
About the Authors Preface List of Figures List of Tables List of Perspectives Visual Walkthrough v xi xv xix xxi xxvi

PART 1

The Basis of Global Management Theory and Practice 3 37 57

1. Management: Science, Theory, and Practice 2. Management and Society: The External Environment, Social Responsibility, and Ethics 3. Global, Comparative, and Quality Management Part 2 Planning

4. Essentials of Planning and Managing by Objectives 5. Strategies, Policies, and Planning Premises 6. Decision Making PART 3 7. 8. 9. 10. Organizing

95 116 137

The Nature of Organizing, Entrepreneuring, and Reengineering Organization Structure: Departmentation Line/Staff Authority, Empowerment, and Decentralization Effective Organizing and Organization Culture PART 4 Stafng

173 190 206 219

11. Human Resource Management and Selection 12. Performance Appraisal and Career Strategy 13. Managing Change through Manager and Organization Development PART 5 14. 15. 16. 17. Leading

243 272 293

Human Factors and Motivation Leadership Committees, Teams, and Group Decision Making Communication PART 6 Controlling

325 350 375 391

18. The System and Process of Controlling

423

19. Control Techniques and Information Technology 20. Productivity, Operations Management, and Total Quality Management Appendix A Summary of Major Principles or Guides for the Managerial Functions of Planning, Organizing, Stafng, Leading, and Controlling Appendix B Management Excellence Survey Name Index Subject Index

446 473 505 514 523 529

Contents
About the Authors Preface List of Figures List of Tables List of Perspectives Visual Walkthrough v xi xv xix xxi xxvi

PART 1 1.

The Basis of Global Management Theory and Practice 3

Management: Science, Theory, and Practice Denition of Management: Its Nature and Purpose 4 Managing: Science or Art? 11 The Evolution of Management Thought 11 History of Innovation and Fads 15 Patterns of Management Analysis: A Management Theory Jungle? 16 The Systems Approach to the Management Process 21 The Functions of Managers 25 The Systems Model of Management and the Organization of This Book 27 Summary 28 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 28 For Discussion 29 Exercises/Action Steps 29 Internet Research 30 International Case: McDonalds: Serving Fast Food Around the World 30 References 33

2. Management and Society: The External Environment, Social Responsibility, and Ethics Operating in a Pluralistic Society 39 The Technological Environment 39 The Ecological Environment 40 The Social Responsibility of Managers 41 Ethics in Managing 45 Trust as the Basis for Change Management 50 Summary 51 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 51 For Discussion 52 Exercises/Action Steps 52

37

xxxiv Contents Internet Research 53 International Case: Spirituality in the Workplace References 54 53 57

3. Global, Comparative, and Quality Management International Management and Multinational Corporations 58 Country Alliances and Economic Blocs 63 International Management: Cultural and Country Differences 66 Porters Competitive Advantage of Nations 72 Gaining a Global Competitive Advantage through Quality Management 73 Summary 78 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 78 For Discussion 79 Exercise/Action Steps 79 Internet Research 79 International Case: StarbucksQuality Plus Social Conscious Sells Around the World 80 References 81 Part 1 Closing: The Basis of Global and Entrepreneurial Management 84 Part 2 Planning

4. Essentials of Planning and Managing by Objectives Types of Plans 96 Steps in Planning 100 Objectives 104 Evolving Concepts in Management by Objectives 109 Summary 111 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 112 For Discussion 112 Exercise/Action Steps 113 Internet Research 113 International Case: Developing Veriable Goals 113 References 114 5. Strategies, Policies, and Planning Premises The Nature and Purpose of Strategies and Policies 117 The Strategic Planning Process 118 The TOWS Matrix: A Modern Tool for Analysis of the Situation 122 Blue Ocean Strategy: In Pursuit of Opportunities in an Uncontested Market 125 The Portfolio Matrix: A Tool for Allocating Resources 127 Major Kinds of Strategies and Policies 128 Hierarchy of Company Strategies 129 Porters Industry Analysis and Generic Competitive Strategies 129 Premising and Forecasting 130 Summary 132 Key Ideas and Concepts For Review 132

95

116

Contents

xxxv

For Discussion 133 Exercises/Action Steps 133 Internet Research 133 International Case: Tatas Nano, the Cheapest Car in the World References 134

133 137

6. Decision Making The Importance and Limitations of Rational Decision Making 138 Development of Alternatives and the Limiting Factor 139 Heuristics in Decision Making 140 Evaluation of Alternatives 140 Selecting an Alternative: Three Approaches 142 Programmed and Nonprogrammed Decisions 145 Decision Making under Certainty, Uncertainty, and Risk 146 Creativity and Innovation 147 Summary 151 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 151 For Discussion 152 Exercise/Action Steps 152 Internet Research 152 International Case: CarrefourWhich Way to Go? 152 References 153 Part 2 Closing: Global and Entrepreneurial Planning 155 PART 3 Organizing

7. The Nature of Organizing, Entrepreneuring, and Reengineering Formal and Informal Organization 174 Organizational Division: The Department 175 Organizational Levels and the Span of Management 176 An Organizational Environment for Entrepreneuring and Intrapreneuring 179 Reengineering the Organization 182 The Structure and Process of Organizing 184 Basic Questions for Effective Organizing 184 Summary 186 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 186 For Discussion 187 Exercises/Action Steps 187 Internet Research 187 Entrepreneurial Case: Expanding a Venture Capital Firm from Silicon Valley to Bangalore References 188 8. Organization Structure: Departmentation Departmentation by Enterprise Function 191 Departmentation by Territory or Geography 193 Departmentation by Customer Group 194

173

187 190

xxxvi Contents Departmentation by Product 194 Matrix Organization 196 Strategic Business Units 197 Organization Structures for the Global Environment 199 The Virtual Organization 200 The Boundaryless Organization 201 Choosing the Pattern of Departmentation 201 Summary 202 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 203 For Discussion 203 Exercises/Action Steps 203 Internet Research 204 International Case: GMGeneral Motors, Generous Motors, Government Motors References 205

204

9. Line/Staff Authority, Empowerment, and Decentralization 206 Authority and Power 207 Empowerment 208 Line/Staff Concepts and Functional Authority 209 Decentralization of Authority 210 Delegation of Authority 211 The Art of Delegation 211 Recentralization of Authority and Balance as the Key to Decentralization 213 Summary 214 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 215 For Discussion 215 Exercises/Action Steps 216 Internet Research 216 Global Car Industry Case: How the Lexus Was Bornand Continued Its Success in the United States, but will Lexus Succeed in Japan? 216 References 218 10. Effective Organizing and Organization Culture Avoiding Mistakes in Organizing by Planning 220 Avoiding Organizational Inexibility 221 Making Staff Work Effective 222 Avoiding Conict by Clarication 223 Ensuring Understanding of Organizing 225 Promoting an Appropriate Organization Culture 226 Summary 229 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 230 For Discussion 230 Exercise/Action Steps 230 Internet Research 233 International Case: Restructuring at Koreas Daewoo 231 219

Contents

xxxvii

References 233 Part 3 Closing: Global and Entrepreneurial Organizing PART 4

234 Stafng 243

11. Human Resource Management and Selection Denition of Stafng 244 The Systems Approach to Human Resource Management: An Overview of the Stafng Function 244 Situational Factors Affecting Stafng 249 Selection: Matching the Person with the Job 254 The Systems Approach to Selection: An Overview 254 Position Requirements and Job Design 256 Skills and Personal Characteristics Needed in Managers 258 Matching Qualications with Position Requirements 259 Selection Process, Techniques, and Instruments 261 Orienting and Socializing New Employees 265 Managing Human Resources While Moving Toward 2020 266 Summary 267 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 268 For Discussion 268 Exercises/Action Steps 269 Internet Research 269 International Case: Recruiting Talents at Infosys 269 References 270 12. Performance Appraisal and Career Strategy Choosing Appraisal Criteria 273 Appraising Managers against Veriable Objectives 274 Appraising Managers as Managers: A Suggested Program 279 A Team Evaluation Approach 281 Application of Performance Review Software 281 Rewards and Stress of Managing 282 Formulating the Career Strategy 284 Summary 289 Key Ideas and Concepts For Review 290 For Discussion 290 Exercises/Action Steps 290 Internet Research 290 International Case: Woman CEO Manages by the Textbook 291 References 291 13. Managing Change through Manager and Organization Development Manager Development Process and Training 294 Approaches to Manager Development: On-the-Job Training 297 Approaches to Manager Development: Internal and External Training 299

272

293

xxxviii Contents Evaluation and Relevance of Training Programs 302 Managing Change 303 Organizational Conict 305 Organization Development 306 The Learning Organization 308 Summary 309 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 310 For Discussion 310 Exercises/Action Steps 310 Internet Research 311 International Case: Jack Welch Leading Organizational Change at GE References 312 Part 4 Closing: Global and Entrepreneurial Stafng 314 PART 5 Leading 325

311

14. Human Factors and Motivation Human Factors in Managing 326 Motivation 328 An Early Behavioral Model: McGregors Theory X and Theory Y 328 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory 330 Alderfers ERG Theory 331 Herzbergs MotivationHygiene Theory 332 The Expectancy Theory of Motivation 333 Equity Theory 335 Goal Setting Theory of Motivation 336 Skinners Reinforcement Theory 337 McClellands Needs Theory of Motivation 337 Special Motivational Techniques 338 Job Enrichment 342 A Systems and Contingency Approach to Motivation 343 Summary 344 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 345 For Discussion 345 Exercises/Action Steps 346 Internet Research 346 International Case: Managing the Hewlett-Packard WayWill It Continue? 346 References 347 15. Leadership Dening Leadership 351 Ingredients of Leadership 353 Trait Approaches to Leadership 354 Leadership Behavior and Styles 355 Situational, or Contingency, Approaches to Leadership 362 Transactional and Transformational Leadership 367

350

Contents

xxxix

Summary 368 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 369 For Discussion 369 Exercises/Action Steps 369 Internet Research 370 Entrepreneurial Case: Proles of Two VisionariesBill Gates and Steve Jobs References 372 16. Committees, Teams, and Group Decision Making The Nature of Committees and Groups 376 Reasons for Using Committees and Groups 377 Disadvantages and Misuse of Committees 379 Successful Operation of Committees and Groups 380 Additional Group Concepts 381 Teams 384 Conict in Committees, Groups, and Teams 386 Summary 386 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 386 For Discussion 387 Exercises/Action Steps 387 Internet Research 388 International Case: To Merge or Not to MergeThat Is the Question for HP, Compaq, and CEO Fiorina 388 References 389 17. Communication The Purpose of Communication 392 The Communication Process 393 Communication in the Organization 395 Barriers and Breakdowns in Communication 400 Toward Effective Communication 404 Electronic Media in Communication 408 Summary 410 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 410 For Discussion 411 Exercises/Action Steps 411 Internet Research 411 International Case: Could the Challenger Accident Have Been Avoided? 411 References 412 Part 5 Closing: Global and Entrepreneurial Leading 414 PART 6 Controlling

370 375

391

18. The System and Process of Controlling The Basic Control Process 424 Critical Control Points, Standards, and Benchmarking

423 425

xl

Contents

Control as a Feedback System 428 Real-Time Information and Control 429 Feedforward, or Preventive, Control 430 Control of Overall Performance 434 Prot and Loss Control 434 Control through Return on Investment 435 Management Audits and Accounting Firms 436 Bureaucratic and Clan Control 436 Requirements for Effective Controls 437 Summary 439 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 439 For Discussion 440 Exercises/Action Steps 440 Internet Research 440 International Case: Wal-Mart in America and around the Globe References 443

441 446

19. Control Techniques and Information Technology The Budget as a Control Device 447 Traditional Nonbudgetary Control Devices 448 TimeEvent Network Analyses 448 The Balanced Scorecard 452 Information Technology 453 The Use of Computers in Handling Information 456 Opportunities and Challenges Created by Information Technology 458 The Digital Economy, E-Commerce, and M-Commerce 463 Summary 467 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 468 For Discussion 469 Exercises/Action Steps 469 Internet Research 469 International Case: Can eBays Success Continue? 470 References 470 20. Productivity, Operations Management, and Total Quality Management Productivity Problems and Measurement 474 Production and Operations Management: Manufacturing and Service 475 Quality Measurement in the Information Age 476 The Operations Management System 476 Tools and Techniques for Improving Productivity 481 Supply Chain and Value Chain Management 488 Integration of the Value Chain with the Managerial Functions 489 Summary 491 Key Ideas and Concepts for Review 492 For Discussion 492

473

Contents

xli

Exercises/Action Steps 493 Internet Research 493 Global Car Industry Case: Toyotas Global Production Strategy 493 References 495 Part 6 Closing: Global Controlling and Challenges and Entrepreneurial Controlling

497 505 514 523 529

Appendix A Summary of Major Principles or Guides for the Managerial Functions of Planning, Organizing, Stafng, Leading, and Controlling Appendix B Name Index Subject Index Management Excellence Survey