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Chords

Names and Symbols

for

Teachers/Advanced Students Harmony

by

Rowy
composer.rowy.net

Chords
Foreword
--This paper is a condensed translation of the original paper in Dutch. English is not my native language. I apologize for any mistakes in my English. --Chords was written in Dutch for Dutch teachers and advanced students of harmony and composition. It is based on classical Dutch/German (North-West European) harmony, but if you're curious about the modern notation of chords, as used in jazz and popular music, you will not be disappointed. In modern notation, a chord symbol is made as simple as possible. All it does, is tell you which notes to play. In classical harmony however, a chord is named after its position and function within a mode (key). Harmony symbols don't tell you where to put your fingers on the guitar or piano. If you studied classical harmony, you might want to use this paper to learn and understand the modern notation of chords. Chords is not a course in classical harmony. If you're really interested in harmony, I suggest you study the excellent Harmony & Voice Leading by Aldwell & Schachter. Some symbols and musical terms might seem a bit strange to you, especially if you're not from NorthWest Europe, but remember, this is merely a translation. I hope you will find Chords to be very useful. 2011 Rowy

Chords
Abbreviations
These abbreviations are being used in Chords: 1/9 add. aeol. alt. aug. dim. dm dom. Gr. Fr. harm. hf. hd. It. maj. md min. N (or n) no inc. Pic. 3rd sus number of a tone in the diatonic scale or the symbol of an interval (3 = third). added, for instance add4, a fourth added to the chord. Aeolian, natural minor scale, sometimes written as eolian. altered, a raised or lowered tone that, as a result, no longer belongs to the main key. augmented, a major or perfect interval raised by a half tone. diminished, a minor or perfect interval lowered by a half tone. Dur-Moll (durmoll), German, 6th tone in a minor scale raised by a half tone. dominant, standard chord on the fifth tone of the diatonic scale. German sixth, augmented 6th chord, first inversion of the double diminished 7th chord. French sixth, augmented 6th chord, second inversion of the hard diminished 7th chord. harmonic, usually the harmonic minor scale. half. hard. Italian sixth, augmented 6th chord, first inversion of the double diminished 6th chord. major. Moll-Dur (molldur), German, 6th tone in a major scale lowered by a half tone. minor. Neapolitan, lowered 2nd tone in a diatonic scale. as in no5, the 5th of the chord is missing. incomplete, a chord missing one or more tones. C7no5 is an incomplete chord. Picardy third. Major third on the tonic of a minor scale at the end of a musical section. suspended, a 2nd or a 4th (temporarily) replaces the 3rd of (or is added to) a chord.

Special symbols, as used in the modern notation of chords:

augmented chord, C diminished chord, B half diminished chord, F

Chords
You may use Chords for non-commercial purposes. Download, or have your pupil download, the latest version from composer.rowy.net. This is Version 4 - 2013.

The system
There are 15 numbered sheets with examples. The measures are numbered per sheet. In some of the measures you will find two chords instead of one. The second chord is exactly the same as the first one. It is being used to make room for an alternative name or code. Below the staffs there are 4 lines: Line a: Line b: Line c: Line d: Harmonic (classical) analysis of the chord in Roman numerals. The origin of the alteration (Neapolitan, Moll-Dur). Popular (modern) notation of the chord, as used in popular music and jazz. Type of chord (dominant, diminished).

Chords are numbered like this: [1 Number of the sheet. -1 Number of the measure on that sheet. a] Line a, b, c or d. Examples: [1-1a] = sheet 1, measure 1, line a. [6-7d] = sheet 6, measure 7, line d.

Classical Symbols
- line a and b All non-altered chords are printed in bold. On sheet number 1 you'll find the alterations that are common in classical harmony: a lowered 2 (Neapolitan) in minor and major, a raised 2 in major, a raised 4 in minor and major, a lowered 6 in major (Moll-Dur) and a raised 6 in minor (Dur-Moll). A lowered 7 is also quite common, usually as part of a dominant seventh chord, but in classical harmony most dominant chords are secondary dominants and the 7 is not an altered tone. Use either the code in line a or the code in line b. md (Moll-Dur) and dm (Dur-Moll) in line b are typical of North-West Europe, but n (Neapolitan) is generally known. There are several ways to describe a Neapolitan chord, as you can see in [2-2a+b] and [11-11a+b]. Because the use of the Moll-Dur and the Dur-Moll tone leads to a minor instead of a major and a major instead of a minor chord, these chords are also known (mostly in the USA) as borrowed chords. In North-West European classical harmony however, we do not use the term 'borrowed chords'. The symbols n, md or dm are not being used if there's a second alteration within the chord. In [3-18b] the chord is called II Moll-Dur because of the lowered 6 in A flat, but in [3-19b] the fourth is altered too, which makes it into a plain 'altered' chord and not a 'Moll-Dur' chord. Nevertheless, if the root of the chord is being altered, the symbols n, md and dm still apply [4-12b], [6-14b], [14-9b]. Symbols that mark accidentals in the staff must also appear in line a [2-4a], [3-11a]. A symbol without a number always applies to the third (3) [2-10a], [3-12a]. If the root of the chord has been altered, the corresponding symbol has to be placed before the Roman numeral [3-6a], [3-13a]. If the lowest tone of an inversion is an altered tone [11-6a], [11-20a], the symbol that marks the accidental can't be used in line a. To avoid misunderstandings some teachers prefer to describe the type of the chord, for example [11-6a] (dim. is diminished) or [12-7a] (hf. dim. is half diminished). It is obvious that symbols like n, md and md in line b are to be preferred in cases like the above, since they refer to the origin of the alteration [11-6b], [11-12b]. When the chord is inverted and the lowest tone is an altered tone, you still have to use the symbol for the altered root of the chord [12-10a], unless the root is an n, md or dm tone [11-12b], [11-24b]. Terms like aeol. (aeolian minor) [4-19b] and harm. (harmonic minor) [4-20b] in line b are optional. Since harmonic minor - a raised 7 by a half tone - is the standard in classical harmony, there's no real need for a natural in [4-8a], [4-14a], [4-20a] or a sharp in [9-17a]. On sheet number 13 you'll find a collection of sus (suspended) chords. Because in classical harmony a suspended chord and the original chord are harmonically the same, only one symbol is being used in line a. The anticipations however are part of two different chords, hence two symbols. On sheet number 14 there are some examples of chords that are being interpreted in several ways thanks to enharmonisation and interpretation. 16 diminished seventh chords, starting in measure 7, sound exactly the same if you play them, but enharmonically they are all different. The exercises on sheet number 15 are an example of harmonic analysis in North-West European style in line 1 and 2, and popular (modern) symbolization in line 3.

Popular (modern) Symbols


- line c In the popular notation of chords the symbols are kept as simple as possible. Use enharmonisation if you think it will make a chord easier to play [2-7c], [3-16c], for instance on a guitar. A major chord is being symbolised by a capital. A stands for A major chord, C is the C major chord [2-1c]. A lower case m next to the capital means that the chord is a minor chord. Am is the A minor chord, Cm stands for C minor chord [4-1c]. A small circle is the symbol for a diminished chord [2-4c]. If a diagonal line is going through the circle, the chord is half diminished [6-4c]. A half diminished chord can also be symbolised by a 7 followed by a lowered 5. An augmented chord gets a small + next to the chord [2-15c]. A minor 7 in a seventh chord is standard in modern notation [6-15c] thanks to the frequent use of dominant seventh chords. Add maj to the symbol in case the 7 is a major seventh [6-1c], [6-2c]. Always use a flat to indicate a lowered tone and a sharp for a raised tone. In popular notation a double sharp, a double flat or a natural is not a legit symbol [3-14c], [3-16c]. Some musicians use + instead of a sharp and - instead of a flat, but in North-West Europe we prefer to use a sharp or a flat. The usual sequence of symbols is: 1. the chord in upper case, 2. a small m (in case of a minor chord) or the symbol for a diminished [2-4c], half diminished [6-4c] or augmented chord [6-18c], 3. maj and a 7 for a major 7 [6-19c] or a 9 for a major 9 [10-8c], 4. sus4 or sus2 [13-8c], 5. altered tones [10-18c], 6. no and/or add [15-16c], 7. a slash followed by a note in upper case, if the chord is inverted [12-11c]. An added major sixth to a major or minor chord is symbolised by a 6 next to the chord [12-6c]. However, as you can see, this chord can be analysed as the first inversion of a seventh chord. There are no real standards for the symbolization of ninth chords, except for the major, the minor and the dominant ninth chord (sheet number 10). If the 9th tone is a minor or an augmented 9, it can be seen as a 7th chord with an added 9 [10-2c], [10-10c]. A slash and a capital for the tone after all the other chord symbols is the correct way to indicate an inversion (sheet number 11 and 12). Inversions of ninth chords are very rare. A sus (suspended) chord always represents a sus4 chord, unless sus is followed by a 2 [13-1c]. To avoid misunderstandings one should always use the 4 to indicate a standard sus chord [13-3c]. An added tone is a tone that doesn't belong to the chord according to the popular notation, but in classical harmony there usually is some kind of a connection, like in [13-15c] where the F is an anticipation. Popular symbols tell you which notes to play, not where they derive from. It is not necessary to use no if a chord is incomplete [13-3c]. However, a power chord (not really a chord) can be symbolised with no3, for example Cno3, instead of C5. Sheet 14 shows you how important enharmonisation can be, if you want to keep the notation of chords simple. Although the diminished chords, starting in measure 7, are all different in classical harmony, they do sound the same. That's why we only need one symbolisation (or an alternative) in [14-7c].

Chord Types
- line d The chord type is an exact description of how a chord is built. A chord is made by piling up thirds. In classical harmony we use only 3 kinds of thirds: major 3, minor 3 and diminished 3. To explain the types of chords in this paper, we use mj for a major, mn for a minor and dm for a diminished 3. A triad - starting at sheet number 2 - consists of 2 thirds (lower third first): major minor diminished hard diminished double diminished augmented mj - mn mn - mj mn - mn mj - dm dm - mj mj - mj [2-1d] [2-3d] [2-4d] [2-5d] [2-6d] [2-16d]

A tetrad (usually a seventh chord) - starting at sheet number 6 - consists of 3 thirds: major 7 minor 7 minor major 7 diminished 7 half dim. 7 hard dim. 7 double dim. 7 augmented 7 dominant 7 aug. dominant 7 mj - mn - mj mn - mj - mn mn - mj - mj mn - mn - mn mn - mn - mj mj - dm - mj dm - mj - mn mj - mj - mn mj - mn - mn mj - mj - dm [6-1d] [6-3d] [6-9d] [6-7d] [6-4d] [6-5d] [6-6d] [6-19d] [6-15d] [6-18d]

A pentad (usually a ninth chord) - sheet number 10 - consists of 4 thirds: major 9 minor 9 minor major 9 half diminished 9 hard diminished 9 augmented 9 dominant 9 augmented dom. 9 mj - mn - mj - mn mn - mj - mn - mj mn - mj - mj - mn mn - mn - mj - mj mj - dm - mj - mj mj - mj - mn - mn mj - mn - mn - mj mj - mj - dm - mj [10-1d] [10-3d] [10-5d] [10-21d] [10-9d] [10-8d] [10-6d] [10-7d]

If the 9 is a minor or an augmented 9, the chord is called a seventh chord with an added 9. To make things even more complicated, some teachers prefer to loose the 7 in the description of these chords: major 7 minor 9 minor major 7 minor 9 major 7 augmented 9 diminished 7 minor 9 half diminished 7 minor 9 hard diminished 7 minor 9 double diminished 7 minor 9 dominant 7 minor 9 major minor 9 minor major minor 9 major augmented 9 diminished minor 9 half diminished minor 9 hard diminished minor 9 double diminished minor 9 dominant minor 9 - The End mj - mn - mj - dm mn - mj - mj - dm mj - mn - mj - mj mn - mn - mn - mj mn - mn - mj - mn mj - dm - mj - mn dm - mj - mn - mj mj - mn - mn - mn [10-2d] [10-4d] [10-10d] [10-12d] [10-11d] [10-22d] [10-18d] [10-20d]

-1-

Alterations
Major and Minor
C major scale

&w
1

w
2

w
3

w
4

w
5

w
6

w
7

Alterations of the major scale

lowered 2, usually + perfect 5th Neapolitan

& bw

bw

bw

#w

raised 2

#w

raised 4

lowered 6, usually + perfect 5th combination Moll-Dur

bw

bbw w

w #bw

C minor scale

b &bb

w
1

w
2

w
3

w
4

w
5

w
6

7 aeolian

nw

7 harmonic

Alterations of the minor scale

b b & b

bw

lowered 2 Neapolitan

nw

raised 3 Pic. 3rd

#w

raised 4

raised 6, usually + perfect 5th Dur-Moll

nw

nw

nw

n#w w

nw

combination

2011 Rowy

-2-

Chords
Triads in Major

a. b. c. d.

&w w w

CI C
maj.

bb

II II n D

II II Dm
min.

w w w

bw w w

maj.

II II md D
dim.

w #bw w

II D 5
hd.dim.

w #w w

II E 3
db.dim.

w ##w w

II E
dim.

&w w w

III Em
min.

w w w
F

IV
maj.

bw w w

10

IV IV md Fm
min.

w #w w

11

IV F
dim.

w #bw w

12

IV md IV F 3

w w w

13

V G
maj.

bw w w

14

db.dim.

V Vn G 5

hd.dim.

#w & w w

15

V G
aug.

w bw w

16

VI VI md A
aug.

w bbw w

17

VI VI md A
maj.

w w w

18

VI Am
min.

w w w

19

VII B
dim.

bw w w

20

VII VII n B 3

#w w w

21

VII B 5
hd.dim.

db.dim.

2011 Rowy

-3-

Chords
Triads in Major

a. b. c. d.

&w w w

CI C
maj.

bb

II II n D

II II Dm
min.

w w w

bw w w

maj.

II II md D
dim.

w #bw w

II D 5
hd.dim.

w #w w

II E 3
db.dim.

w ##w w

II E
dim.

a. b. c. d.

&

####

w w w
E

EI
maj.

n n

II II
II F
n

w w w

10

II Fm
min.

nw w w

11

maj.

II II md F
dim.

w #nw w

12

II F 5
hd.dim.

w w w

13

II
G 3
db.dim.

w #w w

14

II

dim.

a. b. c. d.

bb w w &bb w

15

AI A
maj.

16

II II II II n A Bm
maj. min.

w w w

17

bw w w

18

II II md B
dim.

w nbw w

19

II B 5
hd.dim.

w nw w

20

II B 3
db.dim.

w nnw w

21

II
B
dim.

2011 Rowy

-4-

Chords
Triads in Minor

a. b. c. d.

b &bb w w w

cI Cm
min.

nw w w

I Pic. 3rd I C
maj.

w bw w

II n II D

w w w

II D
dim.

nw w w

maj.

II dm II Dm
min.

#w w w

II D
hd.dim.

w w w

III aeol. III E


maj.

b & b b n

III III IV harm. III E Fm


aug.

w w w

nw w w

10

min.

IV dm IV F
maj.

w #w w

11

IV F 3
db.dim.

w #nw w

12

IV dm IV F
dim.

w w w

13

V aeol. V Gm
min.

14

V V harm. V G
maj.

b b &bb n

15

V n V G

V VI A
maj.

w w w

16

w nw w

17

hd.dim.

VI dm VI A
dim.

w nnw w

18

VI dm VI Am
min.

w w w

19

VII VII VII aeol. harm. VII VII B B


maj. dim.

n
20

nb

21

VII VII n VII B 3


db.dim.

2011 Rowy

-5-

Chords
Triads in Minor

a. b. c. d.

b &bb w w w

cI Cm
min.

nw w w

I Pic. 3rd I C
maj.

w bw w

II n II D

w w w

II D
dim.

nw w w

maj.

II dm II Dm
min.

#w w w

II D
hd.dim.

w w w

III aeol. III E


maj.

a. b. c. d.

w w &w

aI Am
min.

#w w w

I Pic. 3rd I A
maj.

w bw w

10

II n II B

w w w

11

II B
dim.

#w w w

12

maj.

II dm II Bm
min.

#w w w

13

II B
hd.dim.

w w w

14

III aeol. III C


maj.

a. b. c. d.

### w & w w

15

f I
min.

#w w w

16

Fm

I Pic. 3rd I F
maj.

w nw w

17

II n II G

w w w

18

II G
dim.

#w w w

19

maj.

II dm II Gm
min.

#w w w

20

II A
hd.dim.

w w w

21

III aeol. III A


maj.

2011 Rowy

-6-

Chords
Tetrads in Major

a.

&

w w w w

b. c. d.

CI C maj7
maj.7

b b

II II II 7n D maj7
maj.7

w w w w

II Dm7
min.7

II

II 7md Dm75 D
hf.dim.7
9

w w #bw w

II

w w #w w

II E
73

D 75

hd.dim.7

db.dim.7

w & ##w w w

II E
7

w w w w

III Em7
dim.7

#w w w w

III Em
maj7

w w w w

10

IV F maj7
maj.7

w bw w w

11

IV

bw bw w w

12

dim.7

min.maj.7
14

IV 7md Fm maj7

IV

min.maj.7

IV 7md Fm7
min.7

& #

13

IV
hf.dim.7

bw w b# w w

IV IV F73

w w w w

15

7md

V G7
dom.7
22

#w w w w

16

V G maj7
maj.7
23

w bw w w

17

V
7n

w #w w w

18

Fm75 F
20 w w w & bw

db.dim.7

V G 75

V G
7

w ##w w w

19

V G
maj7

hd.dim.7
24 bw w w w

aug.dom.7
25 w b w bw w

aug.7

VI

21 w bw bw w

VI 7md A maj7
aug.7

VI
maj.7

w w w w

VI 7md A maj7

VI Am7
min.7

VII Bm75
hf.dim.7


B 7

VII
dim.7

VII 7md B 7

VII VII 7n B 73
db.dim.7

26 w w #w w

VII B75
hd.dim.7

2011 Rowy

-7-

Chords
Tetrads in Major

a.

&

w w w w

b. c. d.

CI C maj7
maj.7

w b w bw w

II

w w w w

II 7n D maj7
maj.7
7

II Dm
7

II

min.7

II 7md Dm75

w w #bw w

II

w w #w w

II E
73

hf.dim.7
9

D 75

hd.dim.7

db.dim.7

w & ##w w w

II E
7

w w w w

III Em7
min.7
13

#w w w w

III Em maj7
min.maj.7

w w w w

10

IV F maj7
maj.7

w bw w w

11

IV

bw bw w w

12

dim.7

IV 7md Fm maj7

IV

min.maj.7

IV 7md Fm7
min.7

a.

### w w w & w

b. c. d.

AI A
maj7

w n w bw w

14

II

w w w w

15

maj.7
19

II 7n B maj7
maj.7

II Bm7
min.7

16

II


B 7

w w #nw w

17

II 7md Bm75

II

w w #w w

18

II
73

hf.dim.7
21

B75

hd.dim.7

db.dim.7

### # # w w w w &

II
7

w w w w

20

III Cm7
min.7

#w w w w

III Cm
maj7

w w w w

22

IV D maj7
maj.7

w nw w w

23

IV

nw nw w w

24

dim.7

min.maj.7

IV 7md Dm maj7

IV

min.maj.7

IV 7md Dm7
min.7

2011 Rowy

-8-

Chords
Tetrads in Minor

b. c. d.

a.

b &bb w w w w

cI

nw w w w

cI 7aeol. Cm
min.7

w w bw w

I 7harm. Cm maj7

II

min.maj.7

II 7n D maj7
maj.7
10

II Dm75
hf.dim.7

w nw w w

II 7dm Dm Dm
min.7
13

II

w #w w w

II D75
hd.dim.7

w w w w

III maj7 E
maj.7
15

III

7aeol.

b &bb

w nw w w

III maj7 E
aug.7

III

bw w w w

7harm.

III III E
7n

w nbw w w

dom.7

aug.dom.7 min.7

III 7n III E

w w w w

11

IV Fm

w nw w w

12

IV IV F

w nnw w w

7dm

IV

w w #w w

14

dom.7

IV F maj7
maj.7

7dm

IV F 73
db.dim.7

w w #nw w

IV F
dim.7
23 w w w w

b n & b b n#

16

V 75 Fm Fm Gm
hf.dim.7
24

IV

w w w w

17

18

7aeol.

min.7

V 7harm. G
dom.7

V V Gm maj7

#w w w w

19

#w nw w w

20

V G
maj7

21

min.maj.7 maj.7

V V 7n 7n V V 75 Gm Gm G 75
hf.dim.7

w w nbw w

22

VI A
maj7

hd.dim.7 maj.7
30 w w nbw w

bb n b &

VI

25 w w nnw w

VI 7dm VI 7dm Am75 Am Am


hf.dim.7 min.7

VI

26 w w w w

dom.7

VII 7aeol. VII 7harm. B B


dim.7

VII

27

VII VII VII


maj.7

28 nw w w w

n n

29

VII 7dm Bmaj7

VII

VII 7dm VII 7n Bm75 Bm B73


hf.dim.7

VII

db.dim.7

2011 Rowy

-9-

Chords
Tetrads in Minor

b. c. d.

a.

b &bb

w w w w

cI

nw w w w

cI 7aeol. Cm
min.7
8

w w bw w

I 7harm. Cm maj7

II

min.maj.7

II 7n D maj7
maj.7
10

II
hf.dim.7

w nw w w

II

w #w w w

Dm75 Dm

II 7dm Dm
min.7

II D75
hd.dim.7

w w w w

III

III maj7 E
maj.7

7aeol.

b nw b & b w w w

III III maj7 E E


aug.7
16

III

bw w w w

7harm.

III
7n

w nbw w w

dom.7
17

III 7n III E

w w w w

11

IV Fm

w nw w w

12

IV IV F

nw nw w w

13

7dm

IV

w w #w w

14

aug.dom.7 min.7

dom.7
19

IV F maj7
maj.7

7dm

IV F 73
db.dim.7

w n w #w w

15

IV F
dim.7

a.

# w & w w w

b. c. d.

eI

#w w w w

eI 7aeol. Em
min.7
23

w w nw w

18

I 7harm. Em maj7

II

min.maj.7

II 7n F maj7
maj.7
25

II
hf.dim.7

w #w w w

20

II

w #w w w

21

Fm75 Fm
26 w w w w 27 w #w w w

II 7dm Fm
28 #w w #w w

II F 75
hd.dim.7

w w w w

22

III

min.7

III maj7 G
maj.7
30 w w ##w w

7aeol.

# #w w & w w

III
aug.7

nw w w w

24

III maj7 G

7harm.

III III 7n G
dom.7

w #nw w w

III

III 7n G

IV

IV

aug.dom.7 min.7

Am

IV 7dm A
dom.7

IV

29 w w #w w

IV 7dm A maj7
maj.7

IV

IV

B 73

db.dim.7

dim.7

2011 Rowy

- 10 -

Chords
Pentads

a.

&

w w w w w

b. c. d.

CI C
maj.9
maj

bw w w w w

I
9n

w w w w w

I maj79 C

II Dm
9 w w bw w w

w #w w w w

III Em
maj79

w w bw w w

maj.(7)min.9
7

min.9

min.maj.(7)min.9

IV 9md IV maj9 Fm

w w w w w

V G
dom.9

min.maj.9
11

# &

V G G


G 95

w w ##w w w

V G maj9
aug.9

aug.dom.9

V 9n V G 95

w w b w bw w

10

VI

hd.dim.9

VI A maj79

9md

VII B 79


Bm 759

w bw w w w

12

maj.(7)aug.9 hf.dim.(7)min.9
15

VII 9md VII B 79

dim.(7)min.9
18

a.

b &bb

w w w w w

13

b. c. d.

cI Cm
min.9

14

I Cm maj9

9harm.

w w w w w

II Dm 759

w bw w w w

16

min.maj.9

hf.dim.(7)min.9 dom.9
21 w n w bw w w

III 9n III E

17 w w nw w w

IV IV F

w w w #w w

9dm

IV F 739
db.dim.(7)min.9

dom.9

b &bb

w w w #nw w
19

IV F 79

20

dim.(7)min.9

V 9harm. G 79

V G
hf.dim.9

w w w nbw w

22

23 w w w n w w w b w w w w

24

dom.(7)min.9

V 9n G 759

VI A

VII Bm maj9
min.maj.9

hd.dim.(7)min.9 maj.9

2011 Rowy

- 11 -

Chords
Triad Inversions
1

a. b. c. d.

&w w w

CI C
maj.
7

w w w

I6 C/E
maj.6

w w w

I4 C/G
maj.4/6

bw w w

II 5 II md D
dim.

bw w w

II II 6md D/F
dim.6

II 4 dim.II 4 II 6md 4 D/A


dim.4/6

& #w w w

II E 3
db.dim.

II 6 II It.6 II It.6 E 3/F


aug.6

#w w w

II 4 E 3/A
db.dim.4/6

bb

10

II II n D

II 5

bb

11

maj.

II 6 II II 6n D/F
maj.6

bb

12

II 4 maj. II 4 II 6n 4 D/A
maj.4/6

a. b. c. d.

b &bb w w w

13

cI Cm
min.
19

w w w

14

I6 Cm/E
min.6

w w w

15

I4 Cm/G
min.4/6

w w w

16

II D
dim.

w w w

17

II 6 D/F
dim.6
22

w w w

18

II 4 D/A
dim.4/6

b & b b #w w w

II

hd.dim.

w #w w

20

II 6

#w w w

21

II 4

w bw w

hd.dim.

D /F

hd.dim.6

D 5/A
aug.4/6

II II n D

bw w w

23

maj.

II 6 II 6n D/F

bw w w

24

maj.6

II 4 II 6n 4 D/A

maj.4/6

2011 Rowy

- 12 -

Chords
Tetrad Inversions

a.

&w w w w

b. c. d.

CI

w w w w
I6 5

w ww w


I2

I4 3
maj.3/4

5 bw w w w
4 I2 7

II

C maj.7
maj.7
9

C maj.7 /E C maj.7/G C maj.7/B


maj.5/6 maj.2

II 7 md D 7

hf.dim.7 hf.dim.5/6

hf.dim. 4 II 5 II 3 4 md II 3 md II 6 5 D 7 /F Fm6 D 7/A

w w w b w

8 bw w ww

II 4 2

hf.dim.3/4

II 2md D 7/C

w & #w w w

II

10

II 6 5

w # ww w

11

12 w w # ww

E 73

db.dim.7 aug.5/6

II Gr. 6 II Gr.6 E 73 /A E73 /F

II 4 3

II

w w w w

13

14 ww w w

15 w ww w

w16 w ww
V2

hf.dim.2

V5

V4 3 G 7/D
23 w n ww w
aug.

db.dim.3/4
19

E 73 /C G 7
20 w w ww

db.dim.2 dom.7

G 7/B

dom.5/6

dom.3/4

G 7/F
24 nw w ww

dom.2

a.

b &bb w w w w

17

b. c. d.

cI

cI 7aeol. I I 7 Cm Cm /E E6 Cm /G
min.7 min.5/6
26

ww w w
18
6 5 6aeol. 5 7

4 3 4aeol. 3 7

w nw w w

21

min.3/4
27

I 2aeol. III 7harm. Cm7/B E 7


min.2 aug.7

III

n ww w w

22

III 6harm. 5 7 E /G
aug.5/6
30

III

4 III 3 III 4harm. 3 E 7 /B

aug.3/4
31

III 2harm. E7 /D
aug.2
32

III 4 2

b &bb

w #w w w

25

II

7 hd.dim.

ww #w w

6 II 5

D 7

hd.dim.7 hd.dim.5/6 aug.3/4

Fr. 6 II II D 7 5 /C B7 D 7 /F D 7 5 /A

6 4 II 3 Fr.6

28 w w # ww

4 II 2

VII VII 7 VII 6 5 B 7/D

29

w nw w w

nw w ww

VII 4 3 B7/F

w n ww w

VII 2 B 7 /A
verm.2

hd.dim.2 dim.7

dim.5/6 dim.3/4

2011 Rowy

- 13 -

Chords
Suspensions and Anticipations
Suspensions 1
2 3 4

a. b. c. d.

&

CV 6
maj.


G/B
maj.6
5


I C sus2
maj.


C
maj.
6

V5


G 7no5 /B C
inc.dom.5/6
7


I C sus4
maj.


C
maj.

C sus2

C sus4
maj.

a. b. c. d.

b &bb

cV 6 V 6 harm. C sus2 G/B


min.

(V 2) V C sus2
min.

#
D 7no5 /C
inc.dom.2

IV 4 C sus4
min.


Fm/C
min.4/6

maj.6

V5 6 harm. V5 G 7sus4 /C G 7 /B
min.

dom.5/6

Anticipations 9

a. b. c. d.

& <---
CI
maj.

V6 G/B
maj.6
13

b <---
I
maj.

10

C sus2

C sus2

VII VII 7md B 7no5

<--- b
I C sus4
maj.

11

inc.dim.7
14

IV 4 md IV 6 4 Fm/C
6

<--
I C sus2
maj.

12

II 6

min.4/6
15

Dm/F
min.6
16

a. b. c. d.

b & b b <--- n
cI
min.

C sus2

V6 V 6harm. G/B
maj.6

<--I
min.

II 2 D 7/C

<--- n
I Cm add4
min.

C sus2

hf.dim.2

V5 harm. V6 5 G 7/B
dom.5/6

<--
I7 C 7sus4
min.7

IV Fm
min.

2011 Rowy

- 14 -

Chords
Enharmonization and Interpretation
Enharmonically equal - examples

a. C II 6 5

w w & #w w

bb

b. C II Gr.6 c. E 3/F d. aug.5/6

B V 7
dom.7

w w w w

#w b b b ww w

6 c II 4 3

4 w w bbbbb w w

F7

c II Fr.6 D 7 5/A
aug.3/4

D V 5

bbb n w w w
F

D V 7n A7 5

E II
maj.

# w nw w

e II

hd.dim.7

e II n F

maj.
11

16 enharmonically equal dim. 7th chords

a.

&b w w #w w

##

b. c. d.

d VII 7
dim.7

d VII 7harm. D VII 7md C7 of D7 --->


dim.7

D VII 7

bw w w w

bb n w w #w w

g IV

bb n w w #w w

10

##

g IV 7dm
dim.7

B II

b VII 6 5

#w w w w

harm. b VII 6 5

dim.7

dim.5/6

&

####

# nw w w w

12

#
e

B VII B VII 6md 5


dim.5/6

dim.

#w ww #w

13

#
G

IV 5

dim.

# ww #w w

14

####

IV 6dm 5
dim.5/6

II 5

g VII 3

# w w ww

15

bbbb b w w ww

16

g VII 4harm. 3
dim.3/4
20

A VII 3 A VII 4md 3


dim.3/4

dim.5/6
19

&

####
c

#w w ww

17

6 4 IV 3 IV 4dm 3
dim.3/4

####
E

#w w ww

II 4 3

18

bbbb n w w ww
f VII

f VII 2harm. F VII 2md


dim.2 dim.2

b w bw ww
dim.

VII

bbbbb n n w w ww
21

b IV

6 4 IV 2 2dm

bbbbb n n w w ww
22

D II 4
2

dim.3/4

dim.2

dim.2

2011 Rowy

Chords
Harmonic Analysis

- 15 -

& b
1

?
C

CI IV


2
md 6 I4

w w w w
I C

4 b

CI C

b
md

bw w w w
cI Cm
12

bbb bbb
13

&

bbb

Fm

? b bb
susp.

nw n w w
8

C/G G
9

nnn
10

IV I6 V =cIV 4 Cm/G G Fm

cI

IV

Cm Fm

6 4

w
I C

Pic. 3rd

nnn
C

b b
IV

11 suspension

CI IV F
16

7md

nw w w
17

w
I

CI IV C
18

b b #

14

susp.

IV 7md V A/G G sus4

Cm/G G

A/G G sus4 G

&

? b

15


V7

VII 2md

susp.

IV 7
no3add4

n
F F
22

IV 7
maj7

D/A A G

F
21

& ?
CI

20

bb
II 2n

b b
II 7n

w w w w
I

w w w w

II 7 7 I6 V =aIV IV 7 4 Dm F/E Am/E E


24 b b
susp. 25

w w w w

19

23

V4 3

CI C
2011 Rowy

IV md II n Fm D

w w
4

w w w
V7 I

aI Am

26

V3

C D maj7/C D maj7 G/D C

G sus4 /D

G no5 C