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Optics is the branch of Physics, which deals with the study of optical phenomena like reflection, refraction, interference etc. It has been divided into two categories, namely !ay optics or "eometrical optics and #ave optics or Physical optics. In addition there is another branch of study called photometry, !$% OPTICS &ight !ays $ ray is the direction of the path taken by light. It is represented by a straight line, with an arrow to indicate the direction of propagation of light. 'eam of light $ bundle of ad(acent rays is called a beam. Or, a beam is a collection of rays. Principle of reversibility of rays $ccording to this principle, if a ray of light starts from a point P and reaches a point ), after undergoing a number of reflections and refractions, then if the source is placed at ), the ray would retrace the path and reach the point P. !eflection at Plane Surfaces ** #hen a beam of light is incident on a surface separating two media, a portion of the light is sent back to the medium and the rest of it is transmitted into the second medium. The light is sent back into the first medium is called reflected light and that which is transmitted into the second medium is called the refracted light. +eviation produced by a plane reflecting surface or a plane mirror +eviation produced by a plane mirror, on which light is incident i at an angle of incidence ,i- or at a glancing angle ,g- is d . /012 3 I4 . /g +eviation by two mirrors If two plane mirrors are kept at an angle 5 with each other, then the total deviation produced is d . / 0p 3 54 +eviation by a !otating 6irror #hen a mirror is rotated through an angle 5, without changing the direction of the incident ray, the reflected ray turns through an angle /5. Or, d./5 ** Total number of images, of an ob(ect placed between two mirrors kept at an angle 5 with each other is n . 0782954:; !eflection at spherical surfaces 3 Spherical 6irrors Spherical mirrors are reflecting surfaces, which form part of a sphere. The two types of spherical mirrors are the concave mirror and the conve< mirror.

Pole of a spherical mirror The geometric center of the mirror is called its pole. Centre of curvature The center of the sphere of which the mirror is a part is called the center of curvature of the mirror. Principal a<is The line (oining the pole and the center of curvature is the principal a<is of the mirror. Principal focus !ays incident on the mirror parallel to the principal a<is after reflection, pass through a fi<ed point on the principal a<is. This point is called the principal focus of the mirror. =ocal length +istance between the pole of the mirror and its principal focus is called focal length. !adius of curvature +istance between the pole and center of curvature is the radius of curvature. Or, the radius of the sphere of which the mirror forms a part, is the radius of curvature of the mirror. !elation between focal length ,f- and radius of curvature ,r- ' $ Consider a ray of light $', incident on a concave mirror at '. $fter reflection the ray passes through the principal focus =. P = C If ,i- is the angle of incidence, then 5'CP . i and 5'=P . /i. P= . f, focal length of the mirror and PC . r, its radius of curvature. Then, arc 'P . f > /i . r > i ?ence, r . /f 6irror formula or the law of distances 3 !elation connecting u, v and f See the derivation in the book. 6agnification ,m- !atio of height of the image to that of the ob(ect is called transverse magnification and the ratio of length of the image to the length of the ob(ect 0when the ob(ect lies along the a<is of the mirror4 is called the longitudinal or lateral magnification. ?ence mt . hi 9 ho and ml . li 9 lo .It can be shown that mt . v9u . 0v 3 f4 9f . f90u 3 f4 and ml . v@9u@ . mt@

!A=!$CTIOB 'ending of light rays on passing from one medium to another is called refraction. It is caused by the difference in velocity of light in different media. &ight travels faster in rarer 0less dense4 media and slower in denser 0more dense4 media. ?ence, on passing from a rarer medium to a denser medium, the ray will be bent towards the normal and while passing from a denser to a rarer medium the ray will be bent away from the normal. !efractive inde< of a medium ,n$bsolute refractive inde< !efractive inde< of a medium relative to air is called its absolute refractive inde<. It is defined as the ratio of velocity of light in air to that in the medium. i.e., n . va 9 vm. 'ut, v .55 ?ence, n . 55a 955m Or, n . 5a 95m

!elative refractive inde< !efractive inde< of a medium with respect to another denser medium is called its relative refractive inde<. !efractive inde< of a medium / relative to a medium ; is the ratio of the velocity of light in medium ; to that in medium /. Or. ;n/ . v; 9 v/ . 5; 95/ To show that ;n/ . n/ 9 n; 'y definition, ;n/ . v; 9v/ . v; 9v/ > va 9va . 0va 9v/ 490va 9v; 4 . n/ 9n; Snell-s law of refraction If ,i- is the angle of incidence of a ray of light in air and ,r- is the angle of refraction in a denser medium, as the ray passes from air air to the medium, then, the refractive inde< of the medium, n . Sin i 9 Sin r denser medium !A=!$CTIOB $T P&$BA SC!=$CAS $ ' ;. =ormulas for refractive inde< and apparent shift I Consider an ob(ect O placed at a depth ,d- in a denser medium. denser $ ray O$, incident normally on the surface separating the two O media, proceed un:deviated. $nother ray incident at an angle ,i- enters air making an angle ,r- with the normal. These two rays appear to meet at I and hence the image of the ob(ect is formed at I. !efractive inde< of the medium n . Sin r 9 Sin i . 0$'9'I490$'9'O4 . 'O9'I. If the points $ and ' are close enough, then, 'O D $O and 'I . $I. ?ence, n . $O9$I . real depth9apparent depth $pparent shift IO In the diagram, IO . $O 3 $I . $O : 0$O9n4 . $O0; 3 ;9n4 . d0; 3 ;9n4 /. Critical $ngle and Total Internal !eflection rarer medium Consider rays of light passing from an ob(ect placed in a denser medium, into a rarer medium. $s the angle of incidence increases, the angle of refraction also increases, and for a particular angle of denser medium incidence in the denser medium, the ray in the rarer medium (ust graEes the surface separating the two media. This angle of incidence is called the critical angle C. ?ence, refractive inde< of the medium, n . Sin 129 Sin C. Or, n . ;9Sin C =or angles of incidence greater than the critical angle, the ray will be totally reflected into the denser medium. This phenomenon is called total internal reflection. Conditions for the occurrence of total internal reflection ;. The ray of light must be passing from a denser medium to a rarer medium. $ /. The angle of incidence must be greater than the critical angle. ** 6irage, optical fibre etc. read book. !efraction through a Prism !elation between n, $ and dmin ) ! Consider a prism $'C, with base 'C and refracting

edge $. Consider a ray of light P), incident on one P S face of the prism. The ray is refracted into the prism along )!, and finally emerges out of the prism along !S. The angle between the incident and emergent rays is called the angle of deviation d. &et $ be the refracting angle of the prism. In 5 $)!, 5$)! F 5$!) F $ . ;G2 i.e., 12 3 r; F 12 3 r/ F $ . ;G2. Or, $ . r; F r/ HHHH.. 0;4 $nd in 5 )!T, d . i; 3 r; F i/ 3 r/ . i; F i/ 3 0r; F r/4 . i; F i/ 3 $. Or, $ F d . i; F i/ . HHHHHH0 / 4 $s the angle of incidence is increased, it can be seen that the angle of deviation decreases, reaches a minimum value, and then increases. d The minimum value of angle of deviation is called the angle of minimum deviation dmin . #hen the ray undergoes minimum deviation, the refracted ray inside the prism will be parallel to the base of the prism. $ngle of incidence i $nd, therefore, the angle of incidence i; will be eIual to the angle of emergence i/ . Or, i; . i/ . i. This makes r; . r/ . r. Bow eIuations 0;4 and 0/4 respectively become $ . /r and $ F dmin . /i ?ence i . 0$ F dmin 49/ and r . $9/. Therefore, refractive inde< of the material of the prism, n . Sin i9 Sinr Or, n . SinJ0$ F dmin 4 9 /K 9 Sin $9/ This is the prism formula. !A=!$CTIOB $T $ SP?A!I$& SC!=$CA !elation between n;, n/ , u, v and ! Consider a spherical surface $', separating a denser medium ' from a rarer medium. &et n; and n/ be the refractive rarer 0;4 denser 0/4 indices of the rarer and denser medium respectively. O P C I &et C be the center of curvature of the surface. The ob(ect O is placed in the medium of refractive inde< n;. To find the position of the image $ formed in medium /, we consider two incident rays 0i4 The ray OP incident normally on the surface goes un:deviated along PC. 0ii4 The ray O' which, falls on the surface at an angle of incidence ,i-, is refracted towards the normal 'C, making an angle ,r- with it, and proceeds along 'C. The above two rays meet at I and hence the image of the ob(ect is formed at I. &et a, L and 5 be the angles that the incident ray O', the refracted ray 'I and the normal 'C respectively make with the principal a<is. $ccording to Snell-s law, ;n/ . Sin i 9 Sin r . i 9 r, for small values of i and r. 'ut ;n/ . n/ 9 n; . Therefore, n/ 9 n; . i9r Or, n; i . n/ r HHHH..0;4 In 5 O'C, i . a F 5 and in 5 'CI, r . 5 3 L ?ence eIuation 0;4 becomes n; 0a F 54 . n/ 05 3 L4. Or, n; a F n/ L . 0n/ 3 n;4 5 HHHHH.

0/4 &et u, v and ! respectively be the ob(ect and image distances and the radius of curvature. Since the aperture is small, a . 'P9OP . 'P9u, L . 'P9v and 5 . 'P9!. Substituting these in eI. 0/4, we get n; 0'P9u4 F n/ 0'P9v4 . 0n/ 3 n; 4 0'P9!4, Or, n; 9 u F n/ 9 v . 0n/ 3 n;4 9 ! . $pplying the sign convention, u is negative and v and ! are positive. ?ence the above relation becomes n/9v 3 n;9u . 0n/ 3 n;49! =ocal length of spherical surfaces There are two focal points 0principal foci4 for a spherical surface. They are 0;4 =irst Principal =ocus $ point =; on the principal a<is such that a beam of light diverging from it or appearing to converge to it, become parallel to the principal a<is after refraction, is known as the first principal focus. $nd, the distance of this point from the pole of the surface is the first focal length f;. Putting u . f; and v . G, we get, : n;9f; . 0n/ 3 n;49!. 0/4 Second Principal =ocus The point =/ on the principal a<is to which a beam of parallel rays actually converges to or appears to diverge from, after refraction at the surface is called the second principal focus, and its distance from the pole is the second focal length f/. Putting u . G and v . f/ , n/9f/ . 0n/ 3 n;49! ** =rom the above two e<pressions, we see that, n/9f/ . : n;9f; Or, n; f/ F n/ f; . 2. !efraction Through &enses $ transparent medium bounded by two curved surfaces is called a lens. $ lens, which is thicker at the center than at the edges, is called a conve< lens and a lens that is thinner at the center is called a concave lens. There are also concavo conve<, conve<o concave, plano conve<, plano concave etc. lenses. Principal $<is of a &ens The line (oining the centers of curvature of the surfaces of a lens is called its principal a<is. Optic Center of a &ens The optic center of a thin lens is a point on its principal a<is such that a ray directed towards it emerges out un:deviated. =or a lens whose both surfaces are eIually curved, the optic center will be its geometric center 0middle of the lens4. ** In general, optic center is nearer to the more curved surface. The optic center is taken as the origin for measurement of ob(ect and image distances. =ocal Points of a &ens =or a lens there are two principal foci, on each side. =irst Principal =ocus If a pencil of rays, diverging from a point 0or appear to be converging to a point4 on the principal a<is, after refraction through a lens, is rendered parallel to the principal a<is, that point is called the first focal point of the lens. $ plane through the first focal point and at right angles to the a<is is called the first focal plane. Second =ocal Point or Principal =ocus It is that point on the principal a<is of a lens, which has the property that a pencil of parallel rays converges to or appear to diverge from it, after refraction through the lens. $ plane perpendicular to the a<is and passing through the second focal point is called the second focal plane. =ocal &ength =ocal length of a lens is the distance of the focal point from the optic center of the lens. **$s a lens has two focal points there are two focal lengths for a lens. In the case of a thin lens placed in air, the two focal lengths are eIual in magnitude but opposite in sign. =ocal length of

conve< 0converging4 lens is taken as positive and that of concave lens 0diverging4 is taken as negative. =ormation of Image by a &ens To find the position of the image of an ob(ect formed by a lens, the following two rays are considered. 0i4 $ ray parallel to the principal a<is will pass through the second principal focus, in the case of a conve< lens and appear to come from the focus in the case of a concave lens. 0ii4 $ ray through the optic center passes through the lens un:deviated. &ABS 6$MA!-S =O!6C&$ &et us consider a converging lens bounded by two spherical surfaces of radii !; and !/. O is an ob(ect on the principal a<is of the lens. +ue to refraction at the first face, we assume that a virtual image is formed at I-. This image functions as the ob(ect for the second surface and due to refraction at this face, the final real image is formed at I. Considering the refraction at the first face, we have, n/ 9 v- 3 n; 9 u . 0n/ 3 n;49 !; HHHHHH. 0;4 =or the refraction at the second face, we have, n; 9 v 3 n/ 9 v- . 0n/ 3 n;4 9 0: !/4 HHHHHHH 0/4 $dding 0 ; 4 and 0 / 4, we get, n; 9v 3 n; 9u . 0n/ 3 n;4 0;9!; 3 ;9!/4. +ividing the above eIuation by n;, and putting n/ 9n; . n we get, ;9v 3 ;9u . 0n 3 ;4 0;9!; 3 ;9!/4 HHHHHH 0 7 4 If the first focal length is f;, then for u . f;, v . G. ?ence the above eIuation becomes : ;9f . 0n 3 ;40;9!; 3 ;9!/4. $nd if f/ is the second focal length, then for u . G, v . f/. ?ence eIuation 074 becomes ;9f/ . 0n 3 ;4 0;9!; 3 ;9!/4. 'ut for a thin lens, both the focal lengths are numerically eIual 0each eIual to f4 and therefore, we have, ;9f . 0n 3 ;4 0;9!; 3 ;9!/4 HHHHHHH 0 N 4 This relation is known as lens maker-s formula. ?ere n is the refractive inde< of the material of the lens with respect to the surrounding medium. $lso, comparing 0 7 4 and 0 N 4, we get, ;9v 3 ;9u . ;9f This is the law of distances or lens formula for a lens. Power of a &ens Power of a lens is its ability to converge or diverge a given beam of light. Power of a lens or a mirror is numerically eIual to the reciprocal of its focal length. i.e., P . ;9f. 'y convention, power of a converging lens is taken as positive. Cnit of power is dioptre 0+4 Combination of &enses 0 ; 4 In contact Consider two lenses of =ocal lengths f; and f/ placed in contact as shown in figure. &et O be an ob(ect on the principal a<is of the arrangement. +ue to refraction at the first lens, the image formed is I-. This image functions as the ob(ect for the second lens and the final image is formed at I. Considering refraction through the first lens, ;9v- 3 ;9u . ;9f; HHH.. 0 ; 4 and for refraction at the second lens, ;9v 3 ;9v- . ;9f/ HHH. 0 / 4

=rom 0 ; 4 and 0 / 4 we get, ;9v 3 ;9u . ;9f; F ;9f/ HHH..0 7 4. If = is the effective focal length of the combination, then, ;9v 3 ;9u . ;9= HHH 0 N 4. =rom 0 7 4 and 0 N 4 we get, ;9= . ;9f ;F ;9f/ H..0O4 AIuation O gives the focal length of the combination. Power of the Combination If = is the combined focal length of the combination of two lenses, then ;9= . P, power of the combination. $nd, ;9f; is P; and ;9f/ is P/. $lso, ;9= . ;9f; F ;9f/. ?ence, the power of the combination is P . P; F P/ 0 / 4 Out of Contact Consider two lenses of focal lengths f and f separated by a distance, co: a<ially. It can be shown that the effective focal length ,=- is given by ;9= . ;9f; F;9f/ 3 d9f; f/ $nd the power of the combination is P . P; F P/ 3 d P; P/ +efects of Images or $berration, in &enses The theory of image formation developed for mirrors and lenses make use of various appro<imations. $s a result, the actual images formed has several defects. These defects are broadly classified into two categories, 0a4 chromatic aberration and 0b4 monochromatic aberration. The inde< of refraction of a transparent medium is different for different wavelengths 0colours4 of light used. +efects arising from such variation of the refractive inde< are termed as chromatic aberration. Other defects, which arise even if light of a single colour is used, are called monochromatic aberrations. 6onochromatic $berrations 0i4 Spherical $berration !ays of light falling on a lens, after refraction from different points on the lens, meet at different points on the principal a<is. Thus, the image of a point ob(ect is a blurred surface. Such a defect is called spherical aberration. The rays close to the principal a<is and parallel to it 0para<ial rays4 are focused at the geometrical focus = of the lens, as given by the lens formula. The rays farthest from the principal a<is 0marginal rays4 are focused at a point closer to the lens, =-. Some rays refracted from points away from the center also meet at points off the a<is. Thus, a three:dimensional blurred image is formed. If a screen is placed perpendicular to the principal a<is, a disc shaped image is formed on it. $s the screen is moved parallel to itself, the disc becomes smallest at one position. This disc is closest to the ideal image and its periphery is called the circle of least confusion. The distance ==- is a measure of the magnitude of spherical aberration, and it depends on the radii of curvature of the surfaces and the ob(ect distance. Spherical aberration can be reduced by 0i4 using stops. $ stop is an opaIue sheet with a small circular opening, which allows only a narrow pencil of rays to go through the lens. 'ut, this method reduces the intensity of the image as most of the light is cut off. 0ii4 'y using a planoconve< lens with the curved surface facing the rays. 0iii4 'y using a combination of conve< and concave lenses 0iv4 'y using two conve< lenses, separated by a distance eIual to the difference between their focal lengths. 0ii4 Coma If a point ob(ect is placed away from the principal a<is and the image is received on a screen perpendicular to the a<is, the shape of the image is like a comet. This defect is called coma. Coma can be reduced by properly designing the radii of curvature of the surfaces.

0iii4 $stigmatism The spreading of the image along the principal a<is is known as astigmatism 0note that this is not the same as the defect of vision having the same name4. Chromatic $berration The refractive inde< of the material of a lens varies slightly with the colour and hence the focal length is also different for different wavelengths. In the visible region, focal length is ma<imum for red and minimum for violet. Thus, if white light is used, each colour forms a separate image of the ob(ect. This defect is called chromatic aberration. The separation between the images formed by the e<treme colours is a measure of the a<ial or longitudinal chromatic aberration. The difference in the siEe of the images, perpendicular to the principal a<is, formed by the e<treme colours is a measure of lateral chromatic aberration. $ proper combination of a conve< and a concave lens, such that 5;9f; F 5/9f/ . 2, can result in no chromatic aberration. Such a combination is called an achromatic combination 0or an achromat4. $lso, two lenses separated, co:a<ially, by a distance eIual to the average of their focal lengths can result in no chromatic aberration. +ISPA!SIOB +irect vision spectroscope, spectrometer etc. See notes Scattering of &ight Irregular reflection of light by material particles is called scattering. It is found that shorter waves are scattered more than the longer ones. &ord !ayleigh, conducted detailed studies on the phenomenon and found that 0i4 intensity of scattered light is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength of the incident light, or I ;95N. This is called !ayleigh-s law, and 0ii4 that during scattering the wavelength remains unchanged. ?ence !ayleigh scattering is called coherent scattering. 'lue of the sky 'lue of the sky is e<plained as due to scattering of light by small particles of the atmosphere. #hite light from the sun, incident on these particles are scattered by them, and the shorter wavelengths reach our eye. ?ence the resultant light, which reaches the observer, has ma<imum intensity in the blue region. If we go to very high altitudes, the sky would appear black. This is because, at such heights, density of air is negligible and hence scattering is minimum. +uring sun set and sun rise, the sun and the neighbouring portions appear red. This is e<plained as due to scattering of light by fine dust particles near the earth-s surface. Sunlight has to travel a larger distance through the dusty path and all the violet and blue light will be scattered before they reach us. ?ence the remaining red, which is practically not scattered, alone reaches the observer. Types of Spectra #hen a narrow beam of white light 0or any composite beam4 is passed through a prism, it is split into different colours. Such a pattern of colours is called a spectrum. $nd, the splitting of the composite beam into its constituent colours is called dispersion. Spectra are broadly classified into ;. Amission spectra and /. $bsorption spectra. Amission spectra They are produced by substances in the incandescent or e<cited state. They are of three types 0i4 Continuous spectra 0ii4 &ine spectra and 0iii4 'and spectra Continuous Spectrum $ continuous spectrum consists of a continuous pattern of colours from red to violet, without any line of demarcation between colours. It is produce by solids in the incandescent state. It is not characteristic of the emitter, but depends on the temperature. Spectra of light from the sun, carbon arc, the electric lamp etc. are continuous spectra.

&ine Spectrum It consists of sharp, bright lines on a dark background. Aach line in it corresponds to a particular colour or wavelength. &ine spectra are emitted by vaporiEed substances in flames, or by discharge tubes. They are produced by e<citing the substance in the atomic state, and hence are called atomic spectra. The line spectrum is characteristic of the emitter, and hence each element, when e<cited, gives rise to its own characteristic spectrum. 'and Spectrum $ band spectrum is produced by substances, which are in the molecular state. ?ence it called molecular spectrum. 6olecular spectra are characteristic of the molecule that produces it. Compounds in vapour state also produce band spectra. $bsorption Spectra #hen light from a source that emits a continuous spectrum is passed through certain transparent substances, it can be found that the spectrum is crossed by, dark lines or bands. These lines and bands are called absorption spectra. The absorption spectra are characteristic of the absorbing substance. Occurrence of absorption spectrum can be e<plained using Mirchhoff-s law of radiation. $ccording to the law substances, which are capable of emitting a wavelength at a temperature, is capable of absorbing the same wavelength at a lower temperature. A<ample The emission spectrum of sodium vapor consists of two lines called the +; and +/ lines. #hen a beam of white light is passed through sodium vapour, in the spectrum, two absorption lines corresponding to these two lines can be seen, along with all the other colours in the spectrum. Solar Spectrum 3 =raunhofer lines The solar spectrum is a continuous emission spectrum crossed by a large number of dark lines, called =raunhofer lines. Mirchhoff e<plained that the =raunhofer lines are the absorption spectrum of the vapors present in the Sun-s atmosphere. The sun consists of a core called photosphere at a very high temperature of the order of million degree celcius. This is surrounded by a relatively colder atmosphere, called the chromosphere. The chromosphere contains vapors of various elements at a temperature of about 8222P C. #hite light emitted by the photosphere produces a continuous emission spectrum. #hen it passes through the chromosphere, vapours present there absorb their characteristic wavelengths. This results in the line absorption spectrum, called =raunhofer lines. Studies on =raunhofer lines revealed the presence of over si<ty elements in sun-s atmosphere. It also led to the discovery of the element ?elium 0helio means related to sun4.

*** !aman Affect !aman effect is the incoherent scattering of light by molecules. It is due to inelastic scattering of light by molecules. Spectrum of scattered light, in addition to the incident wavelength, contains higher 0Stoke-s lines4 and lower 0anti:Stoke-s lines4 wavelengths. These modified wavelengths are called !aman lines and they are characteristic of the scatterer. Thus, !aman effect is a very important e<perimental tool for the study of molecular structure. !aman effect can be e<plained using Iuantum theory of light.