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10/25/2013

Planar Microwave Couplers


MICROWAVE COUPLERS AND POWER DIVIDERS
Hybrid couplers 3dB equal split, 90deg Directional couplers Sampling power and usually monitoring the main signal
Coupled lines Branch line Lange couplers - Microstrip, stripline, multilayer - Couplers are designed based on wavelength (/4).

YTU Dept. of ECE CAD for Microwaves

Couplers

Coupled line coupler

Isolation (dB) =Coupling+Directivity

(Pozar)

(Pozar)

Edge Couple Line Coupler Design


Edge Coupled Strip line Design Coupled Microstrip line Design on a substrate with Er=10.

Couple Line Coupler Design Example


Design a 15dB Microstrip directional coupler for 7.5GHz, using a substrate of Dk=10 and thickness of 0.508mm.

L @ 7.5GHz=4.45mm We can also use Transmission line calculation tool in Ansoft, AWR, etc.

10/25/2013

Couple Line Coupler Design Examle

Lumped Quadrature (90deg) Coupler

Isolation (dB) =Coupling+Directivity

Quadrature (90deg) Hybrid Couplers


Quadrature hybrids are 3 dB directional couplers with a 90' phase difference in the outputs of the through and coupled arms. This type of hybrid is often made in microstrip or stripline form as and is also known as a branch-line hybrid. Other3 dB couplers, such as coupled line couplers or Lange couplers, can also be used as quadrature couplers; these components will be discussed in later sections. Here we will analyze the operation of the quadrature hybrid using an even-odd mode decomposition technique similar to that used for the Wilkinson power divider.

Branchline Coupler Quadrature


Easy to fabricate Easy to integrate to other circuits Symmetry (any port as input) Can fold for miniaturization Narrow band

Lange Coupler (Quadrature)


fo=1 GHz, find l and w

Tighter coupling with wider bandwidth

The finger widths and spacings can be read from the graph plotting coupled micro-strip line data against even and odd mode line impedances.

10/25/2013

Lange Coupler Design Example


Design a lange coupler for use at 7.5GHz, 3dB split into 50 ohms. Coupler made from a 0.508mm thick, Dielectric substrate of Dk=10. Determine S and W of fingers.

Simulation setup for Lange coupler example

Simulation results for Lange coupler example

Wilkinson Power Divider


The wilkinson power splitter provides a 3-dB split with no phase shift. In microstrip form the two arms are usually made from quarter wavelength lines with an impedance of 70.7 ohms in a 50-ohm system. Lumped Element Model
Microstrip line Model

Impedances of the microstipline version are shown above.

The bandwidth of the lumped Wilkinson is approximately of the micro-strip version

Unequal Power Division and N-way Dividers

3-way Wideband Divider Example

N-way dividerNot production friendly

N-way dividerproduction friendly

Pozar

10/25/2013

5-way Divider Example

Wilkinson divider samples


(isolation resistors between the lines are present)

5 WAY 16-18.5 GHz POWER SPLITTER Measured Results