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NASA

CR-168219

R83AEB488

NASA
National Space Aeronautics Administration and

Energy
"8 u'*;

Efficient

Engine
System

Flight Propulsion
I 0 Z ,---.t" _JO r" r,, 33 0

Final Design and Analysis

by D.Y. Davis E.M. Stearns General Electric Company

August

1985

Prepared

for

National

Aeronautics

and Space Administration

NASA-Lewis Contract

Research NAS3-20643

Center

1. Report No, NASA "4. Titleand CR-168219 _itle Energy System Efficient Final

2. G_nment

Accession No.

3, Recipient's Catalog No.

Engine and

Flight

Propulsion

5, Report Date August

1985

Design

Analysis

6. Performing Organization Code

7. Aut_r(,)D.y. E.M.

Davis Stearns

8, Performing Organization Report No. R83AEB488 10. Work Unit No.

9. Performing Orpni=tion General Aircraft Evendale,

Name and Addreu Company Business 45215 Group NAS3-20643 13. Type of Report and Period Covered 11. Contrsct or Grant No,

Electric Engine Ohio

12. S_nsoring Agency Naml _d A_reu National Aeronautics Lewis 21000 Research Brookpark Center Rd.

and

Space

Administration Ohio 44135

Nov.

1978-

Au_.

1983

14. Sponsoring Agency Code Cleveland,

15. _p_amentacvNot_ Project Manager:

Mr. C.C. NASA-Lewis Cleveland,

Ciepluch Research Ohio 44135

Center

16. Abs_a_ The saving System Energy technology (FPS) is thses advanced have a been Efficient for the Engine future (E 3) is a NASA program _The Eto Flight create fuel

transport designed to of

engines. achieve

Propulsion and system These rigs, a of economic ft), a haul MO.8, CF6-50C. domestic than short core

engine goals beyond

goals. engines. component and

Achieving technologies technologies engine the FPS All payoff standard It provides transport and are goals were day, an and

required that

aerodynamic, current demonstrated engine. The

mechanical production in design

successfully ground in FPS lower this has, test report.

turbofan presented for met. a a The 16.9% 8.6% 16.2%

benefits and

efficiency,

environmental at maximum installed in direct for an specific

considerations, cruise, fuel 10.67 km consumption cost for long a

(35,000

reduction reduction

operating international

distance

transport.

17. Key Words(Suggested by Author(s)) Energy Subsonic Aircraft Energy Conservation Transport Turbine Efficient Turbine Engine Engine Engine

18. Distribution Statement

19. Security Oa=if. (of this report) Unclassified

_.

Security Clawf. (of this _) Unclassified

21. No. of Pa_s

22. Price"

FOREWORD

This advanced Company.

report Flight This

presents Propulsion work was

the

final

preliminary conducted

analysis by the

and

design

of

an

System

(FPS) for

General

Electric and Space as

performed Lewis

the

National under

Aeronautics Contract Energy

Administration part Engine Hr. of the

(NASA), Aircraft

Research Efficiency

Center, (ACEE) was

NAS3-20643 Efficient

Energy Hr. was

Program, the NASA

(E 3) Project. G. Batterton was Flight Y. the

Carl the

C.

Ciepluch

E 3 Project Hr. effort

Manager; Roger associated herein.

Peter

NASA

Assistant

Project

Manager. for the

Chamberlin with Mr. the Donald

NASA

Project System

Engineer - Final of the

responsible Analysis

Propulsion Davis was

and for

Design the

reported

Manager

E 3 Project

General

Electric

Company.

i,KEC.ED!NG

yAC-E

B_.-_-,_.

NOT.

F-U..I_LK-'D

iii

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

Section 1.0 2.0 3.0 SUMMARY INTRODUCTION FLIGHT 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 4.0 CYCLE 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5.0 PROPULSION Features Maintainability Durability Growth Performance Retention Acoustics System AND Compatibility ENGINE PERFORMANCE Criteria Process SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS 9 9 12 16 18 21 22 25 30 30 30 32 33 36 36 37 37 Aerodynamic Mechanical Performance Design Design 41 45 45 45 Design Design 48 52 56 57 Design Design 57 61 62 65 65 71 73 76

Cycle History and Selection Initial FPS Cycle Selection Final Cycle Refinement Cycle Definition Reference Engine Comparison Starting AND SYSTEM DESIGN AND

COMPONENT 5.1 Fan 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2

PERFORMANCE

Compressor 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 Aerodynamic Mechanical Performance

5.3

Combustor 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 Aerodynamic Mechanical Performance Pressure

5.4

High 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4

Turbine

Aerodynamic Design Mechanical Design Cooling Design Performance

iv

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

(Concluded)

Section 82 Design Design Design 85 87 88 90 90 Configuration, System Sump and Lube System 96 96 96 98 98 I00 I01 102 Fan Mount Reverser System Package 105 II0 114 114 114 Control Control Clearance System System Control System System 125 128 131 133 133 135 135 137 139 139 142 142 143

5.5

Low 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4

Pressure

Turbine

Aerodynamic Mechanical Cooling Performance Frame Drives, Bearing Forward Aft Lube Sump System

5.6 5.7

Turbine Sumps, 5.7.1 5.7.2 5.7.3 5.7.4 5.7.5

Configuration

5.8 5.9

Exhaust Nacelle 5.9.1 5.9.2 5.9.3

System

Accessory System Design Fuel Stator Active

5.10

Control 5.10.1 5.10.2 5.10.3 5.10.4 5.10.5 5.10.6

Fuel Heater/Regenerator Performance System Design Performance

5.11

Dynamic 5.11.1 5.11.2

5.12 5.13

Weight Cost

6.0

ENGINE/AIRCRAFT 6.1 6.2

INTEGRATION

Sensitivity Factors Economic Evaluation

7.0 8.0

CONCLUSIONS

147 148

RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES

9.0

149

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

E z Flight E 3 Flight FPS On-Wing

Propulsion Propulsion Access

System System Provisions.

(FPS)

Design.

4 II 13 14 15 17

Features.

Energy FPS

Efficient

Engine

Modules.

Maintainability Flight

Features. Cycle. Characteristics.

E 3 Typical Performance E z Low Fan

Degradation Design

23 24 26

Noise

Features. Design.

Frame

Acoustic

Sample Sample Thrust.

Stability Stability

Stack Stack

Crosswind Crosswind

- Fan

at

Takeoff

Thrust.

28

- Compressor

at Takeoff

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

E 3 Cycle E z Fan E 3 Fan Particle Typical Inner

Selection. Section.

31 38 39 40 Size Distribution. 42 44 47 Design Features. 53 54 Features. 55 59 - Aft Looking Forward. 60

Cross

Component. Trajectories. Tests Outlet and Guide Cross Particle Vane. Section. Rotor

E 3 Compressor High Pressure

Compressor Hardware. Design

Compressor Compressor E 3 Combustor Combustor

Rotor Stator

Cross

Section. Assembly

Liner/Dome

vi

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

(Continued)

_l___u r e 24 25 26 27 28 29 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. E 3 High Stage High High High Stage Pressure I High Pressure Pressure Pressure Turbine Cross Section. Nozzle Assembly. Clearance Flow Control Manifolds. Assembly. 66 67 68 69 74 77 78 79 Section. 83 84 92 93 - End View. 94 97 99 103 General View, Thrust Engine Links. Mount Brackets/Fan Package. Frame. Arrangement. Cross Section. 106 107 109 Iii 112 113 117

Pressure Turbine Turbine Turbine

Turbine Rotor Active Cooling

Supply

Circuits.

I Blade-Tip Seal

Clearances. Clearances. Clearances. Turbine Cross

Interstage Stage E 3 Low Low

2 Blade-Tip Pressure

Pressure Frame

Turbine with

Rotor Aft Sump

Assembly. Installed.

Turbine

E 3 Turbine E 3 Turbine E 3 Forward E s Aft Sump

Frame Frame Sump

Cross Cross Design.

Section. Section

Design.

E 3 Mixer. Nacelle Front E 3 FPS Overall Mount Forward E s FPS

Reverser Reverser

Actuation. Thrust Comparison.

Reverser

Accessory

vii

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

(Concluded)

47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Full

Authority System System

Digital Inputs. Outputs.

Electronic

Control

(FADEC).

119 121 123 124

Control Control Hybrid ICLS

Electronics. Full Authority Digital Electronic Control.

126 127

E 3 Fuel

System. Stator Control Vane Control.

Compressor Clearance Fuel Core Number DOC

129 132

System. Schematic. and Support Squeeze-Film and High Damper Load System.

Heater/Regenerator Rotor Soft Support Soft

134 136 138 146

3 Bearing

Damper.

Improvement

Relative

to CF6-50C.

viii

LIST

OF

TABLES

Table E 3 FPS Program Goals and Status. 2

II. III. IV.

Component E 3 FPS E 3 FPS FPS

Performance Cycle

at

Maximum

Cruise

Thrust.

5 9 16 18

Characteristics. Features.

Reliability

V. VI. VII.

Life.

E s Growth

Capability.

19 20 Losses. 23

Growth Estimated

Component

Changes. Performance

VIII. IX. X.

In-Service

E 3 Noise E 3 FPS

Margin Stability

From

FAR

36.

27 29 34

Assessement.

XI. XII. XIII.

FPS FPS Fan

Component Cycle

Performance

- Maximum

Cruise

Conditions.

Definition.

35 46 51

Performance.

XIV. XV. XVI.

FPS

Compressor

Aerodynamic

Cycle

Match.

Compressor Combustor

Performance. Performance.

58 63 64

XVII. XVIII.

FPS

Emissions.

HPT

Aerothermodynamic

Cycle

Match

Point.

70 80 81

XIX. XX.

Active High

Clearance Pressure

Control Turbine

System

Payoff.

Performance.

XXI. XXII.

LP Low

Turbine Pressure

Cycle

Match

Point. Performance.

86

Turbine

91 104

XXIII.

Mixer

Performance

at

Maximum

Cruise.

ix

LIST

OF

TABLES

(Concluded)

Table XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII. XXIX. Accessory Qualitative FPS FPS Weight Cost Gearbox Factors Summary. Summary. Cost Sensitivity Factors. Location Trade Study Package Results. Selection. 115 116 140 141 144 145

in Accessory

Direct DOC

Operating

Improvements.

LIST

OF

ABBREVIATIONS

ACC AMAC CD&I DOC ECS EPNdB FADEC FICA FOD FPS G/B GI HPT ICLS IGV LPT M MXCL MXCR MZSOV N
c

Active Advanced

Clearance

Control Axial and Flow Core Compressor

Multistage Development

Component Direct

Integration

Operating

Cost System Noise Level, decibels Control Action

Environment Effective Full

Control Perceived

Authority

Digital and Damage System

Electronic Corrective

Failure Foreign Flight Gearbox Ground High

Indication Objective Propulsion

Idle Pressure Turbine Spool

Integrated Inlet Low Mach Guide

Core/Low Vane Turbine

Pressure Number Climb Cruise

Maximum Maximum Main Core Fan Fan Core

Zone

Shutoff

Valve

Physical Physical Physical Physical

Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed

Nf N1 N2

N/4T
OGV PD&I PTO PS3 PTO PZRV sfc

Turbine Outlet

Corrected Guide Vane Design

Preliminary Power Static Takeoff

and

Integration

Pressure Total Reset

at Compressor Pressure Valve

Discharge

Freestream Pilot Zone

Specific

Fuel

Consumption

xi

LIST

OF ABBREVIATIONS

(Concluded)

T/O T25 T3 TI2 T41 T42

Takeoff Total Total Total High Temperature Temperature Temperature Pressure at Core Inlet Pressure Inlet Inlet Temperature Turbine Turbine

at High at Fan

Turbine

Rotor

Total Temperature Discharge Low Pressure

at High

Pressure

T49 VSV Wf W25

Turbine Vane

Inlet

Temperature

Variable Fuel Flow

Stator

Physical

Core

Airflow

at Core

Inlet

Turbine

Corrected

Flow

xii

1.0

SUMMARY

The nautics The

Energy and Space of

Efficient

Engine

(E 3) (NASA)

program Aircraft

is

part Energy

of

the

National

Aeroprogram. of and

Administration this program aircraft is

Efficiency the in the

objective

to

substantially would enter

improve service

efficiency late 1980's

commercial early

transport

which

1990's. NASA established The These was General goals specific Electric and first and design It the is the in performance, E 3 Flight current 1980 economic, Propulsion are shown in of ready advances service. tests of To each in the to 1982. FPS. mount and interface beyond these a new core that technoloengine test, with and System in environmental (FPS) Table This I. report meets The goals these FPS

for

E 3.

goals. design the

status and updated

reported design

presents

final The

economic

benefits

E 3 FPS

self-contained,

the

aircraft for the a

pylon. engines

incorporates in rig

technology

employed gies, and

currently included test. E 3 FPS

evaluate component,

E 3 program engine

turbofan The General

Electric

features

include:

long

duct,

mixed-flow, a cascade-type

acoustically thrust

treated reverser.

bulk

absorber

nacelle

incorporating

core-mounted

accessory

drive

module. 32-blade fan and debris-separating

A highly booster

efficient, module.

wide-chord,

A A

10-stage, double

23:1 annular

pressure combustor

ratio for

compressor. low emissions.

highly low

efficient pressure

two-stage turbine.

high

pressure

turbine

and

five-

stage A

two-frame,

five-bearing

design.

Spring-mounted thrust bearing. authority

bearing

supports

with

viscous

damping

on

the

core

full

digital

electronic

control

(FADEC).

Table

I.

E 3 FPS

Program

Goals

and

Status.

FPS

Characteristic

NASA

Goal

FPS

Status

Installed Specific Consumption (SFC) Direct (DOC) Operating

Fuel

Minimum 12% Reduction From CF6-50C (1) Minimum 5% Reduction From CF6-50C on Equivalent Aircraft

16.6% 16.9%

Reduction Reduction

(1) (2)

Cost

8.6% to 16.2% Reduction Depending on Aircraft and Distance Meets With Margin

Noise

Meet FAR 36 (1978) Provisions for Growth Meet EPA Standards Retention Proposed 1981

Zmissions

Meets

Goal

Performance

Minimum 50_Reduced Deterioration From CF6-50C Levels

Projected

to Meet

(1)Using M

E 3 ground 10.67 cruise

rules km

which

specify ft) with

maximum zero 10.67

cruise and

thrust power

at extraction. bleed

= 0.8,

(35,000 at

bleed km

(2)Maximum and

thrust

M = 0.8, the

(35,000

ft) with system.

power

extraction,

using

bleed

air/fuel

heater

mixer

to

combine

fan

and

core

exhaust

flows.

Case the

cooling compressor,

systems high

to

actively

control turbine,

blade and low

tip

clearances turbine.

in

pressure

pressure

Composite Component The The results FPS engine

materials efficiency is test in shown program II.

and

advanced above I.

manufacturing previous state

techniques. of the art.

levels in Figure has

component are shown

been

completed.

Component

performance

Table

The been

core

engine The in the

and

integrated of ICLS

core/low testing both

spool exceeded core and

(ICLS) the ICLS At 0.0332

engine

tests

have goals engines

completed.

results

performance tests, sea level the

established operated standard hr-lbf) engine. The ment tion better have Based tion which engine. than been on and

E 3 program. or

During

without day was

aerothermal specific during

mechanical fuel

problems. of

static, (0.326 ibm/

takeoff, measured

consumption of the heavily

kg/hr-N

testing

instrumented

ICLS

turbofan

specific can

fuel

consumption be

projected expected

for during

the the

FPS

is

based

on of

improvea produc-

conservatively Because many

development levels

components the component

achieved component

performance performance are

significantly for II. utilizafuel the E 3 FPS FPS

their increased.

goal

levels, Final

requirements shown cooling drag) projected km (35,000 in Table flow specific for

requirements levels,

these cycle at

component rematching, standard (0.529

performance the day

optimized (no nacelle

uninstalled cruise at Mach

consumption is 0.0539

maximum

conditions 0.8/10.67

kg/hr-N

ibm/hr-lbf)

ft).

Fuel per gallon) per

prices range gallon)

have used in

increased initially the the current economic

from in

the the

7.9_

to

13.2_ to

per about fuel

liter $0.396 price

(30_ per has

to

50_

E 3 program The due to

liter subE3

($1.50

market. payoff

higher the

stantially

increased

more

fuel-efficient

E 3 direct rent production size

operating engine, and flight

cost the

is CF6-50.

now

8.6% This

to

16.2_

lower covers a

than

typical of

cur-

range

spectrum

aircraft

lengths.

_a

4-J

_.J

o_

oo

Table

II.

Component

Performance

at Maximum

Cruise

Thrust.

Initial FPS Requirements

Component Results

Test

Final FPS Requirements

Fan

Efficiency Booster

0.887

0.892

0.894

Fan Hub and Efficiency Compressor Combustor Combustor Combustor

0.892 Efficiency 0.861 0.995 Drop, % EPA 1981 5 Proposed Standards

0.895 0.856 0.9995 4.8 Met Except Goal NO x EPA 1981

0.906 0.861 0.999 5 Proposed Standards

Efficiency Pressure Emissions

High Pressure Efficiency Low Pressure

Turbine 0.924 Turbine 0.917 3.1 0.916 2.6 Demonstrated 0.925 2.9 0. 925 0.927

Efficiency Mixer, SFC Improvement, %

2.0

INTRODUCTION

The improve aircraft established launched, essential. Efficient

objective the energy

of

the

E 3 program of late

is

the

development systems for for E3

of

technology

to

efficiency in the of

propulsion 1980's. The

subsonic type the

commercial programs E 3 program was was

introduced by

need fuels.

shortages fuel

petroleum-based have a major made

Since aircraft the NASA

escalated The Program.

prices is

improved of

energy Aircraft

efficiency Energy

E 3 program

element

The developed

following E 3 Flight

technical Propulsion

goals

were

established

by

NASA

for

the

fully

System:

Fuel pared

Consumption - Minimum of to a CF6-50C at maximum altitude on a

12_ reduction cruise thrust, day with

in installed Mach 0.8 at no bleed or

sfc com10.67 km power

(35,000 ft) extraction.

standard

Direct

0peratin_

Cost

- Minimum

of

5_

reduction

from

CF6-50C

on

equivalent Noise

aircraft. with FAR 36 (1978).

- Comply

Emissions Performance performance

- Comply Retention

with

EPA

Proposed of service goals, 50_

1981

Standards in to

for the the is

new rate

engines. of

- Minimum in program

reduction compared

deterioration the tasks.

as

CF6-50C. structured

To into four

meet

and

demonstrate technical

the

E z program

major

Task sion engine, while in tion in fan FPS Task of Task

addresses The including in and

the FPS

design is its to a

and and

evaluation fully intended service. performance, payoff. and rigs, and is the a is

of to

the

E 3 Flight production program is

Propulgoals executed installadeveloped for a turbothe

System.

complete,

developed achieve The cost, The core

nacelle,

during depth

commercial evaluate economic design component component FPS

design weight,

sufficient

considerations, Task I establishes to be tested Following

and the in

information requirements engine, test of and

performance engine subject

hardware

engine. is 2 each 2

the The

programs, this and

reevaluated. consists engine has been of

final

report. rig testing efforts.

the

detailed and

design, includes

fabrication, supporting

component completed.

technology

Task core

involves vehicle, turbine. integrates

the

design, consisting Task 3 core

fabrication, of been the (ICLS) the

and compressor,

test

evaluation combustor,

of and

a high

test

pressure Task the has The industry, preceded component Work cycle goals. effort, aircraft Design tion is is E 3 is and by 4 been one the

has with

completed. low pressure test components vehicle. to make 4

the Core/Low

Integrated

Spool

turbofan

Task

completed. of a series States conventional of joint technology community. unconventional programs The between E 3 program cycles NASA, was and by

United of

scientific and

studies

engine

technology on the

studies. in to FPS 1978. the was work The and There the was Initially, optimum then with there cycle initiated. the Boeing, Preliminary was for a thorough engine program with and this Douglas

E 3 started phase

optimization The

evolve design

achieving In parallel Lockheed, Analysis

preliminary

aircraft/engine companies reported in was in

integration accomplished. Reference 2. I,

E 3 FPS

and Evalua-

Aircraft/Engine an update of

Integration the FPS design

reported in

Reference 3. work then

reported

Reference design was and

Detail Each engine the were component test

proceeded assembled, the of ICLS almost which, programs technology. test

on

the and engine. of cost

engine rig

system

and followed

components. by a core

fabricated, of

tested, This FPS

testing

design engine.

work The

established exceptions were and heavier

detailed the fan

flight frame

designs and The of nacelle test E3

all for

the

and

timing

reasons, aerodynamic

nonflight mechanical

designs. evaluation

provided

rigorous

This The final nomic to this

report of

describes the Also in terms

the

FPS

design work this direct

at

the

end

of

the are

contract reflected of

period. in the this eco-

experience FPS

detailed included of

design in

and report

testing is an

design.

assessment cost (DOC),

benefits, E 3 FPS.

reduced

operating

attributable

The and for

established studies such represented

benefits for several

of

the years be

E 3 FPS ahead. level

will

be

the

basis

for

future

engine

aircraft conducting

Important of design. risk and The

information actual E 3 FPS

required technology

studies by

will the

the

advancement

final

E 3 FPS

represents

very

conservative compared

migration to current

into

the

future,

even

though

E 3 technology

is

advanced

engines.

3.0

FLIGHT

PROPULSION

SYSTEM

DESIGN

AND

ANALYSIS

3.1

FEATURES

The achieves a mixer through using

NASA/General high than a propulsive combines

Electric

Energy by core

Efficient utilizing streams thermal

Flight a prior low to

Propulsion fan pressure

System ratio them by temthe in and

efficiency the fan nozzle. ratio, and

discharging is

common

exhaust

Higher

efficiency pressure to

achieved inlet such are

higher

engine and

pressure

increased performance

high

turbine engines design

peratures, CF6-50C. Table III.

improved

component cycle

compared for the E 3 FPS

as

Characteristic

parameters

given

Table

III.

E 3 FPS

Cycle

Characteristics.

Cycle Bypass Fan

Pressure Ratio at

Ratio Max

at Climb at

Max (I)

Climb

(1)

38.4 6.7

Pressure

Ratio

Max

Climb

(I)

1.68

Turbine Static

Rotor Warm Day

Inlet 2

Temperature Takeoff Power

at

Sea

Level

1365 (2489

C F)

Specific Cruise Specific Cruise (1) 3 3

Fuel , Bare Fuel

Consumption Engine Consumption Engine

at

Max

0.0540 [(0.529

kg/(hr-N) Ibm/(hr-lbf) ]

at

Max

0.0559 [(0.548

kg/(hr-N) ibm/(hr-lbf)]

, Installed

Maximum standard

climb day

is plus

the I0

cycle C

match

point,

0.8/10.7

km

(35,000

ft),

(18 F).

(2)

Sea

level

static

warm

day

refers

to

standard

day

temperature

+15

(27 F). (3)

Max

cruise ft),

is

the

performance day

evaluation temperature

point, (15 C,

0.8/10.7

km

(35,000

standard

59 F).

The

FPS

mechanical allowing fan duct/mixer used. the pressure (LPT) thrust by the fan

layout simple

is

compact, and

which bearing

is

favorable

to and

decreased making the and and

deterioration, full five is length bearings integral the

frame

arrangement Two of frame

arrangement The front frame

practical. is made The

components materials is located The core low shaft

are with low

composite frame the fan. The

outlet turbine.

guide Two by the

vanes. bearings the rear

rear

behind pressure supported bearing in the

carry frame. and by

turbine by a

is

supported in

is roller rotate

bearing low

fan rotor

frame within

a differential LPT. Both shafts

carried same

pressure

the

direction.

The integrated used to

nacelle into improve turbine low fuel

is the

an

integral and and and A the LPT. full other 2.

part

of

the

engine.

The

acoustic control the

design (ACC)

is is high

nacelle

engine. reduce A

Active

clearance in annular electronic The

performance (HPT),

deterioration double digital functions.

compressor, is

pressure achieve manages are

unique

combustor control engine

used

to

emissions. flow in and

authority engine

(FADEC) features

major

illustrated

Figure

Design the preliminary

technology design

improvements reported in

have

been

incorporated 3. The

into

the

FPS

since listed

Reference

improvements

are

below.

Reduced blading production N4 Ren_

Turbine in

Heat

Transfer heat

Coefficients transfer less

- The

more than

efficient current

E 3 has engines, for N4

lower

coefficients cooling flow. 2 Vane chemical

requiring Stage

Material 150.

HPT

I Blade high

and

Stage

- Replaced stability and

has

improved

temperature

metallurgical Thermal Blade Barrier and Stage

properties. Coating 2 Vane on Combustor, HPT Stage cooling I Vane, air Stage flow. 1

- Reduces

required

DS ment

Eutectic for

Noncooled cooling Mixer air

HPT flow.

Stage

Blade

- Eliminates

the

require-

Increased viding sfc.

Penetration mixer

Slightly and

increased an additional

penetration, reduction

proin

higher

effectiveness

Start and

Bleed ICLS

Eliminated

- Not

needed,

as

demonstrated

during

core

testing.

i0

c_ W

0 W

L J_

_._ r_ _J W >

l-Z 0 l,IJ n-"

I UJ _A W _.; O > Z n_-_ ._: F-F-- ne Z cO _: O ,,K C.D .J C..D

_J

_J

w c.9 C.P F- -re./9 r-i w D_ F--- C'q o

A.J

_z oD Z < LL. W r_O F< ne

o'3

I--

C_

OD Im n< np_ w

tO _._ Fo0 D O

",/ ..J D

n_J 0Q ne O o0 Ii

Start Range Turbine Cooling core and ICLS testing. Improved testing. Component Performance

- Not

needed,

as

demonstrated

during

- Based

on

rig,

core

and

ICLS

Cycle Rematch - The cycle was rematched to better utilize the more efficient components and the speed/flow characteristic of the compressor, which resulted in improved sfc and increased takeoff thrust. The cycle changes are discussed in Section 4.3.

3.2

MAINTAINABILITY An important engine as aspect related of commercial engine operation costs and and is the to maintainability utilizaconsideration

of

the

both has

to maintenance a prime design

aircraft

tion. for the

Maintainability FPS. 3 illustrates and the cavity inner FPS

been

configuration

Figure cowl/reverser engine. the core

the cowl uses

access cover

feature are swung

of up

the

FPS.

Both access

the to

outer the

fan core to

to permit this current tank

Since cowl using fan case FPS

core-mounted important

accessories, than on some oil

quick

access

is more

commercial is located required. ease of can on the

engines outer

fan-case-mounted to permit design quick

accessories. inspection on the and

The

servicing

when

The

engine

is based modules

modular the

concept engine and

for

maintenance. be built and

Individual stored

containing for 4 quick

major

components quick they

separately Figure facility.

replacement the

consequent as

shop exist

turnaround in Some

times.

illustrates

major

modules

could

a maintenance of the

important 5. These

maintainability features have engine engines

features been

of

the

FPS

are

illusElecenhance

trated tric the

in Figure experience

retained has

because shown

General they costs. of

in the of of

commercial commercial the

business and reduce

that

serviceability Another aspect

maintenance the

maintainability for the fully

effort developed

was

estimation The estimate scaling such

expected based tors eters on

maintenance the CF6-50C for

costs

FPS. base,

was facparamand

commercial mission,

engine and and

service design

data life.

with

applied as

thrust,

In addition,

operating

temperatures

speeds,

configuration

differences,

12

_u

13

/
_J _o o

/f

i-,

"o o

N o

4J

; o p,, o "o o o _J

o
u_

u_

o0

_J QJ "o o

14

/ / / r-i .e-I m 0 I= _

0 e_ 0 m

"ID

__ e_ 0

"_

15

parts labor mature

costs is

were

considered. per engine on an has

The flight average a direct

E 3 FPS hour 2-hour impact to in

maintenance 1980 dollars

cost for

for

materials

and

$90.64

a fully

developed,

engine Reliability

flown

domestic

flight. The FPS has

also

on maintainability. the the total

been Table which

made

as

simple

as practical the number

minimize with

complement and lists

of parts. features

IV compares will enhance

of parts

CF6-50C

reliability.

Table

IV.

E 3 FPS

Reliability

Features.

Parts FPS Blades Vanes Frames Sumps Main Shaft 1536 1750 2 2 5

Required CF6-50C 1673 1750 4 HPT 4 7 Fan &

FPS Design Features Improved Reliability Combustor

For

- Single design has very low stress levels because mechanical loads carried shell. - No bolt holes through

in

& LPT

disks

Booster

- Built-in

FOD

separation

Bearings

It

is believed and

that

the

FPS

design to that

will of

produce

an engine commercial

superior engines.

in

reliability

maintainability

current

3.3

DURABILITY The FPS was designed accepted. or 36,000 for The very high life and the inherent a total first, weight useful with 6. penalty life normal of

was

consciously hours and Some

engine cycles,

was

designed

for occurs

36,000 repair

mission The

whichever cycle

maintenance. features which

mission

is shown life in the

in Figure

contribute

to

long

are: fan, booster, and compressor.

Rugged, low aspect ratio Part-span shrouds on fan

blading blades.

16

_rj

C
(D

0 C,J

,._ C,I

E-_
r.z.l

_.-_

"o

rj

:-.l

Z}

t_ m ZUT_ S iB_o_

17

Long

life,

high-boss

compressor

variable

stator

bushings. of the untrapped

Dirt and booster. Rugged, Shingle

foreign

object

separation

characteristics

single

joint

in

compressor

spool.

combustor. turbine rotor cooling air taken from center of combustor

Clean, cool diffuser. No holes lives

Design

through of high

turbine temperature

blade

disks. are given in Table V.

components

Table

V.

FPS

Life.

Service Life Life, Hours (or Mission Cycles) 9,000 Structure 18,000 9,000 of Engine

Total With

Life Repair

Combustor HPT HPT Rotating Blading

18,000 36,000 18,000 36,000

Remainder

3.4

GROWTH Planned thrust the growth was a part to use of the the FPS design. stage fan Growth requireA 20%

ments

influenced in thrust growth Table climb as a

decision be

quarter the and the

booster. design.

increase

can

realized of +5%,

within +10%, of

current are

flowpath summarized

Thrust and VII.

levels presents sea

+20%

in Tables for

VI the

VI

a summary takeoff sfc and

major

cycle

parameters

maximum is shown

and

level for

conditions. HPT inlet

A +5% temperature

"throttle changes

push"

point

reference

without

18

Table Vl.

Es Growth Capability.

Maximum

Climb

- 10,668

(35,000

ft)10.80

Parameters

Net

Thrust

FPS

+5%

+10%

+20%

Oninstalled sfc (Std kg/Nlhr (ibm/Ibf/hr)

Day)

0.0541 (0.530)

0.0547 (0.535)

0.0555 (0.543)

0.0561 (0.549)

Overall

Pressure

Ratio

38.4

42.8

43.2

45.0

Bypass

Ratio

6.7

6.0

6.0

5.4

Fan

Bypass

Pressure

Ratio

1.68

1.72

1.72

. 1.75

Fan

Hub

Pressure

Ratio

1.70

1.92

1.89

2.05

Takeoff

- SLS/30C

(86F)

Net

Thrust,

kN (ib)

173.5 (39,000)

182.20 (40,950)

190.85 (42,900)

208.20 (46,800)

HPT

Rotor

Inlet

Temp,

C (OF)

1,365 (2,489)

1,375 (2,506)

1,416 (2,580)

1,465 (2,669)

19

benefit of
ponents show

a fan

hub

quarter-stage modification. modification to

change. Note

Table that all

VII. identifies the

the

compoints

which

require

thrust-growth life.

a cooling-flow

maintain

turbine

blade

Table

VII.

Growth

Component

Changes

(1)

Component

Change

Required

+5%

+10%

+20%

New New

Fan

Blade Blading Compressor Nozzle Cooling Flow - Same Exhaust Area Flows Function Total Nozzle Area X X X X X X

X X x X X X X X

Booster

High-Flowed Larger HPT

Increased Larger New LPT

Mixer

Smaller

(1)Engine

Flowpath

Unchanged.

The speed,

+20%

growth

engine ratio; stator steps

requires a high-flow schedule;

a new

fan

blade

with

higher

flow,

tip

and

pressure and a new

compressor and some the

that

will

require

some changes. the

reblading The interim

turbine

aerodynamic to

growth

will The

overspeed higher 23%). fan

same

fan blade permit the

attain

required increase of course,

engine in hub

airflow. boost

speed

will to

a significant front of the engine, area

(about in

These turbine increase

changes stator 3%,

require HPT

changes

the will

vanes with

and

in the flow

mixer

split.

The

flow

function

the

LPT

function

20

increasing tain the All engine. this work

13_. same disks The

The nacelle shown

mixer size. on the

total The FPS

area

will

remain nozzle

unchanged area will designed for

in

order by the

to

main-

exhaust cross

decrease for 20_

2%. growth and

sections was in

are

20_

test

engine the

rotating cross

structure used

designed the FPS

growth,

provided

sections

drawings.

3.5

PERFORMANCE

RETENTION

The performance be no more The

FPS

was

specifically

design The program

to

substantially goal was that high

reduce the FPS

in-service deterioration ratio engines.

deterioration. than following half that features

experienced in the FPS

by

current

bypass

reduce

deterioration:

Features . Untrapped

Incorporated Quarter Stage core and

to

Reduce Booster

Long

Term

Aeromechanical foreign reduced

Degradation objects and

- Centrifuges in

dirt out of the airfoil erosion

stream, cleaner

resulting airfoils.

compressor

Low

Aspect

Ratio

(Large due to

Chord foreign and

and

Airfoil

Thickness)

Fan

Blading

Reduced Low same

damage Ratio as

objects. Compressor Blading - Smaller scale but

Aspect effect

Booster on fan

blading.

Lower

Fan

Tip

Speed

- Reduced

damage

due

to

foreign

objects.

Features Increases_ Degradation

Incorporated and Reduce

to both

Retain Short

Optimum and Long

Clearances_ Term

Minimize

Leakage

Aeromechanical

Active and LPT.

Clearance Opens to

Control clearances prevent

rubs.

In

the

aft

half

of

compressor, and

the

HPT,

during

thermal

transients

maneuver

deflections

Material to reduce

Selections rubs due

- Matches to thermal

response transients.

rates

for

stators

and

rotors

Mount

Design

- Mount

points to

at

45

from

each

side

of

top

dead due

center on to thrust

fan frame loads.

minimize

casing

ovalization

and

bending

Short,

Strong,

Stiff

Structure

- Minimizes

deflections.

21

Short, Stiff Core Rotor with Aft Differential Bearing - Minimizes rotor bending and rotor-to-stator movement.
Abradable penalties. Seal Materials - Minimizes stackup and transient seal rub

High

Boss,

Long

Life

Variable of of the

Stator the FPS

Vane are in

Bushings compared overall to

- Reduces current

wear. engines will

Deterioration in come Figure from 7. A

characteristics large portion lower

reduction deterioration.

deterioration

significantly

early

The given in

projected Table VIII.

breakdown Although is

of

FPS it is

deterioration an at imprecise half that

compared

to

a CF6-50C the

is FPS

quantification, of the CF6-50C.

projected

deterioration

assessed

3.6

ACOUSTICS

The stringent these

FAA than

FAR

36 for

regulation current

for

certification The FPS

of was

new

airplanes to

is conform

more with

airplanes.

designed

regulations.

The

following Full Long

acoustic inlet

features with

are

a part wall

of

the

FPS

design:

length fan duct

acoustic with

treatment. wall treatment.

nacelle

acoustic

High Mixed

bypass core

ratio. and fan stream (lower peak velocity) exhaust.

Moderate Integral between

fan fan the

tip

speed. guide and fan vane blades. (OGV) and fan frame with a large gap

outlet vanes

Bulk because resonator temperatures sheet.

Low

pressure

turbine

designed were selected

to

reduce for wall

noise. acoustic to treatment

absorber the

materials

suppression These required, shows

characteristics bulk absorber

were

superior

conventional and, where higher

designs. are 8

materials are used

(Kevlar under is

Astroquartz) the acoustic

30%-open used.

perforated

Figure

where

treatment

22

C U

Typical/Current

Turbofan (Includes

for

=O 1.4 0 ,,.-I 1-4 4-J

6000 On-Wing

Hours

Initial

Loss)

6000
r._ r._

Hours

I
Engine Hours Figure 7. Performance Degradation Characteristics.

Table

VIII.

Estimated

In-Service

Performance

Losses.

Estimated Causes CF6-50C

Losses lIPS

Delta Reduction

(Estimate)

Clearances Fan RPC HPT LPT Subtotal 4g 3 13 29 I 3 9

2
15 34

Leakases HPC HPT LPT Subtotal 10 6 4 5

__3
19

__2
11

Erosion Fan I._C LPT Subtotal 7 8 2 4 3 1

__5
22

_A4
12 10

Miscellaneous

10

I0

Total

100

48

52

23

\
_ =
X

o, oo

_o f_ c_

.0

rz_

o_

<
m

_a o

rn
"0 C

r._

_J _o

c_o

C
m

24

Figure those

compares for

conventional the E 3 design.

fan

blade,

OGV

and

frame

strut

design

with

components

The Stage reduce generated approach

5-stage and

low the

pressure Stage The

turbine 4 blade vane/blade and

uses

an

increased number of

gap Stage such out

between

the to noise at

4 vane turbine by

a high ratio

4 blades that the the

noise. the passing

was

selected

frequency

would

not

propagate

of

turbine

conditions.

Since tion, ICLS

the

initial and The

FPS

acoustic were a were to

design obtained

was

selected, during which

data

on

noise

generaof FPS the

radiation engine.

suppression used

acoustic

testing all

ICLS

nonflight run with

nacelle the the

incorporated material

acoustic and on for that met. also these the the

features. suppressed tests, lower the overall

Tests (taped) FPS

treatment treatment are shown twin with.

unsuppressed Based The to reason the goal fact was

determine level margins of higher the

effectiveness. in is Table IX.

noise

noise level

margin is

Boeing start

attributed The acoustics

airframe

noise

to

Since it can be

th_ seen

requirement that the

established acoustics goal

for was

the met

FPS with

noise a

margin

was

EPNdB,

comfortable

margin.

3.7

SYSTEM

COMPATIBILITY

Evaluation determining ity, and the distortion of a I0

of

the

compatibility for stall In estimation the sea

of

the surge

FPS

fan

and

compressor

includes sensitivanalysis

requirements tolerance. surge-line and II

margin, it

deterioration a stability

addition, and

includes

consisting Figures the fan, fan and

performance/stability of the required

trades. surge margin For margin produce the for

illustrate at the

makeup takeoff

compressor is For single the the

level

thrust to

condition. the on stall

distortion

largest compressor,

single the to the been a

contributor thermal margin

requirement. the largest Stability pressor. Test These

effects requirement. for

clearance

contributor have

requirements are presented fan rig

established range also The of flight

the

FPS

fan in the

and Table fan was

comX.

for

conditions As shown, E 3

results all

from

tests

are

included. final (10C)

exceeded

stability

requirements.

compressor

25

_
_

_c c
m 0_ Q

CU

o0 QJ

Qo c)

Q) r_ fald

r_

a_

26

Table

IX.

E 3 Noise

Margin

from

FAR

36

Noise Takeoff

Margin Sideline

EPNdB Approach

Boeing Lockheed Lockheed Douglas

Domestic Domestic

Twin Tri

Jet Jet Quad Jet

2.9 5.6 5.1 4.4

6.6 7.7 8.1 6.5

1.7 4.1 5.3 3.8

International Tri Jet

27

Surge Line ,._ Component MIO. Tolerances Deterioration

'\_

Distortion Margin (After Requirements)

t I

_..._..l _L_ OS 0_,_ _''" TIO "01 FIow,,------I_

-_ , \\--_ _.i_ j_ S S Ol_rating _-

Distortion and Recovery Thrust Transients Deterioration Mfg. Tolerances

Fan Map

LIM" component

Figure

i0.

Sample

Stability

Stack

Crosswlnd

- Fan

at

Takeoff

Thrust.

Surge Line "-- Component ""Deterioration Mfg. Tolerances

---Thermal --Ststor

Accel. Transient Trecking Em_

I ._>_e/

Patll:ure I

I
)t

Distortion Margin (After Requirements)

[ ,-_ O_" Flow TIO NO

-_

/Accel.

Fuel Schedule Var. Mfg. Tolerances

HPC Map

S S Operating

.--- Component Line

Figure 28

ii.

Sample

Stability

Stack

Crosswind

Compressor

at

Takeoff

Thrust.

tested are will cient no

only data

in the on

core

and

ICLS Rig

vehicles. tests 10C are

No

stalls

were for the

incurred

so

there which suffiFPS,

stall the

margin. line. the

planned

compressor, to X. have The

determine stall

stall to

The

compressor requirements stability

is expected in Table

margin is

meet to

stability its

therefore,

projected

achieve

requirements.

Table

X.

E 3 FPS

Stability

Assessment.

Mo/ALT Po_r Set_ir_

0t0 G/I

0/0 T/O

.2510 T/O

0/8K T/O

0/5330 T/O

.25/5330 T/O

.8/35K MXCL

.8/35K HXCR

Fan Available Required Remainins 4.2 3.6 l+ 0.6 16.1 12.1 + 4.0 18.1 12.3 + 5.8 15.1 12.0 + 3.1 16.2 12.1 +'4.1 18.1 12.3 + 5.8 13.5 5.0 + 8.5 14.8 5.1 + 9.7

Compressor Available Required* Remainin8 19.0 No stall data. 16.9 mac_ins 10C 16.8 expected compressor 16.9 to be 16.9 rig tested 13.3 in 1984 13.4

16.9 Positive

*Active

Clearance

Control

(ACC)

Is

Assumed.

29

4.0

CYCLE

AND

ENGINE

PERFORMANCE

4.1

CYCLE

HISTORY

AND

SELECTION

CRITERIA

The of in NASA Figure as

E 3 FPS programs 12, Study

preliminary involving the of development Turbofan 4.

design component of Engine This

cycle and E 3

is

based

on

the

results studies. 1974 with

of

a As

number shown

cycle cycle for cycle

technology began Low and in

the

the

study

known

Designed

Energy technology

Consumption study of boosted fan turboand

(STEDLEC), fan engines

Reference considered single-stage All engines

extensive and

separateHP were against by the

mixed-flow and as

exhaust

systems, and geared

nonboosted urations. craft for This ence 5,

turbines, studied the NASA

direct-drive installed on

configair-

advanced economic (USTEDLEC) with

transport goals. program, engines engine and of

evaluation was followed continued cycles. and

performance STEDLEC along

and

Unconventional studies the

Referand types fan Multi23:1 with

which

the This

turbofan study

turboprop to four

regenerative with separate-

narrowed

candidates of

mixed-flow-exhaust the

versions Preliminary (AMAC) 6). defined This

direct-drive Study advanced, was engine. programs

geared

configurations. stage pressure a two-stage The ence 7) Axial Flow

Concurrently, Core Compressors

Design an

Advanced 10-stage, to be used

ratio HPT

compressor in

(Reference

compressor turbofan (PD&I)

a nonboosted, Design engine against

direct-drive, and types the Integration using NASA

E 3 Preliminary evaluated technologies and four

studies cycles,

(Referand fuel by

advanced on

components, operating studies aircraft for the

material efficiency, airframe cycle ment from and

goals Mission

economics, were conducted

environmental based was Program on

factors. advanced as

contractors this study

transport the cycle in

designs. E 3 Component 1.

The

final

selected (CD&I),

Develop-

Integration

reported

Reference

4.2

INITIAL

CYCLE

SELECTION

PROCESS

The developed of the

initial a family

cycle of

selection engines

process which

involved

two

phases. for pressure a

The range ratio,

first of

phase values

provided These

performance were and fan

significant cycle

cycle

parameters. HPT inlet

bypass These

ratio,

pressure,

temperature,

exhaust

system

type.

30

I
O0 Om

I
F.,T.1 o4 oO Om ,--I 0

f-I oo O_

0 cO 0'_

4-1

0 0 0 I _J c.J B ..c: oo ,-t 0 r_ m _4 0 ,.-t

_n

0'_

0 0'_ _0 0 0

_J

r'-.

o2

.< < Z

31

engines variety designs. rations. ics

were of

evaluated missions

in which

the

second

phase,

by

airframe concepts trijet, the

subcontractors, in transport quadjet goals on

on

incorporated included were

advanced twin-jet,

aircraft configueconomand

The The

aircraft mission

designs studies fuel

and NASA (Wf),

evaluated (sfc), to meet

against fuel

(DOC),

specific The thrust

consumption were scaled E 3 FPS on

burned

emissions, requirements.

acoustics. The ibf) tion by of

engines size for

specific was selected

thrust at and

the based

design these

162.36

kN

(36,500 evalua-

General market

Electric requirements

mission

studies

corporate

for

the

1990's.

4.3

FINAL

CYCLE

REFINEMENT

As the and FPS and

shown of

in the

Figure

12,

the

cycle The

went

through

refinement on

process off-design The on rig,

during maps final core,

course start cycle ICLS

E 3 program. performance

refinements than design

concentrated point

region

rather

performance. based

incorporates testing. flows, and These the lower

component include speed/flow cooling

performance better

improvements efficiency of as a the result

component

levels, compressor. of

lower In addiof

cooling tion, improved it

characteristics flows required

reflects materials.

substitution

The cycle rate was was

final matched

engine

cycle

was

rematched than the

to original

best

utilize FPS to

these favor at the

changes. thrust

The lapse climb inlet in The

differently a twin engine of the

desired retained.

for

transport. better dropped

The

same and

thrust

maximum turbine

Because at maximum temperature, and 173.5 Fan is 54.4

components by 38 C was

rematching, A slight at from the

temperature turbine better (36,500 has not inlet

climb

(70 F). incorporated thrust size cm the (83

increase

22 C

(39 F), increased ibf). is

takeoff. 162.4 final core kN

components ibf) to

rematching kN tip (39,000 diameter (120

takeoff Hardware

for in),

engine inlet

changed. flow

still

211 at

and climb

corrected point.

kg/sec

ibm/sec)

maximum

matching

Within vehicles, component

the

E 3 program the is

the state higher

component of development than that

rigs, of of

and a

the "first

core

and

ICLS to by

test test." FPS

represent performance

engine

the

test

vehicles

an

amount

32

expected performance included. each

to

occur levels More

in

the

full

development in Table XI. will

of

an Final

engine. cooling in

The flow the

FPS

component are also of

are

listed

rates

detailed

information

be

presented

discussions

component.

4.4

CYCLE

DEFINITION

The points: cruise All

E 3

cycle

parameters climb, maximum for for The

are

shown cruise, km

in

Table sea ft),

Xll level

for

the

three The

key

rating and

maximum points are are

and (35,000

takeoff. 0.8 flight

climb conditions. and is cruise

shown

10.67 dry air,

Mach power

points

defined

zero

bleed

and

extraction, matching) maximum

100% the and

inlet-ram maximum takeoff The ture,

recovery. climb thrust engine to are: Standard Standard flight ratings thrust

cycle

design The

point cycle

(for

component for map to the

condition. then is result constant HPT

parameters component up

from

the

characteristics. flat-rating These flat temperarating

(flat-rated) inlet

subject

a maximum

rotor

temperature.

temperatures

day day

+15 +I0

C C

(+27 F) (+18 F)

for for

the the

takeoff climb and

rating. cruise ratings.

The at XII the are

HPT

rotor

inlet

temperatures

shown

in The

Table

XII

for

each

rating in

are Table

flat-rating for sfc of a is

temperature day for

condition. ambient isolated

uninstalled The

sfc

values maximum the

standard adjusted

temperature. nacelle drag

uninstalled determine

cruise sfc goal The cycle large

to

installed

the

E 3 program. data in Table XII system that cooling and with to exhaust momentum in are calculated on all from engine the General Electric These of the losses, Steady-state and deck flow also continuity contains using real gas are engine

cycle

deck scale

computer computer including number is from the

program programs maps,

used

programs. models pressure

contain and

mathematical flows,

components Reynolds performance maintained models effects of

parasitic

effects, calculated station 1962 U.S.

system

characteristics. energy, The

balance, the engine. and

station

Standard

Atmosphere

thermodynamics

including

dissociation.

33

Table

Xl.

FPS

Component

Performance

- Maximum

Cruise

Conditions.

Fan Fan

Bypass Hub

Efficiency

89.4% 90.6% 86.1% 99.9%

Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Pressure Drop Efficiency Efficiency Pressure Pressure Loss Drop Drop

Compressor Combustor Combustor High Low Fan Core Nozzle Mixer Nozzle CPD CPD 7th 5th

5.0% 92.7% 92.5% 1.4% 1.7% 0.21% 83.8% 0.996 7.46% 5.33% 1.95% 1.4%

Pressure Pressure Duct Duct

Turbine Turbine Mixer) Mixer)

(Duct (Duct

Duct

Pressure

Effectiveness Coefficient Cooling Cooling and and (1) , _W25 % W25 % W25 % W25

Nonchargeable Chargeable Stage Stage

(2), Purge, Purge,

Cooling Cooling

(1)Reintroduced (2)Reintroduced

to main to main

flow flow

upstream downstream

of

HgT of

Vane

1 Throat. 1 Throat.

}{PT Vane

34

Table

XII.

FPS

Cycle

Definition.

Parameter

Max

Climb

(1)

Max.

Cruise

Takeoff

Uninstalled kg/N/hr Overall

sfc

(Std.

Day), 0.0541 38.4 (0.530) 0.0540 36.5 6.8 (0.529) 0.0305 (0.299)

(ibm/ibf/hr) Pressure Ratio

32.4 7.0

Bypass

Ratio

6.7

Fan Fan

Bypass Hub

Pressure

Ratio Ratio

1.68 1.70

1.64

1.56

Pressure

1.66 22.4

1.58 20.8

Compressor

Pressure

Ratio

23.1

HPT

Rotor

Inlet C (F)(2) 1,244 (2,270) 1,212 (2,214) 1,365 (2,489)

Temperature,

(1)Cycle

Match

Point. at the flat-rating temperature.

(2)Temperature

35

4.5

REFERENCE The General the

ENGINE

COMPARISON E s specific at maximum with sfc in an zero is fuel consumption thrust and power goal at is a km 12_ improveft),

Electric

ment Mach

over 0.8,

CF6-50C

engine day, FPS

cruise bleed

10.67

(35,000 and 100%

on a standard recovery. The

extraction than this,

inlet-ram these

currently

16.6_

better Of

a CF6-50C 1.2_ is due

at to

conditions

(installed

isolated

nacelle).

installation Since for the

effects. the E s has cabin a relatively has a higher to The and cool fuel more bleed, air smaller penalty. aircraft heater than core than the CF6-50C, FPS bleed air

aircraft

However, bleed. The

the

uses uses

a fuel fan air

heater/regenerator to cool aircraft the

system bleed. air

CF6-50C

regenerator the

system bleed and

recovers for

waste the due to are

heat

from

bleed If

balances

penalty the

smaller

core.

customer from

power with

extraction, fuel

benefit

recovering considered,

energy the

bleed sfc

the

heater/regenerator 16.9%.

system

installed

improvement

becomes

4.6

STARTING The ability to easily start the FPS was a on concern a single had early in the and E s prothe use to addressed

gram. of only hinder far

A very the easy

high

compressor zone of

pressure

ratio

rotor the

pilot

a double of

annular this

combustor the

potential designs analysis 30% As of

starting. operation

Because and,

concern

component testing for and

off-design

during

the

program, provided

addressed pressor the core

starting. flow and from ICLS the

The

original

design to

bleeding

com-

seventh engines

stage had

aid

engine

starting.

insurance, of the largest

test

provisions

for mounting

two

starters The Start

currently E s core and from needed start flows no

available. and ICLS second as has test engines were started never easily, used. quickly, Start cooling The in ICLS bleed system and has reliably. now been would the the

bleed

the FPS,

starter the

eliminated have been to fuel but

start had

range

turbine

which

it start in only were

bleed 44

been At

required. one point to try

demonstrated program,

ability start stall,

seconds.

the

testing

intentionally

enriched

to precipitate

compressor

stall

occurred.

36

5.0

COMPONENT

AND

SYSTEM

DESIGN

AND

PERFORMANCE

Every detail vehicles weight, testing for

component rig than and

except tested, a flight

the and

fan

frame,

nacelle, The the The

and

reverser were

has for

been the to test the and basis

designed, rather cost, of the

engine

tested. However,

designs designs design, a much

engine. of

conformed

life

requirements and ICLS test

the

FPS.

fabrication, more solid design will

E 3 core of

engines than is

provided usual E 3 or

an assessment Further

the

FPS and on

engine

for preliminary its derivatives

engines. the stature

studies based

analyses

using

have

of being

established, "paper" each

but engine.

still

advanced

technology,

rather In rience

than the

a preliminary following

design

sections

component

is

described

and

the

test

expe-

related.

5.1

FAN The FPS fan configuration The was selected selected fan uses from a preliminary the fan outlet aft lowest blades, guide of the design mission plus vanes fan study fuel-

of alternate burn stage gral and

designs.

design The FPS

exhibited shrouded The fan

operating under fan

cost.

a quarterare blade 13 and intefor a

booster with the

an untrapped frame The and spaced

island. 1.9

chord

lengths

acoustic photograph The design higher future

purposes. of fan the plus

E s fan ICLS

cross fan

section is

is presented shown was

in Figure 14.

actual

hardware

in Figure chosen over hub growth has

quarter-stage tip speed

booster and

design highly and

a single-stage of its for

with

a higher

a more

loaded

because

core-stream engine by low

efficiency

capability The fan fan bypass

a better also

potential a higher

development. reason of the

stream

efficiency

potential The criteria. erosion that span two

lower

speed. is expected to meet bird-ingestion to test substantially experience to the design reduce shows outer 15 shows

aspect-ratio quarter-stage F0D to in

fan blade

The and

configuration core hub and compressor.

is expected Engine to be fan

other

the the

debris of the

ingested booster of

region pass

tends the

centrifuged duct. _m and

blades

into

bypass for 25

Figure I00 _m

examples

calculated

particle

trajectories

duct

37

32

Figure

13.

E 3 Fan

Cross

Section.

38

ORfQfNAf2 6LACK A[,4D WHITE

PAGE r'i--_Oi'OGRAPH

I)F Poor ....,_.-_ y

Figure

14.

E 3 Fan

Component.

39

E3

Sea

Level

Takeoff

Figure

15.

Particle

Trajectories.

4O

particles. analytically inlet. and

In

all,

eight when

particles ingested particle The these would the

sizes at size

ranging different

from radial

I0

_m

to

I000 of

_m

were

evaluated 16 shows

locations of AC Coarse, that fan air.

the AC Fine,

Figure

the

distribution results that from enter the

HIL-E-5007C to air

contaminants. two-thirds capture show air and of area that entering improve

analytical

indicate the core

from within results will core

one-half the of core these in

contaminants be separated

inlet The

analyses cleaner erosion

untrapped the core, a

quarter-stage condition

configuration known to decrease

result flowpath

performance

retention.

5.1.1 The point, corrected pressure fan a

Aerodynamic has an inlet

Desisn radius rate m/s core the ratio of 208.9 of 0.342 kg/s-M ft/s) 2 and, (42.8 at the aerodynamic The flow design design-

has

specific speed of is 1.65

flow 411.5 and splits

ibm/s-ft2). a bypass

tip ratio

(1350 flow total

producing

totalThe 22% of of the

total-pressure fan flow so

ratio that

of

1.67.

quarter-stage the total flow rotor, bypass the

island is the

approximately Downstream booster the flow

supercharged flow is and

by further

the

quarter-stage with flow 42_ of

rotor. the

booster ing duct the into

split

reenter-

stream core.

the

remaining

directed

through

transition

In aerodynamic conditions are as

the

final design at the

cycle point

refinement, no longer design

the

cycle

was with

rematched the cycle

so

that

the point.

fan Fan

coincides point

match

aerodynamic

and

the

final

cycle

match

point

follows:

Aero Parameter Design 643.3 Point (1419) 1.65 1.67

Cycle Match 646.0 Point (1425) 1.68 1.70

Corrected Bypass Core

Flow, Stream

kg/s Pressure

(ibm/s) Ratio Ratio

Stream

Pressure

The foil

aerodynamic are

design transonic

of in

the the

fan outer

rotor

is

of and

interest subsonic

because near

the the

air-

sections

region

hub.

41

0 0

\
_

t
==

I =
o

N _ej ilJ

?
,w

,-4

0 d 0 Q u_q_ sse_ 0 ae_em_T_ _TM 0 UOT_O_a_ Tq3TeM 0

(a)

42

The line

fan

rotor

blade using

airfoil General the Mach

shapes Electric's airfoils numbers reaching

were

specifically Streamsurface

tailored Blade an

for

each

stream-

section In since

Section to

computer minimize shock above stream0.70 at

program. losses the line the other The

general, the inlet

were are 1.4 range on

shaped supersonic at from the 1.02 hub

in

attempt all

for

streamlines the island to

quarter-stage location, hub the

island, Mach The hub rotor the

tip. at

Below 78_ flow

numbers airfoils airfoil blade surfaces

value

streamline. fan of the with Blade of

the that

streamline shown

were excellent along blade which such and 3.

patterned

after

advanced designs

shapes sections viewed

have

performance. 12 axis axisymmetric using and the influ-

were along The

performed a radial

streamsurfaces Streamsurface ence rotor, the design

Section high and

program. Mach in

considerations cascades, I, 2,

guide as the

transonic discussed

number References

E 3 fan

are

presented

The swirl To sure do

inner

outlet from

guide the

vane

blade rotor vanes

row, and are

shown directs

in the

Figure flow

17, into

removes the core the

the duct. pres-

received this side

booster the 64

efficiently, facing of the fan the

swept The

aft

and

leaned

with design the

axis airfoil

of

rotation. along axis

aerodynamic and line in an viewing in

procedure sections aft 60

consisted along from 0 a (no the

cutting axis. line at the

streamlines is a curved

blade

The

blade

space, that for is a

swept varies viewing straight and the

radial lean)

and OD and

leaned to for of

circumferentially the ID. The

amount axis

from the line inter-

20 at defining the

stacking

cascade between section angles

projection the of that

manufacturing axis with

sections the The OD

intersection the are blade axis

blade the ID

flowpath and to as

with in this

flowpath. are

flow

airfoil cascade

meanline angles.

observed

projection

referred

The with degree number to lean This the the of in

sweep shape lean the

angle of was hub the the the

(60 )

of

the in

stacking the to region

axis

was

selected the minimize duct. imposed the The core

to

be duct.

compatible The of Math

flowpath

entering and the the core flow reduces rate. undesirable Even

chosen region downward static to OD a in

primarily as the flow

control

the At by inlet lean acute

level the the Mach angle angle

enters force and on thereby

entrance 20 of number. drops between is no lean off

stator,

radial pressure lower order the

increases eventually to 0

leads at the

hub to

diffusion avoid an

sharply the vane

suction

surface

and

outer

flowpath.

though

there

43

LZ
(AdJ a_ Tip SL

TE

jr jj

I "_

_..///"

cro,,s Se_tio,,,,1

Aft

View Forward

Looking

\\

Figure

17.

Inner

Outlet

Guide

Vane.

44

at

the

tip, at in

the the the make

radial tip hub, the

gradient

of The flow

lean

tends

to Mach

increase numbers sensitive

the and

Mach

numbers

slightly loadings path

streamline. where total the lean

reduced is the

aerodynamic of the flow-

most

because

shape,

effect

favorable.

5.1.2 An use solid shrouded ing lower with part or

Mechanical part

Design of The selecting tradeoffs fan the fan configuration tip fan speed, plus in of was the decision of blades, and designto

important span hollow versus loss 50_ the integral an

shrouds. blades, unshrouded part span long span

involved stage versus

number booster techniques 32 fuel solid

single

stages, for

blading. shrouds led This

Recent to the

advances selection the fan. is a are: booster liner

titanium without

blades

shrouds. life

provided of guide fan the

lowest

burned

imperiling The ture minum graphite with

capability

fan

frame-outlet hub. Other and OGV,

vane

graphite

composite spinner,

strucalu-

aluminum Stage

materials

composite blade, for

booster

I vane booster

titanium and aluminum

titanium the

and case.

composite

island,

containment

5.1.3

Performance

FPS and 65

fan

performance of ICLS fan to

is engine facility

based testing. at

on

82

hours

of

fan

component was tested

rig in and

testing the fixed

hours

Engine

hardware

General probes ratios. hardware

Electric were No was used

Lynn,

Massachusetts. and from test stall the data fan rig

Traverse for varying

obtain changes again

performance resulted in the ICLS

bypass and the same

hardware tested

testing

vehicle.

The

history

of

fan

efficiency

test

results

is

given

in

Table

XIII.

5.2

COMPRESSOR

The that stators cruise it

FPS

compressor a 4 high are and

(Figure pressure variable. reduces

18)

represents (23:1) active

a bold in only

step I0

in stages.

technology The system in ACC IGV

in plus

achieves I through performance

ratio An

clearance The term

control "active"

improves relates

deterioration.

45

Table

XIII.

Fan

Performance.

Maximum Climb

Maximum Cruise

Takeoff

Original Fan Fan

FPS

Requirement Efficiency Booster

(1) 0.879 Efficiency 0.885 0.887 0.892 0.900 0.897

Bypass Hub and

Rig

Test

Results

(1) 0.886 Efficiency 0.892 0.892 0.895 0.893 0.898

Fan Fan

Bypass Hub and

Efficiency Booster

ICLS Fan Fan

Test

Results

(1) 0.879 Efficiency 0.895 0.885 0.898 0.886 0.901

Bypass Hub and

Efficiency Booster

Final Fan Fan

FPS

Requirement Efficiency Booster

(2) 0.888 Efficiency 0.905 0.894 0.906 0.891 0.909

Bypass Hub and

Notes:

Bypass Efficiency is based include significant profile Hub (I) (2) and Booster Efficiency with

on momentum averaged exit conditions effects in the bypass duct. is based cycle on mass match. average exit

to

conditions.

Consistent Revised

original

cycle

match.

46

I 0

O _Jm_

47

to

the

actuation control.

of

the

clearance

control

system

by

the

engine

digital

elec-

tronic

5.2.1 The produce tip and that the speed core an

Aerodynamic compressor line

Design is an advanced pressure Because of The Axial conducted use in a the basic Flow in low technology, ratio of most of the 23 lO-stage at a unit design designed corrected pressure ratio, designs during to

operating of 456 m/s

total

(1,495 it has

ft/s). is one

high

speed,

aerodynamic General GE/NASA

loading, Electric Advanced

technically

challenging was selected

built.

configuration Core Compressor to

Multistage 6) for

(AMAC) an

preliminary optimum com-

design

studies

(Reference

1975-.1976 energy

identify

compressor mercial

configuration turbofan engine. AMAC the

consumption,

subsonic,

During the cost, examined reaction Compressor tive level influence aircraft were

the of

contract, major

parametric

studies design and inlet fuel

were

conducted on efficiency, design exit number to two

to

determine weight,

compressor cost,

features usage.

direct aspect inlet was

operating ratio, radius set margin. to

The flow, and studied for

parameters Mach of meet engine ratio number, stages. an objecconfigof 14

solidity, ratio, allow The

specific ratio,

ratio, speed of (I)

exit each

radius

configuration were conducted

stall an

studies a core

urations: with having that average inlet number but by not using booster a the

engine on

having the low

compressor spool, ratio obtained and of

total (2)

pressure an The unboosted study medium by using

stages

pressure pressure was and

engine

core best aspect

compressor compressor ratio, ratio, by

total

23. by

determined values low of of

efficiency solidity,

using and

reaction flow, and

ratio, exit

values the and

radius of

inlet using the

specific higher engine

Mach the

number.

Reducing length

stages

speeds weight. the were

reduced Efficiency

compressor was not

cost

necessarily fewer High rear of

severely not hold

penalized become rotor excestip losses as the

stages, radius the

provided ratios stages

blading beneficial the

Mach

numbers when used which

did to

sive. Mach would number

numbers be of

front The

below rear

level ratio

at

high to

shock

present. stages

optimum reduced

radius speed

tended

increase

was

and

the

increased.

48

At the conclusion of the AMAC study, a 10-stage, 23:1 pressure ratio compressor was recommended for further development. This design incorporated those features mentioned above as contributing to high efficiency. The choice of I0 stages was madebecause this appeared to offer the best overall combination of desirable features such as compactness, low cost, high efficiency, low engine operating cost, and low fuel usage. The decision to use the very high (23:1) pressure ratio core compressor in an unboosted engine configuration was madebecause it gave the lowest fuel consumption, which resulted primarily from the use of an efficient two-stage HPT. This advantage outweighed the relatively small DOC penalty comparedto a boosted engine with a lower core pressure ratio and a less efficient single stage HgT. The DOCstudies used 7.9 to 13.2C/liter (30 to 50C/gallon) fuel prices. The technical challenge inherent in such a high pressure ratio for the core compressor was not overlooked. In fact, it is still the highest pressure ratio design that General Electric has ever undertaken; the pressure rise is approximately 30%greater than that of any production single-spool aircraft engine compressor. Both variable stators and starting bleed were provided to aid in achieving adequate low speed stall margin. The challenge of developing stator and bleed schedules that avoid potential starting and idle-to-takeoff acceleration problems was considered to be substantial. Another challenge was to minimize the efficiency penalty that might result from blade shapes compromised for off-design operation. Therefore, detailed performance analyses were madefor off-design conditions during the final design process in order to establish design incidence angles and work input distributions that allow high efficiency near design speed and adequate stall margin at part speed. Refinements to the core compressor design continued during the E3
inary inlet aspect cost erosion increase penalty. design specific ratio, through study. flow and the The and average use of more the significant exit Mach refinements and changes chord somewhat the made and lower only a increased speed, mainly to average to reduce blade an efficiency number These longer reduced were prelimthe

solidity. fewer general and

airfoils the with

increase speed, small

resistance in stall

and margin

ruggedness. was

Despite predicted,

potential

49

Many the E3 core

of

the

advanced were

features developed Core

incorporated during a

into parallel

the

detailed supporting Study.

design research This

of

compressor

program utilized rear grams. while E3

- the a low

NASA-sponsored speed,

Compressor model of the

Exit

Stage

program and diaworthdesign

four-stage to and

blading airfoil stages

used shapes were

in

the and

middle vector and by

compressor A baseline

stages stage in

develop several and flow in

improved modified stall the

tested,

improvements that

efficiency the

margin end-wall

were

demonstrated

refinements

improved

regions.

Core primarily Mach 0.8

compressor for at the 10.67

aerodynamic maximum-climb-thrust km (35,000 places ratio. in ft) the The Table air the

cycle

match power

requirements setting a +I0 at C at a

were flight

established condition day. This airflow operating ratio listed of

altitude

on

(+18 F)

operating and total

condition pressure are zero listed

core

compressor

maximum

corrected for this

performance XIV. and fully was 0.5 The zero

requirements operating power line

condition is for

pressure The

customer XIV and

bleed are for

extraction. FPS. lower than The

performance efficiency

goals for

in the The

Table core basic

developed point

compressor FPS goal.

ICLS

engines design

the

vector Flow

tool

employed (CAFD)

was

General program. along input

Electric's This

Circumferenprogram stream and comsurfaces esti-

tial puted for mated ential rium a

Average the

Determination diagrams flowpath and

computer

vector

fluid

properties stage work

numerous distribution,

specified loss

geometry, The

distribution. flow and diagrams airfoil to solution internal along section the from of were the

resulting included

axisymmetric, all effects of for and cascade

steady-state, the some full radial

circumferequilib-

average equation Vector

blade blade design final the

row and

calculations vane leading and

stages. edges were then

trailing analysis

used

with

procedures blade shapes.

computer

programs The at the

determine data

output intersection diagrams next

CAFD

computer and of

program the the

were

the

vector

diagrams These as to described calcu-

streamlines in the design

calculation E 3 blades diagrams of

stations. and were the vanes used

vector in late the

used In

paragraph. and vane

addition, factors

the as

vector an

blade

diffusion

indication

aerodynamic

loading.

5O

Table

XIV.

FPS

Compressor

Aerodynamic

Cycle

Match.

Parameter

Maximum

Climb

Corrected Corrected

Speed, Airflow,

Design kgls (ibm/s)

98.4 54.4 (120.0) 23.0 0.860 0.906 304.8 (548.6) 60,469 (8.77)

Total

Pressure

Ratio

Adiabatic Polytropic Inlet

Efficiency Efficiency K ( R)

Temperature,

Inlet

Pressure,

Nlm 2 (ib/in 2)

51

The included vanes, all

aerodynamic the design

design of

of

the

airfoils subsonic

for

the

E 3 core blades, the

compressor subsonic stator for

transonic vane

and

rotor

and

inlet and

guide

(IGV). was one

Fundamentally, of tailoring

approach surface

utilized blade

blade

vane

designs airfoil blade fan

stream

shapes four

to produce rotors employed and all were

specific transonic advanced of

surface rows and

velocity were

distributions. utilizing six stages

The

first

designed

techniques of rotor blades flow

for stages

stages. vanes were

The

remaining

stator

designed

to operate

in a subsonic

environment. Casing (ACC), exit. The IGV The the second used Other and ports for customer for bleed LPT and compressor and air purge, are active are located clearance control 5

subsequently casing the ports

cooling

provided at the

at Stator Stage

for }{PT cooling stator vane of

7 exit.

first

four

rows the

are core

variable. compressor were was completed the the in front full of

original quarter stator

aerodynamic of 1979.

design Three were

component in the first

tests first time

conducted: of 1980,

six variable 10-stage 1981, in and

stages was

tested for the full

quarter the

compressor a second Various

tested of

during

first

quarter early

version design

the

10-stage made as

compressor a result of

was the

tested data

1982.

refinements, evaluation, the core and

obtained compres-

during sor

this

experimental utilized in

were ICLS

incorporated test engines.

into

the

final

version

5.2.2 Unique lightweight, aspect and bore ance. inertia structure The tures of ratio

Mechanical features rugged, airfoils

Design contributing efficient produces to rotor a high the are design shown objectives on Figure to foreign air of producing 19. The use of a low (FOD) rotor

tolerance of fan

object to

damage the

stall-induced helps Both

damage.

Utilization

discharge thus of the

cool

to optimize the forward and

rotor-stator and the by'a aft

clearances, portions bolt

contributing rotor are built

to performup by

welding (Figure

joined

single

joint,

yielding

a short,

stiff

20). stator are cross section Although is shown the in Figure blades 21. are Unique made fea-

compressor the design

denoted.

rotor

from

52

_J

C o;-t _U

0 0

0 r_ c_ _U

0 _U

O_ ,,-I

0,0

53

OF POOR i '_"P-I_I_L BLACK Ai',;D WHi'I-E PAGE PriUIOGRAPH

QUi-,.Lai iv

Figure

20.

Compressor

Rotor

Hardware.

54

t--t 0

,._

u_

r,j

0 _0

r_ 0

55

titanium, and to vanes. provide

titanium To

fire

prevention compressor of

is assured cruise

by

the

use the

of

nontitanium case

casings

improve

performance, clearances. hot flowpath

aft

is designed by

active the

control

rotor-stator from the

This gases air to

is accomplished and then the in the aft bathing casing annulus where by bar a

isolating the

casing rings rotor then the valve.

structure with blade cooler tips.

structural to the 10, cool

Rotor This

5 discharge cooling the air

shrink

closer over

is collected case flow and is by piped

Rotor to

is ported LPT and The

through rotor

forward The are air

it

is used

cavity. vanes low

controlled a torsion

fuel-activated which permits

variable

actuated and

system posi-

nonlinear

schedules,

hysteresis,

accurate

stator

tioning. The flowpath struts. inboard try of of compressor that is discharge into the diffuser two annular is a unique passages at the cast and structure by featuring hollow a

split of

supported island the

A portion through the the

air

exhausting

splitter for

is ducted The geomestate

hollow is so in

struts complex order

to provide that it

cooling

HPT.

diffuser technology the

required In would of

an advancement the be early cast OGV

in the

casting

to be vane

produced. ring

designs, integrally to the

it was with dif-

planned the

that

outlet

guide the

(OGV)

diffuser. for the

However, core for for engine

successful proved

welding this 5 of to be is

the

ring

fuser

has

a more

workable from

approach. while

Blading the blading drum Ren_

rotor Stages

Stages

1 through I0 is

fabricated 718

titanium The the

6 through 6 disk IGV and Inco are

Inco The

material. for

forward drum steel; is

rotor powder stators

and 95.

Stage The

titanium.

material 4 are is M152

aft

stators 718.

I through The casing

A286

stainless

5 through

9 are

steel.

5.2.3 The compressor engine the

Performance knowledge rig of FPS 44 compressor hours rig of performance core two engine of derives testing, 10-stage These from and rig 357 hours of of ICLS in

testing, A

64 hours were

testing.

6-stage Lynn of

and

builds

tested engine

General

Electric Each which tested step

compressor compressor design core and

test rig

facility. testing for the

rigs

used

hardware. qualities design was

the

identified subsequent This

good step.

and A

poor final

determined in the

changes ICLS

engines.

compressor

design

56

exceeded flow able and

its

efficiency ratio

goal at

by 1.9%

0.5_. lower

Also, speed

the than

engine originally

compressor intended,

met a

its desir-

pressure

condition.

The

compressor

efficiencies

are

given

in

Table

XV.

5.3

COMBUSTOR

The in Figure

combustor 23. The This

cross most

section unique very

is

shown of

in the

Figure

22,

and is

hardware the double very

is

shown

feature low

combustor while

annular short

arrangement. engine length.

achieves

emissions

retaining

The when the

Es

emissions

goals started has

are in

the 1978.

EPA-proposed These the in

1981

standards have since as a

as

they

stood relaxed; goal.

E s program the

standards

been program

however, The

E s program

retained are used

original the

standards

following

materials

combustor:

Casing Diffuser Fuel Dome Shingles Nozzle Body

Inco Inco

718 718 Steel X

Stainless Hastelloy X-40

Thermal

barrier

coating

is

used

on

the

dome

and

shingle

liners.

5.3.1 The annular levels. tuned The for inner

Aerodynamic combustor is is the used outer a

Design short-length, to provide zone At for low is double-annular emissions used at power fuel-air low over power design. a wide levels, both The range and doubleof it are power is used.

feature Only low main

pilot ratios.

fuel-air zone is

higher

levels, ratios.

zones

tuned

higher

The discharge Forty-eight fuser

combustor airflow percent the

uses is

dual-cone to air

nozzles the

for

fuel by the a

injection. split duct

Compressor prediffuser. of directed the prediftoward

directed of the stage

combustor through

flows

outer

passage 52_ is

toward

pilot

dome,

and

the

remaining

5?

Table

XV.

Compressor

Performance.

MAX CLIMB

MAX CRUISE

TAKEOFF

Orignal

FPS

Required

Efficiency

(1)

0.857

0.861

0.871

10B

RiB

Test

Efficiency

(1)

0.847

0.849

0.855

Core

and

ICLS

Test

Efficiency

(1)

0.854

0.856

0.858

Final

FPS

Required

Efficiency

(2)

0.860

0.861

0.863

(1)Consistent (2)Consistent

with with

original final

cycle

match.

cycle

match.

58

Figure

22.

E3

Combustor

Cross-Section.

59

OR!_tNAt BLACK AI,:D WHiiE

PAGE PHUFOGRAPH

POOR

QUALrI'Y

Figure

23.

Combustor

Liner/Dome

Assembly

- Aft Looking

Forward.

60

the the

main pilot

stage stage

dome and

by the

the main

inner stage

passage are airflow plus gas

of each

the

prediffuser. of The axial liners

The

dome

cups and double segmented

of

comprised

primary are on of

counterrotating wall construction section

radial and

secondary use

swirlers. spent-film stream.

impingement to the hot

cooling

the

(shingle)

adjacent

Fuel pressure are Each at

injection atomizing in two

for nozzle more

each tips

E3

combustor mounted on

dome a

is

provided stem.

by These

duplex-type fuel which nozzles follows.

fuel

single

described of low the power the

detail has a

in

the

Mechanical primary

Design system

section for

tips

low-fuel-flow and levels manifold

good

atomization system is to to valves leakage nozzle located

operating required by

conditions fuel an flow

a high-fuel-flow at high system. during times. power. Fuel shutdown Fuel valves stem gas a flow (one is

secondary Fuel nozzle to flow

achieve the keep into tips in fuel the the is the

supplied check fuel

nozzles manifold combustor controlled housing to

annular and to each

inlet

full and by

pressurized reduce of two start

prevent to for the each in

duplex tip)

scheduling fuel

above

the the

stem. from is

The hot

nozzle

encased

a heat Each fuel-

shield carrying

insulate tube within

fuel stem

compressor by

temperatures. gap to

the

surrounded

clearance

provide

additional

insulation.

5.3.2

Mechanical

Design

A inner 60 tip The life. pins

centerbody main zone of

structure the cups.

separates The is Each double-wall is

the

outer

diameter annular the dome

pilot

zone

from consists 30

the of dual-

combustor. Fuel

double into

design

identical fuel

swirl

injected nozzle

combustor

through fuel to provide by to with 30

nozzle

assemblies. utilizes a

features liner at loads the from

independent design forward the is

metering. long support outer

combustor The

shingled supported all

combustor

assembly to

end liners sealed and

positioned casing.

radially The

transmit

the

combustor seals ance which

combustor-to-stator axial the and radial

interface thermal

fishmouth clear-

accommodate between

expansion

assembly

stackups

components.

The delivery borescope

outer system,

casing and

supports ignition compressor

the system.

combustor Ports and

assembly, are provided

fuel in

nozzles, the

fuel for

casing

inspection,

bleed,

instrumentation

leadout.

61

The and of main

liner zones

assembly which an are

consists installed

of

three

axial

rows

of

shingles liners.

in

the Each

pilot row The which in

in outer/liner cavity drilled inner

support with into shingle the the

shingles

forms and

annular

impingement are laser

suppor t liner. support is liners shown

impingement are machined 23.

dilution

holes An

from

forgings.

assembled

liner

Figure

5.3.3 FPS hours tests the will anced been an of

Performance combustor core and performance ICLS at for the of engine is based testing. Ohio. on 320 hours sector of rig and testing full drop Goal and 109 rig by drop balhave

Annular

annular is set

were

conducted required in

Evendale,

Combustor cooling air

pressure circuit.

minimum be

the }{PT vane FPS. core The

pressure from This rather from may

achieved

combustor was

efficiency, higher of than prior

established the goal.

cycle due to

analysis

testing, of

an underassessment in combustor combustion, and engine

efficiency

combustors staging were smoke all was

than single-

improvement

efficiency. and be

Start

ignition, stability

to double-annular during engine features testing achieved. tions engine testing. so with

operational so in the

as desired visible during

testing The

would test

FPS. not

No

combustor to meet the

did

incorporate goals.

all

emissions Earlier be projecrig

it was all

not

expected

NO x emissions FPS goal goals,

features of

established combustor XVI. in Table during can

that

emissions

would

A summary

performance

achievements

and

is presented The emissions of only the

in Table projections pilot

XVI landing

are

for

4%

ground Two

idle further idle the

and

for

the

use

dome

approach. by

points thrust heavy practice also thrust shown in to

should 6_.

be made. This would

First, be

emissions

be

reduced

increasing usage and

undesirable aircraft dome

because taxi

of higher operations. approach

fuel

braking of

required back from

during to pilot a flight

Second, is The during

while

the it is

cutting

only

during

feasible, effects of

undesirable and Table of

safety

consideration. combustion those actually

idle are

singleXVII.

versus These FPS

double-annular values are

approach during

achieved

full-scale

combustor

component

tests.

62

o
U m

a 0 I

W m eD _ J a ee 0 0

g 0

El

W 0 _ _ 0

_^
m_ QO, mll, c_ u Q 0 Q o

,: o

li

CU _._

-r"_

0 _3

t. 0 U

o_

_ rA

_ _

_, r.,2

,..1

,-0

,-4

QJ

,'.

,.-

,"

f_

e..

e..

le_

|
0 k

|
0

|
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

=
M

:
!

I
! !

o
vI

G 0 L. 0 0

m .,d

63

Table

XVlI.

FPS

Emissions.

Emissions

In

ibs./l,O00

Ibs.

Fn

' Hr.

Cycle

4% Fn

Ground

Idle

6% Ground

Idle

FPS Requirement

Pilot Zone Only On Approach

Pilot and Main Zones On Approach

Pilot

Zone

Only On Approach

Pilot and Main Zones On Approach

CO HC NO x

3.00 0.40 3.00

2.82 O. 20 2.98

3.45 0.26 2.66

2.58 0.19 2.80

3.14 0.24 2.51

64

5.4

HIGH

PRESSURE

TURBINE

The aerodynamic, engines use of

E 3 high

pressure and CF6-50C. low

turbine mechanical

(HPT)

provides

an

advancement over

in current

turbine production efficient con-

cooling, as the air,

design stage windage, design

technology aerodynamic and all advances

such cooling

Moderate space airfoil HPT, plus

loading, in

wheel and the

flowpath

touring, The very high

vector wheel

design, speed of

result life

in

improved

efficiency. dictated a

extended

requirements,

"clean"

structural

design.

Active cruise to the shut sions contract and

clearance to open

control clearances are climb

is

used

to

reduce

blade

tip

clearances rubs HPT are case.

during likely During is excuron to

during by

flight impinging of large the

conditions fan flight, to air

where on the

occur. takeoff off and so

Clearances and that early

closed

segments will be During

the

impingement

air thermal

clearances deflections. reducing

enough

accommodate air is

engine the

cruise,

impingement

turned

casing,

clearances.

An during discharge casing, This ated

active the

clearance warmup the HPT

control of the

heating engine. clearance It from is

circuit This

warms circuit

the ducts

HPT hot to

casing

quickly

initial air into opening prevents power.

compressor expand the

active

control only when

manifold during a cold low

thus

clearances. blade tips

used

power is

warmup. acceler-

circuit to full

rubbing

engine

The Figures

HPT 25

cross

section 27.

is

shown

in

Figure

24.

Photographs

are

shown

in

through

5.4.1 In two-stage point (35,000 the most was order

Aerodynamic to meet of to C

Design the cycle requirements loading maximum standard a was and selected. condition This of are ICLS at point and goals The Mach was FPS in of this program, a design 10.67 to km be The

turbine chosen +I0

moderate be the

aerodynamic 0.8 and

climb day.

ft),

(+18 F) based on

determined requirements. Table XVIII.

stringent, turbine

comparison point data

significant

operating

summarized

65

0 |i fill IlJ

J;

.g
_J aA

66

,L L

OF _RFC!N,_t_ o,..A_.,K AKD WH;T PA_E r_;UIOGRAPH

POO_

q:;.: ..... ,,

Figure

25.

Stage

1 High

Pressure

Turbine

Nozzle

Assembly.

67

uLACK

Ai,;_

,_vr-,_lE

Pt-:,Oi-OGRAPH

Figure

26.

High

Pressure

Turbine

Rotor

Assembly.

68

, i_ii _ ._,__ _._._

OF PO0_

Q_j,_._

Figure

27.

High Control

Pressure

Turbine

Active

Clearance

Manifolds.

69

Table

XVIII.

HYT

Aerothermodynamic

Cycle

Hatch

Point. Maximum Climb 1,517 (2,730) 355.5

Parameter K

Units

Inlet

Temperature,

T41

( R)
Energy, Ah/T

J/kg-K (Btu/lbm/

R)

(0.0849) 33.47 (238.3)

Speed,

N/_-

Corrected

Flow,

w4TTP-

g_K--/sec-Pa (lbm _--R/sec'psi)

0.8643 (17.64)

With as the

minimum

cruise

specific criteria, turbine

fuel

consumption of

(sfc) systems and

and trade

flight studies

fuel

burn

primary to

evaluation identify the

a series configuration

were for were

performed use in

flowpath and

dimensions turbines turbine two

subsequent The

detailed two-stage by the

analyses. turbine was

Single-stage selected ratio

two-stage the best high

considered. loading bine

because

dictated

high

pressure

compressor

utilizes

tur-

stages The

to maximize

efficiency. diameter was established ratio, through weight, was trade tip studies

turbine

pitchline blade to the

which and

recognized transition for the

loading, LPT. The

blade

aspect

clearance, to be close to

resulting system. determining

diameter

thought

optimum

overall

HPT/LPT for

Further ducted varied tip by

trade

studies

optimum stage of

annulus exit the

heights annulus

were heights

conwere of

making

vector

calculations The effects edge on

in which efficiency

individually. aspect

consequent loading, area and

variation and the gas conse-

clearance, were on

ratio,

blockage, in

aerodynamic wetted were

deflection quent and effect

evaluated. cooling in the air

Variation consumption

flowpath and loss

evaluated The

concurrently values in order small of to

were

included area the were high

turbine

efficiency below

evaluation. the be aerodynamic imposed

design

annulus minimize gains in

selected weight

slightly penalty

optimum for

that

would

relatively

efficiency.

7O

Using studies were

the

flowpath

developed to identify

in

the

annulus

height

studies_ stage

further energy to the

conducted The

the were

most

appropriate in a manner

distribution. annulus The at height of

calculations but

executed constant that an

similar

studies this 48_

maintaining indicated

blade

aerodynamic distribution first stage. supply to shift with selected stage a at

loading. would exist

results

study to 50_

optimum in vane the

approximately the gas

energy the it

extraction

However, pressure from net increase in

given exceed

requirement total seventh Consequently, stage, the

that

second-stage would have cooling work been

coolant

pressure, to eighth the minimum

necessary extraction, was

compressor in the sfc. first The full

stage stage

air

distribution with seventh using equation for streamline due flow to

56.5_

consistent was

extraction. that solves the

through-flow

analysis radial procedure blade radial gradients cooling

executed

a method for

three-dimensional, flow. of The radial and radial

equilibrium accounts

circumferentially and sweep curvature, and dihedral,

averaged the effect

slope

force

component of

airfoil

airfoil were made

blockage, with to

gradients of flow with

properties. and also

Calculations with dilution local and for. The flow

blading injection.

losses

addition momentum airfoil combustor

simulate

Temperature were between effects.

losses inlet

associated angle selection

coolant considered and

addition mixing flow

accounted

streamtubes,

temperature

profile,

secondary

Airfoil method which

cascade calculates from the

analysis the

was

accomplished flow thus

by along

streamtube a stream

curvature surface

compressible analysis,

determined streamtube

through-flow

accounting

for

variations

in

thickness.

5.4.2

Mechanical

Design

General aimed at

Electric's high

E 3 HPT efficiency

represents while

an still

advanced meeting

technology the

design life

achieving

component

objectives. The HPT mechanical features are as follows:

Inducer

System

- Reduces

the

temperature

of

blade

cooling

air.

71

Impeller - Increases sufficient backflow gas-path pressure.

blade margin

coolant between

air pressure cooling air

in order to maintain pressure and hot

Inner Tube - Separates air feeding the Stage Deswirler - These the inducer disk. potential Boltless the rim enhances hazard

the compressor 2 blades.

rotor

purge

air

from

cooling

are rotating The purpose from acoustic

vanes built as of these vanes vibration or

an integral part of is to eliminate any whistle."

"vortex

Blade Retainers - This design requires no bolts through of the disk for support. Elimination of these holes the low cycle fatigue capability of the disk. structural portions of the disks is essential in achieving a long conlife

No Bolts in Disks - The main tain no holes. This feature in disks. Interstage Disk with subsequent - Provides reduction

better interstage of leakage across

seal clearance the interstage

control seal.

Single-Wall Structures simplifies the geometry access is provided for which directly controls penetrate the casing

- The use of a single-wall casing structure configuration for the ACC system. Direct the ACC cooling air to impinge on the casing, the shroud-to-blade clearances. No holes

wall. shrouds require less material. Resulting efficiency. cooling cooling air air

Stage 1 Ceramic Shrouds - Ceramic compared to other types of shroud reduction increases thermodynamic

Stage 2 Solid Shrouds - Use of a solid shroud configuration is expected to improve component life relative to present designs. Active Clearance Control Syst@m - Impinges fan air on turbine casing by FADEC-scheduled demands to reduce clearance at cruise and retain large clearance for thermal transients and maneuver deflections. The following materials are used in the 718 ODS with with TBC TBC HYT:

Casing Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage 72 1 Vane 1 Vane 1 Vane I Shroud 2 Vane 2 Shroud I Blade Airfoils Bands Inner Support

Inco MA754

Mar-M-509 Ren_ ZrO 41 Ceramic

N4 with Geneseal N4 with

TBC

TBC

Stage Blade CDP

2 Blade Disks

DS

Eutectic 95

(Noncooled)

Ren_ AFII5 AFII5 Inco AFII5 Inco

Seal

Disk Disk

Interstage Aft Blade Disk

718

Retainers

Shafting

718

5.4.3 The discharge shroud. rotor

Cooling cooling air

Design supply Stage the circuits 1 vane center are and shown the in Figure 28. Compressor the Stage 1 blade for the

flow

cools is

the

structure split the

above

Air cooling

drawn

from The

of the

combustor center of

diffuser the

circuit.

flow from

reversal the by a air

into for

diffuser This to 1 the

separates flow

foreign

particles

the

rotor

cooling

circuit. prior the

is accelerated the shroud.

tangentially This air

radial the

inflow

inducer and

nozzle cools 2 vanes,

entering blades. structure 2 vane, that

purges

rotor

cavities the the

Stage

Seventh above and

stage the

compressor 2 blade space

bleed shroud,

air

cools

Stage

cools the

Stage the the

purges

structure to that

under

Stage Air

purges through inner aft

wheel

cavities discharge

adjacent seal

structure. the

leaks the the

compressor case cavity

is used

to purge Fifth LPT

cavity bleed Stage

between purges 1 vane.

combustor space

and

the

HPT

Stage

1 disk. the

stage

wheel

after

passing

through

turbine

Cooling bands. The air row and Two

air

impingement

and

film are

are

used in the

to

cool

the

Stage

1 vanes

and

impingement 1 blades

inserts use two

used

vane. In the forward flows the circuit, through a

Stage

cooling

circuits. serpentine on to the back

traverses of holes then

a three-pass in a radial through

(up-down-up) web, impinges wall

passage, side film of of

leading In blows

edge, the aft

flows air

the

airfoil into then flow

provide

cooling. the of air the

circuit, for edge.

flows

outward and of tip the

a chamber. exits at the

A portion pressure

aft

convection The

cooling

side

trailing and

remainder into the

traverses

a down-up

serpentine

passage

discharges

cavity.

73

"1,-I

_J
,diem m'

%;
e0

/;

o o (J

\ \ \
o o o o o_

o_

i"
!:

74

The on the

Stage

vane then

cooling provides through is a

air

passes

through of internal pressure design

holes

in

an by

insert

to

impinge and trailing and is

vane

wall, ejected Stage

cooling slots high on the

walls side of DS

convection, vane's

subsequently edge. is not The

the

2 blade

taper

using

eutectic

material

cooled.

Air scoop. area head. the

for The

the air,

HPT once

ACC

system the

is

extracted is as is

from slowed possible ducted the the routed

the

fan

duct

through through a

split 2:1

inside to recover the

scoop, much air the built

efficiently of to air core the the is cowl fan

ratio After pylon.

diffuser

as

duct

dynamic valve to the to a in

diffusion, After flowing rectangular

HPT

ACC

modulation delivered outside four are pipes four

through duct duct

valve, into is

270 HPT. the

circumferential From this

circumferential manifold segments have

the

air HPT

through There

impingement manifold manifolds small flanges. the fan

surrounding surrounding each cross to of the each ACC

the of

casing. two and

impingementThe impingement of

the

turbine allow

stages. the required rings

rectangular holes clearance the

sections casing stage rings,

proximity and bolt by impinging

impingement The air on

clearance in and the bolt HPT

control is

accomplished

casing,

flanges.

The volume safety the

compartment the also of the

outside core called spent ACC engine the

the

HPT

is the

isolated inner fan

from duct This

the

rest

of by

the the

engine fire

between wall,

and pressure

flowpath is

bulkhead. air From of is this the lower

necessary the fan duct the aft of

because static spent ACC

pressure at flow

impingement flow rates. the stinger struts at

than

pressure air and is can

maximum inward out

isolated rear frame such

cavity, to the much

through the vent

centerbody the thrust

discharge recovered.

a velocity

that

A The side

means

of

heating

the

casing 0.3% W2s

during of

engine compressor seconds of be to on the ACC the

warmup

was

also air engine

devised. on the is at is power to out-

heating of the

system casing. idle

impinges This is

discharge after heating the

done

for The

200

stabilized prevent while

power tip rubs was studies

conditions. if the engine cool

purpose to

the to

casing full

blade the

were

accelerated the HPT rotor. to

casing

relatively have problem been

compared

Extensive teristics and

conducted areas of

evaluate Typical

the results

characof

possible

system.

75

few

of

these seal,

studies and for

are Stage

presented 2 clearance

in

Figures analyses In this idle on on at as

29 at

through start,

31. takeoff,

The

Stage and

1, cruise

interstage are

summarized was

hot-day to the The was a heat ACC ACC

conditions. up air air during was was to chop includes expected

particular (8.3 the

analysis, and

the takeoff back (35,000

casing

allowed before climb. the engine through

start, turned left

minutes), engine was to

(2 minutes) to ft), before maximum cycle maximum and

throttled 10.67 km cruise back up

that

rate

up at

allowed throttle

stabilize to a in and flight few

thermally idle of the and most

maximum

going cruise. variations to

reburst severe and the can ACC

to

This that show the

mission can he

transient be used as an

airline capabilities

service of

indication

deficiencies

system.

The takeoff sets such the that

design for both

approach the

used

was

to and

set the

0.64

cm

(0.025 blade

in.)

clearance This will

at also be seal

first-stage The occur

second-stage seal this

tips.

buildup a slight all

clearance. rub will

interstage at takeoff;

buildup will

clearance ensure

minimum

clearance The Table XIX

for

conditions. of this the analysis analysis are and presented shows the in Figures 29 through 31.

results

summarizes

expected

performance

requirements.

5.4.4

Performance

FPS 109 rig where try ther order and hours tested it was

I{PT performance of in core the and ICLS

is

based testing. turbine

on

319 Full

hours scale facility.

of

cascade

and

rig

testing was

and

but

nonengine Cooling but was

hardware fully internal goals,

Evendale the

test of

simulated geomefurin

affected not

aerodynamics Since and

the

turbine, was

airfoil above were is by

simulated. testing program

performance evaluation elsewhere. of

sufficiently designs

diagnostic to utilize

alternate This

cancelled available it.

funds in

hardware be realized cascade. efficiency

still testing

further was Based

improvements separately on in rig Table and XX.

performance in testing, a heat

might

Cooling

explored engine

transfer turbine

the

results

are

presented

76

Radial

Growth,

inches

!
d 0 I m

77

P,adial

Grovth,

:inches

i
0 ,-'

__I '

'_

"_l_i"
ro ra_ cO 4.1

.....

....4 eo o) L

(.,

-,--i

c_

0 m

s, CD

o !

Io

'q_AoaO

TwTpw_

78

Radial

Growth,

inches

I
n_

T
0

,4

o_ 0_

_o

79

-.I"

.',4

4-

4-

GQ

<3
O Q i::l o,3 0

_ Pc _

r_

;>

X
_=_ u_ c'q

a-e
u")

80

Table XX. High Pressure Turbine Performance.

Max Climb

Max Cruise Takeoff

Original

FPS

Required

Efficiency

(1)

0.924

0.924

0.920

(I)
Rig Core Test & Efficiency ICLS Test Efficiency (1) 0.925 0.925 0.927 0.925 0.925 0.927 0.926 0.926 0.921

Final

FPS

Required

Efficiency

(2)

Original

Cooling

Flows,

%W25 9.24

Non-chargeable Ahead of Vane

Flow (Enters I Throat)

Chargeable Downstream

Flow of

(Enters Vane 1 Throat)

9.00

Final

Cooling

Flows,

%W25 7.46

Non-chargeable

Flow

Chargeable

Flow

5.33

(1)Consistent (2)Consistent

with with

original final

cycle cycle

match.

match.

81

Also nal FPS

included designed

in

Table using

XX

are

the

status

cooling

flow

rates.

The

origi-

was

CF6-based

heat the

transfer more

coefficients. cooling that

Although flows were

lower used heat side

coefficients in the transfer of the cycle.

were Core

anticipated, engine are test

conservative established

experience

E 3 turbine pressure

coefficients airfoils. The The

significantly is

lower,

especially to the more

on the

reduction cooling resulting

attributed rates

efficient coefficients thermal

aerodynamics. and also reflect coating.

final

FPS

flow from

reflect

the

lower and

reductions

material

changes

adding

barrier

5.5

LOW The

PRESSURE low

TURBINE turbine trade-off configuration studies, at was payoff selected after investigation extensive efficiency

pressure designs, design

of

alternate

evaluations, high aerodynamic

and

preliminary while

analyses maximum

aimed

achieving integrity. loaded,

maintaining The LPT wall close

mechanical

is a five slope' of coupled The to

stage, 25 and the

moderately with

low

throughflow designed (3 in.)

design into axial it.

with The

an outer LPT is

acoustic of

treatment a 7.62 to cm

HPT

by means has been

length

transition growth hardware

duct.

flowpath The cross

sized is

accommodate in Figure 32,

a potential and the rotor

application. is pictured to

section 33.

shown

in Figure

In order is a full

improve

roundness rather

control than The two LPT

and

radial

clearances, with nozzle

the

casing

360 structure, in multivane

180 halves, rotor assembly by bolted by of

stators

attached ratio,

segments. blading in

employs flanges

high-aspectin low-stress cone. The for ACC

tip-shrouded areas.

disks

connected

attachment Active uses fan

The

rotor control

assembly is an

is supported integral scoops system part to

a single the LPT

bearing design. manifold and

clearance air the

bleed on

routed casing. at

from The

pylon ACC

a distribution blade tip

impingement seal radial

reduces

interstage-

clearances

selected

high-performance

operating

points.

82

_J c_

r_ Q

cO

c_

L_ c_ _4

83

_,:+'P!I _'l[

PAGE'

pOOR

QU,-._ +

g,
Et co ,< i.i o o

,,i-i 1-1 E-d I.i

I.i

0 i--1

.i-I

84

5.5.1 The flight XXI. LPT

Aerodynamic was designed Cycle

Design to match the M0.8/I0.67 km for (35,000 maximum ft) climb maximum are climb given in Table

condition.

parameters

The obtained development operating loading, level this the

selection during the

of

five-stage

configuration Highly Loaded Fan

was

based

in

part

on

results

IR&D-funded and also These cost five had be on on

Turbine aimed at the

(HLFT)

technology direct turbine a loading at that

program cost weight, (DOC). and in level could

E 3 system studies

studies

minimizing impact optimum of at

system DOC and

evaluated a

indicated

relative

attainable loading ICLS goal

stages. been met

Further, in

significant the HLFT

performance program,

gains

demonstrated with a

indicating

five-stage

turbine.

The iterative (within contour acceptable stage. for the

five-stage technique, the and limitations stage levels The analysis of

flowpath whereby on

and a wall

stage

work

split wall

were

defined was

through selected inner to (Vz/U) which ratio,

an

candidate slope and were 2)

outer exit

contour and

diameter)

the

wall

energy of

distribution (gJAh/2u

iterated flow

concurrently coefficient estimate slope, aspect

yield for each

loading used a

and

stage-by-stage flow coefficient,

efficiency tip

accounted and

effects

loading,

clearance.

Turbine axial chord cutoff bine. gap

acoustic between and the the

treatment Stage number reduces rather 4

is vane of the than or the

incorporated and Stage

into 4 blade is

the is

LPT

flowpath. to to out of 1.4

The blade

increased

lengths tuning. Stage The gas 4

Stage of

4 blades sound

increased

achieve the tur-

This is used

amount Stage vector the

propagating it is more was

5 because diagram

highly based

loaded. on a

path

through-flow that for of

analysis

calculation equilibrium curvature, and dihedral,

procedure equation the effects and were effects.

solved axisymmetric radial blockage radial

full, flow,

three-dimensional, accounting blade force for due of

radialstreamline to flow airfoil slope sweep and

component and

airfoil made with

radial

gradient of blading

properties. to simulate

Calculations end-loss

gradients

losses

85

Table

XXI.

LP Turbine

Cycle

Match

Point.

Maximum Parameter Inlet Temperature, T49 K (o Units Climb 1056.3 R) (1901.4) 326.5 R) (0.07798) 11.21 (79.79) Corrected Flow, W_T7_ g_/sec-Pa (ibm _ R/sec'psi) 3.936 (80.27)

Energy,

Ah/T

J/kg/K (Btu/Ibm/ rad/sec_

Speed,

N/_

86

f ri

5.5.2
The spacer extends spool design LPT LPT

Mechanical rotor and the the tip

Design uncooled design composed stage. LPT rotors The LPT of disks main with integral cone at the LPT cast

is an

arms from between with

bolted sump

joints between 3 and

between the HPT

each and

The

support

and

attaches is

Stage

Stage

4 disks.

blading stage

a proven of the

shrouds

and multitang two-tooth disk easy spacer

dovetails. designs and

Inner are

seals at the

spool

are

repairable, between leakage) stator the and

attached They

bolted per-

flange formance In design ance

joints (low the with control.

connections.

provide

good

replacement. the local casing is a continuous, cooling for no-split-flange improved cast Stages tangs metal to clear-

LPT wall

assembly, and

insulation Stage by cast Outer

impingement of outer

The

I nozzle tang

consists at the

conventionally flowpath. by to hook sheet

four-vane 2 through the outer strips the integral Interand 5

segments nozzle case that Stages seals locks

attached vanes are

a hooked six-vane honeycomb casing

segments seals and

attached are brazed in the

supports. hook into

backing of

the

outer

assist

radial of these vane

retention vanes seal

2 through which are

5 nozzles.

The

inner brazed seals

diameters to the

have

consist built without into

of honeycomb the integral for

cast

support. stiffness

to provide bolted and

torsional

restraint inner seal

the

need to the

separate I vane

restraint consists of

pieces. three

A full-ring sections of

is bolted brazed

Stage metal

honeycomb An air

to a sheet clearance shrink clearances. materials

structure. system at is incorporated operating which utilizes thus fan

active

control the casing

to thermally seal

selected

points,

improving The

following

are

used

in Inco

the 718

LPT:

Casing Stationary Stationary Stage Stage Stage Stage Tip Shroud Seals Seals

Hastelloy Hastelloy Rene Ren_ Ren_ Inco 125 77 77 718

X Honeycomb X Honeycomb

Inner

1 Vane 2-5 Vanes

1-5 Blades 1-5 Disks

8?

Stage Shaft

1-5 Cone

Rotating

Seals

Inco Inco

718 718

5.5.3 The seal

Coolin major

8 Desisn of the being the rotor flow into bleed cool and purge to air block the air the purge the is defined seals cavity. used to by and To purge estimates prevent of the this, and the

portion and from

clearances gases the

required injected compressor I nozzle, seals, air vent the LPT

the

flowpath 1.4_ inner block portion exits of the of

rotor is vane the sump

accomplish the 56 outer C A

fifth-stage of the rotor rotor the returns the the Stage

bands the of through flow

approximately LPT rotor

(I00 F), small

HPT the

balance purge

cavity. cavity and But as

leaks of the

into primary

purge

eventually the majority purge air The by the

center to

exhaust work is

nozzle. recovered the exhaust is

flowpath stages and 3 and rotor

and out

the

expands flow

through through

remaining I, 2,

through arm

nozzle. defined

Stage arm source

spacer

flanges

required The Bleed through manifold. tion the duct air

spacer prime is

temperatures. of LPT cooling ACC air and is then the fifth-stage is Stage with air the delivered I LPT the compressor to nozzle and the bleed. turbine supply transiof

used pipes

for

compressor spaced which

six

equally manifold,

around is

cooling outer the

This hanger,

integral cooling fed into

casing

distributes cooling nozzle rotor air air

the is

uniformly nozzle

around vanes and

inside the

casing. to LPT

Next, the

across

flowpath The seal from the

inner

support.structure. cooling/purge air supply consists into cooling and 1.08% of the interturbine rotor air cavity to

forward air and space will

leakage the rotor wheel

that

is

injected plenum. for the

tangentially The base total engine

cooling he 0.91_

supply W25

supply the

cavity

for

growth No engine the the the the

engine. cooling performance. stage rotor temperature rim of the air is used to of purge the aft air, the the rotor LPT aft rear The cavity, exhaust rotor frame thus gas cavity. hub, as gas a from This well improving the hub of

Instead is

cooling through in

fifth

routed

reduces as between at FPS

transient bore hub and of

gradients Stage rotor 4 and is

5 disks. 599 C (ii00

maximum for

temperature

the

five-stage

F)

deteriorated

88

engine, addition, changes at high

well

within

the idle

maximum power and

allowable maximum

material takeoff 300 F);

limits power,

of this

1250 F. gas

In

between by rpm only are for

temperature gradients

III to moderate. cooling cooling

167 C

(200 to

therefore,

thermal

Except it,

of

the

Stage in in the the

1 vane LPT. E 3 LPT seals.

by

the

purge

air

flowing

through

no airfoil Active

is used control the

clearance supports casing of the

is accomplished During by

by

shrinking cruise taking By by of

the condi-

casing tions,

that the

stationary is

steady-state the of metal, Inco

shrinkage high

accomplished of thermal

cooling

advantage ing cm the (0.060

coefficient (300 F) is more

expansion to reduce

718.

cool0.152

casing in.)

167 C which

it is possible adequate to

the the

clearance objective heavily on

than

accomplish system

active

clearance with

control. the CF6-50

The LPT low of

casing casing

cooling

relies

experience system impinged In the scoop. and the

impingement fan air

cooling is used of an

system. as coolant of

In that and is

low pressure, outside fan is

temperature LPT casing

on the E 3 system, The air

the

by means the fan

array by

manifolds. of a valve

air

is extracted to the

from

duct

means

routed

impingement

manifold

through

a control

a 270 core The ACC

cowl

manifold. FPS is Fan the controlled speed, fuel by the full and authority compressor the LPT digital exit ACC temsystem. The so

valve

in the (FADEC). are best

electronic perature The FADEC

control and

flow, to

pressure the of the

FADEC

inputs for

used

control

defines

clearances and the kept casing

a particular be be factored defined.

flight into

condition. the control

thermal that the The ture casing of the of

history required outer 677 C

rotor for be

will can the

cooling will

casing under

casing

design with into

objective fan one air. system. for

metal The

temperaACC and the

(1250 F) cooling

by

impingement scheme are

cooling combined is

impingement casing

The

cooling

requires

0.1%

W2s ; this

increased

to 0.3%

obtaining

adequate

cooling

in order

to achieve

minimum

clearances.

89

5.5.4

Performance

FPS ICLS testing.

LPT

performance The turbine

is

based rig to the alon was

on a

374 0.67 FPS.

hours scale The

of of rig

rig the test

testing ICLS

and design

65

hours has

of

which was a nontwo changed are cycle

slightly flight revealed the ted full in

less design. a flow

flair

compared of

the inlet E the

hardware and the

Testing deficiency turbine LPT

transition outer LPT in ICLS in on wall.

duct The

first was

stages and

design test on

5-stage Table XXII. The

was

tested.

efficiency is ICLS based

results

presen-

efficiency

a balanced was LPT

analysis. unexplained.

LPT FPS

deficiency efficiency

exhibited is based

testing of

unexpected rig testing.

and

the

results

5.6

TURBINE

FRAME

Figure installed.
4

34 Its

is

a photograph functions

of

the are

turbine to

rear

frame alignment across maintain for

with of the

the the gas

aft

sump

primary static

maintain loads and help

rotor flowpath, tip clearturbine

system provide ances. swirl Also, The and

within engine In and it

the

structure, spring frame

transmit

structure this the

elements, has been

airfoil

addition, supporting

designed and

removing 5 bearing

residual housing.

centerbody, for three route engine have been

mixer, engine sump active

the and

No.

has

provisions frame a path is used to

mounts lube

ground across control in the

handling the gas to

features. flowpath, ambient to

turbine provides

to

lines

vent

clearance

air

pressure. reduce

Acoustic engine noise. frame

panels

incorporated

turbine

frame

The extreme frame casing, and ICLS 36

FPS

represents while

a unique

solution severe

to thermal

the

problem

of

providing The outer Figures the 35 FPS

stiffness achieves 12 show its

accommodating by using

gradients. polygonal casing.

goals struts,

a variable rings wall on

thickness the inner

radial the

and

heated (Outer

frame

design. which is

details

actually than FPS.)

represent The frame

turbine is

flowpath Inco struts 718. are (one casing.

slightly

different

material

Radial of

used million The

in

order pounds

to

achieve inch) are

the from

high the than

required bearing

spring to the

rate strut

1,751,181N/cm at the

per

plane

radial

struts

stiffer

semitangential

9O

Table

XXII.

Low

Pressure

Turbine

Performance.

Max Climb

Max Cruise Takeoff

Original

FPS

Required

Efficiency

(I

0.917

0.917

0.921

Rig

Test

Efficiency

with f?_. "-)

0.918

0.917

0.920

1/4 FPS

Point Credited Flaired Flowpath

ICLS

Test

Efficiency

(I)

0.895

0.894

0.895

Final

FPS

Required

Efficiency

(2)

0.927

0.925

0.928

(1)Consistent

with

original

cycle

match.

(2)Consistent

with

final

cycle

match.

91

00_r_,

__

.....

. ...

OF POOR QUALITY

I-.I

O0

Ir

92

Machined

Strut Ends

abricated Heat j i_i

Struts

Casing Shield

Bleed Flow

Rotor

Bore _ -:

"_$

Coo Iing

_=_ --,-_--Baffle

,147% "

Machined

Hub Rinqs

Figure

35.

E 3 Turbine

Frame

Cross

Section.

93

o,-i

o u

o w _J =

O9

4-P (-00 E oo

I---

o,--I

"O

L_

E OJ

94

struts In

because

they the

are

shorter, have been

which

also

results to remove

in

lower

strut turbine

weight. swirl.

addition,

struts

cambered

residual

The conventional struts, while ends. the a

polygonal

outer

casing casing. loads is is loads

carries That up

point is, with

loads

more

effectively loads or reinforced compression, at the

than by

a the

cylindrical casing case case radial

radial in tension

a polygonal cylindrical The polygonal of

uniformly to high

subject also at

bending due to

stresses its lower

strut under

stiffer, the struts.

flexibility

imposition

The stock casing. the are than panel made cast

polygonal

panels This

are

chem-milled preferential in ends the where and

between strain more welds withstand

strut

ends

to

reduce in the place

the

thickness. By thinning

produces the at panel the

distribution straining are located. higher takes

center, the can

in

center of wrought

than

These stress

panels

sheet

material

levels

strut

ends.

In frame rated casing both and

order

to

reduce

the two One

maximum thermal feature This response

thermal expansion is a

expansion control metal as a

difference features heat shield

between are on incorpothe

the

major into as

components, the shown design. in Figure

sheet serves the

outer and

35.

liner of

radiation

shield

decelerates effects a

the lower

thermal steady-state

casing

during temperature.

transient The

operation other gas (rotor by

casing heating

operation the frame The

feature bore means low ing

concerns cooling), of flowpath

convectively also shown gas bled and in

hub

with hub the

flowpath ring last is and is stage heated the the vented

Figure

35. inward hub. a

forward

heated of the by

radially the frame between radially including

between The aft metal is

pressure hot gas the

turbine radially flowpath frame

huh

ring

bleedring. cav-

inward gas hub, vent in

sheet

baffle

aft

hub

Bleeding ity inside

inward the aft

possible centerbody, large which

because is

entire to

the

ambient the frame comduring

through hub

the

center results

tube. a hub

The thermal in

relatively response larger heating

mass lags expansion

comprising the other

usually and,

frame

ponents transient response during the hub

therefore,

results Convectively

thermal the hub

differences its which gas used into thermal can to the

operation. and both has again transient a low

accelerates

reduces and

the

thermal

expansion operation. since it

differences The is hot

exist heat gas

steady-state on performance

impact

reinjected

95

stream beneath with cm

at

the

center

vent

tube

exhaust. the

Acoustic struts. pounds portions holes

treatment The per panels cubic

panels contain foot) and

are

placed

the

shear

cylinder of The (1/16

between kg/m 3

Astroquartz are are 1.27 perfor-

nominal (1/2 inch)

density deep. cm

25.63 shear inch)

(1.6

cylinder diameter

above

these

panels staggered

ated with

with 30_

0.158 open

in a standard

pattern

area.

5.7

SUMPSp 5.7.1 The FPS

DRIVES_ Bearing engine with

CONFIGURATION_ System is a simply

AND

LUBE

SYSTEM

arranged,

two-sump and two

engine. roller (HP)

It

is a

fivesupportsupported The need interfor a

bearing ing by the

machine low

three (LP) bearing

bearings, system. and an

a ball The aft high

bearings, system bearing. the is

pressure thrust mounted with its

pressure

a forward bearing frame

intershaft HP systems

roller

shaft "hot"

between cooling

the air

LP

and

eliminates
i

requirements.

5.7.2 The are both

Forward

Sump
o

forward the LP

sump and HP

design system No.

is shown thrust 2 roller located The

in Figure bearings, bearing, in the PTO

37. whose which

Included loads adds sump are

in

this

sump by the

reacted to the of

stiff LP

front

frame.

The

support just

long

system

shafting, (PTO)

is also drive and

forward is

ahead

the the in

power

takeoff

gear. drives

gearbox outward

driven

directly the bottom

from

compressor the front The features arrangement The and

stub frame. thrust a

shaft

radially

through

strut

bearing

for

the

HP system The bearing

is mounted is fluid

in damped

a housing with

which

centering that

spring.

a multishim

is end-sealed and PTO

by piston are

rings. either jet or underrace the oil lubricated for the fluid

main

shaft Oil

bearings from its own

cooled. being The

is supplied from

a common manifold.

manifold,

with

damper

supplied sump air.

forward

sealing The

system

consists

of

labyrinth the tube. LP

seals fan

pressurized with the

by

fan

discharge being

sump the

is vented aft center

through vent

shaft, included

vent

air

exhausted

out

Also

in the

96

c_
Z

u_ c_

0 r_

97

forward wheel This

sump which

is an LP is mounted

rotor

speed LP

pickup. shaft just

This

device of

involves the No.

a "cogged" 2 bearing. No. 2

to the by

forward pickup signal.

wheel

is

sensed thus

a stationary

magnetic speed

mounted

to the

bearing

housing,

providing

a rotor

5.7.3 The the No. aft

Aft

Sump configuration 5 roller its is shown The mounted LP in Figure No. in 38. This is an having ring the the by sump includes

sump No.

4 and bearing rate,

bearings. race to No. the

4 bearing a housing and its

intershaft a controlled mounted }{P and No. LP No. to 5 to

roller spring the aft

with and is

outer

attached The

shaft

inner both Both

}{P stub

shaft. is mounted

5 bearing, aft turbine cooling

supporting frame. oil

rotor

systems, are

to the

4 and mounted

bearings the No. The discharge annulus diameter sump The with The end

underrace

cooled,

with

supplied

a jet

5 bearing aft air formed of the sump

housing. sealing flows the system from features the forward of labyrinth sump the to seals the aft pressurized sump the through inside the aft by fan an

which by LP

outside

diameter

vent

shaft air aft

and flows

shaft. cavities and the

Compressor and

rotor

cooling out air the

around vent

through rotor cooler aft of sump the LP

sealed

is directed

center

tube. the sump

cooling air,

seal it

pressurization from an the high

cavities cavity which the

"blanket"

protecting

turbine

temperatures. is mounted air from on the the

is vented shaft. and

through Aft sump

air/oil air

separator mixes aft with center

vent through

vent

forward

sump

is exhausted

the

vent

tube.

5.7.4 The

Confisuration configuration encompasses the following and areas: turbine active clearance

Pneumatic piping for the compressor control systems and turbine cooling All All The external electrical pressure air lube and fuel lines

Fan accomplish

harnesses bulkhead. plus 5th and 7th stages of the compressor are bled to

discharge the

pneumatic

functions.

98

O0 r_

c_

c_

99

Fifth the to

stage

air This

is used

to

control by

the the to The

clearance use of

in

the

aft which

stages allows

of air

compressor. pass over the

is accomplished of these stages

a valve

casing

reduce discharge

clearance air air from

or bypass this to

this is the

cooling then HPT the

function to

in varying cool the

degrees. LPT Fan vanes. air

system cool

utilized second HPT The and

Seventh is used to

stage control

is used

stage LPT.

nozzles.

the

clearance

of both

fuel

lines

supply

fuel

to

the all

pilot of the

and

main

burners. valves in

In addition, the system.

fuel

is used The

to hydraulically harnesses to and

power

the Full

control

electrical (FADEC)

transmit from the

Authority

Digital

Electronic servovalves

Control and

signals feedback curved turbine cooling

various system.

electrohydraulic

electronic A

devices pressure outer air. and

in the

six-sector around the

bulkhead casing It was an

is used

to

create

a for

low pressure the turbine

region

to provide designed

a "sink" for radial gradient

clearance gradients psid). piping

control

temperature of 48 kPa (7 where

of 389 C The design

(700 F) also were

axial

pressure

includes required.

metal

bellows

to minimize

air-leakage

penetrations

5.7.5 The engines. gearbox scavenge scavenge gearbox protect in the could by

Lube lube

System is typical and supply cooling pumping Oil system. and the of other oil is General supplied then used Electric to each high sump bypass and to fan the

system

Lubrication a single

element, are supply

scavenged on both

using the

separate and sumps screen located which and to

pumping side from the lube of

elements. the lube

filters The

supply the inlet are

filters element

protect has an

contamination, pumping supply flooding systems elements side at

scavenge

from

larger

debris. of oil

Check into

valves engine

to prevent engine

backflow

sumps,

cause The

shutdown. are center vented aft to the exhaust nozzle

sump

and

gearbox

of

the

engine.

I00

5.8

EXHAUST

SYSTEM

THE core center plane, the aft

FPS

uses prior tube

full to

length

exhaust

duct. through

The a

mixer

combines exhaust ahead and of

the nozzle. the

fan A

and

streams vent out sump

being

discharged from of the the tail

single

extending the turbine

cone,

located vents purge

exhaust air from

through and

center frame

nozzle,

leakage

cavities.

The exhaust aerodynamic tion of

major duct,

components the pylon, of

of the these

the

ICLS

exhaust nozzle, have model with

system and been the

flowpath

include

the The

fan

exhaust flowpaths

mixer/centerbody. through to a

designs analytical exhaust fan exhaust losses

developed tests

combinaa high

studies system duct and,

and

scale

performance a lightweight, for to mixer range The fan low be Mach

provide

performance The duct

compatible has at been the

low numbers

drag to a

nacelle. minimize thrust Mach whereas been have

designed same and fan to time, the ducts

pressure a for

compatible

with Typical

reverser, numbers the

core-mounted separate duct all low ranges the flow

gearbox, nacelle 0.40 model loss

flowpath. from duct tests, 0.45

to

0.50, has

E 3 fan in a

from

0.45.

flowpath and

included verified

scale

mixer

performance

results

pressure

design.

The siderations. assure angle pylon

pylon

cross The

section or

flowpath nose, with to the mixer scale the links drag

has portion the the

been of fan fan

designed the by pylon

with was

two

major

conto nose of the

forward,

designed of

aerodynamic and from axial the

compatibility location maximum relative width with in to the the

proper The was

selection aft portion to

OGV's. edge

trailing and model pylon are and to

designed low pressure

be

aeroThe backthan

dynamically pylon to-back predicted. as shown in with mixer and no has

compatible been simulated with engine 36,

provide mixer

loss. and lower

development pressure over the any also both has a

tests, losses turbine

testing The

and

without mount minimize the

verifies positioned to links shown to The

aft to on

frame, interthe scale

Figure or

eliminate were have FPS

potential in

action model loss

impact

mixer. and

These were

tested low low

development effect on

program the mixer

drag/pressure area ratio, flow

aerodynamics. for desired

converging-diverging coefficient

exhaust

nozzle

takeoff-to-cruise

nozzle

characteristics.

I01

The Es
FPS uses The tail mixer 18 mixer cone is

program the

contributed product lobes is shown of with in a

major

advancement analytical corrugations A center as The mixing shown

in

mixer and in tube Figure

technology. test the program. centerbody. from Mixer loss is goal

The It

comprehensive corresponding Figure exhaust Table 39. plane XEIII. better mixer be

scalloped design through is as part sfc

vent in

extends I.

the

the

nozzle in

performance now based original mixer seen in

summarized

original

pressure

is

unrealistic; on an

however, in

effectiveness into with a the

projected The of

increase goal mixing of Inco Inco

protrusion achieved

flowpath.

improvement loss is and made are

can

different

combination

pressure The mixer the

effectiveness. 718. The centerbody and links from the center-

body

to

mixer

625.

5.9

NACELLE

The to permit

E 3 Flight a of

Propulsion weight design

System

was

designed for the

with toal

an

integrated

nacelle Major

significant the nacelle

reduction include:

installed

system.

elements

Integral, portion Substantial and in of

composite which use

construction forms the outer

of

the

fan of in and

frame, the

the nacelle. and

outer

surfaces

of

composite of

materials the inlet

the the

inlet exhaust

aft

cowling

acoustic

treatment

flow]path.

Lightweight trap A and hold

fan

containment

based

on

the in to

use the

of

Kevlar of

fibers fan

to

engine-generated mixed-flow a low exhaust higher pressure level

debris system of

event

damage. effia for a

long-duct,

enhance

propulsive with required

ciency, smaller comparable A reverser

achieving fan and

engine than

performance would be

turbine

separate-flow contained need for

system. entirely in and the outer wall of the nacelle, extento reduce

without sive the An

bifurcation of composite

cross-duct in

linkage, the reverser

and

application weight engine of of mount engine the

materials

design. system design chosen due clearances. to with mount particular loads to attention promote to close

minimizing control

deflections

turbomachinery

102

.,_ r_

103

Table

XXIII.

Mixer

Performance

at Maximum

Cruise.

Original Goal (Reference

I)

Best Scale Model

FPS Projection

Mixing

Effectiveness,

75

79

85

Pressure

Loss,

aP/P,

0.20

0.57

0.57

SFC

Improvement,

3.1

2.6

2.9

104

Nacelle To

aerodynamic as small is at

lines an

chosen

for

slimness profile core

and as

low

cruise

drag. the

achieve

external-nacelle in the

possible,

accessory A The inner The dynamics 20_ reverser ease core door

package hinged of cowl

located the are pylon access

compartment. and pylon latched and form a to at the bottom

attachment to to the the core

for

maintenance panels system.

engine

accessories. separate

hinged

aggressive is estimated

use to

of

advanced

structural a 0.6% to

design drag

and

low

drag to

aeroa 15% the to

contribute saving the

cruise the

reduction technology

installation nacelle general

weight that was

relative E 3 program of the

current

of

CF6-50C The

baseline. is shown in Figure 40.

arrangement

E 3 nacelle

5.9.1

Fan

Reverser

The blocker-door tial half 41). cascade mechanism, outboard with

fan

thrust-reverser configuration. each half hinged

design The to

is

fixed is

cascade, made pylon in

translating-sleeve/ symmetrical circumferento the other (Figure the linkage located sectors

reverser the

halves, along The

aircraft

and

latched to the

the

bottom

centerline, of the

allowing fixed

ready support

access structure the blocker

engine

reverser section, and of the

consists the outer

including doors system circular links forward link and is

translating system. the between is a cascade them floating

sleeve, Since section for the design the

the

actuation

actuation made in door the a drive the aft

cascades, (slots)

is

arc to

passageways The by ring Drive a

blocker with of on the

pass

through. supported a unison

blocker

door

section connected structo

slider-link and a drag connect

mechanism link each with a

consisting fixed door pivot to

support

ture.

links

blocker

translating

sleeve.

The "T" shaped

unison ends

ring riding load

is

located in a slot

outboard in to the in of the the

of

the

cascades

and main

is

supported beams. compression is suffi-

by A

fixed-structure unison ring by a

axial of load

forward springs cient to

acting mounted hold

is

imparted it and doors feature and is

series This during

between the blocker floating

translating the the stowed unison

sleeve. position ring also

forward to in and

thrust

operation. the tem. effect The

The of

serves

eliminate the sysas

manufacturing sleeve

assembly driven by

tolerance the

accumulation system

translating

actuation

serves

105

QJ

_J c_ Z

c;

O0

106

Top

Pylon

Hinge

Figure

41.

Front

View,

Reverser

Cross

Section. 107

the blocker door and unison ring driver as well as the outer nacelle flowsurface fairing. Figure 42 shows the translating sleeve, unison ring, and compression springs. As the translating sleeve is movedaft by the actuators to uncover the cascades, the blocker doors are movedaft along with it. Because the unison ring is not being driven at this time, the unison ring spring load tends to cause the aft end of the blocker doors to stay in the stowed position. To prevent interference of the blockers with the fixed structure aft of the doors, the blocker door rollers ride along a ramp surface on the back side of the blocker, forcing the door into the fan stream sufficiently to clear the fixed structure but not enoughto cause a large decrease in fan-duct flow area. At a predetermined point in the sleeve translation, a bumper on the sleeve contacts the forward face of the unison ring, causing it to moveaft with the sleeve and blockers for the remainder of the actuator stroke. The aftward movementof the unison ring forces the slider-link mechanismto rotate towards the engine centerline, causing the blocker doors to rotate about the forward support rollers, blocking the fan stream and diverting it through the cascades. Figure 42 also illustrates the reverser in the stowed and deployed positions. The aerodynamics of the reverser are based on previous General Electric experience with large turbofan reverser designs. Cascadearea was mixed to provide an adequate effective area margin, fully deployed, relative to the discharge flow requirements of the fan bypass. The desired fan operating line for reverse thrust is lower in pressure ratio at corrected airflow than the normal forward-thrust-mode fan operating line at static conditions. This was done in order to provide additional stall margin if required and to provide a reduction in core engine and turbine temperature at fan speed relative to forward modeoperation. Overall thrust effectiveness of the fan reverser is improved by core thrust spoiling of the mixed exhaust system. In the reverser mode, the absence of bypass flow in the tailpipe causes a reduction in low pressure turbine back pressure and allows the core speed to be reduced relative to

108

0 0 C_

0 _-_ 0 "0 C

,-I

C_

_U

c_

109

forward reduction the

mode in

operation. core stream spoiling the tailpipe.

This thrust effect

"rotor

matching" which diffusion

effect is

causes

a still

significant further core model, by

potential of dump

reduced out in of a

aerodynamic into on

the cycle

mixer

chutes are

These model

effects, exhaust thrust without

evaluated mixer

computer

based The

previous system

scale

tests. is shown in The the Figure 43

overall to

reverse with and to

effectiveness the turbine

compared tiveness turbine

a CF6-50C

reverser. with

E 3 effecCF6-50C with

compares reverser

closely and exceeds

the the

effectiveness -50C level

achieved without

turbine

reverser.

5.9.2 The and

Mount engine

System mount system that is designed from in the to minimize engine engine vertical, backbone side, casing at the bending and are

circular loads. by

distortions Circular the vertical (fan mount

result

the

thrust generated mount

distortions and thrust

engine load

(compressor) reaction

(axial)

forward

location The engine

frame). system to uses mount seven links as shown to in Figure aft other 44. side pair to side links The of of the load are four

front frame. links turbine

mount Two carry rear

links links the

connect carry thrust The pair

brackets and side

attached loads, while

the the

the

vertical load. short of The

aft

three-link link

system roll loads.

attaches and All

frame. while the

lateral links carry

provides

restraint, mounted in

vertical

uniballs.

Analytical distortion forward separated at 45 from brackets All the fan forward frame. links to the of mount by

studies the can 90 . the top on engine be

have

shown

that due to

the the

major thrust the

component load

of

the

circular at the

casings by

reactions load at two one of

minimized FPS

reacting thrust 45 fan

thrust are the

points on each forward side,

The

engine

mounts shows frame. the located core

located, location

vertical. aft are side

Figure of the

the

mount

the links

located link and

under is

compressor within the the fan

cowling pylon. stream The

aft

of

The are turbine

aft

lateral

aft the

vertical pylon

streamlined rear frame.

extended

through

from

ii0

Knots 100 50
I

i00 I CF6-50 Standard Takeoff Day Reverser I Rating with .,,,_

150 I

200 i

u e_

80

Turbine

/.,

g
= >
4m

6O //'/

/_E

Estimated :ak_off Rating

S-tandard_Day

/-I 4O

(27 F)

> 2O

OI 0 I00 200 k_/hr 300 400

Figure

43.

Overall

Engine

Reverse

Thrust

Comparison.

Iii

Aft

Vertical

and

Side

Load

.Aircraft

Pylon

Simulator

g "Whiffle

Tree"

rust

Load

Forward Vertical and Side Load

"

Figure

44.

Mount

Links.

112

r_

113

5.9.3 The consumption follows:

Accessory accessory and DOC.

Package package The location principal for choices the FPS for was selected to arrangement reduce fuel were as

accessory

Fan-case-bottom-mounted

aircraft

and

engine

accessories.

Core-component-mounted isolated in a shielded

aircraft and vented

and

engine

accessories,

thermally

compartment.

Pylon-mounted core compartment. of drag these and on XXV. this these and

aircraft

accessories

with

engine

accessories

in

the

Evaluation installation impact Tables ment of XXIV

systems

included losses, and these DOC. results as the

consideration weight, maintenance of to

of

differences cost, and

in the shown in

pressure fuel

mission Because was

Summaries tended

the favor

results the

are

core-compartfor the E 3.

arrangement, the engine if

chosen retains users.

baseline to shows

configuration be modified to

However, arrangements package

design by

the

ability 46

the

other accessory

desired for the

Figure

the

core-mounted

chosen

E 3 FPS.

5.10 A

CONTROL Full

SYSTEM Authority computation Digital and fuel air, Electronic associated Control control compressor reverser. by a and (FADEC) accessory variable Requirements description of utilizes elements stators, for the digital to active the control and

electronic control clearance system its are fuel

flow,

distribution, and the and thrust are

control outlined

below

followed

system

elements.

5.10.1 Most engine the of

Design the basic control this system functional the required. are thrust two zones of the double goals annular to: requirements variables The to major be evolve from the and

design

definition; control

establishes

controlled system

fundamental

characteristics thus flow flow established to control into to the meet

control

functional

requirements Modulate Divide combustor fuel the fuel as

required

exhaust

emission

114

Table XXIV. Accessory GearboxLocation Trade Study Results.

Location

Core Pylon Core (Aircraft (Engine Accessories) Accessories) Fan Case (All) Mount (All)

& Weight, kg (Ibm) Maintenance Estimated $/EFH &


SFC (Drag, 6P), %

+22.7 (+50)

+34.0 (+75)

+1.84

+2.69

-0.42

-1.27

-0.I

+0.65

DOC,

%(1)

+0.26

+0.13

_Wf,

+0.72

(1)Evaluated

using

7.9

to

13.2C/liter

(30

to

50/gal)

fuel

price.

115

Table

XXV.

Qualitative

Factors

in Accessory

Package

Selection.

Fan

Case Must

Mount be Designed Fairing Asymmetry to Comply Tends with FAA Wheels-Up Landing Regulation

Accessory Aircraft Best

to Block

Reverser

if Side-Mounted Engines if Side-Mounted

or Left-Hand/Right-Hand of Candidate

Accessibility

Configurations

Core

Compartment Airline

Mount Disfavor from Maintenance, Accessibility Aspect

Some

Pylon

Mount Disfavor from Accessibility Drag Problem Penalty with Aspect in Close DACO-Type Nacelle/Wing Tail Engine Placement Installation

Airline May Have

Significant Mounting

Access

and

116

(J (J

U_

-,,1"

II?

Position the compressor variable stators for best compressor performance Position the air valves in the three separate active clearance control systems (compressor, high pressure turbine, and low pressure turbine) to achieve the minimumrotor clearances possible at important operating conditions and to prevent rubbing at any condition Control thrust reverser actuation and integrate trolled variables on the engine it with other con-

Sense, process, and transmit engine and control system data for engine condition monitoring.

A simplified schematic of the control is shownin Figure 47. The main element in the system is the digital control. The control is designed basically for single channel operation with the intent that in-service development will eventually result in a digital control equal in reliability to current hydromechanical controls which have extensive military and commercial operational development. However, for initial service, redundant controls are considered necessary to achieve the desired operational reliability. The two units will be functionally identical; software logic will cause one to serve as the primary control and the other as an active standby which is brought on line automatically if a primary unit malfunction is detected by self-test within that unit. Whensatisfactory in-service digital control reliability the system. The system will be designed to operate with input commands and data from the aircraft in the form of multiplexed, digital, electronic signals. Because of the critical nature of the input commands,it is anticipated that these signals will be generated using power from the top-priority aircraft electrical bus, that dual (redundant) signals will be supplied, that the signals will be transmitted over separate lines, and that the signals will include a periodic test word to identify signal malfunctions. It is further anticipated that these signals will be in the form dictated by the applicable specification for aircraft avionics digital data transfer. The controls also receive a number of inputs from electrical sensors on the engine. Most of these will be dual element devices with separate elements supplying each control. has been demonstrated, the standby unit will be eliminated from

118

Inputs Power Supply

Outputs Fuel Valves

/ Engine Sensors Primary FADEC Stator Actuation

Active Aircraft -__ Standby FADEC Active Clearance Commands / Valves I I I

Thrust Reverser

1 I

Figure

47.

Full Authority (FADEC).

Digital

Electronic

Control

119

An

additional and and

protective

feature (FICA)

in the

control

system FICA FADEC, engine

is the

Failure sensor con-

Indication failures tinued rated

Corrective

Action signals

strategy. by the

detects thus

engine

substitutes with FADEC

calculated sensor. A

permitting

operation into the

a failed software

simplified sensor

model

is incorpologic. A

along

with

failure filter)

detection is used to

mathematical update An trical system out and the

filter engine

technique using control digital a backup

(extended data from

Kalmam all

continuously

model

unfailed be the

sensors. primary from for source the of elecd.c. check-

engine-driven power will for speed for serve engine range the as

alternator controls. and Use of will

will

Aircraft provide

power power for

28-volt control the

static

starts. of the

aircraft alternator

power and

starts

reduces

design

control

results

in a smaller,

more

efficient

design. from the digital of the control various operate controlled servovalves elements or causes which, in the in turn, system. The devices consignal

Outputs control the

actuation will

servovalves incorporating trolled from the The on Figure ters, loop. and used PS3 for Two tors charge priate for but to

be multiple-coil design or

electrohydraulic feature which

electropneumatic the element being if the

a fail-safe remain fixed, control engine TI2' N2, PS3

to drift

slowly or the

in a safe to maximum control

direction, current. are

digital basic 48. NI,

fails

to zero to serve

cycle PTO' T42 and

inputs T25

system as

shown

pictorially parame-

primarily as

control in the

scheduling fuel

and are

serve

primarily in a turbine fuel for

feedback inlet

control

T 3 and is

involved in

temperature The failure inputs

calculation, will also be

also

used

transient and

scheduling. the are sensor used:

condition types the

monitoring

accommodation temperature compressor taps

feature. detecdisat approsignals by

of temperature and core

sensors and are

resistance for or the

fan

inlets,

thermocouples sensed by probes

and

LPT

inlet. and

Pressures are converted

static

locations

to variable-frequency Fan speed disk (rpm) on the to fan is

electrical sensed shaft to the by

transducers pickup pulsing control. in

in the conjunction

digital with

control.

a magnetic a

a multitoothed

fan speed, of

to provide the digital power

signal, Core

with rpm

a frequency by

proportional measuring the

is sensed

frequency

FADEC

120

\[
%

QO

o_ o

o u

o_

i !

r7

Z < I.L_

Z _,

I-UJ

,--.-,

O_

,--4 z u..I Im '_ I---- ".._ LL..

121

supply core

from speed. The

the

control

alternator,

which

rotates

at

a constant

multiple

of

outputs

controlled 49

by

the

system

are

shown

pictorially outputs namely,

on Figure beyond the those

49.

The

boxes

on Figure

indicate

additional

controlled engine;

incorporated The designed a single, solid-state logic are

on a typical, control as

current, for an this

transport engine

CF6-50C. device

digital

is a solid-state control. operating all of the The in of

electronic design

specifically time-shared, memory for

aircraft

engine

incorporates with and

digital

microprocessor

conjunction the

elements the

to perform control which

essentially functions control

computation Also

required and

various elements handle

engine.

included and clock

timing

control which

processor/memory functions. running

operation The time basic

circuit rate mately of

elements the 0.010

input/output megahertz, and

signal program

computer second.

is 3.5

is approxi-

The environment which General has are

digital and known

control

design

is tailored aimed

for at

operation reducing

in an the

aircraft of

engine factors on

incorporates to be major

features sources

effects

of problems. with limited

Extensive authority

experience

Electric that between electrical control, of are the

military most

engines are

electrical

controls

shown

problems

associated caused

with by by

mechanical thermal high and

interconnection vibratory stresses, In the to reduce circuit

failures or with digital the

electrical element extensive

elements, degradation use is made for

caused of

temperature. circuit chips

integrated

number

elements mounted on of 50 is

required ceramic,

interconnection. circuit

In addition, boards; this and

most further

elements reduces effects. used have

multilayer

number

interconnections a schematic tungsten of

exposed this

to vibration board and

atmospheric The materials all

Figure

circuit runs,

design.

(namely, low and

Kovar well

leads,

circuit

alumina to

boards) reduce

matched

thermal-expansion are mounted and

coefficients to a fuel-cooled

thermal plate to

stresses. reduce the Digital period ceeding U.S.

The

circuit

boards

aluminum heat. has

effects engine

of environmental control

internally at General units the

generated Electric in the

technology with

evolved 1970's

over and

of years, to refined

beginning on-engine program.

off-engine for

early

pro-

designs The

NASA/GE is an

QCSEE

program of this

and

the

Navy/GE

FADEC

E s control

extension

design,

122

0 Lr_ I LI_

0 0 Z

oo 0

rIJ_

D
4,..I

o O-J J

I I

I-I-- 0"_ d 3= W 0 C3 d I.J-- LL.

1,4 0_ 0 0 I--, I I I I
I

el: 0'3 I.-- o oor_


ILl IJ, J

r_ Z 0 ,< r,..3 _.

I I I
|

123

o o la tJ

"o

c_
"0 o

\
0
4_

q_

124

incorporating age that sors. and an regulation accepts An

self-contained required with from version (see

power earlier

supply designs and control 51) was

that and engine was used

eliminates including condition on the the ICLS

the input

external circuitry

volt-

signals off-engine

thermocouples of the

monitoring E 3 core engine. of

senengine, Both the over

used on

on-engine proved and

version very

Figure

controls engines a digital

successful, software control

providing that room that

full provided allowed Engine 8, and

authority extensive thorough is ICLS

control

incorporating from engine the

adjustability and efficient in and the

link of

exploration Design mance and Report,

characteristics. Report, 9. Reference

testing the

reported Design

Core

Performance Reference

Perfor-

5.10.2

Fuel

Control

System

A positive the

schematic

of

the

fuel

system pump with element meters

is

shown

in

Figure

52.

The boost.

system Fuel

uses from

displacement displacement valve to by and the

fuel

integral enters fuel to

centrifugal the the fuel .engine thus,

positive

pump

valve and

where bypasses flow

a metering surplus are conservoThe on the fuel bypass

valve/bypass fuel back

combination pump. Metering control metering

valve by means valve

position of an

and,

fuel

trolled valve valve valve, fuel

the an

digital

electrohydraulic feedback that to

metering

electrical a mechanical shutoff to operate

position

transducer. operates maintain

includes a fuel

core-overspeed and

governor valve conditions.

valve,

a pressurizing at low flow

sufficient

pressure

servos

Control thrust practical comparing system ters meters engine special at a and were in

of response

fuel to is

flow the

is

basically

achieved input thrust be

by from

modulating the

flow

to

set no

thrust-command to sense can

aircraft. a study by was

Because performed control parame-

method 14

available variables a measure core rpm,

directly, or

engine as rpm, from

which of a

sensed

computed the

the

used fan

thrust. fuel flow

Included related

among parameter, at

candidate and various in

parathe a one

computed flowpath. computer time) at in key

pressure potential that and

and/or thrust

temperature parameters the engine engine thrust

various

points by

The model control

were with and

compared each

using (taken

operated applied

parameter component accuracy.

typical to define

control

toler-

ances

operating

conditions

setting

125

ORIGINAL 'poor

_-_L'SZ "" QUALi'(Y

:R!OltX,_AL PAOE , "-' ,_A<.,(, ,;d,O ' _,. 'HITE P_iUiOGRAPH

O I.i 4.1 O C.3 U O I-i 4.J _J _J r._ RI 4-J

>.,

O ,.c: 4.J .,

i-i

r./'3

u-_

_0 r_

126

iN

I_
| t,..,i | e..,,q ll_.l

----_

o_--;o z
E-_ 0 T L_ I J

_1_ 0

__L

,.-I

E-_ 0

Ic

I_

_1
>1

N zo
r_

i m.

........

I _1

q u_

(n

_
-. 8_

, II

{"4 Z

127

Of thrust parameter. to control

the setting

14

thrust accuracy,

parameters and it

compared, was selected

corrected as the

fan primary

rpm

provided fuel flow by the or

the

best

controlling is modulated digital combustor with and with flow

Thus, corrected to prevent The flow zones fuel nozzles, between at flow flow

during fan overspeed, is then for

normal rpm.

steady-state Fuel flow limits

operation, are

fuel applied

control blowout. pilot-zone in both The the sition Zone tion that zone. of and The total the PZRV fuel

overtemperature, split starting, for the ground levels. established digital control primarily two idle,

compressor zones and of the flight

stall, combustor, idle,

only higher

power is the and

split with

by

the and by Valve MZSOV

characteristics controlling positioning (PZRV). a small the the The amount the as MZSOV for assure combustion a pilot function fully

of tranMain transiso

selecting combustion Zone opening Reset the

singleValve

double-annular and made the by Pilot first tubes

Shutoff to the double empty Dwell fuel PZRV is has

(MZSOV) is nozzle at this

annular fuel time flow is

injection intermediate Once this

fill

without is elapsed, the main elapsed

starving

position time to has

controlled the zone to

rate.

opens better main is

temporarily after

closed sufficient Transition

enrich time has

ignition. zone made

reopened occurred. the

ignition by simply

back

to

single-annular

closing

MZSOV.

5.10.3 The 53. of is core

Stator

Control

System control actuators the system is shown the schematically in Figure system actuators The

compressor fuel-driven annular by

stator ram

A pair levers

of

operates compressor on

stator-actuation Fuel of the to the

and

rings

around

case. one

controlled

an electrohydraulic signal actuator control a basic but is supplied provides schedules corrected it also

servovalve by the

actuators. A position digital position same as

servovalve transducer The accordance done on the the

control in one digital with

digital signal

control. to the (VSV) much

a feedback variable core speed

control. in is to the The

stator

vane

schedule, of

the

CF6-50C,

applies

a number

compensating to

biases

exploit engine

capabilities and

of variable widely varying

compressor steady-state

stators

accommodate conditions.

transients

operating

128

0 4J L_

0 t_

0.. r_ 0

u_

t_ t_ r._

129

exact

nature

of

these of the

biases

wouldbe stator

determined biases are in

during listed core

engine below.

development

testing. Rain and

Some Reset

potential rain

- Heavy of rain,

causes

reduction the the be T25

inlet lag,

temperature can cause

(T25), comT2s

termination stall. than

combined is

with in

sensing

pressor is less

This

bias

applied (as

closing in heavy

direction rain),

when

sensed

calculated

Tz5

it will

thus

increasing

stall

margin. Stall Avoidance cruise - CF6 corrected ground. of experience speed This the has shown that the optimum the be stator optimum setsetting

ting

in the

region

is different modification

than

in this with

region

on the demand

schedule

can

accomplished

a power Stall

reset

stators. has by shown that recovery shifting from the a compressor in the occurs, closure occur, shut-

Recovery often be

- Experience accomplished When a rapid this flow the then

stall closed as

can

temporarily

stators pressure stator not

direction. during

drop

in compressor creates If be

discharge a temporary

it will

a stall, a fuel by and

function

and, down If

simultaneously, or power

reduction. will engine left on

recovery

does

reduction occur he

pilot the and

required

as on

current time, the

engines. stator margin

recovery bias the

does

stalls

a second

closing until

would is

reapplied down.

to provide

additional

stall

engine

shut

Reverse stators accompany in

Reset the

- Experience direction

has to

shown

that

it the

is desirable inlet

to bias

the that can

closed

accommodate

disturbances

thrust

reverser

operation. - Experience core speed/fan and has shown that engine deterioraStator internal

Deterioration tion reset results can in

Compensation a change the in the

speed regain

relationship. some lost

restore

original

relationship

efficiency. Bleed sor Compensation point Such and - A stator reset might when the be used to adjust bleed the air compres-

operating

improve

efficiency shown in

customer preliminary

is being system

extracted. design.

a reset

is being

control

Transient the 130 basic stator

Compensation schedule

- It is would

quite

probable

that

some

adjustment of the

to

improve

transient

operation

compressor

and in be core

thereby the NASA/GE

improve QCSEE

transient Program, the normal

response. transient stator at

Also, response in and

as

demonstrated at approach closed

successfully conditions direction can be so can that

improved rpm is

by

resetting than rpm

schedule approach,

the

higher less to

maximum

thrust

reestabwould

lished be

with

change if or

than this

normally could be

required. done engine without

Development causing

testing aeromechanical

required

determine

compressor

instability

unsatisfactory

efficiency

changes.

5.10.4

Active

Clearance

Control

System

As clearance I0 is

noted

in

previous systems. modulating

sections, Clearance the flow

this

engine in

has

three

separate Stages air achieved annular over

active 6 through the by aft

control by

control of in fan fifth the

compressor bleed is

achieved

stage turbines

compressor the flow of

casing. air the control

Clearance from

control the

modulating

extracted HPT and'LPT

duct

into

separate

manifolds

surrounding The shown

casings. involved 54. The in active clearance clearance and the to the controlled control control by are air an is

system in

elements Figure valve by supplies

schematically by

compressor by fuel

regulated hydraulic trical

a modulating

actuated a signal

electroAn elec-

servovalve position

operated

from

digital digital

control. control.

transducer

feedback

The way, for

air

to

each

turbine modulating

clearance butterfly control feedback

control valve.

system

is

regulated valves valves

by are

two-

fuel-operated, the HPT and LPT.

Separate both

included electroboth

The

digital

operates transducers

through on

hydraulic valves.

servovalves.

Position

are

included

The The and the FADEC

strategy senses

for casing

controlling temperatures, air valves Target air

clearances calculates make the

is

based target

on

casing casing

temperatures. temperatures, match using is an a

modulates target of time

cooling temperatures. fan inlet

to

sensed

casing are

temperatures calculated rpm. There and

casing

temperatures and core

schedule inherent climb. ently.

temperature gives extra

corrected margin LPT until are on

delay

which for the

clearance HPT, and

takeoff

initial

Clearances A decel

compressor, off ACC

controlled

independdrops

modifier

shuts

cooling

casing

temperature

131

o ii 0

_J

aJ

132

to HPT,

the and

scheduled LPT.

level.

This

feature

acts

independently

for

the

compressor,

As circuit included measured

discussed warms in the Figure

in

the

HPT

section,

an

active

clearance This air

control circuit open

heating is until

casings 54. The

quickly control reach

following keeps normal

startup. a heating steady-state

valve idle

casing

temperatures

temperatures.

5.10.5 The craft Heat wasted sink; takeoff, sink. the fan then air air is FPS

Fuel uses

Heater/Regenerator a fuel heating system ECS lower of fuel air

System system (ECS) to to air the flow ECS improve was fuel. does air fuel selected This not must a consumption. as the heat The air-

environmental is transferred energy. therefore, climb, Above around during dumped in At

control from idle, air cruise, ECS ECS air air the the

source.

recovers provide an at

otherwise adequate idle. adequate At heat of of and heat

fuel the flQw

fan and

cooling the

be more by

used than

provides controlled heating is

idle, the

temperature cooler. which fuel The

is

bypassing avoids cool is

a portion the ECS shown loss

fuel

system used to system

aircraft overboard. Figure 55.

flight, The

ordinarily heater/regenerator

air,

sche-

matically

5.10.6

Performance

ICLS The ICLS

testing results 9.

provided are listed

an

extensive More

final

test

of

the

E 3

control is

system. in

below.

detailed

information

available

Reference

Speed speed was

Governin8 controls smooth.

- Both were

core

(up The

to

30_

thrust) from

and

fan

(above to fan

30_) control

stable.

switchover

core

Transition tion were

- Transitions between smooth and reliable.

single-

and

double-annular

combus-

Fuel were

Flow Limits demonstrated.

T42 , PS3'

and

T41

calculated

limits

on

fuel

flow

Stator achieved

Scheduling during

- A fast

maximum transients.

deviation

of

only

0.5

degree

was

133

z k_ Z

,J
z 0 Z 0 t_
u

tO

0
_L_

(3 _o

w r_ z

u_

134

Accel/Decel demonstrated 5.5 seconds. testing.

Transients time No from stalls

The or

control idle to

functioned 90_ thrust occurred

properly. was during transient

Minimum

flight

approximately

blowouts

Active

Clearance and

Control LPT. FADEC

- Closed

loop

ACC

was

demonstrated a deceleration for the HPT correct an

for

the

compressor demonstrated. the HPT ACC

Closing control had been

off ACC air during of ACC was not used modified and used to

was because eccen-

system

tricity

problem.

FICA speed normal failure

- Failures plus T3, All operation, operation

of fan

T3, T42 , T25, fan speed, speed plus T4R , and fan sensor steady marginally However, for FPS. failures and both was state with

core speed except

speed, PS3' fan plus T2s were core speed The did core not speed produced core speed

simulated.

simulated

transiently. Time work,

acceptable. more

permit failure

developing FICA would

a solution. be resolved

Reliability were

- The

FADEC during

was the

mounted 65 hour

on

the

fan

case.

No

problems

encountered

test.

5.11

DYNAMIC

SYSTEM

5.11.1 A the tion ance FPS high

Design load squeeze system. over The combined forward dynamic core film provide the and provide with the N/m (3 a broad film This damper damper has is been designed to includes core rotor film as provide an integral effective part of

engine

configured that tuned

vibraunbal-

control levels.

unbalance incorporates a multiple (No.

range a film

low-to-abusive bearing damper support located

design with bearing

arrangement core reduces ciated the rotor the with

squeeze The

at system

the

3 bearing). by the driving tuned

damper-suspension bending strain

response rotor bending that efficient of

levels into is in

the bearing

energy This

asso-

supports. forward the shows "squirrel spring It was tuned

allows

squeeze to

damper an action the

parallel sink

with to

the

bearing of vibrasupstrucmachined that would on permit

support tion port tures

energy

dissipate 56 are

energy the

through system that

viscous The soft

damping. bearing load

Figure supports

bearing cage"

damper. relatively cylindrical x 105

paths

through

elements established cage (based and also

integrally a 5.254 x

structural spring

portions. rate for for each

I07

ib/in) centering

squirrel loads

provide

the

required for the

rotor flight

action system

maneuver

requirements

propulsion

configuration)

135

.1-1

_J

0 C_ C_ r_ 4_ 0 r_

0 0

_J

I
I

136

the

squeeze 56 and

film in

damper greater with

to

provide in or

the

desired 57,

vibration the damper in the

control. consisted damper small

As of

shown a

in

Figure squeeze insertion annuli overall tial

detail sleeves into

Figure shims

sealed The

film of and

damper the

inserted film

annulus. clearance large circumferenallows

sleeves of The in high with the

the

squeeze

resulted provided clearance overall

in a

the

sum

individual

clearances of and small the

relatively and

clearance. flow results to

combination damping a low

annuli

large

clearance

large

deflections

occur

spring

rate.

5.11.2

Performance

The results of speed

FPS

rotor

support

system

was

evaluated vibration

in

IcLs

testing.

The with

test an absence

demonstrated avoidance were well

excellent zones behaved over and

system the the

characteristics range.

complete vibration

operating response Maximum

Engine

vibration showed

levels good were (rotor 3,200

characteristics synchronous located mm-DA on (4.1 I/fan response flat high the will the the

agreement recorded side) rpm

with at of the the

pretest No. forward rpm As

calculations. 3 bearing squirrel 0.127 the

vibration soft side

levels

accelerometer cage; mm-DA core 0.104 (5

mils-DA).I/core at 2,600 levels response load damper core that core in rotor support associated system. detected analysis speed which was rpm

at

NF/12,420 rpm Nc.

N c and

mils-DA)

NF/II,900 very over highly the

predicted,

synchronous by a 3 basically bearing with It at

indicated curve

damped

behavior speed

characterized range. in vibration cage The

core

operating

No.

(multifilm rotor addition bearing, the with No the which range. consistent aft

sealed this a

configuration) expected squirrel employs bearing. of the

conjunction control. support

soft-mounted be noted

provided to this core

static engine rotor

spring

forward cage

a unique Fan core

rotating

squirrel vibration of the soft

spring was

at

synchronous rotor (coupled This mode was to off fan

response

rigid trace fan of

body the

motion fan

suspension frame) the was pretest

nodding

mode

rotor/fan with

in

operating

speed the fan

range. nodding was

consistent be well of above whirl mounting.

predicted As

the

operating

expected, with the

there highly

no

evidence core rotor

instability,

damped

137

MULTI-FILM

DAMPER SHIM PACK (5 SLEEVES) (0.050 inches) /_(5.412 inches)

6 DAMPER OIL SUPPLY CHECK VALVES 6 DAMPER OIL SUPPLY HOLES 1.6mm (O.063")DIAMETER

RADIAL CLEARANCE = 1.27mm NOMINAL RADIUS = 137.46mm LENGTH = 27.94mm

(l.lO inches)

l
I -PISTON RING END SEALS

CORE ROTOR

LP ROTOR

SHAFT

ENGINE CENTERLINE

NO. 3 BEARING

--SQUIRREL CAGE TYPE CENTERING SPRING k = 52540 kN/m (300,000 Ib/in) NO. 2 BEARING

Figure

57.

Number

Bearing

Soft

Support

and

High

Load

Damper.

138

5.12

WEIGHT The FPS is a 211-cm (120 Ibm/sec) ibf). using kN (83-in) diameter flow. component fan engine with thrust a core was sized for

54.4 162.4

kg/sec kN

corrected Because of

Takeoff

originally and FPS for a has this

(36,500 cycle to

efficiency thrust

improvements for the final

rematched increased engine

those (39,000

components, ibf). XXVI. The

takeoff

175.3

component

weight

breakdown

is detailed

in Table

5.13

COST The estimated provided and are purchase in Table expressed costs costs XXVII. in are 1980 $90.64 for the various are components for the that make up the

FPS

are

These dollars. per

costs

250th

production

engine

Maintenance 1980 dollars.

engine

flight

hour,

also

expressed

in

139

Table

EXVl.

FPS

Weight

Summary.

Fan

& Booster Rotor Frame

Module

k__ 481 622 1,103

ibm 1,061 1,370 2,431

& Stators

Subtotal LPT Module Rotor Stator Frame, Shaft,

Mixer, Cone

& Centerbody

260 257 221 99 837

573 567 488 218 1,846

Subtotal Core Module Compressor Compressor Combustor, HPT Rotor HPT Stator Subtotal Miscellaneous Configurations Lube Hardware Control & Accessories Sumps, Driver, & Seals Rotor Stator Casing

& Diffuser

214 235 137 283 132 1,001

472 518 303 623 290 2,206

123 24 65 320 532 3,473

272 53 143 705 1,173 7,656

Subtotal Basic EnRine Total

Installation Inlet Reverser Cowl, Pylon & Exhaust Engine Buildup Total Installed EnRine Total 162 379 181 270 992 4,465 358 835 400 595 2,188 9,844

140

Table XXVII. Purchase cost,


250th

FPSCost Summary.
engine in 1980 dollars

Bare

Engine Fan Module LPT Module Core Module Miscellaneous $ 559,000 440,000 1,045,000 598,000 2,642,000

Total Installation Inlet Fan Reverse

and

Duct

Core Cowl and Tailpipe Engine Buildup Total Installed Engine

217,000 450,000 122,000 236,000 $1,033,000 $3,675,000

141

6.0

ENGINE/AIRCRAFT

INTEGRATION

In capable the

order of

to

ensure

that on on major

the advanced

FPS

represented aircraft, a

a practical substantial

design effort

fully early Through Douglas, technology in

installation concentrated with the

program

aircraft/engine commercial of

integration aircraft companies current important the

studies. (Boeing, (CF6-50C) part of

subcontracts and were tract Lockheed), performed effort

mission in dealt

evaluations study review of of the E3

E 3 versus An of

advanced with

aircraft. and critique for such aft

the design

subconto

installation on inlet,

establish aircraft. mount cases,

suitability Elements

engine

installation as the were

advanced thrust and,

commercial reverser, in many and effort (DOC)

the

installation and

system, changed

accessory to reflect of the

package, aircraft

cowling input

reviewed

company

regarding important

aerodynamic part operating of the cost

structural dealt benefits with of

design the the

installation. of the in fuel

Another burned and

evaluation FPS

direct

installed

advanced

aircraft.

The An updated

engine/aircraft assessment discussions. of

integration the economic

results payoff

are due

presented to E_ is

in

Reference in

2. the

presented

following

6.1

SENSITIVITY

FACTORS

Each specifications tenance and DOC.

airframe and and

company the

established payoff. were

relationships Changes related to these factors in

between engine in sfc,

changes weight,

in

engine main-

service cost also factors. payoff

cost,

purchase Electric

changes

aircraft

fuel called

burned sensi-

General factors and for or

established These analysis. work was

relationships, were used for

tivity studies The 7.9 set been to of

trade

optimization

economic airframe liter factors current

original 13.2 per

company (30 was fuel to

for

very

low Since

fuel then,

prices, a

in

the

50C/gallon) generated from

range. the

composite and this has

sensitivity to

airframe

data,

adjusted

prices.

The in engine

sensitivity weight and fuel or

factors sfc is

are

for

"rubber in a

aircraft," change in the

meaning aircraft

that

change and

reflected

design

weight,

load.

142

The airframe data were for two-, three-, and four-engine from 926 to 12,038 km (500 to 6,500 nmi), and carrying 196 to Distinctions were madebetween "design" flights and "typical" ever, this distinction was less than the considerable scatter different sources, so no distinction between design and typical madein the updated sensitivity factors.

aircraft, flying 500 seats. flights. Howbetween the flights is

The sensitivity factors are presented in terms of 1980 dollars and are for the FPS size engine. The aircraft fuel burned trades are as follows:
A I% change in sfc yields 1.3% change in fuel burned.

A 340 kg burned.

(750

Ibm)

change

in

weight

yields

1.3%

change

in

fuel

The

DOC

sensitivity

factors

are

presented

in

Table

XXVlII.

6.2

ECONOMIC

EVALUATION
4

Once environmental value measured engine. of

system

has

met

its

basic safety,

operating etc., per in DOC the

requirements bottom line

such measure

as

longevity, of the is

considerations, symtem terms of is an its

the in

productivity

dollar compared

expenditure. to the CF6-50C

The

FPS

improvement

reference

The the sfc has FPS has been

three in their

contributing advanced and fuel with

airframe aircraft. price these has

companies Since then,

evaluated the FPS

the has

early changed The

form

of

slightly, final FPS

improved, reevaluated

increased

substantially.

changes.

The Figure aircraft The typical achieved from 1980 8.6%

economic It is the

analysis presented FPS,

of as

the an

final

FPS

is

presented in DOC for using

in a

Table variety the

XXIX of

and advanced

58.

improvement to is similar to

using E3

compared goal engine, the a

aircraft a 5_

CF6-50C. in DOC and DOC from a

economic

program

achieve as on the all of

reduction The

current by to the

production E 3 FPS

taken goal price

CF6-50C. study

reduction ranges in

exceeds on

aircraft,

16.1%,

based

fuel

$0.396/liter

($1.50/gallon)

dollars.

143

Table

XXVIII.

Direct

Operating

Cost

Sensitivity

Factors.

1980

8's

I; ChoRe In For 181k8 (400#) 6 WeiKht

DOC

I% ASFC

85.95 A Maintenance Flisht Hour

8213,000 & Purchase Cost

For Flyins

80 .13/liter 926 1,232 1,852 3,704 5,556 12,038

(80.48/Gallon km (500 km (665 _ _ _ (1,000 (2,000 (3,000 N Hi) ) ) ) ) ) 0.50 .50 .51 .52 .54 .58 .5O .50 .50 .50 .50 .52 .50 .50 .50 .49 .48 .45 .51 .50 .49 .48 .47 .45

km (6,500

Wor

80 .40/flier 926 1,232 1,852 3,704 5,556 12,038 km km

($1.50/Gallon) (500 (665 N Mi) ) ) ) ) ) .75 .76 .77 .79 .81 .86 .56 .56 .57 .57 .57 .59 .35 .35 .34 .33 .32 .28 .35 .35 .34 .32 .31 .29

Flylns

iua (1,000 _ (2,000

km (3,000 km (6,500

For

80.6611iter 926 1,232 1,852 3,704 5,556 12,038 Im km km km km km

(82.501Gallon) (500 (665 (I,000 (2,000 (3,000 (6,500 N Mi) .88 .89 .90 .92 .94 .99 .60 .60 .60 .61 .61 ,62 .27 .27 .27 .26 .25 .22 .28 .28 .27 .25 .24 .21

Flyin8

144

Table XXIX. DOCImprovements.

E 3 Improvements

in DOC

Over

CF6-50C

$0.396/1 Fuel 1980

($1.50/g) Price in Dollars

$0.661/1 Fuel ' 1980

($2.50/g) Price in Dollars

Boeing,

2 Engines, km km (2,000 ( 665

196 nmi) nmi)

Passengers Design Typical Fli_ht Flight 10.9% 8.6% 13.0% 10.9%

3,704 1,232

Lockheed, 5,556 2,593

3 Engines, km (3,000 km (1,400

500 nmi) nmi)

Passengers Design Flisht Typical Flight

12.0% 10.3%

13.9% 12.3%

Lockheed, 4 Engines, 12,038 km (6,500 5,556 km (3,000

500 Passengers nmi) Design Flight nmi) Typical Flight

18.3% 16.1%

Douglas, 5,556 1,852

3 Engines, km km (3,000 (1,000

458 nmi) nmi)

Passnegers Design Typical Flight Flight 13.1% 11.5% 15.3% 13.8%

145

Flight

Distance,

Nautical

Miles 6000 7000

i000 20

2000

3000

4000

5000

18

16

14

0
O Boeing, Lockheed, Lockheed, [] Douglas, 2 Engines, 3 Engines, 4 Engines, 3 Engines, 196 Pass. Pass Pass. Pass.

500 500 458

6 Goa i

Solid Open

Symbols Symbols

- Typical - Design

Flifht Mission Fligh

$0.396/1

($1.50/gal.)

Fuel

Price,

1980

$'s

0 0 1850 3700 5555 7410 9260 ii, ii0 12,965

Flight E 3 DOC

Distance, Improvements

Kilometers Relative to CF6-50C.

Figure 146

58.

7.0

CONCLUSIONS

The transfer The by the

General into goals

Electric engines of

E 3 FPS today at A

incorporates of the

advanced future.

technology

for

direct

and

established E 3 FPS.

E 3 program of these

inception goals

have versus

been

met

or

exceeded follows.

NASA/GE

summary

achievements

Specific Goal

Fuel To

Consumption reduce evaluated installed at maximum sfc at least 12% relative to that of the

CF6-50C,

cruise.

Achievement

16.9%

reduction.

Performance

Retention

Goal

To

experience of - Goal a

no

more

than

half

of

the

service

performance

deterioration Achievement

CF6-50C. met.

Direct

Operating Goal CF6-50C - To

Cost reduce aircraft aircraft. DOC by at least 5_ from that for similar

powered

Achievement and the

- A flight

8.6_ length.

to

16.2_

lower

DOC,

depending

on

the

aircraft

used

Noise

Goal

- To

comply

with

FAR

36

(March

1978)

noise

standards.

Achievement

- Goal

met

with

margin.

Emissions

Goal January

- To

meet

EPA

proposed

standards

for

engines

certified

after

1981. - Goal met.

Achievement

147

8.0

RECOMMENDATIONS

While transferred additional With of fuel

the to

technology current and

demonstrated future

in

the line of

NASA/GE aircraft readiness

E 3 program engines, for such

is being substantial transfer. worth

product

technology today's year, only

awaits

demonstration airline in the fleet the

commercial an

burning

I0 billion of

dollars fleet's in one

per of

improvement pay a for

fuel

efficiency NASA/GE

this

engines and the

I% would

entire

E 3 program

year,

NASA/GE

E _ achieved returns

16.9% on

improvement. are rare, and it is highly continue recomto

Such mended receive

tremendous such

investment as the

that

technology support

programs in the

NASA/GE

E 3 program

Government

future.

148

9.0

REFERENCES

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R.P.,

et

al.,

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R.F., CR-159584,

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Aircraft/Engine

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Stearns, Preliminary NASA

E.M.,

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R.P., 1976.

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Smith, Flow Core 1977.

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Integration

Study,"

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E.M.,

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Core NASA

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E.M., Design

et and

al., 1983.

"Energy

Efficient Report,"

Engine NASA-Lewis

Integrated Research

Core/Low Center, NASA

Performance

August

149

DISTRIBUTION

LIST

NASA Headquarters 600 Independence Avenue, Washington, DC 20546 Attn: R/R. S. Colladay RJ/C. C. Rosen RP/J. RS/L. NASA Lewis Facey Harris

SW

(2 copies)

Research

Center

21000 Brookpark Road Cleveland, OH 44135 Attn: J. A. Ziemianski C. J. P. G. M. L. J. J. A. H. R J L A R C E. E. E. D. R. C. Ciepluch E. Rohde G. Batterton K. Sievers J. Hartmann J. Kiraly F. Groeneweg C. Williams Strazisar E. Rohlik G. Willoh J. Reinmann J. Bober G. Powers E Coltrin L Ball A Willis J Graber T Meleason A Sagerser D Hager

MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS

86-1 100-3 86-7 86-7 86-7 3-7 23-2 86-7 500-211 5-9 86-7 77-9 86-7 86-7 86-4 86-7 5-9 500-212 86-7 86-7 86-7

Library Report Control Office Tech. Utilization Office J. R. Mihaloew L. Reid AFSC Liaison Office Army NASA Ames R&T Propulsion Center Lab

MS 86-7 (I0 copies) MS 60-3 (2 copies) MS 60-1 MS 7-3 MS 77-8 MS 5-9 MS 501-3 MS 302-2

Research

Moffett Attn:

Field, CA 94035 M. H. Waters 202-7

151

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NOT

FILMED

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LIST

(Continued)

NASA Langley Research Center Langley Field, VA 23365 Attn: R. Leonard D. Maiden L. J. Williams NASA Scientific P. O. Box 8757 B. W. Attn: I. Airport, Accession and Technical Information Facility

HD 21240 Dept. (20

copies) Center

NASA Dryden Flight Research P. O. Box 273 Edwards, CA 93523 Attn: J. A. Albers Department of Defense Washington, DC 20301 Attn: R. Standahar 3DI089 Wright-Patterson Air Force Dayton, OH 45433 Attn: APL Chief Scientist E. E. Abell H. I. Bush R. P. Carmichael R. Ellis W. H. Austin, Jr. Eustis Directorate

Pentagon Base AFWAL/PS ASD/YZE AFWAL/POT ASD/XRHI ASD/YZN ASD/ENF

U. S. Army Air Mobility R&D Laboratory Fort Eustis, VA 23604 Attn: J. Lane, SAVDL-EU-Tapp Navy Department Naval Air Systems Command Washington, DC 20361 Attn: W. Koven AIR-03E J. L. Byers E. A. Lichtman G. Derderian Naval Air Propulsion Trenton, NJ 08628 Attn: J. J. Curry A. A. Martino Test AIR-53602 AIR-330E AIR-5362C Center

152

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LIST

(Continued)

U. S. Naval Code SY-53

Air

Test

Center 20670

Patuxent River, MD Attn: E. A. Lynch

USAVRAD Con_nand P. O. Box 209 St. Louis, MO 63166 Attn: Robert M. Titus Department of Transportation NASA/DOT Joint Office of Noise Abatement Washington, DC 20590 Attn: C. Foster Federal Aviation Noise Abatement Administration Division

Washington, DC 20590 Attn: E. Sellman AEE-120

Engine

Manufacturers

Curtiss Wright Corporation Woodridge, NJ 07075 Attn: S. Lombardo S. Moskowitz Cummins Engine Company Technical Center 500 S. Poplar Columbus, IN 47201 Attn: J. R. Drake Detroit P. Diesel Allison Division

of General Motors O. Box 894

Corporation

Indianapolis, IN 46206 Attn: W. L. Mclntire AVCO Lycoming 550 S. Main Street Stratford, Attn: H. CT 06497 Moellmann

153

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LIST

(Continued)

Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors Corporation 333 West First Street Dayton, OH 45402 Attn: F. H. Waiters AiResearch III South P. O. Box Manufacturing 34th Street 5217 85010 Corrigan Company

Phoenix, AZ Attn: C. E.

(93-120/503-4F)

The Garrett Corporation AiResearch Manufacturing Torrance, CA 90509 Attn: F. E. Faulkner Williams Research Company 2280 West Maple Road Walled Lake, MI 48088 Attn: R. VanNimwegen R. Horn The Garrett Corporation AiResearch Manufacturing 402 S. 36th Street Phoenix, AZ 85034 Attn: Library Teledyne CAE, Turbine 1330 Laskey Road Toledo, OH 43612 Attn: R. H. Gaylord

Company

Company

Engines

General Electric Company/AEBG One Neumann Way Evendale, OH 45215 Attn: K. W. Schuning (3 copies) T. F. Donohue General Electric Company/AEBG I000 Western Avenue Lynn, Attn: MA R. 01910 E. Neitzel

MI) H-42 MI) H-44

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(Continued)

Pratt P. O.

&

Whitney Division 2691 Beach, FL A. Jones 33402 MS 713-11

Engineering Bos Palm B.

West Attn:

Pratt 400 East Attn:

& Whitney Division Street CT 06108 (3 copies) MS MS 162-13 162-31 Main

Engineering Hartford, W. I.

Gardner Mendelson

Airframe

Manufacturers

Boeing P. O. Seattle, Attn:

Commercial Box 3707 P. D. WA E. C.

Airplane

Company

98124 Johnson Nordstrom

MS MS

9H-46 73-01

Boeing P. O. Seattle, Attn:

Aerospace Box 3999 D. H. WA S.

Company

98124 Miller

MS

40-26

Higgins

The Attn:

Boeing KS D.

Company, 67210 Tarkelson

Wichita

Division

Wichita,

Gates P. O. Wichita, Attn:

Leafier Corporation Box 7707 E. KS 67277 Schiller

Douglas

Aircraft

Company

McDonnell Douglas Corporation 3855 Lakewood Boulevard Long Attn: Beach, R. M. T. CA 90846 Code 36-41

Kawai

Klotzsche

Douglas

Aircraft Douglas 516 MO C.

Company Corporation 63166

McDonnell P. O. Box St. Attn: Louis, F.

Claser

Dept.

243

155

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(Continued)

Lockheed California Burbank, CA 91502 Attn: J. F. Stroud R. Tullis

Company Dept. Dept. 75-42 75-21

Lockheed Georgia Company Marietta, GA 30060 Attn: H. S. Sweet General Dynamics P. O. Box 80847 San Diego, Attn: S. Convair

CA 92138 Campbell

MZ 632-00

Grumman Aerospace Corporation South Oyster Bay Road Bethpage, NY 11714 Attn: C. Hoeltzer Rockwell International

International Airport Los Angeles Division Los Angeles, CA 90009 Attn: A. W. Martin

Airlines American Airlines Center

Maintenance & Engineering Tulsa, OK 74151 Attn: W. R. Neeley Delta Airlines, Hartsfield-Atlanta Inc.

International Airport Atlanta, GA 30320 Attn: C. C. Davis Eastern Airlines International Airport Miami, FL 33148 Attn: A. E. Fishbein Transworld 605 Third Airlines Avenue 10016 Carrol

New York, NY Attn: A. E.

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(Continued)

Pan JFK Attn:

American

World

Airways, Airport

Inc.

International NY A. 11430 MacLarty

Jamaica,

United San

Airlines International Operations CA 94128 Overton Center Airport

Francisco

Maintenance San Francisco, Attn: J. J.

Others

Hamilton Bradley Windsor Attn:

Standard Field Locks, P. J. CT Dumais 06096 MS IA-3-1

Westinghouse P. O. Box Beulah Road

Electric 5837

Corporation

Pittsburgh, Attn: Fluidyne 5900 Olson Library

PA

15236

Engineering Memorial S.

Corporation Highway

Minneapolis, Attn: J.

MN 55422 Holdhusen

University Institute Tullahoma, Attn: Dr.

of TN V.

Tennessee 37388 Smith

Space

Rohr Corporation P. O. Box 878 Foot Chula Attn: & H Street CA 92012

Vista, Library

TRW TRW, 23555

Equipment Inc. Euclid OH Toth

Group Avenue 44117

Cleveland, Attn: I.

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Solar Division International

Harvester

2200 Pacific Highway San Diego, CA 92112 Attn: Library Aerospace Corporation R&D Center Los Angeles, CA Attn: Library 90045

Gas Dynamics Laboratories Aerospace Engineering Building University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 Attn: Dr. C. W. Kaufmann Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Astronautics & Aeronautics Cambridge, MA 02139 Attn: Library Brunswick Corporation 2000 Brunswick Lane Deland, Attn: FL 32720 A. Erickson Institute Structural 02139 of Technology Mechanics

Massachusetts Department of Cambridge, MA Attn: J. Mar A.

Epstein

Drexel University College of Engineering Philadelphia, PA 19104 Attn: A. M. Mellor Penn State Department 233 Hammond University Attn: Dr. University of Aerospace Engineering Building Park, PA 16802 B. Lakshminarayana

158