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Bachelor thesis perIormed in Electronics Systems

by

Alberto Prieto Pastor

LITH-ISY-EX-ET--05/0309--SE

Linkping 2005-04-18

Simulation and Evaluation of a DVB System Using

Simulink (Vol. II)

Bachelor thesis in Department oI Electronic Systems at Linkping Institute

oI Technology

by

Alberto Prieto Pastor

LITH-ISY-EX-ET--05/0309--SE

Supervisor: Kent Palmkvist

Examiner: Kent Palmkvist

Linkping 2005-04-18

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SinuIalion and evaIualion of a DV Syslen using SinuIink (VoI. II)

Frfattarc

Aulhoi

AIleilo Iiielo Iasloi

5ammanfattnIng

DV (DigilaI Video ioadcasling) is lhe leIevision digilaI syslen. Il's hovevei nuch noie lhan a

sinpIe iepIacenenl foi exisling anaIogue leIevision liansnission, lhis syslen has nany

advanlages such as picluie quaIily and aIIovs you a iange of nev fealuies and seivices incIuding

sullilIing, nuIlipIe audio liacks, inleiaclive conlenl, nuIlinedia conlenl... The syslen is lased in

lhe OIDM lechnoIogy, vhich aIIovs DV syslen lo expIoil lhe specliun fiequencies in a lellei

vay, saving specliun, lul OIDM has an inpoilanl diavlack lhal is lhe peak lo aveiage povei

ialio piolIen. OIDM is lased on lhe IIT aIgoiilhns geneialing oilhogonaI sulcaiiieis. This

lhesis laIks aloul lhe inpiovenenl of lhe IAIR piolIen using lhe sofl conpiession nelhod. The

sinuIalion has leen deveIoped in SinuIink and MalIal. Wilh aII lhe infoinalion piesenled in

lhis lhesis, any usei can sinuIale lhe syslen. Thus, lhis lhesis can le inpioved using olhei

lechniques lo soIve lhe IAIR piolIen.

Nyckc!nrd

Keyvoid

OIDM, DV, IIIT, QAM, SinuIink, IAIR, CIipping, Conpiession, peak lo aveiage povei ialio

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) Abstract

i

Abstract

DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) is the television digital system. It's however

much more than a simple replacement Ior existing analogue television transmission,

this system has many advantages such as picture quality and allows you a range oI

new Ieatures and services including subtitling, multiple audio tracks, interactive

content, multimedia content...

The system is based in the OFDM technology, which allows DVB system to exploit

the spectrum Irequencies in a better way, saving spectrum, but OFDM has an

important drawback that is the peak to average power ratio problem. OFDM is based

on the FFT algorithms generating orthogonal subcarriers.

This thesis talks about the improvement oI the PAPR problem using the soIt

compression method.

The simulation has been developed in Simulink and Matlab. With all the

inIormation presented in this thesis, any user can simulate the system. Thus, this

thesis can be improved using other techniques to solve the PAPR problem.

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) Abstract

ii

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) PreIace

iii

Preface

Here I`m in Iront oI the computer writing the last lines oI one cycle which I`d

never imagined how it went to go, some years ago when I started with the career in

Gandia.

There were some hard work years with good and bad moments. This is one oI

these great moments, the end oI my career with this thesis, and Ior this reason I would

like to thank both people and institutions the support obtained.

First oI all I would like to thank the 'Linkpings University and 'Universidad

Politecnica de Valencia because they allowed me the development oI this thesis here

in Sweden.

To my coordinator Kent Palmkvist because oI the help and the patient that he had

with me.

To my coordinator in Gandia Jaime Lloret.

To my parents and sister, and the rest oI the Iamily because they have been a big

support in Gandia and now here in Sweden.

To my Iiends, all the marvellous people that I have met in Gandia, due to the nice

moments that we spent there, and people in Linkping as: Nando, Ramon, Juanjo,

Sergio, Carlos, Edu and Lopez; the best part oI the workday was the lunchtime with

you.

And specially to Sergio Isla because he pushed me to came here to Sweden, and

without him, I`d never have this thesis Iinished.

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) PreIace

iv

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) Index

v

Index

1. The Thesis......................................................................................................... 1

1.1. Overview................................................................................................... 1

1.2. Purpose...................................................................................................... 1

1.3. Planning..................................................................................................... 1

2. OFDM............................................................................................................... 3

2.1. Origin ........................................................................................................ 3

2.2. Description ................................................................................................ 3

2.3. Orthogonality. Subcarriers generation using the IFFT ................................ 4

2.3.1. Orthogonality..................................................................................... 4

2.3.2. Subcarriers generation using the IFFT................................................ 5

2.4. The PAPR.................................................................................................. 6

2.5. Other concepts about OFDM modulation................................................... 6

2.5.1. Attenuation ........................................................................................ 6

2.5.2. Delay Spread...................................................................................... 6

2.5.3. Cyclic PreIix ...................................................................................... 6

2.5.4. Applications....................................................................................... 7

2.5.5. Transmitter & Receiver ...................................................................... 8

3. Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) .................................................................... 9

3.1. History....................................................................................................... 9

3.2. DeIinition and operation ............................................................................ 9

3.3. BeneIits ................................................................................................... 10

4. Simulink.......................................................................................................... 11

4.1. BrieI description ...................................................................................... 11

4.2. Some Ieatures .......................................................................................... 11

5. Simulation Model ............................................................................................ 13

5.1. Main Menu .............................................................................................. 13

5.2. Transmitter .............................................................................................. 14

5.2.1. Bernoulli .......................................................................................... 14

5.2.2. FEC Coder ....................................................................................... 14

5.2.3. Interleaver ........................................................................................ 14

5.2.4. QAM Mapping................................................................................. 15

5.2.5. IFFT................................................................................................. 15

5.3. Channel ................................................................................................... 16

5.4. Receiver................................................................................................... 16

5.4.1. FFT.................................................................................................. 17

5.4.2. QAM Demapping............................................................................. 17

5.4.3. Deinterleaver.................................................................................... 18

5.4.4. Decoder............................................................................................ 19

5.5. Error Rate Calculation ............................................................................. 20

5.6. Simulation Result..................................................................................... 21

6. PAPR Problem ................................................................................................ 23

6.1. Compression method ............................................................................... 23

6.2. Implementation oI the Compression method using Simulink.................... 24

6.3. Graphical soIt reduction results................................................................ 27

6.3.1. 2k 16QAM....................................................................................... 27

6.3.2. 8k 16QAM....................................................................................... 29

6.3.3. 2k 64QAM....................................................................................... 30

6.3.4. 8k 64QAM....................................................................................... 32

6.4. Other possible solutions ........................................................................... 33

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) Index

vi

7. Comparison ..................................................................................................... 35

7.1. Advantages and Drawbacks Clipping Method.......................................... 35

7.2. Advantages and drawbacks oI SoIt Reduction Method............................. 35

7.3. BER results Ior Clipping and Compression methods ................................ 35

7.4. Conclusions ............................................................................................. 37

8. Possible Improvements.................................................................................... 39

9. ReIerences....................................................................................................... 41

10. Appendix..................................................................................................... 43

10.1. Model Pre-load Function...................................................................... 43

10.2. Model Post-load Function .................................................................... 43

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) Index

vii

Table of Figures

Figure 1: Conventional multicarrier technique. .......................................................... 4

Figure 2: Orthogonal multicarrier modulation technique............................................ 5

Figure 3: Spectra oI an OFDM subchannel and OFDM signal. .................................. 5

Figure 4: This is one time-domain symbol with the cyclic preIix ............................... 7

Figure 5: Receiver OFDM. ........................................................................................ 8

Figure 6: Transmitter OFDM..................................................................................... 8

Figure 7: Example oI subsystem using Simulink................................................... 12

Figure 8: Main Menu............................................................................................... 13

Table 1: Operation Modes Parameters. .................................................................... 13

Figure 9: Transmitter Blocks. .................................................................................. 14

Figure 10: Inside the FEC Coder Block. .................................................................. 14

Figure 11: Inside the Interleaver Block. ................................................................... 15

Figure 12: Inside the QAM mapping Block. ............................................................ 15

Figure 13: Inside the IFFT Block............................................................................. 15

Figure 14: AWNG Channel. .................................................................................... 16

Figure 15: Receiver Blocks...................................................................................... 16

Figure 16: Inside FFT Block.................................................................................... 17

Figure 17: Inside QAM Demapping Block. ............................................................. 17

Figure 18: 16 QAM Constellation............................................................................ 18

Figure 19: Inside the Deinterleaver Block................................................................ 18

Figure 20: Inside Decoder Block. ............................................................................ 19

Figure 21: Viterbi decoder Parameters..................................................................... 20

Figure 22: BER Block ............................................................................................. 20

Figure 23: BER Ior 2k 16QAM and 2k 64QAM...................................................... 21

Figure 24: BER Ior 8k 16QAM and 8k 64QAM...................................................... 21

Figure 25: Time Domain signal. .............................................................................. 21

Figure 26: Frequency domain signal. ....................................................................... 22

Figure 27: Rectangular window. .............................................................................. 23

Figure 28: Non-Rectangular Window. ..................................................................... 24

Figure 29: SoItreduction Block................................................................................ 24

Figure 30: Inside SoItreduction Block. .................................................................... 25

Figure 31: Inside the Real Reduce Block. ................................................................ 26

Figure 32: 2k 16QAM Real signals in time domain. ................................................ 27

Figure 33: 2k 16QAM Imaginary signals in time domain......................................... 28

Figure 34: 2k 16QAM signals in Irequency domain (a)(b). ...................................... 28

Figure 35: 8k 16QAM Real signals in time domain. ................................................ 29

Figure 36: 8k 16QAM Imaginary signals in time domain......................................... 29

Figure 37: 8k 16QAM signals in Irequency domain (a)(b). ...................................... 30

Figure 38: 2k 64QAM Real signals in time domain. ................................................ 30

Figure 39: 2k 64QAM Imaginary signals in time domain......................................... 31

Figure 40: 2k 64QAM signals in Irequency domain(a)(b). ....................................... 31

Figure 41: 8k 64QAM Real signals in time domain. ................................................ 32

Figure 42: 8k 64QAM Imaginary signals in time domain......................................... 32

Figure 43: 8k 64QAM signals in Irequency domain(a)(b). ....................................... 33

Figure 44: BER Ior 2k 16QAM. (a)Clipping Method (b) Compression Method....... 36

Figure 45: BER Ior 2k 64QAM. (a)Clipping Method (b) Compression Method....... 36

Figure 46: BER Ior 8k 16QAM. (a)Clipping Method (b) Compression Method....... 36

Figure 47: BER Ior 8k 64QAM. (a)Clipping Method (b) Compression Method....... 37

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) Index

viii

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) The Thesis

1

1. The Thesis

1.1. Overview

This report has been divided into eight chapters, where in chapter 2 a basic

understanding oI OFDM modulation that is the modulation that DVB System uses Ior

its implementation is intended to give. A brieI description about DVB will be

described in the chapter 3.

In chapter 4 there are any inIormation about Simulink that is the program which

allows us to design the system. The next chapter, number 5, will explain in detail each

block oI the model and aIter we will simulate the model and we could observe the

graphic results. The chapter 6 is the most important in this thesis because is when it

will tackle the principal task oI the thesis, the peak to average power problem, this

report will propose solutions and will design the soIt compression method using

Simulink.

The chapter 7 is a comparative between 2 methods to solve the PAPR problem, the

clipping method and the soIt compression method and in the chapter 8 possible

improvements about the development oI my thesis will be said.

Finally chapters 9 and 10 will show the reIerences and the appendix respectively.

1.2. Purpose

The principal purpose in this thesis is to solve the peak to average power problem,

which appears when OFDM modulation is used. DVB system uses this kind oI

modulation.

1.3. Planning

First oI all, is important to remark that this thesis is the second part oI a global

thesis, my mate Sergio Isla Hernandez has written the Iirst part, which has the same

name.

Is mandatory to say that we have worked together in the investigation to solve the

PAPR problem but aIter I have only explained in detail in this thesis about the

receiver and the second solution while my mate has developed the transmitter and the

Iirst solution.

In the chapter 7 we can do the comparison, because naturally we have the results

about the clipping method and soIt compression method.

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) The Thesis

2

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) OFDM

3

2. OFDM

2.1. Origin

Orthogonal Frequencv Division Multiplexing (OFDM), a special Iorm oI Multi-

Carrier Modulation, (MCM), with densely spaced subcarriers and overlapping spectra

was patented in the US in 1966 by Chang, Bell Labs. Soon aIter in 1971, Weinstein

and Ebert proposed the use oI Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and guard interval.

In the 1985, OFDM was described Ior mobile communication, and in 1987 Alar

and Lasalle suggested the use oI OFDM Ior digital broadcasting.

It is also important to emphasize the date oI 1997, because Digital Jideo

Broadcast (DVB) was created and only one year later, Magic WAND project,

demonstrated OFDM modems Ior wireless LAN.

Finally in the 2000s there have been three important events about OFDM:

IEEE 802.11a and HIPERLAN/2 standards Ior wireless LAN.

V-OFDM Ior Fixed Wireless Access.

OFDM considered Ior new IEEE 802.11 and 802.16 standards.

2.2. Description

In recent years Wireless communication has seen a spectacular boom. One main

reason is that many committees are working on standards to ensure that end products

Ior customers conIorm to global speciIications and rules established by network

standards. Some committees working on wireless standardization are IEEE 802.11

(wireless local area networks), IEEE 802.15 (wireless personal area networks), IEEE

802.16 (wireless broadband area networks), HiperLAN2, and Bluetooth.

OFDM technology is behind many oI these standards. With all these standards

addressing OFDM, newcomers to wireless might wonder what it is about OFDM

technology that makes it an obvious choice Ior these high-rate wireless standards. |1|

There are many reasons which OFDM standard has been chosen, but one oI the

most important is to increase the robustness against Irequency selective Iading or

narrowband interIerence.

In a single carrier modulation data is sent sequentially over the channel by

modulating one single carrier, in this kind oI modulation we can have problems such

as a single Iade or interIerence can cause the losses oI all the inIormation. This event,

is not possible in a multi-carrier system (only a Iew sub-carriers are damaged)

because it uses an error correcting code, which is able to correct damaged carriers.

OFDM, as a MCM, consist oI dividing all the available bandwidth into several

sub-channels. MCM is accomplished by transmitting data stream divided into several

parallel bit streams, each oI which has a much lower bit rate. The lower bit rate

implies that the symbol period is long. As the symbol period increases the ISI

reduces, thereby improving the channel perIormance so that at any instant time many

data symbols are being transmitted. |2|

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) OFDM

4

OFDM as other systems has its own advantages and drawbacks which are the

Iollowing.

EIIicient way oI dealing with multipath delay spread.

EIIicient use oI spectrum by allowing overlap.

By dividing the channel into narrowband Ilat Iading subchannels, OFDM is

more resistant to Irequency selective Iading than single carrier system are.

In relatively slow time varying channels, it is possible to signiIicantly enhance

the capacity by adapting the data rate per subcarrier according to the SNR oI

that particular subcarrier.

Eliminates ISI and IFI through use oI a cyclic preIix.

Using adequate channel coding and interleaving one can recover symbols lost

due to the Irequency selectivity oI the channel.

OFDM makes single Irequency networks possible, which is specially

attractive Ior broadcasting applications.

- OFDM is more sensitive to Irequency oIIset and phase noise.

- OFDM has a relatively large Peak to Average power ratio, (PAPR) which

tends to reduce the power eIIiciency oI the RF ampliIier. (The objective oI our

thesis is to reduce this drawback).

2.3. Orthogonality. Subcarriers generation using the IFFT

2.3.1. Orthogonality

At Iirst in a classical parallel data system, the total signal Irequency band is divided

into N nonoverlaping Irequency subchannels.

Each subchannel is modulated with a separate symbol, and then the N subchannels

are Irequency-multiplexed. It seems good to avoid spectral overlap oI channels to

eliminate interchannel interIerences, but this kind oI modulation, has the problem oI

ineIIicient use oI the available spectrum. (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Conventional multicarrier technique.

To solve this ineIIiciency the idea proposed were to use parallel data and FDM,

with overlapping subchannels. Using the overlapping multicarrier modulation we can

save almost 50 oI bandwidth. (Figure 2)

To realize the overlapping multicarrier technique, however we need to reduce

crosstalk between subcarriers, which means that we want orthogonality between the

diIIerent modulated carriers. |1|

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) OFDM

5

Figure 2: Orthogonal multicarrier modulation technique.

We`ve just Ieatured an important term about OFDM, the orthogonality, and now

this concept will be explained careIully.

The orthogonality between subcarriers should IulIill these two properties:

Each subcarrier has an exactly an integer number oI cycles in the T interval.

The number oI adjacent subcarriers diIIers by exactly one.

II the system carry out the mentioned properties, it is possible that the sidebands oI

each subcarrier can be overlapped, and aIter, we can receive the total signal without

adjacent carrier interIerence

2.3.2. Subcarriers generation using the IFFT

An OFDM signal, consist oI a sum oI subcarriers that are modulated by using

Phase Shift Keving (PSK), or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), iI the

complex are QAM symbols, Ns is the number oI subcarriers, T the symbol duration,

and I

c

the carrier Irequency, then one OFDM symbol starting at t T

s

can be written

as :

t

s

_ t _ t

s

T

s(t) 0, t t

s

` t~ t

s

T

In this representation the real and imaginary parts correspond to the in-phase and

quadrature parts oI the OFDM signals, which have to be multiplied by a cosine and

sine, oI the desired carrier Irequency to produce the Iinal OFDM signal.

Figure 3: Spectra of an OFDM subchannel and OFDM signal.

s ( ) t

Ns

2

Ns

2

1

exp f 2

i

T

( ) t ts

d

iNs/2

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) OFDM

6

2.4. The PAPR

An OFDM signal consists oI a number oI independently modulated subcarriers,

which can give a large peak to average power ratio (PAPR) when added up

coherently. Large PAPR means large ampliIier backoIIs, which reduces power

eIIiciency oI RF ampliIier, also another drawback oI PAPR is that brings an increase

complexity oI Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog converters.

There are several solutions to solve the PAPR problem such as clipping and peak

windowing, and compression techniques. In this thesis I will talk about the

compression method and my mate oI project about the clipping method.

Reducing the Peak to Average Power Ratio is the main task oI this report.

2.5. Other concepts about OFDM modulation

In this section we are just going to deIine some concepts which are not the

objectives oI this thesis, but we consider that it is important to mention.

2.5.1. Attenuation

It is possible to deIine attenuation as the loss oI power when the signal is

transmitted Irom the transmitter to the receiver. It can be caused Ior many reasons, but

the most important are:

The path length.

Path obstructions or shadowing produced by buildings and hills.

Multipath.

2.5.2. Delay Spread

Delay spread is the time spent between the arrival oI the Iirst and the last multipath

signal.

The received signal is the sum oI the direct signal plus all signals that are reIlected

by building, hills, . which arrive later than direct signal as a consequence oI the

extra path covered.

In a digital system delay spread can cause Intersvmbol Interference (ISI).

2.5.3. Cyclic Prefix

By adding a guard time, called cyclic preIix, the channel can be made to behave as

iI the transmitted waveIorms were Irom time minus inIinite, and thus ensure

orthogonality, which essentially prevents one subcarrier Irom interIering with another

(called intercarrier interference, or ICI).

The cyclic preIix is actually a copy oI the last portion oI the data symbol appended

to the Iront oI the symbol during the guard interval. |3|

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) OFDM

7

Figure 4: 1his is one time-domain symbol with the cyclic prefix

2.5.4. Applications

Although OFDM was born in the 60`s, it has been in the last years when it has

started to be used in commercial systems. The systems in which OFDM is used are

the Iollowing:

(DAB), Digital Audio Broadcasting uses (QPSK) Quadrature Phase Shift

Keving. Its principal advantage is that it is able to establish single

Irequency network, this means that transmitters which are separated at a

distance, can send the same signal simultaneously. This event produces

that the receiver receives the transmitted signal, each one with a diIIerent

propagation delay. It`s important to underline that propagation delay is

smaller than the Guard interval.

(DVB), Digital Jideo Broadcasting is quite similar to DAB system, the

main diIIerence between them is that the Iirst one is used Ior broadcasting

oI digital television signals using MPEG-2 source compression, that

reduces a standard television channel to 3Mbps, also reduces the HDTV

Channel to 20Mbps.

(WLAN), Wireless Local Area Network. The main objective oI this

system, which standardization is taken place in Europe, USA, and Japan at

the same time, is to get high data rates in the 5 GHz Irequency band.

Finally the standard that intends to provide high speed Internet access and

multimedia services to Iixed users receives the name oI (WLL), Wireless

Local Loops.

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) OFDM

8

2.5.5. Transmitter & Receiver

The Iigure shows the basic diagram block about an OFDM receiver in which we

can see a group oI blocks that they are going to be explained in detail later.

The shaded blocks are considered the most important blocks Ior the development

oI the thesis, and this is the reason that they will be simulated in advance with

simulink .

Figure 5: Receiver OFDM.

The Iigure 6 shows the transmitter block diagram that is exactly the same than the

receiver one but in the other direction.

This report does not have to explain the transmitter`s block in detail; this is only

mention here because the explanation oI all these blocks will be carried out in the

other part oI the thesis.

Figure : 1ransmitter OFDM.

Ciclic PreIix

Removal

Seriall to

Parallel

QAM

demapping

Parallel to

Seriall

FFT Deinterleav

er

Fec

Decoder

De-

Scrambler

Scrambler Fec Coder Seriall to

Parallel

QAM

Mapping

Interleaver

IFFT

Parallel to

Seriall

Ciclic

PreIix

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) DVB

9

3. Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB)

3.1. History

Founded in September 1993, the DVB Project is a market-led consortium oI public

and private sector organizations in the television industry. Its aim is to establish the

Iramework Ior the introduction oI MPEG-2 based digital television services. Now

comprising over 200 organizations Irom more than 25 countries around the world,

DVB Iosters market-led systems, which meet the real needs, and economic

circumstances, oI the consumer electronics and the broadcast industry.

DVB is an European initiative. Equipment conIorming to DVB standard is now in

use on six continents and is DVB rapidly becoming the world-wide standard Ior

digital TV. At the time DVB was being developed in Europe, a parallel program oI

standards and equipment development was also going on in the USA by the Advanced

Television Svstem Committee (ATSC) |4|.

3.2. Definition and operation

Digital Video Broadcasting is a transmission scheme based on the moving pictures

expert group MPEG-2 video compression. It's however much more than a simple

replacement Ior existing analogue television transmission.

DVB provides superior picture quality with the opportunity to view pictures in

standard Iormat or wide screen (16:9) Iormat, along with mono, stereo or surround

sound.

It also allows a range oI new Ieatures and services including subtitling, multiple

audio tracks, interactive content, multimedia content...

The radioelectric channels oI Digital Television take up the same bandwidth

(8MHz) than analogue television channels but due to the use oI compression

techniques oI sound and image signals (MPEG) can hold up a diIIerent number oI

channels depending on the bit rate, being able to oscillate between one high

deIinition television program to Iive programs with a similar quality than the actual

television.

The DVB-T system is characterized by two transmission modes: the 2k mode and

the 8k mode.

We have. 6 817 carriers per OFDM symbol Ior the 8k-mode (6 048 useIul, the

others Ior synchronization and signaling) and 1 705 carriers per OFDM symbol Ior

the 2k-mode (1 512 useIul carriers) are speciIied in the DVB-T system. Virtual

carriers are inserted in such a way that the total number oI carriers becomes a power

oI two, so that the Iaster algorithm oI the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) can

be used. At the receiving side, the corresponding signals can be easily recovered using

the respective 2k-FFT or 8k-FFT.

In order to ensure robust transmission oI the OFDM signal, an error protection

code is applied. In addition to the Iixed algorithm oI energy dispersal, block coding,

outer and inner interleaving, a Rate Compatible Punctured Convolutional (RCPC).

The mother code has a constraint length oI 7 bits and works with a code rate oI 1/2.

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The two generator polynomials oI the convolutional encoder are 171 and 133 in octal

notation.

To adapt the error protection to the actual transmitting conditions, several code

rates can be chosen (1/2 to 7/8). The code rate 1/2 has the highest redundancy, but the

highest transmission saIety. This mode should be applied to strongly disturbed

channels. On the other hand a code rate oI 7/8 has a low redundancy but a very weak

error protection. ThereIore, it should be used Ior channels with only low interIerence.

As mentioned above, every carrier is modulated by a modulation symbol. 16-QAM

and 64-QAM are used as modulation methods, e.g. 4 or 6 bits per modulation symbol.

3.3. Benefits

Using DVB such as broadcasting method provides many beneIits.

Soon reach almost everybody, thus allowing to receive signals with the

current analog antenna domestic system, moreover the Irequencies that the

DVB-T system will use are the same as those oI the analog TV service.

Allows the portable and movement reception.

Require less transmission power than other systems.

The behavior oI digital signal due to interIerences is better than the

analogue signal one.

Carry out the regional/ local broadcasting.

To reduce the network implementation costs, thanks to the re-use oI the

existing analog inIrastructure.

Allows the convergence TV-PC.

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4. Simulink

4.1. Brief description

Simulink is a platIorm Ior multidomain simulation and model-based design oI

dynamic systems. It provides an interactive graphical environment and a customizable

set oI block libraries that let you accurately design, simulate, implement, and test

control, signal processing, communications, and other time-varying systems. Add-on

products extend the Simulink environment with tools Ior speciIic modeling and

design tasks and Ior code generation, algorithm implementation, test, and veriIication.

Simulink is integrated with MATLAB, providing immediate access to an

extensive range oI tools Ior algorithm development, data visualization, data analysis

and access, and numerical computation.

With Simulink, you can quickly create, model, and maintain a detailed block

diagram oI yours system using a comprehensive set oI predeIined blocks.

Simulink provides tools Ior hierarchical modeling, data management, and

subsystem customization, making it easy to create concise, accurate representations,

regardless oI your system`s complexity.

Simulink includes more than 1000 blocks that implement Iunctions commonly

used in modeling a system.

With Simulink, you build models by dragging and dropping blocks Irom the

library browser onto the graphical editor and connecting them with lines that establish

mathematical relationships between the blocks. You have immediate access to

common graphical editing Iunctions, such as copy, paste, and undo.

Simulink is also practical. With thousands oI engineers around the world using it

to model and solve real problems, knowledge oI this tool will serve you well

throughout your proIessional career. |5|

4.2. Some features

Simulink has many interesting characteristics and now this section is going to

explain some oI them that have been used in the development oI this thesis:

Using oI workspace allows you to store all the values in several variables,

and later you can see all these values just by writing the variable's name

that you've deIined beIore.

Simulink lets you organize your model into clear, manageable levels oI

hierarchy by using subsystems. Subsystems encapsulate a group oI blocks

and signals in a single block. They are the primary method Ior including

hierarchy in your model.

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Figure 7: Example of subsystem using Simulink.

The Callbacks pane lets you speciIy Iunctions to be invoked by Simulink

at speciIic points in the simulation oI the model. You can enter the names

oI any callback Iunctions you want to be invoked in the appropriate Iields.

In DVB there are several modes oI operation, my mate oI thesis and me

have developed only Iour oI them. The values oI the diIIerent models have

been loaded in the callbacks pane and they can be watched in the appendix

at the end oI this thesis. We`ve created a menu where users can choose the

option that they want.

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5. Simulation Model

As I have said beIore in the point 2.5.5, only the receiver blocks will be explained,

and not the transmitter blocks, because it is not this thesis task, anyway transmitter

blocks will be mentioned because these blocks will be necessary these to run the

simulation model. Apart oI the transmitter and receiver blocks, this section gives

inIormation about the main menu oI the Simulation Model and the channel used in the

simulation.

5.1. Main Menu

In the thesis Iour possible cases have been developed, where you can choose one oI

them depending oI the kind oI modulation and the number oI subcarriers that you

want to use. For this reason one menu has been created, which will ask you at the

beginning, what option you want to run.

Figure 8: Main Menu.

Each case has diIIerent values Ior its variables; you can see in the table 1 the most

important parameters Ior each one.

2k 16 QAM 8k 16 QAM 2k 64 QAM 8k 64 QAM

Subcarriers

2048 8192 2048 8192

Samples per

Frame

5112 10224 5112 10224

Puncture Vector

|1 1 0 1 1 0| |1 1 0 1 1 0| |1 1 0 1 1 0| |1 1 0 1 1 0|

M-ary number

4 4 6 6

QAM symbols

1704 6816 1704 6816

Zeros added

344 1376 344 1376

1able 1: Operation Modes Parameters.

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5.2. Transmitter

The Iigure 9 shows the global transmitter blocks.

Figure 9: 1ransmitter Blocks.

5.2.1. Bernoulli

First oI all we should generate a random sequence oI binary numbers. Simulink

allows us to choose between diIIerent blocks to carry out this task, like random

integer, Poisson integer and Iinally Bernoulli binary generator, but Ior the

development oI this thesis the best option is the last one because the system must

work with binary numbers.

5.2.2. FEC Coder

The purpose oI using the Forward Error Correction (FEC) is to add enough

redundancy and protection to the signal so it can be robustness opposite to the noise

oI the channel, being possible to correct errors later in reception.

Figure 1: Inside the FEC Coder Block.

5.2.3. Interleaver

To avoid the burst errors, which can produce a lot oI consecutive errors causing a

high BER in reception, we must use the interleaver block we can see in the Iigure 9.

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Figure 11: Inside the Interleaver Block.

5.2.4. QAM Mapping

Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is the most popular type oI modulation

in combination with OFDM. Especially rectangular constellations are easy to

implement.

Figure 12: Inside the QAM mapping Block.

5.2.5. IFFT

Probably this is the most important block Ior all OFDM systems. This block

generates the orthogonal subcarriers. The orthogonality between subcarriers as well as

saving bandwidth, it is also important Ior the right operation oI the system.

Figure 13: Inside the IFF1 Block.

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5.3. Channel

The channel is the block that allows us to transmit the signal Irom the transmitter

to the receiver.

Figure 14: AWAC Channel.

The AWGN Channel block adds white Gaussian noise to a real or complex input

signal. When the input signal is real, this block adds real Gaussian noise and produces

a real output signal. When the input signal is complex, this block adds complex

Gaussian noise and produces a complex output signal.

Typical values oI the SNR Ior an AWGN channel are between 5 and 30. When the

value is closer to zero this produces a high BER, on the other hand, iI the value oI

SNR increases we will get a better BER. We can see this Iact in the Iigure 23.

In this report we always simulate the system with a value oI 18.5 dB. Later in the

point 5.5 and in the comparison we can see what will happen when we try with

diIIerent values.

The reason that this channel has been chosen instead oI other channels, is because

this thesis is only going to evaluate the PAPR problem, with this kind oI channel is

enough to carry out this task.

AWGN block does not introduce problems like Iading and multipath, which would

be more diIIicult to the development oI this thesis.

5.4. Receiver

The Iigure 17 shows the global receiver blocks.

Figure 15: Receiver Blocks.

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5.4.1. FFT

The purpose oI this block is to get QAM symbols at the output, Irom the

subcarriers created in the IFFT block beIore the channel.

Figure 1: Inside FF1 Block.

We can see three diIIerent blocks.

The Iirst one is called FFT block, and its task is to perIorm the Fast Fourier

TransIorm.

The Selector1 is the second block. BeIore in the transmitter, we had to add zeros,

because the IFFT block was Ieed up with power oI two numbers. Naturally iI in the

transmitter we have added zeros, now in the receiver we have to remove them and the

block that carries out this task is the Selector1. For instance iI in the transmitter in the

2k (16 or 64 QAM) case we have 1704 QAM symbols and we add 344 zeros with the

zero pad, the resulting selector element is |1:852 1705:2048 853:1704|; where the

added zeros are between 1705 and 2048. Now in the receiver the selector element is

|1:852 1197:2048|; this means that we remove all the values between 853 and 1196

that are the zeros added in the transmitter block.

Finally the Frame conversion block, takes the output values oI the selector block

and converts them into Irames. At the output oI this block we get the QAM symbols.

5.4.2. QAM Demapping

The complex QAM symbols at the output oI the FFT block have to be demapped.

This is the principal task oI the QAM Demapping block.

Figure 17: Inside QAM Demapping Block.

As we can see, only two blocks compose the global block, the Iirst one whose

name is Rectangular QAM demodulates the input signal (which are complex number)

using the rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation method. The outputs oI this

block are integer numbers which belong each one to the Gray constellation points that

you can see in the Iigure:

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Figure 18: 1 QAM Constellation.

This kind oI constellation is called Gray.

II we look at two nearby points (horizontally or vertically), we realize that they

diIIer in only one bit. We can see this in the Iigure18. That is a good thing when we

work on data transmission because iI the channel damages the signal, we could

receive 1,j1/3 instead oI 1,j, Ior instance. That means that we haven`t got the right

signal but this is not bad because we have received just one wrong bit. It is much

more possible to receive a nearby ground point than a distant one. |6|

The second block is called Integer to Bit Converter, whose task is to convert the

integer numbers in blocks oI N bits depending oI the kind oI case that we have

chosen, Ior instance iI we choose 16QAM this block rearranges in groups oI 4 bits,

because ( 2`416)

5.4.3. Deinterleaver

The interleaver block rearranges the bits. We have to remember that in the

transmitter the interleaver avoided possible burst and Iading errors by changing the

input bits order.

Figure 19: Inside the Deinterleaver Block.

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We can see in the Iigure, that the design oI this block is not very complicated.

Initially we put the buIIer which Iunction is only to store the input bits. The second

block called Matrix Deinterleaver as we have said beIore is to rearrange these bits.

5.4.4. Decoder

This is the last receiver block. Here all the redundant bits which were added in the

transmitter must be removed; it is mandatory to remember that we have used a code

rate oI 3/4.

Figure 2: Inside Decoder Block.

The Unipolar to Bipolar Converter takes the input bits and converts them; iI the

input is "1" the output will be "-1" and iI the input is "0" the output will be "1". This is

necessary because in this system a Viterbi decoder, which only distinguishes between

1 and -1, is used.

The second block (Insert Zero) adds redundant bits (only zeros) with the insert zero

vector. Inside oI this block my insert zero vector is |110110|. This block constructs an

output vector by inserting zeros among the elements oI the input vector:

Each 1 indicates that the block should place the next element oI the input in the

output vector

Each 0 indicates that the block should place a 0 in the output vector

The reason oI doing this is because in the transmitter we removed bits using the

puncture vector, and now in the receiver we must add them.

The Viterbi decoder is the last block and decodes input symbols to produce binary

output symbols. We use the same trellis structure than in the transmitter

(poly2trellis(7, |171 133|)) The parameters oI this Trellis Structure are: 7, because we

want to work in octal, and 171 and 133 because this Trellis structure are the speciIied

in DVB standard.

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Figure 21: Jiterbi decoder Parameters

5.5. Error Rate Calculation

The Error Rate Calculation block compares input data Irom a transmitter with

output data Irom the receiver. It calculates the error rate as a running statistic, by

dividing the total number oI unequal pairs oI data elements by the total number oI

input data elements Irom one source. |6| As in our case the input are bits, then the

block computes the bit error rate. In the Iigure we can see one example where the Iirst

box oI the display means the Error rate, the second is the total number oI error bits,

and the third one is the total number oI bits that we sent.

Figure 22: BER Block

II we want to design a good system is mandatory that the BER would be small.

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Figure 23: BER for 2k 1QAM and 2k 4QAM

Figure 24: BER for 8k 1QAM and 8k 4QAM

In the Iigures 23 and 24 we show how the signal is damaged when the SNR is

decreasing.

5.6. Simulation Result

When we run the simulation in our particular case oI 2k 16QAM we can see as

result in the time domain the signal oI the Iigure 25 and in the Irequency domain in

the Iigure26. The Iigure 25 where we can observe several peaks allows us to get a

graphical idea oI the PAPR problem.

Figure 25: 1ime Domain signal.

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Figure 2: Frequency domain signal.

The PAPR is the main problem oI the OFDM signal, and the objective oI this

thesis is to evaluate this PAPR and try to get solutions to solve it. We want to remark

that we will always work in the time domain to reduce the PAPR.

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6. PAPR Problem

A large PAP ratio brings disadvantages like an increased complexity oI the analog-

to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, which should have enough levels to

represent all the inIormation, and the reduction oI the eIIiciency oI the RF power

ampliIier. To reduce the PAPR, several techniques have been proposed, and can be

divided in diIIerent categories.

Clipping reduction.

SoIt reduction (Compression Techniques).

Coding techniques: Use a special Iorward-error correcting code set that

excludes OFDM symbols with a large PAP ratio.

Techniques based on Scrambling: Scramble each OFDM symbol with

diIIerent scrambling sequences and select that sequence that gives the

smallest PAP ratio.

In this thesis only the second possible solution will be carried out. We will design

the blocks in Simulink to reduce the PAPR, and we could observe the diIIerence

between the original signal and the reduced signal.

The place where we can observe easier the peak to average power ratio is at the

end oI the transmitter and just beIore the channel. This is the reason that we will place

the block to solve the PAPR problem in this part oI the model.

6.1. Compression method

With clipping solutions we have problems such as: the non-linear distortion oI the

OFDM signal signiIicantly increases the level oI the out-oI band radiation. This eIIect

can be understood easily because with this method we multiply the signal by a

rectangular window Iunction as you can see in the Iigure 27.

Figure 27: Rectangular window.

To remedy the out oI band problem oI clipping in this system the soIt compression

method is used, where we multiply the signal by a nonrectangular window. (Iigure28)

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Figure 28: Aon-Rectangular Window.

While in the clipping method only change the values oI the peaks that are over the

threshold, the soIt compression method will change all the values oI the signal but not

in the same proportion. The peaks which values are larger in comparison to the

threshold will suIIer more attenuation than the values that are below the threshold.

We can understand it watching the Iigure 30. Ideally the window should be as

narrowband as possible to minimize the out oI band interIerence and on the other

hand the window should not be too long in the time domain, because data implies that

many signal samples are aIIected, which increases the BER.

To get the window oI the Iigure 28 is necessary to use the Iunction:

g(A) A/ (1A

2p

)

1/2p

As a conclusion this method is very similar to the clipping method with the

advantage oI solving the problem oI out-oI band but with the drawback that the BER

will be higher because all the samples will be aIIected while in clipping only the

peaks over the threshold will be changed.

6.2. Implementation of the Compression method using

Simulink

The Iigure 29 shows the subsystem "SoItreduction" where are implemented many

blocks which allow us to solve the problem oI the peak to average power.

We must emphasize that to see the signal in the time domain is necessary to divide

the signal into Real and Imaginary part. ThereIore iI we want to do the soIt

compression oI the signal we must do it discerning between the real and imaginary

part.

Figure 29: Softreduction Block.

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The block called SoItreduction is the most important block in this report, because

inside this block the PAPR problem will be solved. We divide this block into two

subblocks, as we can see in the Iigure 30.

Figure 3: Inside Softreduction Block.

The Iirst subblock reduces the real part, and the second block reduces the

imaginary part, this report only will explain the 'Real Reduces block because the

'Imaginary Reduces is the same than the Iirst.

BeIore reducing the signal we have converted the complex signal into real and

imaginary, and when we would have reduced the signal we will convert the real and

imaginary part into a complex signal which will be transmitted by the channel.

Now in the Iigure 31 are shown all the blocks inside the Real Reduces block.

At the beginning oI the design oI the block we have to distinguish between positive

or negative input values; Ior this reason we have used the relational operator, which

task is only to compare the input value with the constant which value is 0. We only

explain the case oI positive values because the operations Ior the negative values are

very similar and you can observe all the math operations in the bottom oI the Iigure

31.

We have designed this block according to the Iunction that we have deIined in the

top oI this point. At the output oI the relational operator we will get in the case oI

positive values: "1" iI the input is bigger than 0 and "0" iI the input is smaller than

"0". AIter that the input signal will be multiplied by the sequence oI 1 and 0 that we

have obtained aIter the comparison.

The next step is to elevate the obtained signal to 2p where the p is a diIIerent

constant Ior each case, later we have to add one to the signal and another time to

elevate all this signal to another constant that in this case will be 1/2p. Finally we

have to divide the input signal by this. As we can see we only Iollow the operations

maths oI the Iunction explained in page 24.

For the negative values we only calculate the absolute value oI the signal and we

work with the same Iunction Ior positive values.

The last step is to add the two signals, positive and negative, and we will get the

soIt compressed signal.

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Figure 31: Inside the Real Reduce Block.

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Probably there is a block in some library oI Simulink that carries out this task,

but we think that with this implementation we can realize how this compression

method is working only using math operations.

6.3. Graphical soft reduction results

Now the design oI the DVB system, included the block to solve the peak to

average power problem is Iinished, thereIore the next step is to simulate it and to

observe all the results.

First we will show the real signal graphic without been reduced and later the

graphic oI the reduced signal, where we can see the diIIerence between them.

We will do this Ior each case that is 2 k 16QAM, 8 k 16QAM, 2 k 64QAM, and 8

k 64QAM. We have to remark that in each case a diIIerent threshold is chosen

depending oI the obtained average, and this value is arbitrary, the important is that we

can choose where the signal will suIIer an important compression.

6.3.1. 2k 16QAM

Figure 32: 2k 1QAM Real signals in time domain.

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The Iirst case is the 2k 16QAM. It is important to remark in this case, that 2k

means that we work with 2048 subcarrier, and we use a 16QAM modulator. As we

can see in the Iollowing Iigures all the values will be modiIied, but not in the same

way. All the values that are close to the average oI the signal will be aIIected only a

little bit (the Iinal value oI these peaks will have around a 90 oI the initial value)

but the peaks which values are larger compared to the average will be modiIied

considerably (30 oI the initial value).

We can see in the top oI the Iigure30 the real part oI the signal with several peaks

which are over the average. AIter using the Clipping Block we realize in the bottom

oI the Figure 32 that there are not too much peaks which values are over ,0.1,.

Figure 33: 2k 1QAM Imaginary signals in time domain.

Opposite to the real part here in the imaginary part the average is the same value

but in negative, this means that most oI the peaks are below 0 value. In the Iigure 33

we can see the imaginary part in the top and the reduced imaginary part in the bottom.

Figure 34: 2k 1QAM signals in frequency domain (a)(b).

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The Iigure 34 shows all signal in the Irequency domain at the output oI the

channel. This is no possible in the time domain because to see the signal in this

domain is mandatory to separate the signal between Real and Imaginary part. We can

see that in the Iigure (b) the peaks are not as high as in the Iigure (a).

6.3.2. 8k 16QAM

8k 16 QAM is the second case. In this option, 8k means that we work with 8192

subcarriers, and a 16QAM modulator is used. For this case we have the limit on 0.04.

Figure 35: 8k 1QAM Real signals in time domain.

The Iigure 36 only shows the imaginary signal with or without being reduced.

Figure 3: 8k 1QAM Imaginary signals in time domain.

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In the Iigure 37 we show the entire signal in the Irequency domain at the output oI

the channel. The Iigure (a) shows us the original signal and the Iigure (b) the signal

aIter clipping.

Figure 37: 8k 1QAM signals in frequency domain (a)(b).

6.3.3. 2k 64QAM

The third case is the 2k 64QAM. It is important to remark in this case, that 2k

means that we work with 2048 subcarriers, and we use a 64QAM modulator. The

limit now is ,0.2,.

Figure 38: 2k 4QAM Real signals in time domain.

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We can see in the top oI the Iigure 38 the real part oI the signal with several peaks

which are over the average. II we realize, iI the peak value is much higher, even

though being reduced is still being high.

Figure 39: 2k 4QAM Imaginary signals in time domain.

Figure 4: 2k 4QAM signals in frequency domain(a)(b).

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6.3.4. 8k 64QAM

The last case is the 8k 64QAM. This option works with 8192 subcarriers and uses

a 64QAM modulator. The threshold that we have chosen is ,0.1,.

Figure 41: 8k 4QAM Real signals in time domain.

Figure 42: 8k 4QAM Imaginary signals in time domain.

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Figure 43: 8k 4QAM signals in frequency domain(a)(b).

6.4. Other possible solutions

As we have said beIore in the point 5, there are several options to solve the peak to

average power problem. Now some oI them are going to be explained brieIly, and we

will say the advantages and drawbacks oI each one oI the cases.

Clipping Method: It is the simplest way to reduce the peak to average

power ratio. With this method the peak amplitude becomes limited to some

threshold

Coding and Scrambling methods: A disadvantage oI distortion techniques

(Clipping and SoIt Compression) with a large PAP ratio, suIIer more

degradation, so they are more vulnerable to errors. To reduce this eIIect,

Iorward-error correction coding can be applied across several OFDM

symbols. By doing so, errors caused by symbols with a large degradation

can be corrected by the surrounding symbol. In a coded OFDM system, the

error probability is no longer dependent on the power oI individual

symbols, but rather on the power oI a number oI consecutive symbols.

Although such a low symbol error probability may be good enough Ior

real-time circuit-switched traIIic, such as voice, it may still cause problems

Ior packet data. To solve this problem standard scrambling techniques can

be used to ensure that the transmitter data between initial transmission and

retransmissions are uncorrelated. To achieve this, the scrambler has to use

a diIIerent seed Ior every transmission, which can be realized Ior instance

by simply adding one to the seed aIter Ior every transmission |1|

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7. Comparison

As I have said in the point 1.3, this is the second part oI the thesis, but there are

another part developed Irom my mate Sergio Isla Hernandez.

This thesis only evaluates the results about the soIt compression method but the

comparative between Clipping and soIt compression methods can be explained

because we have researched together and later we have divided all the inIormation in

two parts.

7.1. Advantages and Drawbacks Clipping Method

It is very easy to understand, peaks over the threshold are removed, and below

the threshold have the same value than at the input.

It is possible to implement this block, using only math operations.

Is not important the number oI bits that you introduce, only mind the peaks

that are over the threshold

We have to choose a threshold, depending oI the value oI the threshold, the

BER will be high or not, iI the threshold is not high there will be several peaks

and this Iact will introduce a high BER, otherwise iI we choose a lower

threshold, probably there will be not peaks and the BER will be almost cero.

The nonlinear distortions oI the OFDM signal signiIicantly increase the level

oI the out-oI-band radiation

7.2. Advantages and drawbacks of Soft Reduction Method

It is very easy to understand too.

This method like the clipping method can be implemented with math

operations.

The principal advantage respect to the Iirst method is its behavior isn't so

drastic. Actually is a soIt compression.

With this method we remedy the out oI band problem oI clipping method.

We change all the values, independently iI they are over or below the

threshold, but the compression is not the same Ior all the values. ( Figure 28)

In this method is important the number oI bits that we introduce, because we

change all the values, needless to say that Ior lower input values, the output

value is almost the same.

7.3. BER results for Clipping and Compression methods

The next Iigures are going to show how aIIects the clipping method and the soIt

compression method to the BER.

The Iollowing graphics show us the relation between SNR and BER Ior each one

oI the diIIerent cases that we have developed beIore.

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36

Figure 44: BER for 2k 1QAM. (a)Clipping Method (b) Compression Method

Figure 45: BER for 2k 4QAM. (a)Clipping Method (b) Compression Method

Figure 4: BER for 8k 1QAM. (a)Clipping Method (b) Compression Method

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) Comparison

37

Figure 47: BER for 8k 4QAM. (a)Clipping Method (b) Compression Method

We can see in the Iigures Irom 44 to 47 that the BER is higher in the soIt

compression method than in the clipping method when the SNR value decreases.

7.4. Conclusions

The main objective oI this thesis is to remove the Peak to Average Power Ratio

problem, (PAPR), which appears in systems like DVB when the OFDM modulation is

used. In order to solve this problem the SoIt Compression Method has been proposed.

Once the system is designed and run is possible to see that the goal oI this thesis

has been gotten, in spite oI the model is still having other problems like the increase

oI BER because we change all oI the signal values.

When we simulate the model without the compression solution, we can observe

several peaks which will be reduced proportionally once introduced the compression

block.

In a Iuture, probably somebody can improve this task using another diIIerent

system with new Ieatures.

Finally all the investigation has been carried out by two students (diIIering

between transmitter and receiver) being diIIicult to separate the inIormation in two

diIIerent reports because both are necessary to understand how the system is working.

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) Comparison

38

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) Improvements

39

8. Possible Improvements

Once Iinished the development oI this thesis we will be able to say possible

improvements which will be:

We have chosen a channel which only introduces Gaussian noise, but

actually when we send one signal though the channel, it usually has

problems such as Iading or multipath. One improvement would be to

design the same system that we have designed but choosing other channel.

We did not worry about the synchronism in the system, but this parameter

is important iI we want to design a real DVB system.

In this system exists only one available sort oI modulation technique, but iI

we have a look at the diIIerent applications in which OFDM is used you

will realize that some oI them use other techniques, Ior instance QPSK. (In

this case QAM modulation was used).

To eliminate intercarrier interIerence (ICI) is important to design the cyclic

preIix block, this block has been not designed in this report because we

have not this problem, but actually when we work with OFDM the ICI is a

big problem.

We have only researched about two methods to solve the peak to average

power ratio problem, but there are other techniques to solve this problem

like coding and scrambling.

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) Improvements

40

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) ReIerences

41

9. References

|1| Richard Van Nee, Ramjee Prasad, "OFDM For Wireless Multimedia

Comunications" Artech House 2000.

|2| Engels,Mark OFDM Systems, How to make them work? Kluwer Academic

Publishers, 2002.

|3| IEC: OFDM Ior mobile Data Communications: http://www.iec.org (2005-2-17)

|4| DVB Digital Video Broadcasting: http://erg.abdn.ac.uk/research/ (2005-2-21)

|5|Mathworks: http://www.Mathworks.com (2005-3-7)

|6| Simulink 6.2 help.

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) ReIerences

42

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) Appendix

43

10. Appendix

In this section we include Matlab`s Iunctions to set the value oI the variables in the

system.

10.1. Model Pre-load Function

nsubcarriers=1704;

outputrows=2048; %IFFT/zeropad and IFFT/UEselector

selectorelements1=[1:852 1705:2048 853:1704]; %IFFT/UEselector

selectorelements2=[1:852 1197:2048]; %FFT/UEselector

numbitsperinteger=4; %QAMmapping/bit to integer converter

mnumber=16; %QAMmapping/rectangular QAM

buffersize=6816;

interrow=96; % Interleaver/ matrix interleaver

intercolumn=71; % Interleaver/ matrix interleaver

bitsperblock=5112; % Bernoulli block

constant=2048;

threshold= 0.1;

threshold1= -0.1;

threshold2= 0.1;

threshold3= -0.1;

exponente=0.6;

exponente2=1.666667;

10.2. Model Post-load Function

Mode=menu('Choose a modelbetwen the 4 different options ' ,'2k16QAM','2k64QAM','8k16QAM','8k64QAM');

switch Mode

case 1

nsubcarriers=1704;

outputrows=2048; % IFFT/zeropad and IFFT/UEselector

selectorelements1=[1:852 1705:2048 853:1704]; % IFFT/UEselector

selectorelements2=[1:852 1197:2048]; % FFT/UEselector

numbitsperinteger=4; % QAMmapping/bit to integer converter

mnumber=16; % QAMmapping/rectangular QAM

buffersize=6816;

interrow=96; % Interleaver/ matrix interleaver

intercolumn=71; % Interleaver/ matrix interleaver

bitsperblock=5112; % Bernoulli block

constant=2048;

threshold= 0.1;

threshold1= -0.1;

threshold2= 0.1;

threshold3= -0.1;

exponente=0.6;

exponente2=1.666667;

case 2

nsubcarriers=1704;

outputrows=2048; % IFFT/zeropad and IFFT/UEselector

selectorelements1=[1:852 1705:2048 853:1704]; % IFFT/UEselector

selectorelements2=[1:852 1197:2048]; % FFT/UEselector

numbitsperinteger=6; % QAMmapping/bit to integer converter

mnumber=64; % QAMmapping/rectangular QAM

buffersize=10224;

interrow=144; % Interleaver/ matrix interleaver

intercolumn=71; % Interleaver/ matrix interleaver

bitsperblock=7668; % Bernoulli block

constant=2048;

threshold= 0.2;

threshold1= -0.2;

threshold2= 0.2;

threshold3= -0.2;

exponente=1;

exponente2=1;

case 3

nsubcarriers=6816;

outputrows=8192; % IFFT/zeropad and IFFT/UEselector

selectorelements1=[1:3408 6817:8192 3409:6816]; % IFFT/UEselector

Simulation and Evaluation oI a DVB system using Simulink (Vol II) Appendix

44

selectorelements2=[1:3408 4785:8192]; % FFT/UEselector

numbitsperinteger=4; % QAMmapping/bit to integer converter

mnumber=16; % QAMmapping/rectangular QAM

buffersize=13632;

interrow=142; % Interleaver/ matrix interleaver

intercolumn=96; % Interleaver/ matrix interleaver

bitsperblock=10224; % Bernoulli block

constant=8192;

threshold= 0.04;

threshold1= -0.04;

threshold2=0.04;

threshold3=-0.04;

exponente=0.6;

exponente2=1.666667;

case 4

nsubcarriers=6816;

outputrows=8192; % IFFT/zeropad and IFFT/UEselector

selectorelements1=[1:3418 6837:8192 3419:6836]; % IFFT/UEselector

selectorelements2=[1:3418 4775:8192]; % FFT/UEselector

numbitsperinteger=6; % QAMmapping/bit to integer converter

mnumber=64; % QAMmapping/rectangular QAM

buffersize=41016;

interrow=1709; % Interleaver/ matrix interleaver

intercolumn=24; % Interleaver/ matrix interleaver

bitsperblock=30762; % Bernoulli block

constant=8192;

threshold= 0.1;

threshold1= -0.1;

threshold2=0.1;

threshold3=-0.1;

exponente=0.9;

exponente2=1.11111111;

end

45

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