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X-rays were discovered by Wilhel !o"rad R#"\$%e" i" &'() while he was e*+eri e"\$i"% wi\$h ca\$hode \$,bes- I" \$hese e*+eri e"\$s. he ,sed /l,oresce"\$ scree"s. which s\$ar\$ %lowi"% whe" s\$r,c0 by li%h\$ e i\$\$ed /ro \$he \$,be- To R#"\$%e"1s s,r+rise. \$his e//ec\$ +ersis\$ed eve" whe" \$he \$,be was +laced i" a car\$o" bo*- He soo" reali2ed \$ha\$ \$he \$,be was e i\$\$i"% "o\$ o"ly li%h\$. b,\$ also a "ew 0i"d o/ radia\$io". which he called X-rays beca,se o/ \$heir ys\$erio,s "a\$,re- This "ew 0i"d o/ radia\$io" co,ld "o\$ o"ly \$ravel \$hro,%h \$he bo*- R#"\$%e" /o,"d o,\$ \$ha\$ i\$ was a\$\$e",a\$ed i" a di//ere"\$ way by vario,s 0i"ds o/ a\$erials a"d \$ha\$ i\$ co,ld. li0e li%h\$. be ca+\$,red o" a +ho\$o%ra+hic +la\$e- This o+e"ed ,+ \$he way /or i\$s ,se i" edici"e-The /irs\$ 3R#"\$%e" +ic\$,re4 o/ a ha"d was ade soo" a/\$er \$he discovery o/ Xrays- No ore \$ha" a /ew o"\$hs la\$er. radio%ra+hs were already ,sed i" cli"ical +rac\$ice- The "a\$,re o/ X-rays as shor\$-wave elec\$ro a%"e\$ic radia\$io" was es\$ablished by 5a* vo" 6a,e i" &(&7-

INTRODUCTION X RAY8
I" la\$e &'(). a Ger a" +hysicis\$. W- C- Roe"\$%e" was wor0i"% wi\$h a ca\$hode ray \$,be i" his labora\$ory- He was wor0i"% wi\$h \$,bes si ilar \$o o,r /l,oresce"\$ li%h\$ b,lbs- He evac,a\$ed \$he \$,be o/ all air. /illed i\$ wi\$h a s+ecial %as. a"d +assed a hi%h elec\$ric vol\$a%e \$hro,%h i\$- Whe" he did \$his. \$he \$,be wo,ld +rod,ce a /l,oresce"\$ %low- Roe"\$%e" shielded \$he \$,be wi\$h heavy blac0 +a+er. a"d /o,"d \$ha\$ a %ree" colored /l,oresce"\$ li%h\$ co,ld be see" co i"% /ro a scree" se\$\$i"% a /ew /ee\$ away /ro \$he \$,be- He reali2ed \$ha\$ he had +rod,ced a +revio,sly ,"0"ow" 9i"visible li%h\$.9 or ray. \$ha\$ was bei"% e i\$\$ed /ro \$he \$,be : a ray \$ha\$ was ca+able o/ +assi"% \$hro,%h \$he heavy +a+er coveri"% \$he \$,be- Thro,%h addi\$io"al e*+eri e"\$s. he also /o,"d \$ha\$ \$he "ew ray wo,ld +ass \$hro,%h os\$ s,bs\$a"ces cas\$i"% shadows o/ solid ob;ec\$s o" +ieces o/ /il - He "a ed \$he "ew ray X-ray. beca,se i" a\$he a\$ics 9X9 is ,sed \$o i"dica\$ed \$he ,"0"ow" <,a"\$i\$y-

I" his discovery Roe"\$%e" /o,"d \$ha\$ \$he X-ray wo,ld +ass \$hro,%h \$he \$iss,e o/ h, a"s leavi"% \$he bo"es a"d e\$als visible- O"e o/ Roe"\$%e"1s /irs\$ e*+eri e"\$s la\$e i" &'() was a /il o/ his wi/e =er\$ha>s ha"d wi\$h a ri"% o" her /i"%er ?show" below o" ri%h\$@- The "ews o/ Roe"\$%e"1s discovery s+read <,ic0ly \$hro,%ho,\$ \$he world- 8cie"\$is\$s everywhere co,ld d,+lica\$e his e*+eri e"\$ beca,se \$he ca\$hode \$,be was very well 0"ow" d,ri"% \$his +eriod- I" early &'(A. X-rays were bei"% ,\$ili2ed cli"ically i" \$he U"i\$ed 8\$a\$es /or s,ch \$hi"%s as bo"e /rac\$,res a"d %," sho\$ wo,"ds-

## Ta0e a loo0 a\$ \$hese early *-rays-

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B6BCTRO5AGNBTIC 8PB!TRU5

## NBXT. THB DI8COCBRY OD RADIOACTICB B6B5BNT8

8,bse<,e"\$ \$o Roe"\$%e">s discovery o/ X-rays. i" &'(A a Dre"ch scie"\$is\$ He"ri =ec<,erel was e*+eri e"\$i"% wi\$h a ,ra"i, co +o,"d- While i"ves\$i%a\$i"% \$he +ro+er\$ies o/ /l,oresce"\$ i"erals. i\$ was =ec<,erel who discovered \$ha\$ cer\$ai" \$y+es o/ a\$o s disi"\$e%ra\$e by \$he selvesWhe" wor0i"% o" \$he +ri"ci+les o/ /l,oresce"ce. he ,\$ili2ed +ho\$o%ra+hic /il \$o record /l,oresce"ce o/ vario,s i"erals whe" e*+osed \$o s,"li%h\$O"e o/ \$he i"erals =ec<,erel wor0ed wi\$h was a ,ra"i, co +o,"d- The e*+eri e"\$ "or ally co"sis\$ed o/ wra++i"% so e +ho\$o%ra+hic /il i" li%h\$ +roo/ +a+er. +laci"% a +iece o/ /l,oresce"\$ ,ra"i, o" \$o+ o/ \$he /il . a"d leavi"% \$he i" \$he s,"- O"e day. a/\$er +re+ari"% \$he e*+eri e"\$. i\$ was \$oo clo,dy \$o e*+ose his sa +les \$o direc\$ s,"li%h\$. so he s\$ored \$he ,ra"i, co +o,"d a"d \$he /il i" a drawer- A co,+le o/ days la\$er. he decided \$o develo+ \$his /il a"yway. a"d discovered a" i a%e o/ \$he ,ra"i, sa +le o" \$he /il - =ec<,erel <,es\$io"ed wha\$ wo,ld have ca,sed \$his- He 0"ew he had wra++ed \$he /il \$i%h\$ly i" li%h\$ +roo/ +a+er. so \$he i a%e was "o\$ d,e \$o s\$ray li%h\$I" addi\$io". he "o\$iced \$ha\$ o"ly \$he /il \$ha\$ was i" \$he drawer wi\$h \$he ,ra"i, co +o,"d had a" i a%e o" i\$- =ec<,erel co"cl,ded \$ha\$ \$he ,ra"i, co +o,"d %ave o// so e\$hi"% i"visible \$ha\$ co,ld +e"e\$ra\$e heavy +a+er a"d a//ec\$ +ho\$o%ra+hic /il - =ec<,erel co"\$i",ed \$o \$es\$ a"y sa +les o/ co +o,"ds a"d de\$er i"ed \$ha\$ \$he so,rce o/ \$he i"visible so e\$hi"% was \$he ele e"\$ ,ra"i, - This i"visible so e\$hi"% was "a ed radia\$io". a"d i\$ was de\$er i"ed \$ha\$ a" ele e"\$ \$ha\$ %ives o// radia\$io" is a radioac\$ive ele e"\$- Today. we 0"ow ,ra"i, as o"e o/ \$he radioac\$ive ele e"\$s- Dor his discovery o/ radioac\$ivi\$y. =ec<,erel was awarded \$he &(EF Nobel Pri2e /or +hysics-

## =elow are a series o/ +ho\$o%ra+hs a"d a radio%ra+h o/ \$he sa e ob;ec\$s-

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--------------There are several charac\$eris\$ics o/ \$he +ho\$o%ra+hs a"d *-ray +ho\$o%ra+hs \$ha\$ are si ilar. a"d ye\$. \$here are very dis\$i"c\$ di//ere"ces- Radio%ra+hy a"d +ho\$o%ra+hy bo\$h o/\$e" ,se so e \$y+e o/ /il \$o record \$he i a%e- The +ri"ci+le di//ere"ce is i" how \$he i a%e is recorded o" \$he /il I" +ho\$o%ra+hy. \$he i a%e o" \$he /il is +rod,ced d,e \$o \$he re/lec\$io" o/ li%h\$- Whe" yo, wa"\$ \$o \$a0e a +ic\$,re. yo, ,se a ca era. which has a sh,\$\$er \$ha\$ o+e"s a"d closes allowi"% li%h\$ \$o e"\$er a"d s\$ri0e \$he /il The a o,"\$ o/ li%h\$ \$ha\$ i"\$erac\$s wi\$h \$he /il de\$er i"es how \$he i a%e a++ears o" \$he /il -

I" radio%ra+hy. \$he +rocess \$o +rod,ce a" i a%e is <,i\$e di//ere"\$- The ca era is ac\$,ally a radia\$io" so,rce a"d i\$ o+era\$es <,i\$e di//ere"\$ly \$ha" a +ho\$o%ra+hic ca era- The /il is "o\$ +laced i"side \$he ca era b,\$ i"s\$ead is +laced o" \$he o++osi\$e side o/ \$he ob;ec\$ bei"% i a%ed- The radia\$io" is "o\$ re/lec\$ed \$o \$he /il . b,\$ ra\$her +asses \$hro,%h \$he ob;ec\$ a"d \$he" s\$ri0es \$he /il - The i a%e o" \$he /il is de+e"de"\$ ,+o" how ,ch o/ \$he radia\$io" a0es i\$ \$hro,%h \$he ob;ec\$ a"d \$o \$he /il - 8o e a\$erials li0e bo"e a"d e\$al s\$o+ ore o/ \$he radia\$io" /ro +assi"% \$hro,%h \$ha" do a\$erials li0e /lesh a"d +las\$ic- The a o,"\$ o/ a\$erial \$ha\$ \$he X-rays ,s\$ \$ravel \$hro,%h also a//ec\$s how a"y X-rays reach \$he /il Di//ere"ces i" \$he \$y+e o/ a\$erial a"d \$he a o,"\$ o/ a\$erial \$ha\$ \$he Xrays ,s\$ +e"e\$ra\$e are res+o"sible /or \$he de\$ails i" \$he i a%e-

## INTBRACTION OD X-RAY8 WITH 5ATTBR

R#"\$%e"1s s\$,dies i" \$he la\$e "i"e\$ee"\$h a"d early \$we"\$ie\$h ce"\$,ries <,ic0ly es\$ablished \$he +e"e\$ra\$i"% "a\$,re o/ X-Rays. a"d \$he +o\$e"\$ial /or edical i a%i"% was soo" reali2ed- However. \$he i"\$erac\$io" o/ X-Rays wi\$h a\$\$er is ore co +le* \$ha" si +ly G+assi"% \$hro,%h1- O" reachi"% a a\$erial. so e o/ \$he *-rays will be absorbed. a"d so e sca\$\$ered H i/ "ei\$her +rocess occ,rs. \$he X-Rays will be \$ra"s i\$\$ed \$hro,%h \$he a\$erialWhe" absor+\$io" occ,rs. \$he X-Rays i"\$erac\$ wi\$h \$he a\$erial a\$ \$he a\$o ic level. a"d ca" ca,se s,bse<,e"\$ /l,oresce"ce H i\$ is \$his X-Ray Dl,oresce"ce which /or s \$he basis o/ XRD s+ec\$rosco+y. a"d \$he +rocess is disc,ssed i" ore de\$ail i" \$he "e*\$ sec\$io"- I" addi\$io" \$o \$he absor+\$io"I/l,oresce"ce +rocess. \$he X-Rays ca" also be sca\$\$ered /ro \$he a\$erial- This sca\$\$eri"% ca" occ,r bo\$h wi\$h a"d wi\$ho,\$ loss o/ e"er%y. called Co +\$o" a"d Raylei%h sca\$\$eri"% res+ec\$ivelyThe ra\$io o/ absor+\$io"I/l,oresce"ce. Co +\$o" a"d Raylei%h sca\$\$er a"d \$ra"s issio" de+e"ds o" \$he sa +le \$hic0"ess. de"si\$y a"d co +osi\$io". a"d \$he X-Ray e"er%y.

## PHY8JC8 K THB DBTBCTJON OD 5BDJCA6 XRAY8

X-rays ca" \$ravel \$hro,%h a lar%e a o,"\$ o/ a\$erial wi\$ho,\$ i"\$erac\$i"% wi\$h \$he a\$\$er i" \$he a\$erial- This +ro+er\$y a0es *-rays a val,able \$ool /or dia%"osi"% +roble s wi\$hi" \$he body- O/ co,rse. \$o be ,se/,l \$he *-rays ,s\$ crea\$e so e \$y+e o/ +ic\$,re which +hysicia"s ca" see a"d i"\$er+re\$- Dro \$he \$i e \$ha\$ R#"\$%e" recorded \$he /irs\$ *-ray +ic\$,re ,"\$il "ow. \$he +ri ary recordi"% edi, has bee" /il - Th,s. we are +rese"\$ed wi\$h a s all +arado*- We "eed radia\$io" \$ha\$ will \$ravel \$hro,%h vario,s de"si\$ies /o,"d i" \$he h, a" body. ye\$ we "eed \$ha\$ sa e radia\$io" \$o i"\$erac\$ wi\$h \$he olec,les i" a +iece o/ /il -

R#"\$%e">s sol,\$io" was \$o e*+ose \$he +erso" a"d \$he /il /or a very lo"% \$i e- Dor \$he +ic\$,re o/ his wi/e>s R#"\$%e" e*+osed \$he /il ?a"d his wi/e@ \$o *rays /or &) i",\$es- \$his +roced,re was cer\$ai"ly X-ray o/ =er\$ha "o\$ heal\$hy /or 5rs- R#"\$%e" or /or a"yo"e else i" R#"\$%e">s ha"d \$he labora\$ory a\$ \$he \$i e+rod,ced o" Nove ber '.&'()-

Today. a" *-ray o/ ,ch hi%her <,ali\$y wo,ld re<,ire a /rac\$io" o/ a seco"d \$o +rod,ce- =eca,se o/ \$he shor\$ e*+os,re \$i es. \$he +a\$ie"\$ a"d \$he \$ech"icia"s who are o+era\$i"% \$he achi"es are "o\$ e*+osed \$o da"%ero,s radia\$io"- The cha"%es over \$he +as\$ ce"\$,ry are \$he res,l\$ \$he a++lica\$io" o/ basic +ri"ci+les o/ +hysics-

## 5oder" *-ray o/ a ha"d-

I" addi\$io". e\$hods o/ crea\$i"% i a%es wi\$h ,si"% /il are "ow readily available a"d rela\$ively easy \$o ,se- These e\$hods i"volve o\$her +ri"ci+les o/ +hysics. so e o/ which have bee" discovered si"ce R#"\$%e">s \$i e- Wi\$h all o/ \$he \$he +hysicia" ob\$ai"s hi%h <,ali\$y. hi%h resol,\$io" i a%es wi\$h very s all e*+os,res \$o \$he radia\$io"- Th,s. by a++lyi"% +hysical +ri"ci+les scie"\$is\$s have crea\$ed a sa/e a"d e//ec\$ive dia%"os\$ic \$ool /ro a +o\$e"\$ially da"%ero,s discoveryWe have "o\$ /o,"d %e"eral web si\$es which disc,ss \$his iss,e- 5os\$ o/ \$he are rela\$ed \$o a s+eci/ic +roced,re or e\$hod a"d will a++ear o" \$he +a%es abo,\$ \$he +hysics i"volved i" de\$ec\$i"% low i"\$e"si\$y *-rays-

## X-RAY DBTBCTOR8 DOR DJGJTA6 RADJOGRAPHY

The be"eL\$s o/ ac<,isi\$io" o/ edical radiolo%ical i a%es i" di%i\$al /or <,ic0ly beca e obvio,s /ollowi"% \$he i"\$rod,c\$io" o/ co +,\$ed \$o o%ra+hy ?CT@ by Ho,"sLeld ?&(MF@-These be"eL\$s i"cl,de %rea\$er +recisio" o/ recordi"% \$he i"/or a\$io". i"creased Ne*ibili\$y o/ dis+lay charac\$eris\$ics a"d ease o/ \$ra"s i\$\$i"% i a%es /ro o"e loca\$io" \$o a"o\$her overco ,"ica\$io"s "e\$wor0s-Co +,\$ed \$o o%ra+hy is a ra\$her so+his\$ica\$ed a++lica\$io" o/ di%i\$al radio%ra+hy. a"d ore rece"\$ly. di%i\$al a++roaches \$o si +ler. ore ai"s\$rea i a%i"% \$ech"i<,es s,ch as a"%io%ra+hy a"d co"ve"\$io"al +ro;ec\$io" radio%ra+hy as well as \$o ,l\$raso,"d a"d ",clear edici"e i a%i"% have bee" develo+ed- Par\$ o/ \$he reaso" /or \$his chro"olo%y was \$ha\$ CT was i edia\$ely acce+\$ed beca,se o/ \$he obvio,s be"eL\$s o/ \$r,e \$ra"sverse \$o o%ra+hy a"d \$he abili\$y o/ CT \$o dis+lay s,b\$le di//ere"ces i" \$iss,e a\$\$e",a\$io"- These o,\$wei%hed \$he desire /or hi%h s+a\$ial resol,\$io" which co,ld "o\$ be achieved wi\$h \$he coarse de\$ec\$ors a"d li i\$ed co +,\$er

ca+aci\$y available a\$ \$he \$i e. b,\$ which co,ld be ob\$ai"ed wi\$h 8\$a"dard radio%ra+hic +ro;ec\$io" i a%i"%-The develo+ e"\$ o/ i +roved de\$ec\$or \$ech"olo%ies. as well as ,ch ore +ower/,l co +,\$ers. hi%h-resol,\$io" di%i\$al dis+lays a"d laser o,\$+,\$ devices was "ecessary be/ore di%i\$al radio%ra+hy co,ld +ro%ress /,r\$her- I"i\$ially. i\$ was \$ho,%h\$ \$ha\$ di%i\$al radio%ra+hy wo,ld have \$o a\$ch \$he very de a"di"% li i\$i"% s+a\$ial resol,\$io" +er/or a"ce o/ Ll based i a%i"%- However. Ll i a%i"% is o/\$e" li i\$ed by a lac0 o/ e*+os,re la\$i\$,de d,e \$o \$he Ll 1s charac\$eris\$ic c,rve a"d by "oise associa\$ed wi\$h Ll %ra",lari\$y a"d i"e/Lcie"\$ ,se o/ \$he i"cide"\$ radia\$io"- D,r\$her e*+erie"ce has s,%%es\$ed \$ha\$ a hi%h val,e o/ li i\$i"% resol,\$io" is "o\$ as i +or\$a"\$ as \$he abili\$y \$o +rovide e*celle"\$ i a%e co"\$ras\$ over a wide la\$i\$,de o/ *-ray e*+os,res /or all s+a\$ial /re<,e"cies ,+ \$o a ore odes\$ li i\$i"% resol,\$io" ?Ya//e &((O@- A di%i\$al radio%ra+hic sys\$e ca" +rovide s,ch +er/or a"ce. as well as allowi"% \$he i +le e"\$a\$io" o/ co +,\$er i a%e +rocessi"% \$ech"i<,es. di%i\$al archivi"% a"d \$ra"s issio" o/ i a%es a"d e*\$rac\$io" o/ edically ,se/,l <,a"\$i\$a\$ive i"/or a\$io" /ro \$he i a%esHis\$orically. \$here has bee" a s\$ro"% i"\$eres\$ i" develo+i"% di%i\$al i a%i"% sys\$e s /or ches\$ radio%ra+hy beca,se o/ \$he i"here"\$ wea0"esses o/ Ll scree" sys\$e s i" +rovidi"% ade<,a\$e la\$i\$,de a"d si ,l\$a"eo,sly %ood co"\$ras\$ over \$he l,"% a"d edias\$i"al re%io"s a"d \$he desire \$o i +le e"\$ /ea\$,res s,ch as i a%e +rocessi"%. \$eleradiolo%y a"d di%i\$al archivi"% a"d re\$rieval sys\$e s ?PAC8@- Tesic e\$ al ?&('F@ described a si"%le-li"esca""i"% di%i\$al sys\$e /or ches\$ radio%ra+hy which ,sed a" array o/ &E7O discre\$e +ho\$odiodes co,+led \$o a %adoli"i, o*ys,l+hide +hos+hor- This re<,ired a sca" \$i e o/ O-) s a"d +rovided a li i\$i"% s+a\$ial resol,\$io" o/ & cycleI - Good a" e\$ al ?&(''@ a"d Draser e\$ al ?&('(@ reviewed \$he s\$re"%\$hs a"d wea0"esses o/ vario,s a++roaches \$o di%i\$al ches\$ radio%ra+hy available a\$ \$ha\$ \$i e- They ide"\$iLed \$he +o\$e"\$ial /or di%i\$al ches\$ radio%ra+hy while i"dica\$i"% i +rove e"\$s \$ha\$ wo,ld be "ecessary /or \$he \$ech"i<,e \$o beco e acce+\$ed by radiolo%is\$s- Di%i\$al sys\$e s /or s,b\$rac\$io" a"%io%ra+hy a"d /or so e \$y+es o/ +ro;ec\$io" radio%ra+hy are "ow i" wides+read cli"ical ,se a"d s+eciali2ed sys\$e s /or de a"di"% a++lica\$io"s s,ch as a o%ra+hy are c,rre"\$ly ,"der develo+ e"\$- The availabili\$y o/ s,ch di%i\$al sys\$e s will +o\$e"\$ially +er i\$ \$he i"\$rod,c\$io" o/ co +,\$er-aided dia%"osis ?Cha" e\$ al &('M. Gi%er e\$ al &((E@- There have bee" several +revio,s reviews o/ di%i\$al i a%i"% de\$ec\$or \$ech"olo%y. "o\$ably by Ro,%eo\$ ?&((F@-

## X-RAY DBTBCTION CO5PUTBD TO5OGRAPHY ?CT@

X-ray Co +,\$ed To o%ra+hy ?CT@ is a "o"des\$r,c\$ive \$ech"i<,e /or vis,ali2i"% i"\$erior /ea\$,res wi\$hi" solid ob;ec\$s. a"d /or ob\$ai"i"% di%i\$al i"/or a\$io" o" \$heir F-D %eo e\$ries a"d +ro+er\$ies-

8how ca+\$io" A CT i a%e is \$y+ically called a slice. as i\$ corres+o"ds \$o wha\$ \$he ob;ec\$ bei"% sca""ed wo,ld loo0 li0e i/ i\$ were sliced o+e" alo"% a +la"e- A" eve" be\$\$er a"alo%y is a slice /ro a loa/ o/ bread. beca,se ;,s\$ as a slice o/ bread has a \$hic0"ess. a CT slice corres+o"ds \$o a cer\$ai" \$hic0"ess o/ \$he ob;ec\$ bei"% sca""ed- 8o. while a \$y+ical di%i\$al i a%e is co +osed o/ +i*els ?+ic\$,re ele e"\$s@. a CT slice i a%e is co +osed o/ vo*els?vol, e ele e"\$s@Ta0i"% \$he a"alo%y o"e s\$e+ /,r\$her. ;,s\$ as a loa/ o/ bread ca" be reco"s\$i\$,\$ed by s\$ac0i"% all o/ i\$s slices. a co +le\$e vol, e\$ric re+rese"\$a\$io" o/ a" ob;ec\$ is ob\$ai"ed by ac<,iri"% a co"\$i%,o,s se\$ o/ CT slicesThe %ray levels i" a CT slice i a%e corres+o"d \$o X-ray a\$\$e",a\$io". which re/lec\$s \$he +ro+or\$io" o/ X-rays sca\$\$ered or absorbed as \$hey +ass \$hro,%h each vo*el- X-ray a\$\$e",a\$io" is +ri arily a /,"c\$io" o/ X-ray e"er%y a"d \$he de"si\$y a"d co +osi\$io" o/ \$he a\$erial bei"% i a%ed-

## D,"da e"\$al Pri"ci+les o/ X-ray Co +,\$ed To o%ra+hy ?CT@

To o%ra+hic i a%i"% co"sis\$s o/ direc\$i"% X-rays a\$ a" ob;ec\$ /ro ,l\$i+le orie"\$a\$io"s a"d eas,ri"% \$he decrease i" i"\$e"si\$y alo"% a series o/ li"ear +a\$hs- This decrease is charac\$eri2ed by =eer>s 6aw. which describes i"\$e"si\$y red,c\$io" as a /,"c\$io" o/ X-ray e"er%y. +a\$h le"%\$h. a"d a\$erial li"ear a\$\$e",a\$io" coe//icie"\$- A s+eciali2ed al%ori\$h is \$he" ,sed \$o reco"s\$r,c\$ \$he dis\$rib,\$io" o/ X-ray a\$\$e",a\$io" i" \$he vol, e bei"% i a%ed-

Image Reconstruction
Dield o/ Ciew CT i a%es are reco"s\$r,c\$ed /ro a++ro*i a\$ely &EEE +ro;ec\$io"s \$ha\$ are ac<,ired as \$he *-ray \$,be ro\$a\$es \$hro,%h FAEP aro,"d \$he ob;ec\$ ?+a\$ie"\$@- The ac<,isi\$io" %eo e\$ry is de/i"ed by \$he ac<,isi\$io" Dield o/ Ciew which is de\$er i"ed by \$he /a" bea a"%le. a"d will de\$er i"e \$he a*i , +ossible si2e o/ reco"s\$r,c\$ed i a%e- The ac<,isi\$io" DOC is \$y+ically 7)E /or head CT sca"s. b,\$ ca" be as lar%e as )EE /or body i a%i"%- I"creasi"% \$he ac<,isi\$io" DOC re<,ires \$he ,se o/ a lar%er /a" bea a"%le. achieved by ad;,s\$ e"\$ o/ colli a\$io". a"d i"creasi"% \$he ", ber o/ de\$ec\$ors ,sed whe" ac<,iri"% \$he raw +ro;ec\$io" da\$aO"ce \$he +ro;ec\$io" da\$a have bee" ac<,ired. o+era\$ors ca" choose \$he si2e o/ \$he reco"s\$r,c\$io" /ield o/ view ?DOC@- The a;ori\$y o/ CT i a%es have a reco"s\$r,c\$ed DOC \$ha\$ is se\$ e<,al \$o \$he si2e o/ \$he +a\$ie"\$ bei"% i a%ed. as de+ic\$ed by \$he \$wo le/\$ i a%es i" Di%,re G- I" \$his e*a +le. \$he DOC o/ 7)E \$o%e\$her wi\$h a a\$ri* si2e o/ )&7 res,l\$s i" a +i*el si2e o/ QE-) \$ha\$ corres+o"ds \$o \$he achievable s+a\$ial resol,\$io" +er/or a"ce- I/ \$he ac<,ired +ro;ec\$io" da\$a se\$ are ,sed \$o reco"s\$r,c\$ a" i a%e wi\$h a s aller /ield o/ view ?ri%h\$ i a%es i" Di%,re G@. \$he +i*el si2e is "ow E-7) ?&7) DOC divided by )&7 a\$ri* si2e@. a"d \$he achievable resol,\$io" has i +roved by abo,\$ a /ac\$or o/ \$wo or so-I\$ is i +or\$a"\$ \$o "o\$e \$ha\$ reco"s\$r,c\$i"% wi\$h a s aller DOC ,s\$ be do"e /ro \$he ac<,ired ?raw@ +ro;ec\$io" da\$a se\$. a"d "o\$ /ro \$he reco"s\$r,c\$ed i a%es show" i" Di%,re G ?ri%h\$@. a"d ca" o"ly be a++lied \$o \$he ce"\$ral re%io" o/ \$he reco"s\$r,c\$ed i a%e- There is also a li i\$ \$o \$he i +rove e"\$ i" s+a\$ial resol,\$io" \$ha\$ is achievable by red,ci"% \$he reco"s\$r,c\$io" DOC. si"ce addi\$io"al /ac\$ors ?i-e-. /ocal s+o\$ si2e. o\$io". a"d de\$ec\$or si2e@ li i\$ \$he achievable s+a\$ial resol,\$io"- As a ro,%h %,ide. \$he achievable s+a\$ial resol,\$io" +er/or a"ce i" "or al CT i a%i"% is Q E-M l+I . a"d \$his ca" be a++ro*i a\$ely do,bled \$o Q &-) l+I by \$he ,se o/ \$he 2oo /ea\$,re- A corollary o/ \$his /i"di"% is \$ha\$ i/ \$he reco"s\$r,c\$ed DOC is selec\$ed so \$ha\$ i\$ is lar%er \$ha" \$he ob;ec\$ bei"% i a%ed ?Di%,re H@. \$here will be a loss o/ s+a\$ial resol,\$io" +er/or a"ce bei"% o/ \$he i"creased +i*el si2e- I" Di%,re H. i"creasi"% \$he reco"s\$r,c\$io" DOC /ro F)E ?ri%h\$@ \$o )EE ?le/\$@ i"creases \$he +i*el si2e /ro QE-M \$o Q& -

Di%,re G- I a%es o/ a s0,ll +ha"\$o reco"s\$r,c\$ed wi\$h a DOC \$ha\$ e"co +asses \$he whole head ?i-e-. 7) c @. as show" by \$he \$wo sec\$io"s o" \$he le/\$. or 2oo ed i"\$o a s aller DOC ?i-e-. &7-) c @ as show" by \$he \$wo sec\$io"s o" \$he ri%h\$-

Di%,re H- I a%es o/ a body +ha"\$o ac<,ired o" a /o,r slice CT sca""er wi\$h a )E c /ield o/ view- The \$wo i a%es o" \$he le/\$ were reco"s\$r,c\$ed ,si"% a )EE reco"s\$r,c\$io" /ield o/ view. whereas as \$he i a%es o" \$he ri%h\$ ,sed a reco"s\$r,c\$io" DOC o/ F)E Reco"s\$r,c\$io" Dil\$er CT a0es ,se o/ /il\$ered bac0 +ro;ec\$io" reco"s\$r,c\$io" \$ech"i<,es. whereby each +ro;ec\$io" is co"volved wi\$h a 3/il\$er4. a"d \$he" bac0 +ro;ec\$ed- Whe" \$his +roced,re is +er/or ed /or all &EEE or so +ro;ec\$io"s. i\$ is +ossible \$o achieve a +er/ec\$ reco"s\$r,c\$io" o/ \$he sca""ed ob;ec\$- A s+ecial /il\$er. 0"ow" as \$he ra + /il\$er. will achieve a +er/ec\$ reco"s\$r,c\$io". b,\$ will also co"\$ai" hi%h levels o/ i a%e "oise- I\$ is +ossible \$o odi/y \$he sha+e o/ \$he reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$er \$o red,ce \$he a o,"\$ o/ i a%e "oise. b,\$ a\$ \$he +rice o/ so e loss i" s+a\$ial resol,\$io" +er/or a"ce-

5os\$ co ercial CT sca""ers o//er \$he ,ser a choice o/ reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$ers where each /il\$er o//ers varyi"% de%rees o/ i a%e "oise. b,\$ a\$ \$he +rice o/ so e loss o/ s+a\$ial resol,\$io" +er/or a"ceDi%,re I shows a" e*a +le o/ CT i a%es o/ a s0,ll +ha"\$o . where o"e se\$ o/ +ro;ec\$io" i a%es was ac<,ired a"d s,bse<,e"\$ly ,sed \$o %e"era\$e /o,r se\$s o/ i a%es ,si"% /o,r reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$ers \$ha\$ are available o" \$his co ercial CT sca""er- Dor each o/ \$he i a%es show" i" Di%,re I. \$he ea" HU val,e i" \$he re%io" o/ i"\$eres\$ re ai"s co"s\$a"\$ wi\$h reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$er ?i-e-. Q&FF HU@- I a%e "oise. however. varies ar0edly wi\$h choice o/ reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$erR 8o/\$ Q M-O HU: De\$ail Q&7 HU: =o"e Q FE HU: a"d Bd%e Q )) HU- The a o,"\$ o/ "oise is \$h,s see" \$o vary by ore \$ha" a /ac\$or o/ seve". de+e"di"% o" \$he choice o/ reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$er ,sed \$o %e"era\$e \$hese /il\$ered bac0 +ro;ec\$io" i a%es- Di%,re S a"d ! show blow ,+ i a%es o/ bo"y s\$r,c\$,res \$ha\$ clearly ill,s\$ra\$e \$he \$rade o// be\$wee" "oise a"d s+a\$ial resol,\$io" +er/or a"ce o//ered by \$hese reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$ers- No\$e \$he loss o/ shar+"ess whe" ,si"% a 8o/\$ reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$er. a"d \$he "oise i a%es whe" ,si"% a" Bd%e reco"s\$r,c\$io" Dil\$erDi%,re 6 shows a series o/ CT i a%es ob\$ai"ed ,si"% a body +ha"\$o - As wi\$h \$he s0,ll +ha"\$o i a%es. /or each o/ \$he i a%es show" i" Di%,re 6. \$he ea" HU val,e i" \$he re%io" o/ i"\$eres\$ re ai"s co"s\$a"\$ wi\$h reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$er ?i-e-. Q&OO HU@- I a%e "oise. however. varies ar0edly wi\$h choice o/ reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$erR 8o/\$ Q '-) HU: De\$ail Q&& HU: =o"e Q 7) HU: a"d Bd%e Q F( HU- Di%,re 5 a"d N show blow ,+ i a%es o/ bo"y s\$r,c\$,res \$ha\$ clearly ill,s\$ra\$e \$he \$rade o// be\$wee" "oise a"d s+a\$ial resol,\$io" +er/or a"ce o//ered by \$he reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$ers o" \$his co ercial CT sca""er-

Di%,re I- CT i a%es o/ a" a"\$hro+o or+hic head +ha"\$o reco"s\$r,c\$ed /ro \$he sa e +ro;ec\$io" da\$a se\$ ,si"% /o,r di//ere"\$ \$y+es o/ reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$er ?8o/\$. ,++er le/\$: De\$ail. ,++er ri%h\$: =o"e. lower le/\$: Bd%e. lower ri%h\$@ o" a GB 6i%h\$8+eed CT sca""er-

Di%,re S- 8 all re%io" o/ i"\$eres\$ o/ \$he s0,ll +ha"\$o reco"s\$r,c\$ed ,si"% /o,r /il\$ers ?8o/\$. ,++er le/\$: De\$ail. ,++er ri%h\$: =o"e. lower le/\$: Bd%e. lower ri%h\$@showi"% \$he \$rade o// be\$wee" %ood resol,\$io" ?i-e- Bd%e@ a"d low "oise ?i-e-. 8o/\$@-

Di%,re !- 8 all re%io" o/ i"\$eres\$ o/ \$he s0,ll +ha"\$o reco"s\$r,c\$ed ,si"% /o,r /il\$ers ?8o/\$. ,++er le/\$: De\$ail. ,++er ri%h\$: =o"e. lower le/\$: Bd%e. lower ri%h\$@showi"% \$he \$rade o// be\$wee" %ood resol,\$io" ?i-e- Bd%e@ a"d low "oise ?i-e-. 8o/\$@-

Di%,re 6- CT i a%es o/ a" a"\$hro+o or+hic body +ha"\$o reco"s\$r,c\$ed /ro \$he sa e +ro;ec\$io" da\$a se\$ o/ \$he s+i"e ,si"% /o,r di//ere"\$ \$y+es o/ reco"s\$r,c\$io" /il\$er ?8o/\$. ,++er le/\$: De\$ail. ,++er ri%h\$: =o"e. lower le/\$: Bd%e. lower ri%h\$@ o" a GB 6i%h\$8+eed CT sca""er-

Di%,re 5- 8 all re%io" o/ i"\$eres\$ o/ \$he s+i"e +ha"\$o reco"s\$r,c\$ed ,si"% /o,r /il\$ers ?8o/\$. ,++er le/\$: De\$ail. ,++er ri%h\$: =o"e. lower le/\$: Bd%e. lower ri%h\$@ o" a GB 6i%h\$8+eed CT sca""er-

Di%,re N- 8 all re%io" o/ i"\$eres\$ o/ \$he +elvis +ha"\$o reco"s\$r,c\$ed ,si"% /o,r /il\$ers ?8o/\$. ,++er le/\$: De\$ail. ,++er ri%h\$: =o"e. lower le/\$: Bd%e. lower ri%h\$@ o" a GB 6i%h\$8+eed CT sca""er-

## =ac0%ro,"d o/ Cardiac I a%i"%

The ro\$a\$io" o/ \$he ac<,isi\$io" sys\$e . \$he %a"\$ry. co es alo"% wi\$h a \$i e-de+e"de"ce +ro;ec\$io" da\$a ,sed /or i a%e reco"s\$r,c\$io"- Whe" +er/or i"% a s\$a"dard i a%e reco"s a /il\$ered bac0+ro;ec\$io". all \$hese +ro;ec\$io" da\$a are \$a0e" i"\$o acco,"\$ wi\$ho,\$ co"sid \$i e- This li i\$ed \$e +oral resol,\$io" i" \$he case o/ cardiac CT leads \$o o\$io" ar\$i/ac\$s s\$a"dard i a%e reco"s\$r,c\$io" al%ori\$h s- To overco e \$he res\$ric\$ed i a%e <,ali\$y \$he r al%ori\$h ca" be sy"chro"i2ed wi\$h \$he ob;ec\$>s ove e"\$ ,"der \$he ass, +\$io" o/ a <,a o\$io" o/ \$he ob;ec\$- O"ly +ro;ec\$io" da\$a o/ \$he sa e o\$io" +hase are ,sed /or \$he i reco"s\$r,c\$io". while \$he +ro;ec\$io" da\$a ac<,ired d,ri"% o\$her +hases do "o\$ co"\$rib,\$e I" \$his way. \$he \$e +oral resol,\$io" ca" be i"creased ar\$i/icially a"d \$he ob;ec\$ ca" be i <,asi-s\$a\$ic way-

B*a +le o/ cardiac i a%es ,si"% +hase-correla\$ed reco"s\$r,c\$io"R coro"al view ?le/\$@ ? MEE@ a"d vol, e re"dered i a%e ?ri%h\$@

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(a) (b)

Figure 3.29 Cone-beam CT scanners for the oral and maxillofacial area. (a) Iluma CT (Imtec). (Courtesy of "#ennen\$ %& "int-'an\$ (rugge.) (b) i-C%T CT (Imaging "ciences International). (Courtesy of r. ). )ad*mi\$ +eu#feest,linie,\$ %nt#er-en.) (a) (b)

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## Di%,re F-F) 8che a\$ic view o/ \$he

dy"a ic s+a\$ial reco"s\$r,c\$or ?D8R@- &O X-ray \$,bes are +laced o" a &AET circ,lar arc a"d &O \$elevisio" ca eras are loca\$ed dia e\$rically o++osi\$e \$o \$he X-ray \$,bes-I a%e +rovided co,r\$esy o/ Richard A-

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