Sie sind auf Seite 1von 5

Air pollution

Bad air quality" redirects here. For the obsolete medical theory, see Bad air. "Air quality" redirects here. For the measure of how polluted the air is, see Air quality index. Not to be confused with Qualities of air.

Air pollution from a World War II wartime production plant

Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates, or biological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment.The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.Indoor air pollution (see Airlog) and urban air quality are listed as two of the Worlds [1] Worst Toxic Pollution Problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report.

Pollutants[edit]
Main articles: Pollutant and Greenhouse gas

Before flue-gas desulfurization was installed, the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.

Schematic drawing, causes and effec ts of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect, (2) particulate contamination, (3) increased UV radiation, (4) acid rain, (5) increased ground level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides.

A substance in the air that can be adverse to humans and the environment is known as an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made. Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. Usually, primary pollutants are directly produced from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants.

Water pollution
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers,oceans, aquifers and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatmentto remove harmful compounds.Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.

Introduction[edit]
Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision ofwater resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested [1][2] that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of [2] more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated of 580 people in India die of water pollution related [3] [4] sickness every day. Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution, and [5] nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries,developed countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States, 45 percent of assessed stream miles, 47 percent of assessed lake acres, and 32 percent of assessed bays and estuarine square miles [6] were classified as polluted. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use, such as drinking water, or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water.

Category[edit]
Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources, although [7] they are interrelated. Surface water seeps through the soil and becomes groundwater. Conversely, groundwater can also feed surface water sources. Sources of surface water pollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their origin. Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, such as a pipe or ditch. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain. The [8] U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA) defines point source for regulatory enforcement purposes. The CWA definition of point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as [9] industrial stormwater, such as from construction sites.

land pollution
The waste materials that cause land pollution are broadly classified as municipal solid waste (MSW, also called municipal refuse), construction and demolition (C&D) waste or debris, andhazardous waste. MSW includes nonhazardous garbage, rubbish, and trash from homes, institutions (e.g., schools), commercial establishments, and industrial facilities. Garbage contains moist and decomposable (biodegradable) food wastes (e.g., meat and vegetablescraps); rubbish comprises mostly dry materials such as paper, glass, textiles, and plasticobjects; and trash includes bulky waste materials and objects that are not collected routinely for disposal (e.g., discarded mattresses, appliances, pieces of furniture). C&D waste (or debris) includes wood and metal objects, wallboard, concrete rubble, asphalt, and other inert materials produced when structures are built, renovated, or demolished. Hazardous wastes include harmful and dangerous substances generated primarily as liquids but also as solids, sludges, or gases by various chemical manufacturing companies, petroleum refineries, paper mills, smelters, machine shops, dry cleaners, automobile repair shops, and many other industries or commercial facilities. In addition to improper disposal of MSW, C&D waste, and hazardous waste, contaminated effluent from subsurface sewage disposal (e.g., from septic tanks) can also be a cause of land pollution. Soil consists of a mixture of unconsolidated mineral and rock fragments (gravel, sand, silt, andclay) formed from natural weathering processes. Gravel, sand, and silt are relatively coarse-grained bulky particles, while clay particles are very small and platelike in shape and have a strong affinity for water. Gravel and sand formations are porous and permeable, allowing the free flow of water through the pores or spaces between the particles. Silt is much less permeable than sand or gravel, because of its small particle and pore sizes, while clay is virtually impermeable to the flow of water, because of its platelike shape and molecular forces. The permeability of soil formations underlying a waste disposal site is of great importance with regard to land pollution. The greater the permeability, the greater the risks from land pollution.

Noise pollution

Noise pollution is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused bymachines and transportation systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, and trains.[1][2] Outdoor noise is summarized by the word environmental noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas.Indoor noise is caused by machines, building activities, music performances, and especially in some workplaces. There is no great difference whether noise-induced hearing loss is brought about by outside (e.g. trains) or inside (e.g. music) noise.High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans, a rise in blood pressure, and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction, and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss.

Health[edit]
Human[edit]

Main article: Health effects from noise Noise pollution affects both health and behavior. Unwanted sound (noise) can damage psychological health. Noise pollution can cause trouble, hypertension, high stress levels,tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep [3][4][5][6] disturbances, and other harmful effects. Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the leading [4][7] causes to health problems. Sound becomes unwanted when it either interferes with normal activities [8] such as sleeping, conversation, or disrupts or diminishes ones quality of life. Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. Older males exposed to significant occupational noise demonstrate more significantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers, though differences in hearing sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups are indistinguishable by age [9] 79. A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.S. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high levels of [3] environmental noise contributes to hearing loss. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight-hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase [3] in stress, and vasoconstriction leading to theincreased blood pressure noted above, as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease.Noise pollution also is a cause of annoyance. A 2005 study by Spanish researchers found that in urban areas households are willing to pay approximately [10] four Euros per decibel per year for noise reduction.