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CMU Academic year: 2010-2011

HU 127Human Communication Lecturer: NORNG SOKHA

TAKE-HOME QUIZ 2 CHAPTER 2


I. Key Terms Match each word or phrase with its definition on the right.
1. Behavior attribution 2. Charisma 3. Empathy 4. Expressiveness 5. Selective attention 6. Perceptual filters 7. Pygmalion effect 8. Self-concept 9. Self-esteem 10. Stereotype A. ones relatively stable impressions of oneself B. a generalization about a class of people, objects, or events that is widely held by a given culture. C. seeing ones own behavior as a response to the demands of a situation but the same behavior in others as generated by their dispositions. D. personal magnetism that enables an individual to attract and influence people. E. refers to your feelings of self-worth. F. involves experiencing the other perception; that is, seeing and feeling things as the other does. G. a dimension of nonverbal communication that influences our first impressions, has been linked with animation, dynamism, expansiveness, and intensity of both nonverbal and verbal behavior. H. the receiver process certain of the available stimuli while filtering out others. I. psychological limitations that are built into human beings and cannot be reversed. J. a self-fulfilling prophecy in which one persons expectation of another persons behavior can quite unwittingly become a more accurate prediction for its having been made.

II. Multiple Choices Chose the best answer among each of the following alternatives.
1. ____________ refers to how we form impressions of people, what kinds of information we use in arriving at those impressions, how accurate our impressions are, and what biases affect our impressions. A) social cognition B) person perception C) schematic processing D) impression management 2. An example of what Soloman Asch referred to as a central trait is: A) the activity/potency dimension. B) the positivity/negativity dimension. C) the internal/external dimension. D) the warm/cold dimension. 3. The two major types of context effects in social judgments are: A) covariation and discounting. B) assimilation and contrast. C) the averaging principle and the additive principle. D) positivity bias and negativity effect. 4. We often judge other traits (that we dont know about) to be consistent with traits weve already perceived. This is known as ____________. A) the averaging principle
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CMU Academic year: 2010-2011

HU 127Human Communication Lecturer: NORNG SOKHA

B) the halo effect C) the positivity bias D) the covariation principle 5. Someone tells you that Guido is intelligent, outgoing, vivacious, argumentative, persistent, friendly, thoughtful, and loyal. Before you meet Guido for the first time at next weeks ice cream social, youve already formed a poor opinion of him. This is most likely due to: A) the positivity bias B) the negativity effect C) the halo effect D) the averaging principle 6. A role schema refers to: A) an abstract ideal of a schema that we hold B) organized, abstract concepts we have about people in a particular social role C) cognitive structures we have about a particular person D) information that we hold about a particular group 7. After getting the last five questions wrong on this test, you conclude that it simply must be "a bad test," and that you are certain of your superior intellectual abilities and knowledge of the material. Although this may be true, this may also illustrate which of the following? A) the self-serving bias B) the false consensus effect C) the fundamental attribution error D) the actor-observer effect 8. Harold Kelleys covariation model of attribution holds that the causes of a behavior can be attributed to: A) consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness. B) the stimulus object, the person, or the context C) freely chosen behavior or situationally constrained behavior. D) covariation and discounting. 9. Pitch, loudness, rhythm, and inflection are all elements of which nonverbal communication channel? A) verbal channel B) gestures C) facial expressions D) paralanguage 10. Nonverbal leakage refers to: A) communication by channels that give the communicator lots of feedback. B) communication by channels that are difficult to consciously control. C) communication by paralanguage, hand gestures, or interpersonal distance. D) communication by channels that are easily controlled by an individual. 11. Our complete awareness of the world comes to us through our A) psychological sets. B) filters. C) senses. D) eyes and ears. 12. Selective attention is important because A) it is impossible for us to attend to all the sensory stimuli which we encounter. B) we are not predisposed to respond to those stimuli which interest us. C) we need a balance between perceptual filters and psychological sets. 13. Which statement does not describe a perceptual filter? A) It is determined by our expectancies and predispositions. B) It is incapable of being altered since it is a physiological aspect of our perception. C) It may vary considerably from one person to the next. D) It functions independently of the object or person we are perceiving. 14. Past experience and culture are powerful determinants of
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CMU Academic year: 2010-2011

HU 127Human Communication Lecturer: NORNG SOKHA

A) selective attention. B) perceptual filters. C) psychological sets. 15. In comparing person perception with object perception, which statement is true? A) Both of these are transactional. B) Person perception is more likely to change during a communication. C) The context is more important for object perception. D) The context can be superfluous for person perception. 16. The term "looking-glass self" refers to the notion that A) physical appearance accounts for about 90% of the basis of a person's self concept. B) our setting or situation which is reflected along with our image is a major component in our self concept. C) feedback from those around us is an important component in the development of our self-concept. D) all of these are part of the concept of the "looking-glass self." 17. Which description of self-esteem is false? A) It is a chief measure of self-concept. B) It is a consistently accurate predictor of success and high achievement. C) It is often conveyed through parents' expectations of and beliefs about their children. D) High self-esteem can have negative social consequences. 18. Which statement about shyness is false? A) It usually can't be modified, even with online success in interpersonal interaction. B) It often correlates with low self-esteem. C) It is often accompanied by physical symptoms. D) Some people have a genetic predisposition towards shyness. 19. We tend to interpret our behavior as a response to a given situation, while we interpret others' behavior as part of their general nature. This may be because A) we process data about ourselves and other differently. B) we do not observe ourselves in the same way that another would observe us. C) we have more complete information about ourselves and can understand our situation better. D) all of these explanations are correct. 20. In forming a first impression of someone A) an initial impression can be easily modified by later input. B) certain traits seem to be more influential than others in forming impressions. C) traits are initially organized into a meaningful overall impression, but they are later revised as more input occurs. D) all of the above are part of the process of forming a first impression. 21. Physical attractiveness A) may be a liability for women who aspire to managerial and executive positions. B) seems to be of greater concern to women than to men. C) is not represented in the media, especially in advertisements, with the same range of diversity that exists in real life. D) is described by all of the above. 22. Which statement about stereotypes is false? A) There is generally a kernel of truth behind them when they are applied to a group. B) They are harmful when they influence the way we process information. C) The mass media has been particularly successful in overcoming these generalizations. D) They promote the perception of people as belonging to groups rather than as unique individuals. 23. According to the text's discussion of marital roles, the relationship in which both spouses engage in so-called masculine and feminine behaviors is termed A) the traditional marriage relationship.
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CMU Academic year: 2010-2011

HU 127Human Communication Lecturer: NORNG SOKHA

B) the reluctant wife marriage relationship. C) the reluctant husband marriage relationship. D) the androgynous marriage relationship. 24. The typical teacher seems to describe the model student as A) one who thinks critically and challenges authority. B) one who is compliant. C) one who accepts the power difference between student and teacher. 25. Which perceiver trait is least helpful in making accurate judgments of others? A) authoritarianism - the person feels confident about his/her judgments. B) ability to draw inferences - the perceiver is able to understand the behavior of others. C) highly objective - the perceiver's openness to his/her own weaknesses is an asset. D) empathy - able to judge non-verbal messages. 26. A psychological set is determined to a great extent by our past experience. A) True B) False 27. In a telephone conversation, a person answers "fine" when the other person has not asked, "How are you?". This is an example of a perceptual filter. A) True B) False 28. The way stimuli are perceived, organized, and interpreted varies from one individual to another. A) True B) False 29. Females tend to place more importance on feedback from others than males. A) True B) False 30. The Pygmalion effect refers to a self-fulfilling prophecy where another person's expectations and treatment can modify a person's behavior and self-concept. A) True B) False

III. Essay Questions 1. Distinguish between a perceptual filter and a psychological set.
2. Discuss how important influences on self-esteem. 3. What is Pygmalion effect? 4. Explain the theory Looking glass self. 5. How do personal generalization and stereotype differ? 6. Explain the concept of central traits and its significance for person perception. 7. Explain how expressiveness and charisma affect person perception. 8. Discuss four perceiver characteristics associated with accurate perception of others. 9. What are two ways in which person perception and communication effectiveness can be

improved?
10. Explain the concept of empathy and its significance for accurate person perception.

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