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DARV

DARVI
( ) nkohZ
(Latin Name : Berberis aristata D.C.)
Family :Berberidaceae
English Names: Indian Barberry, Tree Turmeric
Bengali-Damhaldi
Hindi- Chitra, Chotra, Daruhaldi, Kasmal, Kasmar, Rasauat,
Kashmiri-Rasvat
Malyalam-Maradrisina, Maramanjal
Marathi-Daru-Jald
Punjabi-Sumlu, Simlu
Tamil-Masamangal, Mullukale, Usikkala
Sanskrit-Daruharidra, Darvi, Kata, Katankateri, Pittadaru, Suvaranavarna;

nkohZ nk#
nk# gfjæk p itZU;k p A
dVadVsjh ihrk p HkosRlSo ip¥~ipk AA
lSo dkfy;d% ÁksäLFkk
äLFkk dkys;dks·fi p A
ihr æq”p gfjæq
gfjæq”p ihrnk# p ihrde~ AA
nkohZ fu”kkxq.kk fdUrq us=d.kZ;ks jksxuqr~ A ¼Hkko Ádk”k½
MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION :
It is an erect thorny shrub of length 1.8-3.6 meter or sometimes 4-5 meter with
pale yellowish-brown and deeply furrowed bark. Leaves are characteristic,
fascicled in axils of branched or simple spines, coriaceous, usually sharp toothed
and with very fine veins. Inflorescence is a simple, drooping and densely flowered
raceme. Fruits are long, ovoid and bluish-black to bluish-purple in colour. Seeds
are a few. The plant occurs in Himalaya at 6250-12000 ft. Wood of the stem is
used.
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS:
 The alkaloids found in the Berberis aristata mainly in Roots and Bark are
 Berberine,  Columbamine  Umballiatine
 Berberamine  Kerachin  Jatrorrhizine
 Aromoline  Oxycanthine  Hydrastine
 Fruits contain Citric and Malic acid.
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Darvi | *Presented By: Vijendra Kr. *Guided By: Dr. B. Mukhopadhyay (H.O.D.) Deptt. of Shalakya Tantra
PROPERTIES (Pharmacodynamics):

 Guna -Laghu,Ruksha
 Rasa – Tikta ,Kashay (fruit: Madhur-Amla)
 Veerya –Ushna (fruit: Shita)
 Vipaka - Katu
 Doshic Action: Kapha Pitta pacifying – Vata aggravating

ACTIONS (KARMA) :
Pittasaraka, Yakriduttejaka, Deepana, Grahi, Rakta-Shodhaka, Rakta-
Stambhaka(Rasanjan Extract), Rochana, Trishna-Nigraha, Kaphaghna,
Swedajanana, Varnya, Jwarghna, Shothhara, Vranashodhana, Chakshushya.

Daruharidra reduces kapha, checks excess secretions and helps to alleviate


inflammation of the liver and spleen. It is Aama-pachana in action, metabolizing
toxins and pacifying pitta due to its tikta rasa. Its energetic properties indicate that
it aggravates vata as its action is drying and catabolic. It stimulates and corrects
meda dhatu ,agni and alleviates excess body secretions often experience when
kapha is aggravated. This is seen in conditions of the vagina as in leucorrhea and
from weeping wounds experienced when suffering ulcerated skin disorders. This
action relates directly to drying rasa dhatu and reducing the formation of them ala
of rasa being poshaka kapha.
Berberine hydrochloride, an alkaloid isolated from B.aristata, have significant anti-
inflammatory activity on acute, subacute and chronic types of inflammations
produced by immunological and non-immunological methods.

PARTS USED :
 Root,
 Stem,
 Fruits

DOSES:
Root bark Juice: 12-24 gm.
Decoction : 50-100 gm.
Rasanjana/Rasauta (wood extract): 0.5-1.0 gm. (In Vishama Jwara 1.0-2.0 gm.)
Fruits : 6-12 gm.

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Darvi | *Presented By: Vijendra Kr. *Guided By: Dr. B. Mukhopadhyay (H.O.D.) Deptt. of Shalakya Tantra
THERAPEUTIC USES (INDICATIONS):

Exteranal Administration:

Netra roga (Diseases of Eyes) : Netra-abhishyanda, Netra-Shotha, Naktandhya,


Karna Roga (Diseases Of Ear): Karnashoola, Karnasrava, Putikarna,
Mukharoga (Diseases Of Mouth)
Raktavikarajanya Shotha, Phiranga, Upadansha, Sarvalingavikara, Shuka Dosha,
Gandamala, Bhagandara, Visarpa, Bala Guda Paka, Sarvavisha, Nadi-Vrana.
Shoth vedana (Inflammatory diseases)

Internal Administration:

Yakrittavikara, Kamala, Pandu, Agnimandya, Aruchi, Trishana, Raktasrava,


Raktavikara, Rakta-pitta, Raktapradara, Raktaarsha, Kasa, Prameha, Pishtameha,
Unmada graha, kushtha, kandu, Visphota, Vriddhiroga, Tvakavikara, Varnavikara,

OTHER USES OF DARVI :


 Milk boiled with daruharidra, cooled and mixed with a little rock salt should
be used to wash the eyes.
 Decoction made of daruharidra and mixed with honey is used to wash the in
all type of eye inflammation.
 Daruharidra mixed with trikatu is made into pills which are rubbed and
applied as paste in anjananamika with inflammation and itching.
 In case of poisoning haridra and daruharidra are used as paste.
 Decoction of Daruharidra alleviates Leucorrhoea.
 Decoction of Daruharidra root bark is given in Malaria.
 The roots are useful for healing ulcers, urethral discharge in leucorrhea,
ophthalmia, jaundice.
 Daruharidra satva is known as RASANJANA/ RASAUTA (wood extract)
which is dark brown in colour and consistency of Opium having bitter
astringent taste, readily soluble in water forming rich yellowish brown
colour.
 Daruharidra mixed with honey should be used as collyrium RASANJANA is
medicinally potent and quite useful product of this drug is used frequently in
various ailments in external mode of application and extract is also orally
used in certain other diseases.
 The raw material of Daruharidra fruit (Zirisk) is moist sticky mass of small
black fruit most of them are abortive but few contain one or two oblong
seeds a thin roughy brown resin, beneath which a membrane covering exists.
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Darvi | *Presented By: Vijendra Kr. *Guided By: Dr. B. Mukhopadhyay (H.O.D.) Deptt. of Shalakya Tantra
RASANJANA/ RASAUTA:

nkohZ DokFk lea{khjaikna iDRok ;nk ?kue~ A


rnk jlk¥~tuk[;a rUus=;ks ijea fgre~ AA
jlk¥~tua rk{;Za “kSya jl xHkZ¥~p rk{;Zte~ A
jlk¥~tua dVq”ys’e fo’kus=fodkjuqr~ AA
m’.ka jlk;ua fräa Nsnua oz.k nks’k g`r~ A
¼Hkko Ádk”k½
The decoction of Darvi added with equal quantity of milk is boiled and reduced to
one fourth of the total quantity and allowed to cool. After it becomes thick jelly it
is called Rasanjana (Darvi rasanjana) and is highly beneficial to the eye when used
as Collyrium. Rasanjana, tarkshyashaila , Rasagarbha, Tarkshyajam are synonyms.
Rasanjana (Rasaut) pungent mitigates shleshma (kapha) poision diseases of
eyesbut in potency rejuvenator better punctures hard covering of doshas and clears
the doshas from the wounds.

Different Ayurvedic Formulations of Darvi:


• Chandraprabha vati,
• Chandanadi vati,
• Darvi Kwatha,
• Darvi Ghrita,
• Darvighrita-Paratisaran
• Darvi Taila,
• Darvi Yoga,
• Darviyavani Churna,
• Darviyavani Vati,
• Darvi Rasa-Kriya,
• Darvyadi Asthapana,
• Darvyadi Kashaya,
• Darvyadighrita,
• Darvyadi Yoga,
• Darvyadi Lauha
• Darvyadi Leha
• Darvyadi Taila
• Laghuvishagarbha taila
• Punarnava mandura
• Phalatrikadi Kwatha
• Rasanjanadi Churna
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Darvi | *Presented By: Vijendra Kr. *Guided By: Dr. B. Mukhopadhyay (H.O.D.) Deptt. of Shalakya Tantra
-:BERBERINE:-
Berberine is a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in both
Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine.
It is present in Berberis aristata (tree turmeric), Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal),
Coptis chinensis (Coptis or goldenthread), Berberis aquifolium (Oregon grape),
and Berberis vulgaris (barberry). The berberine alkaloid can be found in the roots,
rhizomes, and stem bark of the plants. Berberine extracts and decoctions have
demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against a variety of organisms
including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminths, and chlamydia. Currently,
the predominant clinical uses of berberine include bacterial diarrhea, intestinal
parasite infections, and ocular trachoma infections.

-:PHARMACOLOGY:-
The pharmacologic actions of berberine include metabolic inhibition of certain
organisms, inhibition of bacterial enterotoxin formation, inhibition of intestinal
fluid accumulation and ion secretion, inhibition of smooth muscle contraction,
reduction of inflammation, platelet aggregation inhibition, platelet count elevation
in certain types of thrombocytopenia, stimulation of bile and bilirubin secretion,
and inhibition of ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

Clinical Applications

Bacterial Diarrhea:
Diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholera and Escherichia coli has been the focus of
numerous berberine studies, and results indicate several mechanisms which may
explain its ability to inhibit bacterial diarrhea. An animal study found berberine
reduced the intestinal secretion of water and electrolytes induced by cholera toxin.
Other studies have shown berberine directly inhibits some V. cholera and E. coli
enterotoxins, significantly reduces smooth muscle contraction and intestinal
motility, and delays intestinal transit time in humans.
Berberine sulfate has also been found to be directly bacteriocidal to V. cholera. In
the case of E. coli, in vitro research indicated berberine sulfate was capable of
inhibiting bacterial adherence to mucosal or epithelial surfaces, the first step in the
infective process. This may be a result of berberine’s inhibitory effect on fimbrial
structure formation on the surface of the treated bacteria.
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Darvi | *Presented By: Vijendra Kr. *Guided By: Dr. B. Mukhopadhyay (H.O.D.) Deptt. of Shalakya Tantra
Intestinal Parasites:
Berberine extracts and salts have demonstrated growth inhibition of Giardia
lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Leishmania donovani,
with crude extracts being more effective than berberine salts.
In tropical climates Giardia lamblia infestation (giardiasis) is a common
occurrence, particularly in pediatric populations. Clinical trials conducted in India
showed berberine administration improved gastrointestinal symptoms and resulted
in a marked reduction in Giardia-positive stools. In comparison to metronidazole
(Flagyl), another popular giardiasis medication, berberine was nearly as effective
at half the dose.

Berberine Structure:
N+
O
O
OCH3
H3CO

Both in vivo and in vitro studies of berberine’s


effects on E. histolytica indicated berberine
sulfate was rapidly amoebicidal and caused
encystation, degeneration, and eventual lysis of
the trophozoite forms. Berberine sulfate rapidly
inhibited the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis via
formation of large autophagic vacuoles that
eventually result in lysis of the trophozoite forms.Studies have shown berberine
markedly decreased parasitic load and rapidly improved hematologic parameters in
infected animals. In vitro results indicated berberine inhibited multiplication,
respiration, and macromolecular biosynthesis of amastigote forms of the parasite,
interfered with the nuclear DNA of the promastigote form, and inhibited organism
maturation.

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Darvi | *Presented By: Vijendra Kr. *Guided By: Dr. B. Mukhopadhyay (H.O.D.) Deptt. of Shalakya Tantra
ROLE IN OCULAR TRACHOMA INFECTIONS:****

A clinical study of aqueous berberine versus sulfacetamide for the treatment of


Chlamydia trachomatis infection was conducted on 51 subjects in an outpatient
eye clinic. It was determined that while sulfacetamide eye drops produced slightly
better clinical results, conjunctival scrapings of these patients remained positive for
the infective agent and relapses occurred. In contrast, the conjunctival scrapings of
patients receiving the berberine chloride eye drops were negative for C.
trachomatis and there were no relapses, even one year after treatment. It was also
concluded that, while berberine chloride had no direct anti-chlamydial properties,
it seemed to cure the infection by stimulating some protective mechanism in the
host. A second clinical study found berberine chloride superior to sulfacetamide in
both the clinical course of trachoma and in achieving a drop in serum antibody
titers against C. trachomatis.

Cardiovascular Effects:

Both clinical trials and animal research have indicated berberine administration
prevented ischemiainduced ventricular tachyarrhythmia, stimulated cardiac
contractility, and lowered peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure. The
mechanism for berberine’s antiarrhythmic effect is unclear, but an animal study
indicated it may be due to suppression of delayed after-depolarization in the
ventricular muscle. An animal study suggested, in addition to affecting several
other parameters of cardiac performance, berberine may have a
vasodilatory/hypotensive effect attributable to its potentiation of acetylcholine.

Anti-inflammatory Effects:

In vitro studies utilizing human cell lines demonstrated that berberine inhibited
activator protein 1 (AP-1), a key transcription factor in inflammation and
carcinogenesis. Another study, utilizing human peripheral lymphocytes, showed
berberine to exert a significant inhibitory effect on lymphocyte transformation,
concluding that its anti-inflammatory action may be due to inhibition of DNA
synthesis in activated lymphocytes.
A third study concluded that during platelet activation in response to tissue injury,
berberine had a direct affect on several aspects of the inflammatory process. It
exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of arachidonic acid release from cell
membrane phospholipids, inhibition of thromboxane A2 from platelets, and
inhibition of thrombus formation.

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Darvi | *Presented By: Vijendra Kr. *Guided By: Dr. B. Mukhopadhyay (H.O.D.) Deptt. of Shalakya Tantra
Other Effects:
Berberine has demonstrated a number of other beneficial effects, including
immunostimulation via increased blood flow to the spleen, macrophage activation,
elevation of platelet counts in cases of primary and secondary thrombocytopenia,
and increased excretion of conjugated bilirubin in experimental
hyperbilirubinemia.
In addition, berberine may possess anti-tumor promoting properties as evidenced
by inhibition of COX-2 transcription and N-acetyltransferase activity in colon and
bladder cancer cell lines, and transient, but marked, inhibitory action on the growth
of mouse sarcoma cells in culture.

Dosage and Toxicity:

Berberine is not considered toxic at doses used in clinical situations, nor has it been
shown to be cytotoxic or mutagenic. Side-effects can result from high dosages and
may include gastrointestinal discomfort, dyspnea, lowered blood pressure, flu-like
symptoms, and cardiac damage. Berberine usage should be avoided in pregnancy,
due to potential for causing uterine contractions and miscarriage, and in jaundiced
neonates because
of its bilirubin displacement properties. The therapeutic dosage for most clinical
situations is 200 mg orally two to four times daily.
• Another alkaloid in barberry, called berberamine, is believed to help fight
infections by stimulating white blood cells called macrophages.

• Aromoline has screened for antimalarial (antiplasmodial), antiamoebic and


cytotoxic activities via the use of in vitro microtests. This has also evaluated
for antiallergic effect and proven to be of potent action.

***

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Darvi | *Presented By: Vijendra Kr. *Guided By: Dr. B. Mukhopadhyay (H.O.D.) Deptt. of Shalakya Tantra