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Theory Of Bending

ASSUMPTIONS IN THEORY OF BENDING

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The material of the beam is stressed within elastic limit and obeys Hooke’s law.

The transverse sections which are plane before bending remains plane after bending.

The material of the beam is perfectly homogenous.

Each layer of the beam is free to expand and contract independently of the layer, above or below it

The value of young’s modulus for the material of beam is same in tension and compression.

BENDING EQUATIONS FOR BEAMS-

M/I = σ/y = E/R

Where, M= bending moment,

I=Moment of inertia of the area of cross section.

σ=Bending stress

y=distance of extreme fibre from the neutral axis

E=Young’s modulus

From the bending equation

M/I = σ/y

Or, M = σI/y = σ Z, where Z is the section modulus

The line of intersection of the neutral layer with any normal cross section of a beam is known as neutral axis of that section.

BEAMS OF UNIFORM STRENGTH

A beam in which bending stress developed is constant and is equal to the allowable stress is called beams of uniform strength. The common method of obtaining the beam of uniform strength is by keeping the width uniform and varying the depth.

COMPOSITE BEAMS

A beam made up of two or more different materials joined together in such a manner that they behave like a unit piece is known as composite or flitched beams.

SHEAR STRESS IN BEAMS

Maximum shear stress developed in a beam of rectangular cross section is, τ max = 1.5τ av

Where τ av is the average shear stress.

For a circular cross section, τ max = 4/3 τ av

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The shear stress in a beam is not uniform throughout the cross section, rather it varies from zero at the outer fibres to maximum at the neutral surfaces.

DEFLECTION OF BEAMS

General Equation, M = EI d 2 y/ dx 2

The product of EI is known as flexural rigidity.

MAXIMUM DEFLECTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF BEAMS

Simply supported beam with a central point load

y c = wl 3 /48 EI

Simply supported beam with a uniformly distributed load

y c = 5wl 4 /384 EI

Cantilever beam with a point load at the free end

y c = wl 3 /3 EI

Cantilever beam with a uniformly distributed load

y c = wl 4 /8 EI

Cantilever beam with a partially distributed load

y c = 7wl 4 /384 EI

y c = wl 4 /30 EI

Fixed beam carrying a central point load

y c = wl 3 /192 EI

Fixed beam carrying a uniformly distributed load

y c = wl 4 /384 EI

SHEAR STRESS IN SHAFTS

When a shaft fixed at one end is subjected to a torque at the other end, then every section of the shaft will be subjected to shear stress .the shear stress is zero at the centroidal axis of the shaft and maximum at the outer surface.

The Torsional equation, τ/R = T/J = Cθ/l

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τ = shear stress induced at the outer surface of the shaft or maximum shear stress.

 R = radius of the shaft T = torque or twisting moment J = polar moment of inertia. C = modulus of rigidity of the material

θ= angle of twist in radians on a length l.

POLAR MOMENT OF INERTIA

For a solid shaft of diameter (D), J = πD 4 /32

T = (πD 3 /16) τ

For a hollow shaft with D as external diameter and d as internal diameter, the polar moment of inertia J is given as,

 J = π(D 4 - d 4 ) /32 T = π/16 τ (D 4 - d 4 )/D

POLAR MODULUS, Z p = J/R

The polar modulus for a solid shaft, Zp = πD 3 /16

The polar modulus for a hollow shaft, Zp= π/16 (D 4 - d 4 )/D

Torsional rigidity of the shaft = T/θ

Power transmitted by the shaft, P = Tω = 2πNT/60

Where T = torque transmitted in N-m

N = speed of the shaft in r.p.m

ω = angular speed in rad/sec.