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# HEAT EXCHANGERS-2

Prabal Talukdar
Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Delhi E-mail: prabal@mech.iitd.ac.in p

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## Multipass and Crossflow

The subscripts 1 and 2 represent the inlet and outlet, respectively.. T and t represent the shell- and tube-side temperatures respectively temperatures,
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T and t represent the shelland tube tube-side side temperatures temperatures, respectively

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## Design with LMTD

LMTD method is very suitable for determining the size of a heat exchanger h t to realize li prescribed ib d outlet tl t t temperatures t when h th the mass fl flow rates and the inlet and outlet temperatures of the hot and cold fluids are specified. With the LMTD method, the task is to select a heat exchanger that will meet the prescribed heat transfer requirements. The procedure to be followed by the selection process is:
Select-type of f Heat H t Exchanger Determine- Inlet, Oulet t temp, Heat H t transfer t f rate t Using energy balance Calculate Tlm and F if neccessary

Obtain U
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Calculate As

Alternative of LMTD
A second kind of problem encountered in heat exchanger analysis is the determination of the heat transfer rate and the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold fluids for prescribed fluid mass flow rates and inlet temperatures when the type and size of the heat exchanger are specified. specified The heat transfer surface area A of the heat exchanger in this case is known, but the outlet temperatures p are not. Here the task is to determine the heat transfer performance of a specified heat exchanger or to determine if a heat exchanger available in storage will do the job. The LMTD method could still be used for this alternative problem, but the procedure would require tedious iterations, and thus it is not practical. In an attempt to eliminate the iterations from the solution of such problems, Kays and dL London d came up with i h a method h d in i 1955 called ll d the h effectivenessNTU ff ti NTU method, which greatly simplified heat exchanger analysis
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Effectiveness

Q Q max

.

## Q max = C min (Th ,in Tc,in )

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## Maximum heat transfer

The heat transfer in a heat exchanger will reach its maximum value when (1) the cold fluid is heated to the inlet temperature of the hot fluid or (2) The hot fluid is cooled to the inlet temperature of the cold fluid. These two limiting conditions will not be reached simultaneously unless the heat capacity rates of the hot and cold fluids are identical (i (i.e., e Cc = Ch). ) When Cc Ch, which is usually the case case, the fluid with the smaller heat capacity rate will experience a larger temperature change, and thus it will be the first to experience the maximum temperature, p , at which point p the heat transfer will come to a halt.
Maximum possible heat transfer

## Q max = Cmin ( Th ,in Tc ,in )

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Example

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ExampleC Contd. d

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Example -Contd. C td

The temperature rise of the cold fluid in a heat exchanger will be equal to the temperature drop of the hot fluid when the mass flow rates and the specific heats of the hot and cold fluids are identical.
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Effectiveness relation
parallel-flow double-pipe heat exchanger
Q = Cc (Tc, out Tc,in ) = C h (Th ,in Th , out )

ln

## Th ,out Tc,out Th ,in Tc,in

UA s Cc 1+ Cc C h

## C Th ,in Tc,in + Tc,in Tc,out c (Tc,out Tc,in ) UA s Cc Ch 1 + ln = Th ,in Tc,in Cc Ch

simplifies to
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Cc ln 1 1 + C h

## Tc, out Tc,in UA s Cc = 1+ T C C c h h ,in Tc,in

Effectiveness relation
We now manipulate the definition of effectiveness to obtain
=

Q max

Cc (Tc, out Tc,in ) Tc, out Tc,in C = min C min (Th ,in Tc,in ) Th ,in Tc,in Cc

Taking either Cc or Ch to be Cmin (both approaches give the same result), the relation above can be expressed more conveniently as
UA s C min 1 exp 1+ C C min max p parallel _ flow = C i 1 + min C max
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Cc ln 1 1 + C h

results

## UA s Cc 1 exp 1 + C C c h parallel _ flow = C min Cc 1+ Cc C h

NTU
Number of transfer units
NTU = UAs = C min (m C p ) min

UAs

Capacity ratio
NotethatNTUisproportionaltoAs . Therefore,forspecifiedvaluesofUand Cmin,thevalueofNTUisameasureof theheattransfersurfaceareaAs .Thus, thelargertheNTU,thelargertheheat exchanger.

C min c= C max

## = function ( UAs / C min , C min / C max ) = function( NTU, c)

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Effectiveness for heat exchangers (from Kays and London, Ref. 5).

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Effectiveness for heat exchangers (from Kays and London, Ref. 5).

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Effectiveness for heat exchangers (from Kays and London, Ref. 5).

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Discussions
1. The value of the effectiveness ranges from 0 to 1. It increases rapidly with NTU for small values (up to about NTU 1.5) but rather slowly for larger values. Therefore, the use of a heat exchanger with a large NTU (usually larger than 3) and thus a l large size i cannot be b justified j ifi d economically, i ll since i a large increase in NTU in this case corresponds to a small increase in effectiveness. Thus, a heat exchanger g with a very y high g effectiveness may y be highly desirable from a heat transfer point of view but rather undesirable from an economical point of view. 2 For a given 2. gi en NTU and capacit capacity ratio c = Cmin /Cmax, the counter-flow heat exchanger has the highest effectiveness, followed closely by the cross-flow heat exchangers with both fluids unmixed.
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Discussions
3. The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is independent of the capacity ratio c for NTU values of less than about 0.3. 4. The value of the capacity ratio c ranges between 0 and 1 1. For a given NTU, NTU the effectiveness becomes a maximum for c = 0 and a minimum for c = 1. The case c = Cmin /Cmax 0 corresponds to Cmax , which is realized d i a phase-change during h h process i in a condenser d or boiler. All effectiveness relations in this case reduce to = max = 1 - exp(NTU) regardless of yp of heat exchanger. g Note that the the type temperature of the condensing or boiling fluid remains constant in this case. The effectiveness is the lowest in the other limiting case of c = Cmin/Cmax = 1, 1 which hich is realized reali ed when hen the heat capacity rates of the two fluids are equal.
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Conclusions
Note that the analysis y of heat exchangers g with unknown outlet temperatures p is a straight forward matter with the effectivenessNTU method but requires rather tedious iterations with the LMTD method. When all Wh ll the th inlet i l t and d outlet tl t t temperatures t are specified, ifi d the th size i of f the th heat h t exchanger can easily be determined using the LMTD method. Alternatively, it can also be determined from the effectivenessNTU method Alternatively by first evaluating the effectiveness from its definition and then the NTU from the appropriate NTU relation given in tabular form.

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## Compact heat exchangers

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