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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION
The general set of corruption issues are helpful source in defining education
corruption. Like other fields, material gain is the main reason for abuse of authority. As
education is the most significant segment, its specialized principles consist of more than
material goods; as a result education corruption can be defined as the abuse of authority for
individual as well as material gain (eyneman, !""#$.
%orruption is &the use of official assets and property for personal use by an official or
by an officer of high rank.& e ' she often uses it all by wrong way or by way of fraud
((yint, !"""$
There are many forms of corruption and they vary from low to high level. )ut in the
case of providing corruption, the (inistry of *ducation sells bribe in the form of commission
in funds and institutions buy. *+amination, the entrance of the library services, housing
services, test scores, the late approval of thesis, class notes and book sales are the main areas
of corruption. ,hile many people -oin educational institutions to provide educational
services, but after some time, they involve corruption. .n this case the buyer is a student and
the seller is either a faculty member or a member of the administrative staff of the .nstitute
(eyneman et al., !""/$.
0overnment has allocated a very small amount of funds to funds for education. These
are prepared by the government through ta+ collection in different sectors. Then, these funds
are distributed to the department of education. The result is obtained from royalties is also a
part of less valued proportion of sales of the .nstitute. 1o the lack of funding is the main
cause of the low 2uality of education ((o-a, !"""$.
As the policy of higher education has no control over changes in fee structures in an
educational institution, if this policy can also be seen as promoting corruption in educational
institutions. .t re2uires the .nstitute to produce a competition between students not based on
merit but on their ability to pay increased fees. .t is therefore of great concern that the
national economy will ultimately reduce that students are attracted to more advantageous
than the e+pansive courses like medical and engineering courses (3oskettet al., !""4$.
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.f the fight against corruption and private agencies to work effectively, they can make
better policies to fight against corruption. Thus, full and public governess is the need to stop
the corruption. Thus, each sector departments and the whole society should have to play their
role effectively against corruption. The public must be given the value to make an
atmosphere where corruption could be presented (Lawal, !""/$
6akistan as the 7igerian society is undergoing the reform process as a finding of
confusion in governance, moral lu+ury, bribery and corruption on the part of stakeholders in
education. These decisions have affected the delivery and 2uality of education. 1hould the
educational comple+ has lost its standards and the community is not -ust something. .t raises
some basic 2uestions about the reason for the degradation of the most important values that
have been violated in the education sector and the community (8dunayoet al., !"5"$.
*ducation provided the basis for reducing poverty and improving social
improvement. A lower 2uality education can be a very important reasons why poor nations
do not develop. .n 6akistan, the management of the 2uality of education is changing down. .t
was noted that the system of science education in particular has reached the lowest ebb and
needs to be improved immediately. There is acute lack of instructor. The laboratories are
poorly e2uipped and poor and the method has modest interest for current daily needs.
1chools are not usually successful. Tracing pathogens responsible aspects of the current
nation is an important necessity. These include faulty programs, poor 2uality of teachers,
dual language education at the secondary level, overcrowded classrooms and cheating in
e+aminations. .n the state of 6akistan9s efforts were prepared to mold the process according
to our ideology, agriculture and engineering, cultural and moral values and our state
re2uirements in the areas of science , medicine, technology, etc. The increase in the supply of
education or less the resistance of the infrastructure offers can play a role in increasing
literacy rates mega and community education ((emon, !""/$.
.t is interesting that there was no educational policies. 1uccessive five:year economic
plans were available alongside the educational strategies. The table does not bear the general
problems of education in the broad spectrum and higher education meticulously. These
challenges include issues related to industrialization, education on the industry, globalization,
ongoing and continuous training, skills and 2uality of education. .n accumulation of these,
lack of motivation on the part of teachers, non:availability of 2uality teachers, irrelevant
!
content with the labor market, dry matter content and less interesting, non:compliance with
social physical needs, financial and economical education. )est teachers are not attract to the
education system due to lower salaries, lack of incentives and promotions sluggish. All
contact to enhance teachers, learning and teaching environment and. There are other
2uestions that are contributory to the ;7 satisfactory teaching students, less concern for
conceptual learning, teacher student ratio high political interference in educational
institutions, transfer of teachers, incentives and internships. These issues give rise to a
generation of business graduates with less control capacity needs (6arveen et al., !"55$.
The anti corruption systems e+plain corruption widely as <the abuse of entrusted
power for confidential gain= which involves corruption in both the private and public sectors.
A little, broadly used definition is <the wrong effect of community supremacy for private
gain= which focused on the actions of govt organization and their communication with the
common public. .n few times the definition is understand different by the various consultant
and profession in the field of supremacy. Abuse could be e+plain as involving some or all of
the following a crime governmental violation, the short agreement of a political average or an
ethical opinion. The community power could be e+plain as the power of any arm of the
nation including most e+ecutive bodies, the administration and the courts and any agent of
these branches (;said !"5"$.
The scandals of the dishonesty of the last decade ethics in accounting education has
become more important topic of the academic profession. .n !"">, the 7ational Association
of 1tate )oards of Accountancy addressed the issue of ethics and initially 3or,ord two
autonomous college courses should be included in the training re2uirements to take the %6A
e+am. The 7ational Association of 1tate )oards of Accountancy proposal to meet a lot of
criticism from educators accounting and the accounting profession. As of today, however, the
most ma-ority of the %ouncils of 1tate public accounting does not re2uire stand alone ethics
courses in their educational needs, but much more value was placed on the ethics of teaching
in many activities of the college. This increased emphasis on ethics education in school
curricula can create challenges for educators, especially when wrong behavior as easy
payments to foreign officials are authorized under ;.1. law 1tates ( %asey and )unker !"5!$.
>
The dishonesty scandals of the past decade ethics in accounting education has become
greater important topic in the academic occupation. .n !"">, the 7ational Association of
1tate )oards of Accountancy addressed the ethics issue and initially forword that two stand:
alone college courses should be included in the education re2uirements to sit for the certified
public accountant e+am. The 7ational Association of 1tate )oards of Accountancy proposal
met with large number of criticism from accounting educators and the accounting
occupation. As of today, however, the most ma-ority of 1tate )oards of 6ublic Accountancy
do not re2uire stand alone ethics courses in their educational re2uirements, but much more
value has been placed on teaching ethics in numerous college activities. This increased focus
on teaching ethics in academic programs can create challenges for education professionals,
especially when wrong behavior like easy payments to foreign officials are allowed under
;nited 1tates law ()unker and %asey !"5!$.
%orruption has affected all sectors of the education system, namely the construction
of the school, appointments, supply and distribution of laboratory instruments and books, etc.
%orruption in education is a sensitive issue. *ducation would be unable to raise the ethical
and moral values in a corrupt environment. .t is clear that the provision of integrity and
limitation contrary to the ethical behavior in education can lead to optimal working
environment for teaching. The main consideration to eradicate corruption in the education
sector is to limit opportunities for corruption (allak and 6oisson, !""?$.
8bservation of teachers and students on the reasons for lower school effectiveness
among college students degree in 8gun 1tate, 7igeria. @esponse speakers mentioned the
2ualification and status speaker that students do not force students. 6oor efficiency, but the
methods of education lecturer pressure poor academic performance. 1tudents in response to
the other side mentioned that while teachers 2ualification and poor performance of the
influence of environment students students, technical education teachers and education
materials do not. The implications of these e+ploration college degree counselors attracted
adolescent tips for better academic presentation were discussed. The degree of difference
academic achievement of students in the state of 7igeria has been and still is a resource
concern and interest of research for teachers, administration and parents. This is due to the
enormous importance that education has on the development of the state of nations.
0overnments are in full agreement that their vast savings on education does not yield the
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desired fracture. Lecturer also complained about the poor performance of students in e+ternal
and internal e+amination (Asikhia !"5"$.
6eople related to the body of the education profession over the top right to the college
tackle corruption activities in a few steps. The phenomenon is not modern, it is up to ten
years e+ploring rarely paying attention to it. 8ne issue of corruption occurs only currently on
the global agenda. 1econd, those related to education reform have been reluctant to address
the issue of the issue of corruption, because they fear that it could damage the board of
education sectors and thus reduce the assets that are allocated . owever, the number of
research has been conducted on corruption in the education sector during the end of the
decade, Transparency .nternational, the ,orld )ank, the ,orld 8rganization for *ducational
6lanning, several universities and 1oros 3oundation. 7umerous studies have applied
measurement techni2ues general corruption in the sector and tend to use the most common
e+planation of corruption as &the use of those resources for private Achieve (6oission !"5"$.
Importance of Study
*ducation is ma-or aspects of community which increase the options of improvement
but corruption in education department is a highly dangerous communal diseases. %orruption
in other organization is not as dangerous as in case of education sector which deteriorate a
nationAs morality. %orruption in education is at various levels of government and
administration e.g. acceptance of bribe for accreditation and procurement by *ducation
(inistry; demand of corrupt for admission, grades, book rental, housing, e+ams and
transcripts by administrator, grades, e+ams and books purchases by the teacher. %ities of
central and upper 6un-ab may have low level of educational corruption due to presence of
offices of departmental authorities that may have strong check and balance of the system. As
B. 0. Chan is located far from the center of governance, so corruption in education such as
teacherAs absenteeism, financial corruption and ghost employees could be of ma-or concern.
3or e+ample during the year in !"5! seven cases of financial corruption in education
department such as allegations of misuse of powers, embezzlement, fraud taking illegal
salary, fake certificates and accepting of bribes and which have been reported in anti:
corruption branch B. 0. Chan.
?
The present study has the following ob-ectivesD
To assess the level of corruption in educational institutions.
To find out the some factors responsible for corruption especially promoting the
bribery.
To suggest logical solutions for the problem of corruption on the basis of study
findings
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Chapter 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A statement of the 0overnment. of .ndia, !""5 is the -udgment that there is no logical
e+planation for the corrupt attitude, corrupt activities. %orruption and differ from state to
state across the country. The ,orld )ank and other more parties submit that the misuse of
office for private communal Achieve. .t includes finding or delete promise or a recipe gift or
any other benefit by a local government of the importance of the performance or control
action in violation of the duties of the 8ffice needs. Chan et al. (!"5!$, including e+pressed
that corruption defined as the abuse of power by mandating private benefits is an unfortunate
condition in 6akistan. 7o structure, no level and no office of public sector penalty him. .t
reached all the organization of the state, beyond e+ecutive, he put his scratch on the -udiciary
and the legislature 6ark. .t would be better to say that the whole body of the 1tate of 6akistan
suffers from this disease and a groan under its dead weight. .ts incidence is very important
that 6akistan is ranked 5>E in the group of nations to scale so free of corruption of
government. This classification is not at all acceptable.
.n spite of many efforts taken by 0overnment of 6akistan, corruption still persists
across the govt. departments and same is the case with education sector in 6akistan. The most
severe impact on this sector is due to corruption and political interference. Aly (!""/$
e+plained that political influence in the appointment and transfer of teachers give way to
corruption in education sector. e also reported that political interference had further
complicated the issues in education sector.
7ational *ducation (anagement .nformation 1ystem collects annual data from
education sector of 6akistan. owever, this institution collects data only from public
education sector, and usually ignores the private sectors which occupy considerable
proportion of education sector. .n 6akistan nearly >5F of college students are enrolled in the
non government colleges. Lynd (!""/$ revealed that it is very important that data from these
private sectors should be available so that it could be ensured that policy has promoted entire
education system of country.
The clues of corruption obtained from sub-ect review process are mostly used to
consider the relative ranking of a country along with its strengths and weaknesses.
/
3urthermore, these clues also e+plain an e+perimentally verified pattern of corruption which
needs to be checked for the sake of national educational and economic promotions. ,eidman
(!""/$ indicated that sub-ect review is basically necessary to identify the clues for corruption
and is vital for controlling corruption especially in an environment where corruption have
become a tradition.
%ritical analysis of corruption as a clear phenomenon that emerged as a result of
unlawful actions of those involved in the formation of laws and responsible for implementing
legal controls on corruption. The presence of these people fulfill their interests at the e+pense
of collective social losses have e+acerbated the problem of corruption. 8buah (!"5"$ stated
that -oint venture corrupt public officials and policy makers have deteriorated the education
sector already struggling
Absenteeism des enseignants est reconnue comme un problGme ma-eur de gestion de
l9Hducation dans de nombreu+ pays. Lors2ue les enseignants restent absents sans motif
lHgitime, ils dHtournent les ressources publi2ues pour leurs propres fins, touchant l9Hducation
de leurs HlGves. Au:delI des interventions de suivi participatif 2ui se concentrent
gHnHralement sur la prHsence de la surveillance des enseignants dans les Hcoles, les
organisations de la sociHtH civile ont mis I l9essai une sHrie d9initiatives destinHes I freiner
absence. (atsheza et al. (!"55$ ont conclu 2ue ces initiatives ont soulignH le rJle des
incitations directes pour les enseignants. .ls ont Hgalement e+plorH le rJle des incitations en
comparant les approches et conclu 2ue les meilleurs rHsultats de frH2uentation sont obtenus
grKce I des systGmes mis en Luvre mHcani2uement et systHmati2uement plutJt 2ue des
systGmes impli2uant des chefs d9Htablissement, 2ui peut, pour diverses raisons, de manipuler
les registres de prHsence des enseignants.
1tudent cheating on test is the most similar type of mismanagement in education. The
most common method is to illegally material into the e+amination room. 1tudents hide notes
in their socks, pockets, and write them on their arms the lowest technical method. *ckstein
(!"">$ analyzed that now however, technology makes its capable to import information in
very small electronic instruments and even to passes the e+amination 2uestion and answers
within few seconds to students in an e+amination rooms and halls, as well as to other location
with in and even outside the country. 1o simple particular person cheating becomes changed
to fraud on a more methodological and large scale.
M
The most available to increase primary school enrollment and student learning,
@einikka and 1vensson (!"5"$ have argued that means ideas in the governance of social
services may produce the best performance. 1ince social service provision in developing
countries is often plagued by default to make use of the beast time and corruption. ,e have
provided this using data from a uni2ue political e+perience. A press campaign in ;ganda
aimed at reducing the misuse of public funds by providing schools with information and
follow local authorities to manage a large subsidy program of education. The campaign was
very successful and reducing the capture had a positive impact on enrollment and learning
candidates.
The education system is disposed substantially in order. .ndividuals must learn the
basics before you can study modern knowledge. Accordingly, in the generally perceive the
system in three primary secondary and tertiary phases. .ndividuals must provide lower levels
successfully before entering the more advanced levels and their academic achievements in
lower case their preparations and 2ualifications for higher levels levels. 1u (!"">$ concluded
that, at any level of education, 2uality of education depends on the availability of assets and
at the same time affected by the decisions of individual participation. ,e focus on public
education funds, the main part of the total educational e+penditure of funds for almost all
countries. The hierarchical nature of the education system, different stages of education are
not fully substitutable. Thus, a change in the 2uality of education at one stage may not be
immediately e+amined by an opposite change to another stage. Therefore, the policy of
distributing resources can have a big impact on the final results.
This is a resource for education is determined by the level of education and type of
education must be provided. The level of resources for all types of education and levels are
authorized by the federal government. These include professionally trained teachers and
2ualified teachers in all areas staff. 0overnment approved curriculum, teaching materials,
school buildings, furniture and good 2uality administrators to ensure effective management
of the school. Agabi (!"5"$ argued that resources primarily to the provision of primary and
secondary education in 7igeria are allowed by national policy on education. At the tertiary
level, the federal government is working with the 7igerian ;niversities %ommission. The
7ational %ouncil for Technical *ducation and the 7ational %ommission for %olleges of
*ducation to ensure the provision and maintenance of standard term resources. *ducational
E
resources were four groups and categories include physical resources such as school plants,
classrooms, offices, recreational facilities and the entire floor of the school. (aterial
resources, including management, stationery, education plans and ob-ectives prescribed
methods. uman both teachers and non:teaching resources. The funds consist of all monetary
entries in the education system oriented towards achieving the educational ob-ectives set.
The worst result of corruption revealed the financial waste and after a state gets
failed. ,e often see cases in college students that cannot afford the bribes and they can not
go to university to study. .n this way, talent is destroyed and the other students get input on
the basis of corruption is not on merit. %hapman (!""!$ e+plained that corruption not change
the wisdom of youth. As a result, the younger generation begins to think reference and
corruption as the basis for success deserved.
.n many developing countries, the privatization of education has in fact increased the
share of private funding, sometimes at the level of basic education, but more often at the post
basic education. )elfield and Levin (!""!$ studied the number of private schools and private
universities has increased at the same time. This trend emerged largely due to the inability of
the state to meet the growing demand for education at all levels.
The standerd of human capital can be increased by reducing political corruption. The
convenience of the student is positively related to the 2uality of student and funds raised by
students has a positive effect on educational standerd once the economic motivation and
other variables are taken into account. Bipietro and 3lint (!"5!$ indicate that the assets are
positively related to academic conse2uences. Therefore, the increase in student performance
may depend on the efficient use of resources to initiatives that are e+actly the conse2uences
of improving students. .f political corruption causes money to spent and resources only in
response to land lord political forces, then it is likely that more money will have a much more
positive effect on student achievement
%orruption and the growth of economic output inverse relationship to each other. .f
governments do not take strong measures against corruption, the country will go to the
disaster. 8bayelu (!""/$ has argued that corruption has made countries rich in natural
resources like 7igeria to be converted in poor countries. Although bribes offered to make
people not easy but the overall effect of corruption is that economic development is
5"
compromised. %orruption destroys the good name of the country and results in a slow growth
due to lower investment.
1tudent achievement is a product of social and economic factors, attitudes and
environmental factors. *ducation plays an important role in the political, economic and social
development field. 6lacement of secondary education and the number of admission depends
on the realization in the review of Cenya %ertificate of primary education in the eight
standard. @eche et al. (!"5!$ stated that the development of education has long been a target
position of the 0overnment of Cenya. *ducation is seen by the different actors and
stakeholders as a basic need and a fundamental right. ranks high performance on the national
agenda with educators and policy makers focusing on control, accountability, curriculum
reform and teacher 2uality, school choice and related concerns. %onspicuously absent was an
e+amination of how the conditions of schooling impact on teaching and learning. Although
abundant literature linking school facilities to the 2uality of education and teacher morale and
2uality of teachers.
(any psychoanalysts argue that current enrollment problems are caused as much by
the pressure of the teacher by the failure to attract new teachers. .n fact, research has shown
that about one person all beginners leave teaching within four years teachers. .n general,
teachers list family or personal reasons, such as pregnancy, child:rearing needs and health
problems as reasons for leaving the profession. )uckley et al. (!""#$ argued that -ob
dissatisfaction, mainly due to a bad packet, poor administrative support, and student
discipline problems, is also among the reasons and the most common for teachers to leave the
profession. (any factors clearly affect teacher retention, but most teaching takes place in a
specific physical location and 2uality of this place can affect the ability of teachers to teach,
teacher morale, and health and safety of teachers
Abdullah (!""M$ stated that corruption is one of the most damaging conse2uences of
poor governance. .t insidiously investment and economic growth, reduces the assets available
to human development goals, deepens the field of poverty, subverts the -udicial system, and
undermines the validity of the state. .n fact, when corruption becomes fortified positions, it
can destroy the entire economic, political and social fabric of a country. %orruption
%orruption products and an inability to fight effectively can lead to an era of rampant
corruption.
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The relationship between physical secondary school participation and achievement is
one of the most discussed, debated and research in all sports scholarship sub-ects, especially
when we look at the social science research focused on sport and society interactions and
their conse2uences. (ost importantly, this research has repeatedly demonstrated a strong
positive correlation between high school sports participation and academic achievement. The
relationship between physical engagement and academic success is not, for the most part, a
direct causality. artmaan (!""M$ argued that it can not, in fact, vary considerably depending
on the type of sport, level of participation, the substance of the student:athletes involved, the
characteristics of the school, and the relationship between the program sports and academic
curriculum.
0ood governance grow in a situation necessarily corruption free. 6akistan is
inappropriate way down the ladder on this account. %orruption of all measure very large
2uantity and parochialism all levels of government and all segments of the population of
society, religions, political, legal, commercial and even private. Nualities corruption acts as
the mechanism of balancing market here in a largely unregulated administrative
configuration. There are economic reasons for this surreal give and take at the individual
level but the economic cost of the company is e+tremely impressive. Oavid (!"5"$ suggested
that corruption severely affects the lives of citizens in less returns on the use of various
resources and adds to their cost of living. The origin of corruption in 6akistan can be
attributed to ma-or events from 5E#" to 5EE". 1erious attempts needed from the mid:5EE"s to
encourage the turn of the century ridicule into tools of political support. 3or the past two
years, there is an almost significant legal thing at the national level.
.mportance of teachers in schools in some countries, especially in developed
countries, is often cited as a feature of the school deprives boys of appropriate models. The
initiatives discussed here provide no definitive level in this regard. Oha and Celleher (!""4$
e+plained that the Australian school is co:educational, with the largest number of teachers are
women. This does not seem to be creating problems for boys. owever, there is a primary
school and it could be argued that the gender of the teacher did not matter so much at this
age. The large number of teachers in distance education institutions in Lesotho are also
women. Bespite it is a primary set, a number of students belonging to the age group less
important, and they have not provided any negative feedback on teachers.
5!
.f we think a little more corruption and its effects on the economy, we soon convinced
that it is two:edged sword, and seriously affects the economy. 1arkar and asan (!""5$
stated that the massy economic performance of a state is directly related to corruption. (any
thinkers and sociologists to measure their capabilities and settings.
There are different types of data to the literature of education sector. ,e highlight of
enrollment at primary, secondary and tertiary level. There are several active secondary
education in a period for which Asia and Africa. Pelde (!""?$ e+plained that higher
education is very low in Africa. .t seems stronger in Latin America than in *ast Asia, it does
not want known for the 2uality, type and relevance of education. 1tudy abroad will be
considered later as an important feature of globalization affects education. 8ther directors of
education are e2ually important, such as the type of access to education to education and
2uality of education.
The impact of different teachers and the characteristics of the class of third graders
conse2uences uses a feature of the 3rench system in which some new teachers start their -obs
before receiving training. )ressou+ et al. (!""M$ reported that the four teacher characteristics
are included in the sample 2ualified teachers, trained new untrained teachers and new
teachers. To identify the effects, we use administrative errors of the estimate of the number
of teachers. ,e find that trained and untrained teachers allocate new to similar classes.
,here the 2ualified teachers have better students located in better surroundings. Therefore,
in order to match students and similar classes, we focus on students with new teachers and
those with desirable e+perienced teachers. .n addition, we show that the same sample can be
used to estimate the causal effect of class size on student conse2uences. 8ur results are as
followsD 3irst, teacher training significantly improves test scores in mathematics. 1econd, the
ripple effect does not rely entirely on the different teaching practices, but also on the 2uality
of the material, untrained teachers who ma-ored in science at the ;niversity improve the
performance of their students as far as teachers are trained. Third, the effect of class size is
important and useful, the class size does not appear to be correlated with management
practices. 3ourth, teacher training does not improve scores first poor performance of students
and classes.
,e study the effects of different types of education and training on the ability of
teachers to promote student success. 6revious studies on the sub-ect have been made by the
5>
lack of training measures for teachers and difficulties dealing with non:random selection of
teachers to students and teachers in training. ,e address these issues by bringing together
models that include detailed measures before the service and training on the -ob. A rich set of
time:varying changes correlated, student, teacher, and school fi+ed effects. arris and 1ass
(!""M$ suggest that only two forms of teacher training we study state influence. 3irst, the
professional development of teachers satisfied is positively associated with productivity in
mathematics and secondary school. 1econd, the most 2ualified teachers be more effective in
teaching math and reading and math elementary school. There is no evidence that either the
initial training (undergraduate$ or academic ability of teachers affects their ability to increase
student achievement.
.n the late 5E4"s, due to the progressive racial discrimination remove barriers to
higher education, most African American and other minorities began attending colleges and
universities traditionally white, although some progress was definitely smooth . ,hile
demand action programs have been launched in order to achieve social -ustice in higher
education with an increase in the availability of financial aid scholarships, friendliness and
grants. Catz et al. (!"55$ concluded that there were display gains in enrollment of blacks and
other minority students in higher education. owever, in recent years the recruitment and
retention of African American students has become a matter of national concern in the wake
of the process of programs to increase enrollment in higher education, especially higher
education. )lack and ispanic students were seriously underrepresented among graduate
students and doctoral recipients in the ;nited 1tates. The participation of black students in
higher education decreased in the early 5EM"s, after decades of increases.
Today9s students are less prepared for college work than their predecessors level.
8nce they arrive at university, they tend to spend less time studying. ,hile spending more
hours, some time yet. 7onis and udson (!""4$ e+plain that the effect of both the time spent
studying and time spent working on school performance. The authors also evaluated the
interaction of motivation and ability with the study and its effect on academic performance
over time. The results suggest that variables such as motivation and notability study time
significantly interact with the talent to influence academic performance. %ontrary to popular
belief, the amount of time spent studying or at work had no direct influence on academic
performance. .n this study, the authors e+amined the effect of both the time spent studying
5#
and time spent working on school performance. The authors also evaluated the interaction of
motivation and ability with the study and its effect on academic performance over time. The
results suggest that variables such as motivation and notability study time interact
significantly with the ability to influence academic performance. %ontrary to popular belief,
the amount of time spent studying or at work had no direct influence on the negative impact
on the academic performance of college students academic performance and use the results
of these studies to improve our programs studies.
The demand for college education is also high, which reinforces the changes in
supply. 0raduated from college is increasingly seen as the most important for employment in
professional -obs, managers and other technically oriented criteria. As such, the return to a
college degree is high, about !>.5 percent. Although there is a perception that getting a -ob
after graduating from college is difficult, in fact, almost all students find a -ob within a year,
and the slope of the earnings growth is steep. ,ang et al. (!"55$ reported that college
education is also important because it is so closely linked to productivity, creating benefits
for the community of students in both %hina and the world. 0rowth was in countries with
higher levels of higher education. As nations, including %hina become richer, growth will
depend on the industry and services that are more sophisticated and comple+, which means
more and more careers re2uire higher education. .n addition, college education in 1outh:*ast
Asia ' 6acific and 1outh Asia not only significantly benefits people who pursue higher
through the high returns to education studies, it can also have an impact strong and
transformative for communities whose graduates came.
%orruption has a large impact on the economy of a country. According thinkers
corrupt system creates in-ustice and social ills that directly affect the economy of the state. .n
developing countries, corrupt courts play the main role to destroy the economy. )uscaglia
(!""5$ argued that when the courts have failed to make an impartial decision, it becomes the
main root of corruption. The courts are mainly pillar of any state, then when it reports
distortion directly affected his overall bad decision makes the whole corrupt system.
,e evaluate the contributions of teachers and students to student success in high
school economics class. (uch of the voluminous literature on educational outcomes focuses
on pupils in primary school. The 2uantitative contribution of teacher 2uality to student
performance is great, but the relationship between teacher 2uality and measurable
5?
characteristics such as education and e+perience is limited and ambiguous. La Palette et al.
(!"5!$ indicates that the characteristics of students, including own 06A 06A and peers have
the greatest impact on student achievement. The estimated effects of teacher characteristics
such as e+perience had taught economics and formal education in economics also raise
student achievement in statistically significant 2uantities that are almost as important as the
effects of student characteristics. owever, the impact of formal education in economics
teachers varies according to different test modes, with an emphasis in economics university
leading to higher scores multiple choice but scores lower dissertation. The 2uality of teachers
has been identified in several studies as an important factor in determining student
achievement. owever, the identification and measurement of the 2uality of teachers has
proven to be a challenge because the observable characteristics such as the attainment of
advanced degrees, years of teaching e+perience, 2ualifications and continuous professional
development n have not always e+plained variation in contributions of specific teachers for
student success.
A history of failure may perpetuate the lack of success leads children to make
e+cuses, do not try in class, to avoid homework and when they are older, skipping classes or
lie on what they have done. 0oldfud (!"5!$ stated that the underlying attitude which prevails
isD &.f . put a lot of effort and hard work and . am unable to answer a 2uestion in class, or .
can not finish a pro-ect or am . doing wrong in a review, then . will feel inade2uate and
unhappy. 1o why botherQ &This negative attitude leads 2uickly to self:-ustification& .f . do
not prepare for a test or .9m not listening in class or apply to me in any way, then . am
avenged. . have not tried . could not be bothered, and that9s why . did not succeed. &This type
of behavior can lead a child to drop out of school or become a habitual truant. 8ther negative
characteristics that may arise in this kind of teen are loneliness, inability to make friends and
a lack of social skills. Rears of failure have instilled in them a perceived failure and an
apparent lack of skills compared to their contemporaries achieve the academic teenagers can
lower self:esteem to the point where they 9*rase9 their 9me9.
The impact of various factors on the construction status of student achievement in
order to monitor the socio:economic status of students. when socio:economic factors were
constant, the condition of the facilities had a significant correlation with student achievement.
1pecifically, he found that the air conditioning, the lack of graffiti, the state of science
54
laboratories, accommodation changing rooms, the state of classroom furniture, wall color and
sound levels correlated with student performance at a significant level when the socio:
economic status of students. (cgowen (!""/$ concluded that student achievement based on
the condition of the building focused on many factors of institutional 2uality. ,ith the
construction of the average American school term to #? years, the age of the installation is a
common abnormality of the condition of the building is studied in correlation with student
achievement.
@eview of school counselors and the role they play in the university entrance process
could not be faster or vital to undertake action. .n schools, no professional is more important
to improve college enrollment advisers. %urrently, the general state of the board is not an
important point on any ma-or political program. (cBonough (!""?$ e+ Slained that access to
college is an important issue of education and economic policy imperative for advocates of
improved affordability, and essential for policy makers seeking to reduce barriers to college
admission. The key 2uestion is marked by progress and unmet goals and what follows is a
summary of the ma-or college access issues. 0enerations of minority students of the working
class, immigrant and underrepresented improved their individual economic conditions
through college, while policymakers and employers have spurred economic growth and
created an informed citizenry by more adult college.
.n poor countries like 6akistan some organizations are considered very e+treme. .n
these organizations often children from poor families are enrolled. 6eople send their children
to these organizations for education, food and clothing. These organizations get the
advantage of their poverty and e+ploit. Cronstadt (!""#$ concluded that for our long:term
interest, we should have to promote moderation and democratic values in 6akistan. ereby,
the socio:economic status of people can be improved. 1ome analysts think that donor
countries like the ;nited 1tates can do so by supporting the education sector.
.n our society, some people are rich and some are very poor. 1o poor people are of
the opinion that the rich and powerful must be corrupt. Therefore, they can -ustify their own
corrupt behavior. .t is difficult to find rich and powerful people are involved in corrupt
practices. Oong 1ong and Chagram (!""?$ analyzed that in some situations the rich and non:
rich are convicted. .t was concluded that corruption has become a norm due to repeated
practice of corrupt activities. The standard of corruption is socialized by the following
5/
generations.
%u (!""/$ investigated corruption in the education system is generally seen as an
acceptance of bribe during school admissions, corruption in the provision of books and
stationery, accepting bribe toll concession and marking , dishonesty in the building
construction and use of low:grade or insufficient materials, etc. corruption in the purchase of
school e2uipment and other pro-ects are often observed
%arter (!""!$ argued that the results of interviews with !! teachers, parents and
students from two urban middle schools and two urban high schools that are members of the
7ational 7etwork of 6artnership 1chools. @espondents emphasized the importance of family
involvement in the education of students. Although they recognize that teenagers need more
independence than the primary age children, they also e+pressed the view that adolescents
need guidance and support from adults care at home, school and the community. Those who
responded agreed that high school is a difficult time in school career and students that
support significant adults can help students to &successfully navigate this period.&
@espondents also agreed that communication and cooperation between home, school and the
community have increased opportunities for students successfully transition to college or
work. .n addition, the study pointed out that professional educators and parents believe that
their time building relationships has been limited. ,ith the &right support, a framework for
commitment and a team approach,& however, these respondents believe that parents,
educators and community members could build effective partnerships
)ecause of the uneven distribution of resources at the time of partition, 6akistan had
no elaborate system of training in economics and business at the beginning that this country
had received a very low system *nterprise, Trade and industry. Chan et al (!"55$ concluded
that the current concept of business education in 6akistan has really emerged as a result of 4#
years of progressive development in trade, industry and global businesses, who made the
need for development of business education system in the country. To promote trade and
business education in the country, the 0overnment of 6akistan %ommittee on Trade and
*ducation published its report in 5E?!, and stressed the need to introduce trade schools.
3urther government training institutes were established on the recommendation of the same
committee on trade and education in 5E4" (Taheer, 5E4M$. 3rom that time until now at the
intermediate level, there are two broad categories of institutions imparting education in
5M
commerce colleges %ountry .* )usiness and 0overnment secondary colleges. .n addition,
the commercial training institutes also work for government business education forward in
the country. The lack of government involvement in the education sector was visible in the
fact that, after independence in 5E#/, there was no organized system for technical education
in 6akistan, and the students would directly industry after the completion of their school or
college. .n 5E#/, 6akistan had only one university, namely the ;niversity of 6un-ab, who
was both the teaching and the ;niversity of 1indh review body later Oamshoro was built in
5E#/ and thereafter the ;niversity of 6eshawar was established in 5E?" and the ;niversity of
Carachi in 5"?5.
The 6hilippine higher education system is one of the largest in the world. .t consists
of one hundred ten (55"$ public colleges and universities chartered and 5!M" (5!M"$ of
private colleges and universities that serve the university age population of Littlemore two
million students. 6adua (!"">$ argued that private higher education institutions are classified
as sectarian (religious$ or non:sectarian, the latter often in the category of family businesses.
igher education is mainly dominated by private schools, which account for more than
eighty percent (M"F$ of the entire sector. The higher education system operates in a capitalist
environment, free economy and as such, is sub-ect to factors that influence the market
economy in the country. 6rivate schools are in competition with each other and colleges
funded by the will and universities for registration as well government subsidy. .deally, the
presence of a large number of economic actors in higher education have been sufficient to
ensure that colleges and universities compete individual 2uality. The interaction of market
forces have resulted in the 2uality of products and services in higher balance acTable
acceptable and market education.
;1A.B (!""!$ stated that most developing countries spend a large part of their
national budget to education .! domestic ta+ revenue base are often supplemented by
additional funds from donors and, in many cases, by fees charged to parents. Teachers,
principals and other staff of the ministries of education generally are an important part of
public employment. ;nfortunately, in many countries, human and financial resources
contribute much less to help children ac2uire the knowledge and skills that could be
reasonably e+pected useful. .n some cases, the problems take the form of outright corruption,
among others. Teacher absenteeism, which appears to be widespread in all regions,
5E
especially in rural areas. To cite a few e+amplesD 5EEE 6ublic @eport of .ndia on )asic
*ducation (6@8)*$ found teachers working days four hours, much less than the legal
re2uirement. (ichael Cremer (5EEE$ reports that it has found #5 percent of teachers absent
from their classes during random visits to Cenyan schools. 7icholas )ennett (!""5$
estimated that absenteeism in 7epal about /" percent before the recent reforms. 6etty
corruption at the school, including setting a variety of ad hoc fees for attendance and salary
trim by teachers who provide after school tutoring paid, a practice that night clearly the effort
put into such teachers their classrooms. 0ross financial corruption, usually upstream of the
line, where officials have access to larger flow of funds. The resulting funds for schools
diversion aggravated problems of rare books, workbooks and other purchased inputs in the
learning process, and thus affect the 2uality of education..n some cases, financial corruption
is concentrated in the (inistry of *ducation, in the form of contracts &of convenience& for
te+tbooks and school construction. .n other cases, the funds transferred by the central
government to local schools are prone to leaking at intermediate levels of the system.
;nderstand how policy can affect the (school$ university participation is important to
understand how governments can promote the accumulation of human capital. Bearden et al
(!"55$. The 2uestion of how to fund higher education (*$ has been high on the agenda of
successive )ritish governments since the 5E4"s. The ;C has moved from a situation where
the ta+payer foot the bill for all of higher education, a system where higher education
contributes to the cost involved. 1ince its inception, the so:called &cost:sharing& has been
plagued by controversy, with the fear that this would reduce the participation of universities,
especially among people from less affluent backgrounds. The ;C has e+perienced two ma-or
changes in the financing of higher education in recent years. The first stems from teaching in
5EEM and the law on higher education, where the initial tuition fees of U 5,!"" per year were
introduced to the program for the first time in its history, and scholarships, which are as grant
aid, have been removed and replaced by higher maintenance loans.
Treisman (!"""$ suggested that the difficulty of measuring the relative levels of
corruption in different countries presented a ma-or obstacle. @ecently, however, economists
and political scientists have begun to analyze the evidence of corruption &perceived&
prepared by analysts of business risks and offices 5 organizations, based on survey responses
of businessmen and local residents . Although these notes are by definition &sub-ective& there
!"
are compelling reasons to be interested in the trends they reveal. 3irst, these transnational
evaluations tend to be highly correlated and highly correlated in time. Bifferent organizations
use different techni2ues derive valuations that are similar and do not change much from year
to year. .n addition, corruption indices constructed on the basis of surveys of business people
working in specific countries are found to be highly correlated with at least one transnational
survey of the inhabitants of these countries. This reduces the risk that we are analyzing non:
perception of corruption, but the 2uirks or bias of a special monitoring body. 1econd, as
empirical work confirms, whatever the ob-ective characteristics of the political and social
system of a country, sub-ective assessments of corruption are themselves seem to affect
investment decisions, growth and the political behavior of citizens
3aizi et al, !"5"$ stated that the cause of this survey was to identify the main reasons
for refusing the educational standards at secondary level in Carachi, 6akistan. .t was
conducted by poll. The study population was both &the government and private& school
students and teachers. The views of students and male and female teachers were investigated.
8ne hundred respondents were randomly selected. The 2uestionnaire was used as a research
instrument was composed of !? items. The data collected on two 2uestionnaire point scale
and was analyzed using the percentage method. The ma-ority of respondents felt that the
e+isting inefficient program and evaluation system are the main reasons for the decline in the
level of education at secondary level in Carachi, 6akistan. (ost respondents said that the
imperfect administration with poor inspection system became his reasons. 1hort number of
respondent suggested that inade2uate sanitation, lack of e+tracurricular activities and
outdated teaching methods caused the sub standard education.
@esponsibility for primary education in )otswana is shared between the (inistry of
*ducation, professional and political body, the formulation and the (inistry of Local
0overnment, Lands and ousing, which is responsible for the infrastructure and general
management of the schools, including the provision of books and e2uipment. 0ood (!"55$
suggested that the contract for the provision of teaching materials for primary schools in the
country in iEE" was awarded to managers of international pro-ects (5> hours$ without any
review of the company9s employees or their 2ualifications. 7o competition tender was made,
and no ade2uate studies e+perienced organizations in the field of public procurement
education has been made. The contract has not been approved by the %entral Tender )oard,
!5
and that the 6residential %ommission described as a series of violations of Tender )oard and
the 3inancial @egulation &soon followed.
%hambers et al (!"5"$ concluded that the minimum study duration of 5! weeks was
necessary. 3ocus on the review of programs and concrete practices to prolonged use, rather
than brief surveys This rule aims. 1hort surveys do not allow programs to show their full
effect. 8n the other hand, brief studies often advantage e+perimental groups that focus on a
particular set of ob-ectives for a limited period of time, while groups fight against the spread
instruction over a long period. owever, studies with a short treatment durations measured
over periods of more than 5! weeks were included, as long as sthe time between pretest and
post:test was at least 5! weeks, on the basis that if a treatment short has lasting effects, it
should be of interest to educators. 3or e+ample, if a study administered a pretest, provided si+
weeks of intensive tutoring, and then gave an immediate post:test, it would not be included,
but if the students were sub-ected to a follow:up test after !" weeks the pre:test, the score
would be included as a result of the intervention
7adeem et al, (!"55$ stated that 6akistan is a developing country in 1outheast Asia
like other developing countries of the main reasons for its underdevelopment is poor
education which in turn a great impact on the social, economic and political system.
&Teaching is a great profession and teachers have an important role in the intellectual, social
and personal development of their students, so influencing the development of the entire
nation. *ducation is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken -oy in creative e+pression and
knowledge. Teachers can have a deeper impact than others. .n fact it is a great professor at
the peak of his performance that brings a positive change in the overall behavior of students
by bringing a great character and e+emplary character. .n 6akistan, a teacher has the lowest
representation in schools and, therefore, the lack of female role models in schools is included
as one of the contributing factor to the lower participation of girls and discrimination based
on 1e+ in education. .t is considered that the lack of female teachers, gaps in enrollment,
retention and promotion are wide between male and female students. .n this situation,
teachers are only responsible for what saves girls from deep neglected transmit light of
knowledge in schools. This is a great obstacle to the progress of education in developing
countries like 6akistan sthat teachers face lot of obstacles. There are many internal and
e+ternal factors that affect the performance of teachers.
!!
.mran (!""M$ concluded that education plays a very important role in society. ,hile
education plays a less important role in society, the country will not be developed. 7ow the
slogan of the population is about the 2uality of education is lower and failing. Then they ask
the higher authorities to compare the performance of schools with private colleges. .t is
necessary to improve the 2uality of the university. *ducation is needed to maintain
development and peace. ,ithout improvement and the low 2uality of education, we can not
develop the country. .t is very difficult to describe the 2uality of education. The concept of
2uality in all areas is a comple+ concept. .t is comple+ in nature, elements, components, and
all respects. Nuality is the most honorable, but the term slipperisest in the field of education.
1ometimes it is used in the sense of evaluation, such as the scale of goodness. 1ometimes it
is understood to seek some distinctive features. The 2uality of education refers to the
standard management of educational institutions, programs, teaching methods, students,
e+animation system, teachers, etc. .t is a fact that the fate of the nation is shaped in the
classrooms. This implies that education is the main source of progress and development. ,e
can say without hesitation that education is primarily responsible for the future of 6akistan.
Through education, the process of nation:building for the future citizens of the country is
held. *arly molds education students, the country will be molded. 3rom this point of view, a
lot of responsibility rests with the teacher and the 2uality of education.
.n college level students are not willing to work that their -ob is being processed.
,hen they get admission in college they never spent much time studying as much time is
needed to study. ,hen they have not spent much time studying while academic performance
is very poor. 7onis et al (!""4$ suggested that further evaluated the interaction of ability and
motivation over the study and its effect on academic activities time. %ontrary to popular
belief, the amount of time spent studying or at work had no direct influence on academic
performance. 7otability variables such as motivation and time studying law significantly
between with the ability to influence academic performance. %ollege students spend very
little time costs outside the college. .n the survey thirty:four percent of students entering
fresh men and spent time in si+ and especially to study. (3or e+ample, the preparation of
homework and studying$ compared to their last year of college.
Li et al (!"""$ stated that corruption from the work for the traditional sector which
needs low:skilled workers demand for unskilled workers relative to skilled workers
!>
increases. As are the salt, the population growth in the most corrupt countries will be higher.
The modern sector is likely to be concentrated in cities, and corruption discourages the
modern sector, countries with more corruption are likely to be less urbanized. %orruption
affects the use of banks and other financial intermediaries for business transaction. An
important variable related to corruption on the part of government spending. alarger share of
public spending, financed by higher ta+es on the modern sector, reduced the rate of
investment, discourages talented people to become entrepreneurs, and reduces the growth
rate
Chan (!"5"$ stated that the importance of education plays a very important role. All
people keep e2ual rights to ac2uire training. *ach child wins the competition irrespective of
education, gender, area and belief. .f the right to education is uneven problems will be
created. *ducation plays a very important role in the personality development of the child.
e plays a dangerous role in accelerating economic growth through knowledge and human
capacity, skills and the creative force of the company. .t is also believed that education is
very important for the development of the nation and there is a strong relationship between
education and economic development of a country. Cnowledgeable people are vital to the
construction of the nation, than ever in today9s globalized world. *ach state in the world did
his best to educate the larger people through all the likely modes of teaching. communication
technologies and information are used to reach people. ,ho live in a remote area of the
country access to primary education is taken as a basic right of every resident.
The goal of universal primary education is a high level and also the goal of
international development. That all countries have achieved the goal of this organization,
becose its goal is the level of international development. ,orld conference is held since 5EE"
with the aim of all countries focus on education for all. .n this lecture, the values of basic
education was introduced and a new thought of the basic education needs of the nation, not
incomplete school was planned. According to Article 5 of the ,orld Beclaration on
*ducation for All agreed at the meeting. *very peoples children, youth and adults should be
able to take advantage of educational opportunities provided to meet their basic learning
needs, special effects education for people of importance and focus on value. (1awamura et
al, !""M$.
!#
CHAPTER-4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The purpose of this chapter is to present analysis and interpretation of data relating to
the research problems under investigation. This chapter has been divided into two parts, 6art
A and 6art ).
6art:A (;ni:variate analysis$ deals with the analysis of the socio:economic
characteristics of the respondents and community perception regarding socio:economic
impact causes and conse2uences of corruption.
6art:) deals with bivariate analysis showing relationship among various socio:
economic characteristics with respondentsA perception regarding social impact V economic
impact of causes and conse2uences of corruption in college Tehsil B. 0. Chan.
PART-I
(UNI-VARIATE ANALYSIS)
Socio-Economic and Demographic Information of the Respondents
1ocio:*conomic and Bemographic characteristics of the respondents like age,
education, income, family type and marital status play an important role in awareness
regarding use of unsafe drinking water. The data relating to these aspects presented and
discussed as underD
Age
Age is an important factor in determining the behavior of human being. .t indicates
the ability to do work and attitude of person towards various social and economic aspect of
life. Age refers to the number of years completed by an individual since his birth. Age factor
is very important to influence oneAs behavior; it widens the vision of an individual through
e+perience. The respondents were asked about their age and data in this regard is presented in
Table 5.
!?
Bata summarized in Table 5 clearly indicates that !" percent respondents belong to
age group up to !" years, ?!.? percent respondent belong to age group !5:!? years, and
remaining !/.? percent of the respondent belong to !4 and above year age group. @utayuga
and Amiri (!""#$ reported that the ob-ective of training and education is to communicate is
mainly in young people.
*ducation is an important socio:economic characteristic, which determine and
influence the status, attitude and knowledge level of any individual. 3or the present study
different levels of education were categorized in table ! mostly M4./ percent respondents
were belonged to (aters, 4./ percent respondents were belonged to 0raduate and remaining
4./ percent students belonged to .nter. %orpus (!"">$ in his research found that the
graduateAs students become more competitive nowadays. As is the case in most countries, the
6hilippines is e+periencing the phenomenon of mass higher education with the concomitant
rise of universities and colleges (public and private$offering a greater diversity of programs,
and with varying capacity to deliver teaching and learning services.
There is a ma-or distance between boarder and non boarder but ma-ority respondents
belong to the non boarder. .t was also noted that in the area of Bera 0hazi Chan, ma-ority of
the students lives as non boarder. (%hauhdary !""#$ the findings indicates that the correlation
of respondents with different status in colleges. Bata revels that M?." percent belong to non
boarder, 5?." percent belong to boarder and the total respondents has 5!".
.n college level different categories of students are present. Bifferent students have
different views about the satisfaction of his study. .n table #, ??.M percent students answer
that to some e+tent, >!,? percent students answer that to great e+tent and 55./ percent
students answer that not at all. 0oldfud (!"5!$ said that the underlying and prevailing
attitude is <.f . put in a lot of effort and work hard and then . am unable to answer a 2uestion
in the classroom, or . fail to complete a pro-ect or . do poorly in an e+amination, then . will
!4
feel inade2uate and unhappy.
There are different types of corruption in college level. The college students is our
respondents. 1o we asked the students how much corruption in college level. There answer is
corruption in merit list is very sensitive issue. .n table ?, #"." percent respondents answer is
to great e+tent, >4./ percent respondent answer is to some e+tent and !>.> percent respondent
answer is not at all. The total respondents are 5!". Asikhia (!"5"$ said that corruption in
merit list is very dangerous phenomenon.
%lerical staff is also the cause of corruption in collegeAs level, because college and
admission record have save the clerical staff. According to their table #/.? percent
respondents reply is to great e+tent, #".M percent respondent reply is to some e+tent and 55./
percent respondents reply is not at all. The total respondent is 5!". Palletta et al. (!"5!$ tells
that clerical corruption is badly effect on the college level.
@eference plays a very important role for the admission in colleges. 1uch students
which they are not on the basis of merit, and then they use the references. .n table /, ##.!
percent respondent answer is to great e+tent, >"." percent respondents answer is to some
e+tent and !?.M percent respondent answer is not at all. The total respondents are 5!". (yint
(!"""$ references and bribery are on the bases of success not on the basis of merit.
6olitical influnce is the main cause of the corruption. 1ometimes political influence is
badly effect on the college students. .n table E, >E.! percent respondents choose the option
not at all, >?." percent respondents were choosing the option to great e+tend and !?.M percent
respondent was choose the option to some e+tent. The total respondent is 5!". Aly (!""/$
e+plained that political influence in the appointment and transfer of teachers give way to
corruption in education sector.
There are several factors which are reduces the 2uality of education. .n table E, #!.?
percent respondents give answer to some e+tent, >M.> percent respondents give answer to not
at all, and 5E.! percent respondents give answer to great e+tent. The total respondents are
5!". allak and 6oisson (!""?$ concluded that corruption in education is a sensitive issue.
*ducation would be unable to uplift ethical and moral values in a corrupt environment. .t is
!/
evident that provision of integrity and limitation of unethical behaviors in educational sector
can lead towards optimal working environment for teaching.
, .n college level different teacher have different behavior. .n above table #" percent
students tells that teachers behavior is cooperative, >" percent students tells that teacher
behavior is on cooperative and !E percent respondents tells that uncertain. The total
respondent is 5!". Chagram (!""?$ in our society some people are very rich and some are
very poor. 1o the poor people are view that rich and powerful people must be corrupt. ence,
they are likely to -ustify their own corrupt behavior. .t is difficult to find the rich and
powerful people being engaged in corrupt practices.
3aculty punctuality is necessary for college discipline. .f the punctuality is not in
colleges then the college discipline will be disturbed. .n table 5!, #".M percent respondent
agree the option not at all, >?." percent respondent agree the option to some e+tent and !#.!
percent respondent agree the option to great e+tent. The total respondent is 5!". .n many
developing countries the new generation needed the punctuality in class but now days the
strength of ghost employers are increased. Tht is why the conflict is created between student
and teacher. )elfield and Levin (!""!$.
Administration is very important role in the colleges. 1ome time they demand the
students to give bribery. )ut some students are not affording the bribery, because in
financially level they were weak. According to this table, #E.! percent respondent answer
that to some e+tent, >>.> percent respondent answers that to great e+tent and 5/.? percent
respondent answer that not at all. The total respondent is 5!". .f the anti:corruption and
particular agencies work efficiently they can make better policies against corruption. (Lawal,
!""/$
!M
According to my research some teachers like the such students which are provided
the gifts to teachers. 8n the other hand those students which are not afford the providing
gifts. The teachers are not like the students. .n table 5>, !E.! percent respondent agreed that
teacher stress the students to give gifts, !M.> percent students answer that disagree, !?."
percent students answer that uncertain and 54./ percent students answer that strongly agree.
The bad result of corruption revealed the financial wastage and as a result a state gets failed.
,e often see the cases in colleges that students cannot afford the bribes and they can not
enter in college for study. .n this way talent is destroyed and other students get entrance on
the basis of bribery not on merit. %hapman (!""!$
1ome teachers are not fair in e+ams. They favor the such students in e+ams which are
nearly to the teachers. .n this table, ?!.? percent respondents choose the option to great e+tent
that means teachers are not fair in e+ams, #"." percent respondents choose the option to some
e+tent and /.? percent respondents choose the option not at all. The total respondent is 5!".
0ood teacher are not attracted towards education because of lesser emoluments, sluggish
promotions and lack of incentives. All this calls for 2uality teachers, teaching and learning
environment as well. There are other factors which are contributive towards unsatisfactory
students learning are; high teacher student ratio, least concern for conceptual learning,
political interference in the educational institutions, transfers teaching staff, placements and
provision of incentives (6arveen et al, !"55$.
.n collegeAs level are not available for the students. )ut in according to research >"."
percent respondents are agreed that teachers are available and approachable and they can
consult them regarding lecture issue, !M.> percent respondents answer is disagree that mean
they are not available, 5E.! percent respondent answer is uncertain and 5".M percent
respondent answer is strongly agree. The total respondent is 5!". .n addition to these, non
availability of 2uality teachers, lack of motivation on the part of teacher, dry and interest free
content, no relevance of content with the -ob market, non fulfillment of socio:physical,
economic, and financial needs through education, gender and class disparities, student
discipline, insufficient financial input to education, and none+istence of research culture.
(6arveen et al, !"55$.
!E
Buring admission time college official stress the students to accept bribe then they
gets the admission. 1o such students which are not on the basis of merit they can get the
admission easily. .n table 5/, ?".> percent respondents tells that not at all, !4.> percent
respondent to great e+tent and !>.> percent respondent to some e+tent. The total respondent
is 5!". .f the governments do not take the solid steps against corruption, the country will go
into disaster.(8bayelu !""/$.
1uch actual needy students cannot approach the scholarships. .f they approach the
scholarships but the college official stresses the students to give him bribery. .n table 5/, ?5.4
percent respondents answer is to great e+tent, >?.M percent respondent answer is not at all and
5!,? percent respondent answer is to some e+tent, the total respondent is 5!". .f the anti:
corruption and particular agencies work efficiently they can make better policies against
corruption. 1o, comprehensive governess and public are necessity to stop the corruption. 1o
every sector, departments and whole society should have to play their role effectively against
corruption (Lawal, !""/$.
1uch students which they are never daily go to home. Then they prefer the college
hostel for residency. )ut the college hostel never allots the hostel rooms on a merit. They
demand the bribery for the allotment of college hostel. According to this table #5./ percent
respondent choose the option to great e+tent, >?.M percent respondent choose the option not
at all and !!.? percent respondent choose the option to some e+tent. The total respondent is
5!". The bad result of corruption revealed the financial wastage and as a result a state gets
failed. ,e often see the cases in colleges that students cannot afford the bribes and they
cannot enter in college for study. .n this way talent is destroyed and other students get
entrance on the basis of bribery not on merit (%hapman !""!$.
Lecture is the main thing for students to understand the topics of the studies. The
above table shows that the percentage of the respondents who were strongly agreed with the
statement was ??."F. The percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement
was 5#.!F. The percentage of the respondents who were uncertain about the statement was
5"."F. The percentage of the respondents who were disagreed with the statement was
!"."F. The percentage of the respondents who were strongly disagreed with the statement
was ".MF. 1omeone has said ~As you lecture, you keep watching the faces, and
information keeps coming back to you all the time. (George)
>"
1tudents should be perfect in their work. The above table shows that the percentage of the
respondents who were satisfied with the statement to great e+tent was #5./F. The percentage
who did not give any answer was >!.?F. The percentage of the respondents who were
satisfied with the statement to some e+tent was !?.MF. *instein has said ~It is a miracle that
curiosity survives formal education.
The percentage of the respondents who were strongly agreed with the statement was
!/.?F. The percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement was >?.MF.
The percentage of the respondents who were uncertain about the statement was 5?."F. The
percentage of the respondents who were disagreed with the statement was 5?."F. The
percentage of the respondents who were strongly disagreed with the statement was 4./F.
(artin has said ~Responsibility for learning belongs to the student, regardless of age
The percentage of the respondents who were satisfied with the statement to great
e+tent was #5./F. The percentage of the respondents who did not give any answer was
!E.!F. The percentage of the respondents who were satisfied with the statement to some
e+tent was !E.!F. %harles ,illiam has said ~Books are the quietest and most constant of
friends; they are the most accessible and wisest of counselors, and the most patient of
teachers.
The percentage of the respondents who were strongly agreed with the statement was
55./F. The percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement was !4./F.
The percentage of the respondents who were uncertain about the statement was !?."F. The
percentage of the respondents who were disagreed with the statement was !!.?F. The
percentage of the respondents who were strongly disagreed with the statement was 5#.!F.
*instein has said ~It is a miracle that curiosity survives formal education.
The environment of the college should be peace and should be suitable for the
studies. The percentage of the respondents who were satisfied with the statement to great
e+tent was >>.>F. The percentage of the respondents who did not give any answer was
!5./F. The percentage of the respondents who were satisfied with the statement to some
e+tent was #?."F. 1helby has said ~A university is just a group of buildings gathered
around a library.
The percentage of the respondents who were strongly agreed with the statement was
54./F. The percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement was #5./F.
The percentage of the respondents who were uncertain about the statement was !>.>F. The
percentage of the respondents who were disagreed with the statement was 5?."F. The
>5
percentage of the respondents who were strongly disagreed with the statement was >.>F.
Bodie 1mith has said ~I only want to write. And there's no college for that except life.
Time is the most precious thing for the students. The percentage of the respondents
who were strongly agreed with the statement was !#.!F. The percentage of the respondents
who were agreed with the statement was >#.!F. The percentage of the respondents who were
uncertain about the statement was 5>.>F. The percentage of the respondents who were
disagreed with the statement was !5./F. The percentage of the respondents who were
strongly disagreed with the statement was 4./F. A university is just a group of buildings
gathered around a library.
The percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement to great e+tent ws
>!.?F. The percentage of the respondents who did not give any answer was >?."F. The
percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement to some e+tent was
>!.?F. If you would thoroughly know anything, teach it to others.
The percentage of the respondents who thought that the absence of the teachers was
very high was >5./F. The percentage of the respondents who thought that the absence of the
teachers was high was >"."F. The percentage of the respondents who thought that the
absence of the teachers was low was >>.>F. The percentage of the respondents who thought
that the absence of the teachers was very low was !.?F. The percentage of the respondents
who did not give any answer was !.?F. 1omeone has said ~As you lecture, you keep
watching the faces, and information keeps coming back to you all the time. (George)
1uch teachers have no sense how to teach the students. They have poor piece of
knowledge. The percentage of the respondents who thought that the teachers had very high
poor knowledge was 5!.?F. The percentage of the respondents who thought that the
teachers had high poor knowledge was #!.?F. The percentage of the respondents who
thought that the teachers had low poor knowledge was !!.?F. The percentage of the
respondents who thought that the teachers had very low poor knowledge was 5./F. The
percentage of the respondents who did not give any answer was !".MF. Taylor has said ~If
you would thoroughly know anything, teach it to others.
The main thing of a teacher is to impart education. The percentage of the respondents
who thought that the teachers were very high ghost employees was ??."F. The percentage of
>!
the respondents who thought that the teachers were high ghost employees was 5M.>F. The
percentage of the respondents who thought that the teachers were low ghost employees was
5"."F. The percentage of the respondents who thought that the teachers were very low ghost
employees was /.?F. The percentage of the respondents who did not give any answer was
E.!F. The following 2uote shows the value of education. ~Corruption in teaching is a
curse (Anonymous)
. The percentage of the respondents who thought that the clerical staff was accepting
the bribes was very high was !E.!F. . The percentage of the respondents who thought that
the clerical staff was accepting the bribes was high was >?."F. . The percentage of the
respondents who thought that the clerical staff was accepting the bribes was low was !".MF. .
The percentage of the respondents who thought that the clerical staff was accepting the bribes
was very low was !.?F. . The percentage of the respondents who did not give any answer
was 5!.?F. 1omeone has said ~Power corrupts. Knowledge is power. Study hard. Be
evil. (Anonymous)
The percentage of the respondents who thought that the teachers were doing
corruption in assignment and e+am was very high was !?."F. The percentage of the
respondents who thought that the teachers were doing corruption in assignment and e+am
was high was ?!.?F. The percentage of the respondents who thought that the teachers were
doing corruption in assignment and e+am was low was 5".MF. The percentage of the
respondents who thought that the teachers were doing corruption in assignment and e+am
was very low was M.>F. The percentage of the respondents who did not give any answer was
>.>F.1omeone has said ~College is the house of knowledge (Anonyous)
The percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement to great e+tent
was ?E.!F. The percentage of the respondents who did not give any answer was 5!.?F. The
percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement to some e+tent was
!M.>F. Thomas has said ~A loving heart is the beginning of all knowledge.
The percentage of the respondents who were strongly agreed with the statement was
!"."F. The percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement was >4./F.
The percentage of the respondents who were uncertain about the statement was #"."F. The
percentage of the respondents who were disagreed with the statement was >.>F. .slam says
~Get knowledge from birth to death
>>
The percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement to great e+tent
was >5./F. The percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement to some
e+tent was #?."F. The percentage of the respondents who did not give any answer was
!>.>F. eather has said ~Because teachers, no matter how kind, no matter how friendly,
are sadistic and evil to the core.
The percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement to great e+tent
was >M.>F. The percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement to some
e+tent was #".MF. The percentage of the respondents who did not give any answer was
!".MF. Teacher should treat like father. As we know that in .slam ~Teacher has an
importance of a father
According to my research clerical staff involve in documentary corruption. The
percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement to great e+tent was ?"."F.
The percentage of the respondents who were agreed with the statement to some e+tent was
>?.MF. The percentage of the respondents who did not give any answer was 5#.!F. As we
know that ~Corruption is resulted due to the inclusion of corrupt persons.
(Anonymous)
.f the corruption in education is more, then the threats to country solidarity will be
more. Then the government wants to make a ma+imum policies against corruption in
education. .n these table shows that /M.> percent respondent answer is yes that mean threats
to country solidarity is more, !5./ percent respondent answer is no mean no threats to
country solidarity. The total respondent is 5!". The countries biggest issue is presence of non
uniform educational system.8n one hand there are institutions modeled on western
educational system. (Oohn !"55$
.f the corruption is more then country solidarity is more. Then the government wants
to make a anti:corruption department on a college level. Then the chances of corruption will
be reduced. .n these table shows that #?." percent respondents answer is to great e+tent, !E.!
percent respondent answer is to some e+tent and !?.M percent respondent answer is not at all.
The total respondent is 5!". The activities that constitute illegal corruption differ depending
on the country or -urisdiction. 3or instance, some political funding practices that are legal in
one place may be illegal in another. (3lorida !"5!$
.f government take some serious action, then corruption will be eradicate in every
>#
types of sector. )ut the government not takes on solid actions against corruption. .n these
table show that #M.> percent respondent to some e+tent, !4./ percent respondents tells that
not at all and !?." percent respondents tell that to great e+tent. The total respondent is 5!".
The corruption and growth of economic output have inverse relationship to each other. .f the
governments do not take the solid steps against corruption, the country will go into disaster.
(8bayelu !""/$
.n government colleges merit of selections is a big problem. .f the teacher
appointments is on merit selection. Then the corruption will be reduced. (any political
influences and other factors are caused by the without merit selection. .n this these table
shows that 4!.? percent respondents choose the option to great e+tent, !?.M percent
respondents choose the option not at all and 55./ percent respondents choose the option to
some e+tent. The total respondent is 5!". .n spite of many efforts taken by 0overnment of
6akistan, corruption still persists across the govt. departments and same is the case with
education sector in 6akistan. The most severe impact on this sector is due to corruption and
political interference. (Aly !""/$
)eyond participatory monitoring interventions which usually focus on monitoring
teachersA presence in schools, civil society organizations have piloted a range of initiatives
designed to curb absence Teacher absenteeism is also included in a corruption, because some
teachers without permission leave. According to these table ?5./ percent respondents answer
is to great e+tent, !4./ percent respondents answer is to some e+tent and !5./ percent
respondents answer is not at all. The total respondent is 5!". Teacher absence is
acknowledged to be a ma-or management concern for education in many countries. ,hen
teachers remain absent without legitimate reason they divert public resources to their own
purposes affecting the education of their pupils.( (atsheza et al. !"55$
.f the government making a some serious planning for providing the incentives to
teachers. Then the corruption will be easily eradicated. Teacher is a model role for the
students. .f they have corrupt behavior, then the bad impact on the students. This table shows
that 4>.> percent respondents reply that to great e+tent, !#.! percent respondents reply that
not at all and 5!.? percent respondents reply that to some e+tent. The total respondents are
5!". (atsheza et al. (!"55$ concluded that these initiatives emphasized the role of direct
incentives for teachers. They further e+plored the role of incentives by comparing approaches
and concluded that better attendance results are obtained through mechanically and
>?
systematically implemented systems rather than systems involving headmasters, who may,
for a variety of reasons, manipulate teacher attendance records.
According to the research if the government preference the local station for teachers.
Then corruption will be minimized. 1o teaching staff which they have never near station then
they will be doing corruption in other station. .n this table show that the #!.? percent
respondents is answer that to some e+tent, >"." percent respondents is answer that not at all
and !/.? percents respondents answer is to great e+tent. The total respondent .s 5!". .n spite
of many efforts taken by 0overnment of 6akistan, corruption still persists across the govt.
departments and same is the case with education sector in 6akistan. The most severe impact
on this sector is due to corruption and political interference. 6olitical influence in the
appointment and transfer of teachers give way to corruption in education sector. e also
reported that political interference had further complicated the issues in education sector.
(Aly !""/$
%lerical staff plays a very important role for doing corruption. All college and dents
record have save in clerical staff. .n these table shows that 44.4 percent respondents choose
the option to great e+tent, !>.> percent respondents choose the option not at all and 5"."
percent respondents choose the option to some e+tent. The total respondent is 5!". The bad
result of corruption revealed the financial wastage and as a result a state gets failed. ,e often
see the cases in colleges that students can not afford the bribes and they can not enter in
college for study. .n this way talent is destroyed and other students get entrance on the basis
of bribery not on merit. (%hapman !""!$
.n colleges level, there are large level teacher corruption will be generated. 1ome
teachers favor the students which are near to the teachers and provide the some gifts. They
favor in the form of marks and grading etc. .n this way we cannot determine the brilliant and
poor knowledge students. According to this table, ?"." percent respondents tells that to great
e+tent, >E.! percent respondents tells that not at all and 5".M percent respondents to great
e+tent. The total respondent is 5!". (ode of corruption in education is varied from low to
high level. There are many modes of corruption. *ntrance e+amination, library services,
housing services, e+am grades, delayed approval of thesis, class grades and books sales are
the main areas of corruption. Although many people -oin the educational institutes for giving
educational services but after some time they involve in corruption. .n this case the buyer is
student and the seller is either a faculty member or an administrative person of institute
>4
(eyneman et al, !""/$.
Anti:corruption department plays a very important role for stop the corruption.
According my respondents if we eradicate the corruption in college level, then we anti:
corruption department will must be build. .n table #M, 4!.? percent respondents is answer that
to great e+tent, !M.> not att all and E.! percent to some e+tent. The total respondents are 5!".
.f the anti:corruption and particular agencies work efficiently they can make better policies
against corruption. 1o, comprehensive governess and public are necessity to stop the
corruption. 1o every sector, departments and whole society should have to play their role
effectively against corruption. (Lawal !""/$
%hi:s2uare value shows the significant association between political interference and
reduces the 2uality of education. 0amma value shows weak association between political
interference and reduces the 2uality of education, so our null hypothesis is accepted
%hi:s2uare value shows the significant association between political interference and
emphasize the student. 0amma value shows weak association between political interference
and emphasize the student, so our null hypothesis is accepted
%hi:s2uare value shows the significant association between teacher absenteeism and
reduces the 2uality of education. 0amma value shows weak association between teacher
absenteeism and reduces the 2uality of education, so our null hypothesis is accepted
%hi:s2uare value shows the significant association between punctual in class arrive and -oin the
private academies. 0amma value shows weak association between 6unctual .n class arrive
and -oin the private academies, so our null hypothesis is accepted
Chapter 5
>/
Summary
%orruption is the use of official assets and goods for personal use by an official
person or by a high ranked officer. (ode of corruption in education is varied from low to
high level. There are many modes of corruption like acceptance of bribes'gifts for entrance
e+amination, library services, housing services, e+am grades, class grades and books sales
and delayed approval of thesis are the main areas of corruption.
The cause of this investigation was to identify the studentAs perception regarding
causes and conse2uences of corruption in government colleges of Tehsil B.0.Chan with the
following ob-ectives
To assess the level of corruption in educational institutions.
To find out the factors responsible for corruption especially promoting the bribery.
To suggest logical solutions for the problem of corruption on the basis of study
findings.
1tudy was carried out through survey. The population of the study was students of the
government colleges. The views of male and female students and teachers were sought out.
8ne hundred and twenty respondents were randomly selected. The 2uestionnaire was used as
a research instrument which was consisted of ># items. Bata collected by 2uestionnaire was
analyzed by using %hi:s2uare analysis method. (a-ority of the respondents were of the view
that there was corruption in merit lists and clerical staff is also invloved in corruption. 1ome
good percent of the students were of the view that education 2uality is getting down and also
pointed that political interferene in education sector. Amazingly a ma-or percent of students
were of the view that political interference does not e+ist at all in colleges. (a-ority of the
students were of the view that teachers are not fair in e+ams and they accept bribes'gifts by
the students for giving grades.
Key finding
>M
(ost of the ?!.?F respondents were fall in the !5:!? years age category.
(ost of the M4./F respondents education is master.
(a-ority of the M?F respondents status is non boarder.
(a-ority of the ??.MF respondents satisfied with study to some e+tent.
(a-ority of the #"."F respondents according to their corruption in merit list is to
great e+tent.
(a-ority of the #/.? F respondentAs corruption in clerical staff is to great e+tent.
(a-ority of the ##.>F respondents answer is to great e+tent reference re2uired for
admission.
(a-ority of the >?."F respondents had to great e+tent for political interference.
(a-ority of the !!.?F respondents were not at all for reducing the 2uality of
education.
(a-ority of the #"."F respondents satisfied in teaching behavior is cooperative.
(a-ority of the #"."F teaching faculty is punctual with time table.
(a-ority of the #E.! F respondents answer is to some e+tent emphasize the
students.
(a-ority of the !E.! F respondents were agreeing students provide the gifts.
(a-ority of the ?!.? F is to great e+tent teacher is fair in e+ams.
(a-ority of the !M.>F respondents were disagree for teacher is available and
approachable.
(a-ority of the ?".>F respondents were not at all to observed practice during
admission.
(a-ority of the ?5.4Frespondents were to great e+tent release the grant of
scholorship.
(a-ority of the #5./F respondents were to great e+tent hostel administration is to
involve the corruption.
(a-ority of the ??."F respondents were strongly agree teacher rela+ation the
lecture shortage.
(a-ority of the #5./F respondents said to great e+tent for favorite students
. (a-ority of the >?.MF respondents were agree for habitual offer gifts.
>E
(a-ority of that #5." F respondents were to great e+tent practice teacher in
e+ams.
(a-ority of that !4 F./ respondents were agree to official accept bribe.
(a-ority of that #?." F respondents were to some e+tent environment of college
is conducive to learning
(a-ority of the respondents i.e. #"./F agreed that teachers delivered lecturer in
time.
(a-ority of the >#.!F respondents were strongly agree the teacher waste time
during class.
(a-ority of that >?."F respondents were not at all teacher punctual in class.
(a-ority of the students conceived >>.>F respondents answer is very low in
teacher absenteeism.
(a-ority of that #!.?F respondents answer is high for teacher involvement in
e+ams.
(a-ority of thet ??."F respondentAs answer is very high for ghost employers.

Conclusion:
*ducation is one of the main aspects of society which increase the chances of
development but corruption in education is a very dangerous societal disease. %orruption in
other departments is not as dangerous as in case of education sector which deteriorate a
nationAs morality. %orruption in education is at various levels of government and
administration e.g. acceptance of bribe for accreditation and procurement by *ducation
(inistry; demand of bribes for admission, housing, book rental, grades, e+ams and
transcripts by administrator, grades, e+ams and books purchases by the teacher. .n spite of
many efforts taken by 0overnment of 6akistan, corruption still persists across the govt.
departments and same is the case with education sector in 6akistan. The most severe impact
on this sector is due to corruption and political interference. 6olitical influence in the
appointment and transfer of teachers give way to corruption in education sector.
.f the anti:corruption and particular agencies work efficiently they can make better
policies against corruption. 1o, comprehensive governess and public are necessity to stop the
#"
corruption. 1o every sector, departments and whole society should have to play their role
effectively against corruption. 6ublic opinion must be given value to make an atmosphere
where corruption must not be introduced.
Policy Recommendations
The results of this study should educate the public, parents, children, and
programmers. .t also makes suggestions on what could be done, by parents, programmers,
and even anti:corruption department to help in further understanding the sub-ect.
As ma-ority of students were unsatisfied to some e+tent with the studies in class
rooms. .t has been due to reasons that students could not have obtained proper
attention and guidance of the students. Although students put efforts and work hard
but non:availability and non:approachability of the teachers makes them un:satisfied.
.t is strong recommended that strict monitoring should be done by the college
administration to make teachers comply with the office hours and remain present in
their offices.
Acceptance of bribes'gifts by the clerical staff and college officials for official
matters such as preparation of merit lists, grading of students by the teachers or for
the release of scholarship grants has been a great concern by the students which gives
respondents a sense of un:e2uality and negligence of merit. 1o it recommended that a
functional complaint cell should be established at college which is consisted of
unbiased people so that any complaint regarding such issues should be thoroughly
investigated and rectified.
0host employees and teachers absenteeism has been a great concern for the students.
(a-ority of students were of the view that teachers who are absent run private
academies and they devote very little time for college. .f they come to college, they
are not punctual with time table, not fully prepared, never deliver lecture in an
effective manner and -ust waste time in class by narrating stories from here and there.
6olitical interference has not been perceived as a great concern by the students. .t
means that college administration might get pressure from political elements
regarding selection and promotion of employees and teachers and on other
#5
administrative affairs yet it has not been perceived as very much serious by the
students as they donAt pressure by political elements.
.f the anti:corruption and particular agencies work efficiently they can make better
policies against corruption. 1o, comprehensive governess and public are necessity to
stop the corruption. 1o every sector, departments and whole society should have to
play their role effectively against corruption. 6ublic opinion must be given value to
make an atmosphere where corruption must not be introduced.
#!
#>