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X-rays were discovered by Wilhel !o"rad R#"$%e" i" &'() while he was e*+eri e"$i"% wi$h ca$hode $,bes- I" $hese e*+eri e"$s. he ,sed /l,oresce"$ scree"s. which s$ar$ %lowi"% whe" s$r,c0 by li%h$ e i$$ed /ro $he $,be- To R#"$%e"1s s,r+rise. $his e//ec$ +ersis$ed eve" whe" $he $,be was +laced i" a car$o" bo*- He soo" reali2ed $ha$ $he $,be was e i$$i"% "o$ o"ly li%h$. b,$ also a "ew 0i"d o/ radia$io". which he called X-rays beca,se o/ $heir ys$erio,s "a$,re- This "ew 0i"d o/ radia$io" co,ld "o$ o"ly $ravel $hro,%h $he bo*- R#"$%e" /o,"d o,$ $ha$ i$ was a$$e",a$ed i" a di//ere"$ way by vario,s 0i"ds o/ a$erials a"d $ha$ i$ co,ld. li0e li%h$. be ca+$,red o" a +ho$o%ra+hic +la$e- This o+e"ed ,+ $he way /or i$s ,se i" edici"e-The /irs$ 3R#"$%e" +ic$,re4 o/ a ha"d was ade soo" a/$er $he discovery o/ Xrays- No ore $ha" a /ew o"$hs la$er. radio%ra+hs were already ,sed i" cli"ical +rac$ice- The "a$,re o/ X-rays as shor$-wave elec$ro a%"e$ic radia$io" was es$ablished by 5a* vo" 6a,e i" &(&7-

I" la$e &'(). a Ger a" +hysicis$. W- C- Roe"$%e" was wor0i"% wi$h a ca$hode ray $,be i" his labora$ory- He was wor0i"% wi$h $,bes si ilar $o o,r /l,oresce"$ li%h$ b,lbs- He evac,a$ed $he $,be o/ all air. /illed i$ wi$h a s+ecial %as. a"d +assed a hi%h elec$ric vol$a%e $hro,%h i$- Whe" he did $his. $he $,be wo,ld +rod,ce a /l,oresce"$ %low- Roe"$%e" shielded $he $,be wi$h heavy blac0 +a+er. a"d /o,"d $ha$ a %ree" colored /l,oresce"$ li%h$ co,ld be see" co i"% /ro a scree" se$$i"% a /ew /ee$ away /ro $he $,be- He reali2ed $ha$ he had +rod,ced a +revio,sly ,"0"ow" 9i"visible li%h$.9 or ray. $ha$ was bei"% e i$$ed /ro $he $,be : a ray $ha$ was ca+able o/ +assi"% $hro,%h $he heavy +a+er coveri"% $he $,be- Thro,%h addi$io"al e*+eri e"$s. he also /o,"d $ha$ $he "ew ray wo,ld +ass $hro,%h os$ s,bs$a"ces cas$i"% shadows o/ solid ob;ec$s o" +ieces o/ /il - He "a ed $he "ew ray X-ray. beca,se i" a$he a$ics 9X9 is ,sed $o i"dica$ed $he ,"0"ow" <,a"$i$y-

I" his discovery Roe"$%e" /o,"d $ha$ $he X-ray wo,ld +ass $hro,%h $he $iss,e o/ h, a"s leavi"% $he bo"es a"d e$als visible- O"e o/ Roe"$%e"1s /irs$ e*+eri e"$s la$e i" &'() was a /il o/ his wi/e =er$ha>s ha"d wi$h a ri"% o" her /i"%er ?show" below o" ri%h$@- The "ews o/ Roe"$%e"1s discovery s+read <,ic0ly $hro,%ho,$ $he world- 8cie"$is$s everywhere co,ld d,+lica$e his e*+eri e"$ beca,se $he ca$hode $,be was very well 0"ow" d,ri"% $his +eriod- I" early &'(A. X-rays were bei"% ,$ili2ed cli"ically i" $he U"i$ed 8$a$es /or s,ch $hi"%s as bo"e /rac$,res a"d %," sho$ wo,"ds-

Ta0e a loo0 a$ $hese early *-rays-





8,bse<,e"$ $o Roe"$%e">s discovery o/ X-rays. i" &'(A a Dre"ch scie"$is$ He"ri =ec<,erel was e*+eri e"$i"% wi$h a ,ra"i, co +o,"d- While i"ves$i%a$i"% $he +ro+er$ies o/ /l,oresce"$ i"erals. i$ was =ec<,erel who discovered $ha$ cer$ai" $y+es o/ a$o s disi"$e%ra$e by $he selvesWhe" wor0i"% o" $he +ri"ci+les o/ /l,oresce"ce. he ,$ili2ed +ho$o%ra+hic /il $o record /l,oresce"ce o/ vario,s i"erals whe" e*+osed $o s,"li%h$O"e o/ $he i"erals =ec<,erel wor0ed wi$h was a ,ra"i, co +o,"d- The e*+eri e"$ "or ally co"sis$ed o/ wra++i"% so e +ho$o%ra+hic /il i" li%h$ +roo/ +a+er. +laci"% a +iece o/ /l,oresce"$ ,ra"i, o" $o+ o/ $he /il . a"d leavi"% $he i" $he s,"- O"e day. a/$er +re+ari"% $he e*+eri e"$. i$ was $oo clo,dy $o e*+ose his sa +les $o direc$ s,"li%h$. so he s$ored $he ,ra"i, co +o,"d a"d $he /il i" a drawer- A co,+le o/ days la$er. he decided $o develo+ $his /il a"yway. a"d discovered a" i a%e o/ $he ,ra"i, sa +le o" $he /il - =ec<,erel <,es$io"ed wha$ wo,ld have ca,sed $his- He 0"ew he had wra++ed $he /il $i%h$ly i" li%h$ +roo/ +a+er. so $he i a%e was "o$ d,e $o s$ray li%h$I" addi$io". he "o$iced $ha$ o"ly $he /il $ha$ was i" $he drawer wi$h $he ,ra"i, co +o,"d had a" i a%e o" i$- =ec<,erel co"cl,ded $ha$ $he ,ra"i, co +o,"d %ave o// so e$hi"% i"visible $ha$ co,ld +e"e$ra$e heavy +a+er a"d a//ec$ +ho$o%ra+hic /il - =ec<,erel co"$i",ed $o $es$ a"y sa +les o/ co +o,"ds a"d de$er i"ed $ha$ $he so,rce o/ $he i"visible so e$hi"% was $he ele e"$ ,ra"i, - This i"visible so e$hi"% was "a ed radia$io". a"d i$ was de$er i"ed $ha$ a" ele e"$ $ha$ %ives o// radia$io" is a radioac$ive ele e"$- Today. we 0"ow ,ra"i, as o"e o/ $he radioac$ive ele e"$s- Dor his discovery o/ radioac$ivi$y. =ec<,erel was awarded $he &(EF Nobel Pri2e /or +hysics-

=elow are a series o/ +ho$o%ra+hs a"d a radio%ra+h o/ $he sa e ob;ec$s-




--------------There are several charac$eris$ics o/ $he +ho$o%ra+hs a"d *-ray +ho$o%ra+hs $ha$ are si ilar. a"d ye$. $here are very dis$i"c$ di//ere"ces- Radio%ra+hy a"d +ho$o%ra+hy bo$h o/$e" ,se so e $y+e o/ /il $o record $he i a%e- The +ri"ci+le di//ere"ce is i" how $he i a%e is recorded o" $he /il I" +ho$o%ra+hy. $he i a%e o" $he /il is +rod,ced d,e $o $he re/lec$io" o/ li%h$- Whe" yo, wa"$ $o $a0e a +ic$,re. yo, ,se a ca era. which has a sh,$$er $ha$ o+e"s a"d closes allowi"% li%h$ $o e"$er a"d s$ri0e $he /il The a o,"$ o/ li%h$ $ha$ i"$erac$s wi$h $he /il de$er i"es how $he i a%e a++ears o" $he /il -

I" radio%ra+hy. $he +rocess $o +rod,ce a" i a%e is <,i$e di//ere"$- The ca era is ac$,ally a radia$io" so,rce a"d i$ o+era$es <,i$e di//ere"$ly $ha" a +ho$o%ra+hic ca era- The /il is "o$ +laced i"side $he ca era b,$ i"s$ead is +laced o" $he o++osi$e side o/ $he ob;ec$ bei"% i a%ed- The radia$io" is "o$ re/lec$ed $o $he /il . b,$ ra$her +asses $hro,%h $he ob;ec$ a"d $he" s$ri0es $he /il - The i a%e o" $he /il is de+e"de"$ ,+o" how ,ch o/ $he radia$io" a0es i$ $hro,%h $he ob;ec$ a"d $o $he /il - 8o e a$erials li0e bo"e a"d e$al s$o+ ore o/ $he radia$io" /ro +assi"% $hro,%h $ha" do a$erials li0e /lesh a"d +las$ic- The a o,"$ o/ a$erial $ha$ $he X-rays ,s$ $ravel $hro,%h also a//ec$s how a"y X-rays reach $he /il Di//ere"ces i" $he $y+e o/ a$erial a"d $he a o,"$ o/ a$erial $ha$ $he Xrays ,s$ +e"e$ra$e are res+o"sible /or $he de$ails i" $he i a%e-


R#"$%e"1s s$,dies i" $he la$e "i"e$ee"$h a"d early $we"$ie$h ce"$,ries <,ic0ly es$ablished $he +e"e$ra$i"% "a$,re o/ X-Rays. a"d $he +o$e"$ial /or edical i a%i"% was soo" reali2ed- However. $he i"$erac$io" o/ X-Rays wi$h a$$er is ore co +le* $ha" si +ly G+assi"% $hro,%h1- O" reachi"% a a$erial. so e o/ $he *-rays will be absorbed. a"d so e sca$$ered H i/ "ei$her +rocess occ,rs. $he X-Rays will be $ra"s i$$ed $hro,%h $he a$erialWhe" absor+$io" occ,rs. $he X-Rays i"$erac$ wi$h $he a$erial a$ $he a$o ic level. a"d ca" ca,se s,bse<,e"$ /l,oresce"ce H i$ is $his X-Ray Dl,oresce"ce which /or s $he basis o/ XRD s+ec$rosco+y. a"d $he +rocess is disc,ssed i" ore de$ail i" $he "e*$ sec$io"- I" addi$io" $o $he absor+$io"I/l,oresce"ce +rocess. $he X-Rays ca" also be sca$$ered /ro $he a$erial- This sca$$eri"% ca" occ,r bo$h wi$h a"d wi$ho,$ loss o/ e"er%y. called Co +$o" a"d Raylei%h sca$$eri"% res+ec$ivelyThe ra$io o/ absor+$io"I/l,oresce"ce. Co +$o" a"d Raylei%h sca$$er a"d $ra"s issio" de+e"ds o" $he sa +le $hic0"ess. de"si$y a"d co +osi$io". a"d $he X-Ray e"er%y.


X-rays ca" $ravel $hro,%h a lar%e a o,"$ o/ a$erial wi$ho,$ i"$erac$i"% wi$h $he a$$er i" $he a$erial- This +ro+er$y a0es *-rays a val,able $ool /or dia%"osi"% +roble s wi$hi" $he body- O/ co,rse. $o be ,se/,l $he *-rays ,s$ crea$e so e $y+e o/ +ic$,re which +hysicia"s ca" see a"d i"$er+re$- Dro $he $i e $ha$ R#"$%e" recorded $he /irs$ *-ray +ic$,re ,"$il "ow. $he +ri ary recordi"% edi, has bee" /il - Th,s. we are +rese"$ed wi$h a s all +arado*- We "eed radia$io" $ha$ will $ravel $hro,%h vario,s de"si$ies /o,"d i" $he h, a" body. ye$ we "eed $ha$ sa e radia$io" $o i"$erac$ wi$h $he olec,les i" a +iece o/ /il -

R#"$%e">s sol,$io" was $o e*+ose $he +erso" a"d $he /il /or a very lo"% $i e- Dor $he +ic$,re o/ his wi/e>s R#"$%e" e*+osed $he /il ?a"d his wi/e@ $o *rays /or &) i",$es- $his +roced,re was cer$ai"ly X-ray o/ =er$ha "o$ heal$hy /or 5rs- R#"$%e" or /or a"yo"e else i" R#"$%e">s ha"d $he labora$ory a$ $he $i e+rod,ced o" Nove ber '.&'()-

Today. a" *-ray o/ ,ch hi%her <,ali$y wo,ld re<,ire a /rac$io" o/ a seco"d $o +rod,ce- =eca,se o/ $he shor$ e*+os,re $i es. $he +a$ie"$ a"d $he $ech"icia"s who are o+era$i"% $he achi"es are "o$ e*+osed $o da"%ero,s radia$io"- The cha"%es over $he +as$ ce"$,ry are $he res,l$ $he a++lica$io" o/ basic +ri"ci+les o/ +hysics-

5oder" *-ray o/ a ha"d-

I" addi$io". e$hods o/ crea$i"% i a%es wi$h ,si"% /il are "ow readily available a"d rela$ively easy $o ,se- These e$hods i"volve o$her +ri"ci+les o/ +hysics. so e o/ which have bee" discovered si"ce R#"$%e">s $i e- Wi$h all o/ $he $he +hysicia" ob$ai"s hi%h <,ali$y. hi%h resol,$io" i a%es wi$h very s all e*+os,res $o $he radia$io"- Th,s. by a++lyi"% +hysical +ri"ci+les scie"$is$s have crea$ed a sa/e a"d e//ec$ive dia%"os$ic $ool /ro a +o$e"$ially da"%ero,s discoveryWe have "o$ /o,"d %e"eral web si$es which disc,ss $his iss,e- 5os$ o/ $he are rela$ed $o a s+eci/ic +roced,re or e$hod a"d will a++ear o" $he +a%es abo,$ $he +hysics i"volved i" de$ec$i"% low i"$e"si$y *-rays-


The be"eL$s o/ ac<,isi$io" o/ edical radiolo%ical i a%es i" di%i$al /or <,ic0ly beca e obvio,s /ollowi"% $he i"$rod,c$io" o/ co +,$ed $o o%ra+hy ?CT@ by Ho,"sLeld ?&(MF@-These be"eL$s i"cl,de %rea$er +recisio" o/ recordi"% $he i"/or a$io". i"creased Ne*ibili$y o/ dis+lay charac$eris$ics a"d ease o/ $ra"s i$$i"% i a%es /ro o"e loca$io" $o a"o$her overco ,"ica$io"s "e$wor0s-Co +,$ed $o o%ra+hy is a ra$her so+his$ica$ed a++lica$io" o/ di%i$al radio%ra+hy. a"d ore rece"$ly. di%i$al a++roaches $o si +ler. ore ai"s$rea i a%i"% $ech"i<,es s,ch as a"%io%ra+hy a"d co"ve"$io"al +ro;ec$io" radio%ra+hy as well as $o ,l$raso,"d a"d ",clear edici"e i a%i"% have bee" develo+ed- Par$ o/ $he reaso" /or $his chro"olo%y was $ha$ CT was i edia$ely acce+$ed beca,se o/ $he obvio,s be"eL$s o/ $r,e $ra"sverse $o o%ra+hy a"d $he abili$y o/ CT $o dis+lay s,b$le di//ere"ces i" $iss,e a$$e",a$io"- These o,$wei%hed $he desire /or hi%h s+a$ial resol,$io" which co,ld "o$ be achieved wi$h $he coarse de$ec$ors a"d li i$ed co +,$er

ca+aci$y available a$ $he $i e. b,$ which co,ld be ob$ai"ed wi$h 8$a"dard radio%ra+hic +ro;ec$io" i a%i"%-The develo+ e"$ o/ i +roved de$ec$or $ech"olo%ies. as well as ,ch ore +ower/,l co +,$ers. hi%h-resol,$io" di%i$al dis+lays a"d laser o,$+,$ devices was "ecessary be/ore di%i$al radio%ra+hy co,ld +ro%ress /,r$her- I"i$ially. i$ was $ho,%h$ $ha$ di%i$al radio%ra+hy wo,ld have $o a$ch $he very de a"di"% li i$i"% s+a$ial resol,$io" +er/or a"ce o/ Ll based i a%i"%- However. Ll i a%i"% is o/$e" li i$ed by a lac0 o/ e*+os,re la$i$,de d,e $o $he Ll 1s charac$eris$ic c,rve a"d by "oise associa$ed wi$h Ll %ra",lari$y a"d i"e/Lcie"$ ,se o/ $he i"cide"$ radia$io"- D,r$her e*+erie"ce has s,%%es$ed $ha$ a hi%h val,e o/ li i$i"% resol,$io" is "o$ as i +or$a"$ as $he abili$y $o +rovide e*celle"$ i a%e co"$ras$ over a wide la$i$,de o/ *-ray e*+os,res /or all s+a$ial /re<,e"cies ,+ $o a ore odes$ li i$i"% resol,$io" ?Ya//e &((O@- A di%i$al radio%ra+hic sys$e ca" +rovide s,ch +er/or a"ce. as well as allowi"% $he i +le e"$a$io" o/ co +,$er i a%e +rocessi"% $ech"i<,es. di%i$al archivi"% a"d $ra"s issio" o/ i a%es a"d e*$rac$io" o/ edically ,se/,l <,a"$i$a$ive i"/or a$io" /ro $he i a%esHis$orically. $here has bee" a s$ro"% i"$eres$ i" develo+i"% di%i$al i a%i"% sys$e s /or ches$ radio%ra+hy beca,se o/ $he i"here"$ wea0"esses o/ Ll scree" sys$e s i" +rovidi"% ade<,a$e la$i$,de a"d si ,l$a"eo,sly %ood co"$ras$ over $he l,"% a"d edias$i"al re%io"s a"d $he desire $o i +le e"$ /ea$,res s,ch as i a%e +rocessi"%. $eleradiolo%y a"d di%i$al archivi"% a"d re$rieval sys$e s ?PAC8@- Tesic e$ al ?&('F@ described a si"%le-li"esca""i"% di%i$al sys$e /or ches$ radio%ra+hy which ,sed a" array o/ &E7O discre$e +ho$odiodes co,+led $o a %adoli"i, o*ys,l+hide +hos+hor- This re<,ired a sca" $i e o/ O-) s a"d +rovided a li i$i"% s+a$ial resol,$io" o/ & cycleI - Good a" e$ al ?&(''@ a"d Draser e$ al ?&('(@ reviewed $he s$re"%$hs a"d wea0"esses o/ vario,s a++roaches $o di%i$al ches$ radio%ra+hy available a$ $ha$ $i e- They ide"$iLed $he +o$e"$ial /or di%i$al ches$ radio%ra+hy while i"dica$i"% i +rove e"$s $ha$ wo,ld be "ecessary /or $he $ech"i<,e $o beco e acce+$ed by radiolo%is$s- Di%i$al sys$e s /or s,b$rac$io" a"%io%ra+hy a"d /or so e $y+es o/ +ro;ec$io" radio%ra+hy are "ow i" wides+read cli"ical ,se a"d s+eciali2ed sys$e s /or de a"di"% a++lica$io"s s,ch as a o%ra+hy are c,rre"$ly ,"der develo+ e"$- The availabili$y o/ s,ch di%i$al sys$e s will +o$e"$ially +er i$ $he i"$rod,c$io" o/ co +,$er-aided dia%"osis ?Cha" e$ al &('M. Gi%er e$ al &((E@- There have bee" several +revio,s reviews o/ di%i$al i a%i"% de$ec$or $ech"olo%y. "o$ably by Ro,%eo$ ?&((F@-


X-ray Co +,$ed To o%ra+hy ?CT@ is a "o"des$r,c$ive $ech"i<,e /or vis,ali2i"% i"$erior /ea$,res wi$hi" solid ob;ec$s. a"d /or ob$ai"i"% di%i$al i"/or a$io" o" $heir F-D %eo e$ries a"d +ro+er$ies-

8how ca+$io" A CT i a%e is $y+ically called a slice. as i$ corres+o"ds $o wha$ $he ob;ec$ bei"% sca""ed wo,ld loo0 li0e i/ i$ were sliced o+e" alo"% a +la"e- A" eve" be$$er a"alo%y is a slice /ro a loa/ o/ bread. beca,se ;,s$ as a slice o/ bread has a $hic0"ess. a CT slice corres+o"ds $o a cer$ai" $hic0"ess o/ $he ob;ec$ bei"% sca""ed- 8o. while a $y+ical di%i$al i a%e is co +osed o/ +i*els ?+ic$,re ele e"$s@. a CT slice i a%e is co +osed o/ vo*els?vol, e ele e"$s@Ta0i"% $he a"alo%y o"e s$e+ /,r$her. ;,s$ as a loa/ o/ bread ca" be reco"s$i$,$ed by s$ac0i"% all o/ i$s slices. a co +le$e vol, e$ric re+rese"$a$io" o/ a" ob;ec$ is ob$ai"ed by ac<,iri"% a co"$i%,o,s se$ o/ CT slicesThe %ray levels i" a CT slice i a%e corres+o"d $o X-ray a$$e",a$io". which re/lec$s $he +ro+or$io" o/ X-rays sca$$ered or absorbed as $hey +ass $hro,%h each vo*el- X-ray a$$e",a$io" is +ri arily a /,"c$io" o/ X-ray e"er%y a"d $he de"si$y a"d co +osi$io" o/ $he a$erial bei"% i a%ed-

D,"da e"$al Pri"ci+les o/ X-ray Co +,$ed To o%ra+hy ?CT@

To o%ra+hic i a%i"% co"sis$s o/ direc$i"% X-rays a$ a" ob;ec$ /ro ,l$i+le orie"$a$io"s a"d eas,ri"% $he decrease i" i"$e"si$y alo"% a series o/ li"ear +a$hs- This decrease is charac$eri2ed by =eer>s 6aw. which describes i"$e"si$y red,c$io" as a /,"c$io" o/ X-ray e"er%y. +a$h le"%$h. a"d a$erial li"ear a$$e",a$io" coe//icie"$- A s+eciali2ed al%ori$h is $he" ,sed $o reco"s$r,c$ $he dis$rib,$io" o/ X-ray a$$e",a$io" i" $he vol, e bei"% i a%ed-

Image Reconstruction
Dield o/ Ciew CT i a%es are reco"s$r,c$ed /ro a++ro*i a$ely &EEE +ro;ec$io"s $ha$ are ac<,ired as $he *-ray $,be ro$a$es $hro,%h FAEP aro,"d $he ob;ec$ ?+a$ie"$@- The ac<,isi$io" %eo e$ry is de/i"ed by $he ac<,isi$io" Dield o/ Ciew which is de$er i"ed by $he /a" bea a"%le. a"d will de$er i"e $he a*i , +ossible si2e o/ reco"s$r,c$ed i a%e- The ac<,isi$io" DOC is $y+ically 7)E /or head CT sca"s. b,$ ca" be as lar%e as )EE /or body i a%i"%- I"creasi"% $he ac<,isi$io" DOC re<,ires $he ,se o/ a lar%er /a" bea a"%le. achieved by ad;,s$ e"$ o/ colli a$io". a"d i"creasi"% $he ", ber o/ de$ec$ors ,sed whe" ac<,iri"% $he raw +ro;ec$io" da$aO"ce $he +ro;ec$io" da$a have bee" ac<,ired. o+era$ors ca" choose $he si2e o/ $he reco"s$r,c$io" /ield o/ view ?DOC@- The a;ori$y o/ CT i a%es have a reco"s$r,c$ed DOC $ha$ is se$ e<,al $o $he si2e o/ $he +a$ie"$ bei"% i a%ed. as de+ic$ed by $he $wo le/$ i a%es i" Di%,re G- I" $his e*a +le. $he DOC o/ 7)E $o%e$her wi$h a a$ri* si2e o/ )&7 res,l$s i" a +i*el si2e o/ QE-) $ha$ corres+o"ds $o $he achievable s+a$ial resol,$io" +er/or a"ce- I/ $he ac<,ired +ro;ec$io" da$a se$ are ,sed $o reco"s$r,c$ a" i a%e wi$h a s aller /ield o/ view ?ri%h$ i a%es i" Di%,re G@. $he +i*el si2e is "ow E-7) ?&7) DOC divided by )&7 a$ri* si2e@. a"d $he achievable resol,$io" has i +roved by abo,$ a /ac$or o/ $wo or so-I$ is i +or$a"$ $o "o$e $ha$ reco"s$r,c$i"% wi$h a s aller DOC ,s$ be do"e /ro $he ac<,ired ?raw@ +ro;ec$io" da$a se$. a"d "o$ /ro $he reco"s$r,c$ed i a%es show" i" Di%,re G ?ri%h$@. a"d ca" o"ly be a++lied $o $he ce"$ral re%io" o/ $he reco"s$r,c$ed i a%e- There is also a li i$ $o $he i +rove e"$ i" s+a$ial resol,$io" $ha$ is achievable by red,ci"% $he reco"s$r,c$io" DOC. si"ce addi$io"al /ac$ors ?i-e-. /ocal s+o$ si2e. o$io". a"d de$ec$or si2e@ li i$ $he achievable s+a$ial resol,$io"- As a ro,%h %,ide. $he achievable s+a$ial resol,$io" +er/or a"ce i" "or al CT i a%i"% is Q E-M l+I . a"d $his ca" be a++ro*i a$ely do,bled $o Q &-) l+I by $he ,se o/ $he 2oo /ea$,re- A corollary o/ $his /i"di"% is $ha$ i/ $he reco"s$r,c$ed DOC is selec$ed so $ha$ i$ is lar%er $ha" $he ob;ec$ bei"% i a%ed ?Di%,re H@. $here will be a loss o/ s+a$ial resol,$io" +er/or a"ce bei"% o/ $he i"creased +i*el si2e- I" Di%,re H. i"creasi"% $he reco"s$r,c$io" DOC /ro F)E ?ri%h$@ $o )EE ?le/$@ i"creases $he +i*el si2e /ro QE-M $o Q& -

Di%,re G- I a%es o/ a s0,ll +ha"$o reco"s$r,c$ed wi$h a DOC $ha$ e"co +asses $he whole head ?i-e-. 7) c @. as show" by $he $wo sec$io"s o" $he le/$. or 2oo ed i"$o a s aller DOC ?i-e-. &7-) c @ as show" by $he $wo sec$io"s o" $he ri%h$-

Di%,re H- I a%es o/ a body +ha"$o ac<,ired o" a /o,r slice CT sca""er wi$h a )E c /ield o/ view- The $wo i a%es o" $he le/$ were reco"s$r,c$ed ,si"% a )EE reco"s$r,c$io" /ield o/ view. whereas as $he i a%es o" $he ri%h$ ,sed a reco"s$r,c$io" DOC o/ F)E Reco"s$r,c$io" Dil$er CT a0es ,se o/ /il$ered bac0 +ro;ec$io" reco"s$r,c$io" $ech"i<,es. whereby each +ro;ec$io" is co"volved wi$h a 3/il$er4. a"d $he" bac0 +ro;ec$ed- Whe" $his +roced,re is +er/or ed /or all &EEE or so +ro;ec$io"s. i$ is +ossible $o achieve a +er/ec$ reco"s$r,c$io" o/ $he sca""ed ob;ec$- A s+ecial /il$er. 0"ow" as $he ra + /il$er. will achieve a +er/ec$ reco"s$r,c$io". b,$ will also co"$ai" hi%h levels o/ i a%e "oise- I$ is +ossible $o odi/y $he sha+e o/ $he reco"s$r,c$io" /il$er $o red,ce $he a o,"$ o/ i a%e "oise. b,$ a$ $he +rice o/ so e loss i" s+a$ial resol,$io" +er/or a"ce-

5os$ co ercial CT sca""ers o//er $he ,ser a choice o/ reco"s$r,c$io" /il$ers where each /il$er o//ers varyi"% de%rees o/ i a%e "oise. b,$ a$ $he +rice o/ so e loss o/ s+a$ial resol,$io" +er/or a"ceDi%,re I shows a" e*a +le o/ CT i a%es o/ a s0,ll +ha"$o . where o"e se$ o/ +ro;ec$io" i a%es was ac<,ired a"d s,bse<,e"$ly ,sed $o %e"era$e /o,r se$s o/ i a%es ,si"% /o,r reco"s$r,c$io" /il$ers $ha$ are available o" $his co ercial CT sca""er- Dor each o/ $he i a%es show" i" Di%,re I. $he ea" HU val,e i" $he re%io" o/ i"$eres$ re ai"s co"s$a"$ wi$h reco"s$r,c$io" /il$er ?i-e-. Q&FF HU@- I a%e "oise. however. varies ar0edly wi$h choice o/ reco"s$r,c$io" /il$erR 8o/$ Q M-O HU: De$ail Q&7 HU: =o"e Q FE HU: a"d Bd%e Q )) HU- The a o,"$ o/ "oise is $h,s see" $o vary by ore $ha" a /ac$or o/ seve". de+e"di"% o" $he choice o/ reco"s$r,c$io" /il$er ,sed $o %e"era$e $hese /il$ered bac0 +ro;ec$io" i a%es- Di%,re S a"d ! show blow ,+ i a%es o/ bo"y s$r,c$,res $ha$ clearly ill,s$ra$e $he $rade o// be$wee" "oise a"d s+a$ial resol,$io" +er/or a"ce o//ered by $hese reco"s$r,c$io" /il$ers- No$e $he loss o/ shar+"ess whe" ,si"% a 8o/$ reco"s$r,c$io" /il$er. a"d $he "oise i a%es whe" ,si"% a" Bd%e reco"s$r,c$io" Dil$erDi%,re 6 shows a series o/ CT i a%es ob$ai"ed ,si"% a body +ha"$o - As wi$h $he s0,ll +ha"$o i a%es. /or each o/ $he i a%es show" i" Di%,re 6. $he ea" HU val,e i" $he re%io" o/ i"$eres$ re ai"s co"s$a"$ wi$h reco"s$r,c$io" /il$er ?i-e-. Q&OO HU@- I a%e "oise. however. varies ar0edly wi$h choice o/ reco"s$r,c$io" /il$erR 8o/$ Q '-) HU: De$ail Q&& HU: =o"e Q 7) HU: a"d Bd%e Q F( HU- Di%,re 5 a"d N show blow ,+ i a%es o/ bo"y s$r,c$,res $ha$ clearly ill,s$ra$e $he $rade o// be$wee" "oise a"d s+a$ial resol,$io" +er/or a"ce o//ered by $he reco"s$r,c$io" /il$ers o" $his co ercial CT sca""er-

Di%,re I- CT i a%es o/ a" a"$hro+o or+hic head +ha"$o reco"s$r,c$ed /ro $he sa e +ro;ec$io" da$a se$ ,si"% /o,r di//ere"$ $y+es o/ reco"s$r,c$io" /il$er ?8o/$. ,++er le/$: De$ail. ,++er ri%h$: =o"e. lower le/$: Bd%e. lower ri%h$@ o" a GB 6i%h$8+eed CT sca""er-

Di%,re S- 8 all re%io" o/ i"$eres$ o/ $he s0,ll +ha"$o reco"s$r,c$ed ,si"% /o,r /il$ers ?8o/$. ,++er le/$: De$ail. ,++er ri%h$: =o"e. lower le/$: Bd%e. lower ri%h$@showi"% $he $rade o// be$wee" %ood resol,$io" ?i-e- Bd%e@ a"d low "oise ?i-e-. 8o/$@-

Di%,re !- 8 all re%io" o/ i"$eres$ o/ $he s0,ll +ha"$o reco"s$r,c$ed ,si"% /o,r /il$ers ?8o/$. ,++er le/$: De$ail. ,++er ri%h$: =o"e. lower le/$: Bd%e. lower ri%h$@showi"% $he $rade o// be$wee" %ood resol,$io" ?i-e- Bd%e@ a"d low "oise ?i-e-. 8o/$@-

Di%,re 6- CT i a%es o/ a" a"$hro+o or+hic body +ha"$o reco"s$r,c$ed /ro $he sa e +ro;ec$io" da$a se$ o/ $he s+i"e ,si"% /o,r di//ere"$ $y+es o/ reco"s$r,c$io" /il$er ?8o/$. ,++er le/$: De$ail. ,++er ri%h$: =o"e. lower le/$: Bd%e. lower ri%h$@ o" a GB 6i%h$8+eed CT sca""er-

Di%,re 5- 8 all re%io" o/ i"$eres$ o/ $he s+i"e +ha"$o reco"s$r,c$ed ,si"% /o,r /il$ers ?8o/$. ,++er le/$: De$ail. ,++er ri%h$: =o"e. lower le/$: Bd%e. lower ri%h$@ o" a GB 6i%h$8+eed CT sca""er-

Di%,re N- 8 all re%io" o/ i"$eres$ o/ $he +elvis +ha"$o reco"s$r,c$ed ,si"% /o,r /il$ers ?8o/$. ,++er le/$: De$ail. ,++er ri%h$: =o"e. lower le/$: Bd%e. lower ri%h$@ o" a GB 6i%h$8+eed CT sca""er-

=ac0%ro,"d o/ Cardiac I a%i"%

The ro$a$io" o/ $he ac<,isi$io" sys$e . $he %a"$ry. co es alo"% wi$h a $i e-de+e"de"ce +ro;ec$io" da$a ,sed /or i a%e reco"s$r,c$io"- Whe" +er/or i"% a s$a"dard i a%e reco"s a /il$ered bac0+ro;ec$io". all $hese +ro;ec$io" da$a are $a0e" i"$o acco,"$ wi$ho,$ co"sid $i e- This li i$ed $e +oral resol,$io" i" $he case o/ cardiac CT leads $o o$io" ar$i/ac$s s$a"dard i a%e reco"s$r,c$io" al%ori$h s- To overco e $he res$ric$ed i a%e <,ali$y $he r al%ori$h ca" be sy"chro"i2ed wi$h $he ob;ec$>s ove e"$ ,"der $he ass, +$io" o/ a <,a o$io" o/ $he ob;ec$- O"ly +ro;ec$io" da$a o/ $he sa e o$io" +hase are ,sed /or $he i reco"s$r,c$io". while $he +ro;ec$io" da$a ac<,ired d,ri"% o$her +hases do "o$ co"$rib,$e I" $his way. $he $e +oral resol,$io" ca" be i"creased ar$i/icially a"d $he ob;ec$ ca" be i <,asi-s$a$ic way-

B*a +le o/ cardiac i a%es ,si"% +hase-correla$ed reco"s$r,c$io"R coro"al view ?le/$@ ? MEE@ a"d vol, e re"dered i a%e ?ri%h$@

C6JNJCA6 U8B Today. $he a;ori$y o/ $he radio%ra+hic e*a i"a$io"s i" a oder" hos+i$al are +er/or ed di%i$ally- X-ray i a%es ca" be s$a$ic or dy"a ic- 8$a$ic or s$ill i a%es
(a) (b)

Figure 3.29 Cone-beam CT scanners for the oral and maxillofacial area. (a) Iluma CT (Imtec). (Courtesy of "#ennen$ %& "int-'an$ (rugge.) (b) i-C%T CT (Imaging "ciences International). (Courtesy of r. ). )ad*mi$ +eu#feest,linie,$ %nt#er-en.) (a) (b)

r. !.

C6JNJCA6 U8B CT The ai" vir$,e o/ X-ray co +,$ed $o o%ra+hy is i$s abili$y $o +rod,ce a series o/ cross-sec$io"al i a%es

Di%,re F-F) 8che a$ic view o/ $he

dy"a ic s+a$ial reco"s$r,c$or ?D8R@- &O X-ray $,bes are +laced o" a &AET circ,lar arc a"d &O $elevisio" ca eras are loca$ed dia e$rically o++osi$e $o $he X-ray $,bes-I a%e +rovided co,r$esy o/ Richard A-