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BASIC

RS Rhodes & LB Cook

ENGINEERING

DRAWING
R S
M Weld

RHODES

J, Diploma in Advanced Studies in Education. Lecturer responsible for Engineering Drawing Stafford College of Further Education.

L B

COOK

B A (Hons), MIED, Cert Ed. Lecturer in Engineering Drawing Stafford College of Further Education.

Pitman Publishing

PITMAN PUBLISHING LIMITED 39 Parker Street London WC2B 5PB

Associated Companies Copp Clark Ltd, Toronto Fearon-Pitman Publishers Inc, Belmont, California Pitman Publishing New Zealand Ltd, Wellington Pitman Publishing Pty Ltd, Melbourne

R S Rhodes & L B Cook

1975, 1978

First published in Great Britain 1975 reprinted (with corrections and amendments) 1978

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording and/or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publishers. This book may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of by way of trade in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published, without the prior consent of the publishers.

Camera copy prepared by Morgan-Westley Printed in Great Britain by Unwin Brothers Ltd The Gresham Press, Old Woking, Surrey A member of the Staples Printing Group ACCESSION
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No.

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ISBN:
273 3187 X

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This book contains what we consider to be the "basics" of Engineering Drawing. Orthographic Projection, Conventions, Sectioning, Pictorial Representation and Dimensioning have been covered in detail as we feel that a thorough understanding of these topics forms a sound foundation upon which to build. All technical information, examples, exercises and solutions have been compiled in accordance with the latest "metric" drawing office standards - B.S. 308:1972. The book has not been written for any specific course but can be profitably used both by students being introduced to Engineering Drawing and also by those who have acquired a little knowledge of the subject and wish to consolidate and increase their understanding by working through carefully graded exercises. It should prove useful for Craft, Technician (T.E.C.), O.N.D., C.S.E. and G.C.E. students and also for those H.N.D. and Degree students with little drawing experience. The book is seen primarily as a student self-educator though no doubt many teachers will find it useful as a reference source and/or exercise "bank" Topics have been presented in a similar manner wherever possible. Generally the opening page introduces the topic, the next imparts the basic facts - visually rather than verbally wherever possible. An illustrative example is provided to aid understanding and this is followed by a series of carefully graded exercises. We are well aware of the dangers of presenting exercises which are known to contain errors. They have been included because in our experience they are the common misconceptions among students of engineering drawing. In all cases the correct method and answers are given, sometimes immediately following the example, or in the solutions at the end of the book. It must be emphasized that this book not only transmits information it is also a work-book. Do not be afraid of drawing and writing on the pages! If maximum benefit is to be derived from the book then the old maxim, "I do and I understand" must be the students' guide. We thank those people whose observations and suggestions have helped us improve upon the first edition of the book. We also wish to thank the British Standards Institution for allowing, usf to use extracts from B.S. 308:1972.

Contents
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
1

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION: FIRST ANGLE Lines 5 Missing detail 11 Missing views 12 Sketching orthographic views 13

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION: THIRD ANGLE Comparison of first and third angle projection
SECTIONING
The rules of sectioning 22 Sectioning : exceptions 23 Staggered section planes 24 Exercises 25

14

15
21

TERMINOLOGY

33
36

ABBREVIATIONS
CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION
Screw threads 38 Springs 39 Shaft details 40 Knurling 41 Bearings 41 Long components 42 Gears 43

38

TESTS Test for terminology 45 Test for abbreviations 46 Test for conventional representations 47 Test for abbreviations > terminology j and conventional representations 48

45

PICTORIAL DRAWING

49

PICTORIAL DRAWING: ISOMETRIC

50

Inclined edges 51 Exercises 52 55 Construction of ellipses Examples 5 7 Exercises 58 59 Isometric freehand drawing

PICTORIAL DRAWING: OBLIQUE


62 Methods of construction Inclined edges 63 Methods of constructing oblique circles Methods of constructing oblique ellipses Examples 66

61

64 65

DIMENSIONING

68
*

Arrangement of dimensions 73 Dimensioning circles 74 Dimensioning radii Dimensioning angles 75 Designation of plain holes 77 Location dimensions Exercises 78

72

76

LIMITS AND FITS FOR HOLES AND SHAFTS


86 Limit systems 87 Fit Conventional method of illustrating terms

84

89
91

ISO METRIC SCREW THREADS

Designation 92 Screw threads 3 nuts and bolts 94 Nuts and bolts exercises

93

ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS
96 General assembly 98 Sectioned assembly 99 Exercises

95

DEVELOPMENTS

105

PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT


RADIAL LINE DEVELOPMENT
Pyramids 120 Right cones 124

106

120

TRIANGULATION

130

SOLUTIONS

136
-

First angle orthographic projection 137 Third angle orthographic projection 140 Sectioning 144 Terminology 3 abbreviations 3 conventional representation Isometric drawing 149 Oblique drawing 153 Dimensioning 155 Limits and fits 161 Sectioned assemblies 162 Developments: parallel line 165 Developments : radial line 172 Developments : triangulation 180

148

Orthographic Projection
Communication
There are many different ways of communicating ideas, information, instructions, requests, etc. They can be transmitted by signs or gestures, by word of mouth, in writing, or graphically. In an industrial context the graphical method is commonly used, communication being achieved by means of engineering drawings. If oral and written communication only were used when dealing with technical matters, misunderstandings could arise, particularly in relation to shape and size. The lack of a universal spoken language makes communication and understanding even more difficult because of the necessity to translate both words and meaning from one language to another. However, the universally accepted methods used in graphical communication through engineering drawings eliminate many of these difficulties and make it possible for drawings prepared by a British designer to be correctly interpreted or "read" by, for example, his German, French or Dutch counterpart. Equally important, the components shown on the drawings could be made by suitably skilled craftsmen of any nationality provided they can "read" an engineering drawing. Conventionally prepared engineering drawings provide the main means of communication between the "ideas" men (the designers and draughtsmen) and the craftsmen (machinists, fitters, assemblers, etc.). For the communication to be effective, everyone concerned must interpret the drawings in the same way. Only then will the finished product be exactly as the designer envisaged it. To ensure uniformity of interpretation the British Standards Institution have prepared a booklet entitled BS 308:1972, Engineering Drawing Practice Now in three parts, this publication recommends the methods which should be adopted for the preparation of drawings used in the engineering industry. The standards and conventions in most common use and hence those required for a basic understanding of Engineering Drawing are illustrated and explained in this book.
.

Orthographic Projection
In the engineering industry communication between the drawing office and the workshop is achieved mainly by means of engineerThe principal method used to prepare these drawings ing drawings. is known as Orthographic Projection. Basically, Orthographic Projection is the representation of a three-dimensional component on a flat surface (the drawing At least two orthographic views, sheet) in two-dimensional form. therefore, are required to indicate fully the shape and size of a If the component is a complicated one then usually component. more than two views are shown to aid understanding. In this country two methods of Orthographic Projection are used. One is known as First Angle Orthographic Projection (often referred to as English Projection) , the other as Third Angle Both methods of Orthographic Projection (American Projection) this section. in explained and illustrated representation are
.

Orthographic Projection: First Angle


The pictorial drawing opposite indicates the shape of the component with a single view. An orthographic drawing indicates the shape of a component by using a number of views each looking at a different face of the component. At least two views are necessary to fully represent the component. Usually, however, three views are shown in order to clarify internal and external detail:
(1) (2) (3)

Fig.l

A Front View A Plan View A Side View

Fig.

(1)

The front view, or front elevation, represents what is seen when looking at the front of the component in the direction of arrow F.

Front View (F)

TTT
1 i i 1
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Fig.

(2)

The plan view represents what is seen when looking at the top of the component in the direction of arrow P at 90 to arrow F.
Plan View
(P)

(3)

A side view, or side elevation, represents what is seen when looking at the side of the component in the direction of either arrow R or arrow L. These arrows are at 90 to both arrow F and arrow P.

View looking in direction of arrow R.

View looking in direction of arrow L.

Ri ght-Hand Side View

Left-Hand
Side View
Fig. 4

(R)

Fig.

(L)

The separate views of the component are combined to form a complete orthographic drawing as shown below. The front and side views are drawn in line with each other so that the side view may be "projected" from the front view and vice versa. The plan view is drawn in line with and below tne front view. In other words, the plan is projected from the front view.

R
1

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I I > < :

Note!

This symbol means


f'irst
.

Angle Ortho-

graphic Projection,

Points to note when making a drawing using First Angle Orthographic Projection:
(1)

Corresponding heights in the front view and side view are


the For the The and

same example, the height of the hole from tne base, H, is same in both front and side views. thickness of the base, T, is the same in both front side views.

(2)

Widths in the side view correspond to depths in the plan. For example, the total width, D, in the side view is the same as the total depth, D, in the plan. The width, d, is the same in both plan and side views.

Projection of widths from side view to plan is made easier by using the 4 5 swing line as shown.
(3)

The plan view is usually projected BELOW the front view. It can be above but this would be called an "inverted" plan.
The R.H. side view is shown on the L.H. side of the front view. The L.H. side view is shown" on the R.H. side of the front view.

(4)

Note:

Drawings should be read (or interpreted) by viewing from the R.H. side or bottom R.H. corner of the drawing.

The orthographic drawing of the bracket, Fig. step by step as follows:

6,

was constructed

STEP

The face to be used as the front view of the component was chosen, in this case, looking in tne direction of arrow F (Fig-1) The selection of the front view is purely arbitrary.
1.
.

STEP

2.

The outline of tne

front view was drawn FAINTLY in the position shown opp-

osite leaving room on the drawing sheet for a plan view and also both end views
to be added.

STEP

3.

The outlines of the

plan view and side views were projected FAINTLY from


the front view and positioned as shown opposite

STEP

4.

All remaining

external details were added and centre lines inserted as shown opposite.

STEP 5.

All hidden detail, i.e. for hole and recess, was added and the outline "heavied-in" to complete the drawing as shown in Fig. 6.

Lines
1

2 3


--

For general engineering drawings, the following types of lines should be used.

Visible outlines Dimension lines Projection lines Construction lines Hatching or section lines Leader lines for notes

Hidden detail
Centre lines ;Pitch circles
(Cutting or viewing planes
(

4
5 6

j
(

(Short break lines Irregular boundary lines

Typical applications of some of the recommended types of lines have been shown in previous figures and are further illustrated below.

Hidden detail: short thin dashes

Centre

lines: long thin chain

Construction lines: thin continuous


(these are erased on
I

completion
of drawing.)

Outlines thick continuous

3HIDDEN DETAIL The line numbered 3 above is used to represent hidden detail, i.e. edges, holes, surfaces, etc., which are known to exist but cannot be seen when viewed from outside the component Note: A hidden detail line is a broken line not a dotted line

The following drawings are further examples of components drawn

correctly in First Angle Orthographic Projection. Study each drawing carefully until you understand how each view is obtained.

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The components shown below are drawn pictorially.

For each component sketch in good ^Xf\<


vided, a front view, a plan view and a l.n. side view. Sketch the front view looking from F. Show all hidden detail. Use first angle projection as shown on the right.
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13

Orthographic Projection: Third Angle


You may remember from information presented earlier in the text that there are two methods of orthographic projection used in the preparation of engineering drawings. You should, by now, be quite conversant with one of them - First Angle Orthographic Projection. The other is known as Third Angle Orthographic Projection.
j

When representing a three-dimensional component in Third Angle Orthographic Projection, the basic views are exactly the same as those shown when using First Angle Orthographic Projection. The difference between First Angle and Third Angle is in the positioning of the views relative to each other.
In Third Angle Orthographic Projection the individual views are placed on the drawing sheet in projection with each other as shown;

'

Note!

This symbol means


PLAN VIEW looking from
P

Third Angle Orthographic Projection.

LEFT-HAND SIDE VIEW looking from L

FRONT VIEW looking from

RIGHT-HAND SIDE VIEW looking from R

Special points
to note:

(1)

The plan is always projected ABOVE the front view


The right-hand side view is shown on the RIGHT-hand side of the front view.

(2)

(3)

The left-hand side view is shown on the LEFT-hand side of the front view.

14

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19

The components below are drawn pictorially. For each component sketch an orthographic drawing, in good proportion, using Third Angle Orthographic Projection. Sketch a front view in the direction of F, a plan view and a right-hand side view showing all hidden detail. Use the 5 mm squared grid on page 6 7 with tracing paper to aid sketching if you wish. Solution on p. 142.

/ f

S
,

I**-

s
1

N \
/

_^
(\
\
*

<%s
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/

r /

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r *\ KJ
-

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\

:: -

\r
I

pH

J \ s^ ^ / \ / \ / > - Sw S f \
_M-<

\ r F

\
s

\^ F

5.

A partly sectioned assembly drawing in shown on page 48. Sketch, in good proportion, using 5 mm squared paper or the grid on page 67, an EXTERNAL front view, side view and plan view of the complete assembly using Third Angle Orthographic Projection. Solns. p. 141 and p. 142

20

Sectioning
Drawings of the outside of simple components are often sufficient to convey all the information necessary to make the component. More complicated components, however, may require sectional views to clarify internal details.
A sectional view is obtained when one imagines the component to be cut through a chosen section plane - often on a centre line.

If the vee-block is cut on section plane C-C as shown above, the resulting sectional view projected from the plan replaces the usual front view of the outside of the block.

End view

-E3

Sectional Front View looking on cutting plane C-C

Sectional views are drawn only when it is necessary to explain the construction of a complex object or assembly. Some of tne examples used in the next few pages have been chosen to illustrate the rules of sectioning although in practice, as in the case of the vee-block drawn above, a sectional view may not have been necessary
The draughtsman has to decide how a component or assembly should be sectioned in order to provide the fullest possible information. The recommendations of BS 308 enable him to do this in a way tnat is understood by all engineers.

21

The
1.

rules of sectioning
Size of sectioned part determines line spacing - preferably not less than 4 mm.

A sectioned object is shown by lines drawn preferably at 45' Thin lines touch the outline.

2.

If two adjacent parts

'/ti

are sectioned, the

section lines are

drawn in opposite

directions

y ///, >^

Wk

Lines are staggered

where the parts are in contact.

Where more than two parts of an assembly


are to be sectioned,

Section lines are closer together on


the third area

the lines cannot all


be opposite.

usually the smallest

The sectional view of a symmetrical object is obtained when the section plane cuts through the obvious centre line. Hatching may be omitted if the meaning is clear without it.

V///X
A

cz
5.

If an object is NOT

Secti onal

Vi ew

symmetrical the section plane chosen should be

clearly stated,

^-j

Section A-A

22

Sectioning: exceptions
There are a number of features and parts which are NOT normallysectioned even though they may lie in the section plane. A good way to accept these exceptions to the general rule is to imagine how complicated the drawing would look if they were sectioned. They are sectioned, however, when they lie ACROSS the section plane. See section D-D. *

Sectioned shaft is more difficult to visualize than it is when not sectioned.

Shaft lying
n the secti on plane
i

Secti onal End View

BS 308 states that the following are NOT sectioned even if they lie in a given section plane:

Shafts Cotters

Keys Bolts

Rivets Gear Wheels

Ribs Nuts

Pins Webs

Dowels Washers

Some of these are illustrated in BS 308 by this diagram:

Shaft
(

Spindle)

Washer
Section D-D Cas ting only

23

Staggered section planes


Each part of the section plane is swung to the vertical before projecting to the sectional End View. By using this convention the draughtsman avoids using too many auxiliary views.
Section X-X

Examples

A staggered section plane should only be used when there is a resulting gain in clarity.

-*-r
!

IM T
B
Section A-A Re-al igned

1<t3>
.

n,

T
B

Section B-B Staggered or offset

Applications of this convention to specific cases are given below.

Spoke
Solid

Section C-C
Re vol ved

Section D-D Revol ved

Section E-E
Revol ved

24

Errors in sectioning occur in each of the drawings below. Trace or re-draw a correct sectional view in each case. State the method of projection used where applicable. Solns. p. 144

25

~.

I
H

V
-d

A
Example

N
V
i

qj
7 'A

h
v,
~d

-4.

e
i
i

7"

PT

W
YZA K
From the lettered drawings choose the correct sectional view for each numbered drawing. Sketch the view in the space provided. Solns. p. 144
26

I M
EZ
7

(XX)
\y
K
-LLL

rv

td
M

}
r\

a
cffi

f\

10

..1

Q
From the lettered drawings choose the correct sectional view for each numbered drawing. Sketch the view in the space provided. Solns. p. 144

-e*
27

Sectioning exercises
Solns. p. 145

'j

-i
i

T
c
1. 2.

Complete the sectional front view looking on plane C-C, Complete the sectional end view looking on plane B-B.

End View

Section E-E

F^(Both holes

right through)

1. 2. 3.

Draw an end view looking in the direction of arrows F-F. Complete the sectional front view looking on plane D-D. Complete the sectional end view looking on plane E-E.

28

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29

Sectioning exercises

Solns. p. 146

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30

Sectioning exercises

Solns

p. 146

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32

Information on Engineering Drawings


Communication between the drawing office and the workshop is mainly achieved via the engineering drawing - orthographic and/or pictorial. In order to reduce drafting time a number of standard parts are drawn in a simplified form and many items of written information are abbreviated. In BS 308 Part 1:1972 recommendations have been made for
'

Conventional representation of commonly used parts Abbreviations of terms frequently used on drawings.

&

materials and

Before this engineers' "shorthand" can be used correctly it is necessary to understand the terms used to describe features of engineering components. This terminology is common to both drawing office and workshop and is often used when discussing the various manufacturing and machining processes used in engineering.

Terminology
HOUSING
a "male"

A component into which

mating part fits, sits

or is "housed".

BUSH
Bush

A removable sleeve or liner.

Known alternatively as a simple


Fig. shows a flanged bush.

(bearing) bearing.

BASE

(or FOOT)

That part upon

Vee Block

which the component rests

RECESSED SURFACE

Ensures better

seating of the base.


Recessed Surface
Base or Foot

Minimises

machining of the base.


BOSS
A cylindrical projection on
-

Curved Slot

the surface of a component

usually a casting or a forging.

CURVED SLOT

An elongated hole

whose centre line lies on an arc.


Boss

Usually used on components whose

position has to be adjusted.


33

Terminology
FILLET
A rounded portion, or
radius, suppressing a sharp

Rib

internal corner.
RIB
Fillet:

A reinforcement positioned

to stiffen surfaces usually at

right angles to each other


KEY

A small block or wedge

inserted between a shaft and

mating part

(a

hub)

to prevent

circumferential movement.
KEYWAY
or slot

A parallel sided groove


cut in a bore or on a

shaft to 'house' a mating key.


Tee Groove
(slot)

Flat FLAT
A surface

machined
parallel to
the shaft axis.

Usually used to
TEE SLOT Machined to "house" mating fixing bolts and prevent them turning
locate and/or lock a mating component.

HEXAGON HEAD BOLT

HEXAGON HEAD SCREW

TAPER PIN
STUD

DOWEL PIN

COTTER or SPLIT PIN

f4=* Note thread lengths

n
A cylindrical A pin pin used to locate mating used for parts, fastening

(3D

4=4=^1

yj

Used for fastening

34

Terminology
Many different types of holes may be seen on engineering drawings.
The more common ones, associated with drilling, reaming and/or
tapping, are shown below in Fig.l.
The name and where appropriate

the application of each is indicated.

Figures

and

indicate the different terms which may be seen on

drawings that are associated particularly with lathe work.


1
1

///
i 1

Fig.l

//
1. 2.
3.

1 7/
.
.

y//
s\
1

4.
5.

A drilled hole or, if greater accuracy is required, a reamed hole, A 'blind' tapped hole i.e., a threaded hole which passes only part way through the plate. A countersunk hole. Provides a mating seat for a countersunk headed screw or rivet. A oounterbore Provides a 'housing' for the heads of capscrews bolts, etc. A spotfaae A much shallower circular recess. Provides a machined seat for nuts, bolt heads, washers, etc.

//7
/

7///

w>

Straight Knurling

Shoulder

Undercut (or groove)

Chamfer

Keyway
F
i

Taper
g
.

Domed or Spherical End

Standard Centre

This is a machining symbol. (It indicates that a surface is to be machined, without defining either the surface texture grade or process to be used)

Radius

Collar or Flange

Splines

Fig.

35

Abbreviations
Many terms and expressions in engineering need to be written on drawings so frequently as to justify the use of abbreviations which help to reduce drafting time and costs. Many of these abbreviations have been standardized as can be seen in BS 308: 1972: section 11. A selection of the more commonly used ones are stated and clarified in the following tables.

ABBREVIATION

MEANING
Across corners

SKETCH/NOTES

A/C

A/F
HEX HD
ASSY
CRS

Across flats
HEX HO

Hexagon head

Assembly
Centres

See page 96

"W~

25 CRS

or CL

Centre line

CHAM
CH HD

Chamfered
Cheese head

CHAM

^
I

^
U

+
^
I

*4s

CH HD

]S

SCREW
^5

CSK
C'BORE

Countersunk
Counterbore
Cylinder or cylindrical
Diameter
(in a note)

CSK SCREW
C'BORE

-CSK

CYL
DIA

t
R

Diameter (preceding a dimension) Radius (preceding a dimension, capital only)


Drawing

DRG
FIG.

Figure
Left hand
Long

LH LG
MATL
NO.

Material
Number

36

ABBREVIATION

MEANING
Pattern number

SKETCH/NOTES

PATT

NO.

PCD

Pitch circle diameter


Inside diameter

4 HOLES
& 3 e<?u/s PACED ON 16 PCD

,/D
0/ D RH
RD HD

Outside diameter

Right hand
Round head
Screwed
/^r*\
L *

RD HD SCREW
S ' FACE

SCR

SPEC
S'FACE

Specification
Spotf ace

SO

Square (in a note)

Square (preceding a dimension)

See page 4 for conventional representation

STD
U CUT

Standard Undercut

M/CD

Machined
Millimetre
Not to scale

mm
NTS

RPM

Revolutions per minute


Standard wire gauge
Threads per inch

SI symbol: rev/min

SWG
TPI
L
*

Abbreviations commonly used in practice but not listed in


BS 308: Part 1:

1972

Notes
(1) (2)

(3)

Abbreviations are the same in the singular and plural. Capital letters are shown above, lower case letters may be used where appropriate. For other abbreviations upper or lower case letters should be used as specified by other relevant British Standards. Full stops are not used except when the abbreviation makes a word which may be confusing, e.g. NO. for 'number'.

37

Conventional Representation of Common Features: Screw threads


There are many components commonly used in engineering which are complicated to draw in full. In order to save drawing time, these parts are shown in a simplified, conventional form. Some of the more frequently drawn features are shown in this section.
Subject - STUD

Convention
The screw thread is represented by two parallel lines. The distance between these lines is approximately equal to the depth of thread.
Note The inside line is THIN and the circle is broken \

i;

4
External Screw Thread (Stud, bolt, set-screw, etc.)

b.

Front view

Side view

TAPPED "BLIND HOLE"

The shape of the hole formed by the tapping size drill is drawn in heavy lines.
Note

Section lines cross the thread

The outside line is THIN and the circle is broken

V
^
/

H
Front view
Side view

Internal Screw Thread


STUD INSIDE TAPPED HOLE

The external thread is superimposed over the internal thread.


Note

Section lines are not drawn across the external thread.

Screw Threads
(Assembly)
38

Front view

Side view

Conventional representation: Springs


A spring is designated by stating the diameter of the wire, the coil diameter (inside or outside), the form of the spring ends, the total number of coils and its free length - See BS 1726. In the case of the compression spring, the pitch of the coils may be deduced from its free length and number of coils.

Subject

Convention

t_I

?I

*I

COMPRESSION SPRING
Note

Diameter
of wire

The construction on the right shows how the convention may be drawn from the spring details. Extreme accuracy is not essential; for example, a radius gauge may be used for the small radii.

This method is only used for quick diagrammatic sketches

TENSION SPRING
Note

The construction on the right shows once again how the pitch of the coils may be used to set out the convention.

Diagrammatic representation

39

Conventional representation: Shaft Details


It is frequently necessary to fix a component to one end of a shaft or spindle so that a torque may be transmitted. Examples below are:
(1) (2) (3)

Square on shaft Serrated shaft Splined shaft

Machine handles, valve wheel spindle. Typical example - steering wheel to column on car, Drive shaft on machine or vehicle when sliding also has to take place, e.g. in a gear box.
Subject

Convention
See page 96 for square on valve spindle.

SQUARE ON the end of a long SHAFT

^
Side view

The enlarged sketch shows how the serrations may be constructed

SERRATED SHAFT
Note

Thirty-six serrations are shown for convenience only

Vi

ew on

serrated end

Note Only a few teeth need be shown

Splines are usually drawn with parallel sides as emphasized in the enlarged sketch

SPLINED SHAFT
Note

Twelve splines are shown for convenience only

View on splined end

Refer to section on terminology - page 35

40

Conventional representation: Knurling


Knurling is a common method of providing a roughened surface to aid tightening or slackening of a screw by hand. This is formed by pressing special rollers against the surface of the component whilst it revolves in a lathe. The commonly used diamond and straight knurls are shown below. Subject Convention

s*m*wm**&

>

i
I'-'.:':"

>

DIAMOND KNURL on a machine screw head


t
*\

JT'
*'',

ft

STRAIGHT KNURL on
a circuit terminal

Bearings
Notice how ich less drawing is necessary in order to represent any ball or roller bearing in a conventional manner
it

E
Cross-section of a double row self-aligning ball bearing.
See assembly drawing on page 103
fl

332
BALL

m
41

Conventions

representat ion

Long Components
There are occasions when bars, shafts, spindles or tubes may be too long to be drawn to a reasonable scale. In such cases the elevation may be interrupted as shown below.
Subject

Convention

RECTANGULAR BAR

CIRCULAR SHAFT OR SPINDLE

HOLLOW SHAFT OR TUBE


Remember that this circle is called the pitch circle diameter or PCD

MULTIPLE HOLES
When a large number of holes of equal diameter are equi-spaced around a diameter or in line, only one hole need be drawn in full with the remainder marked with a short centre-line as shown in the drawings on the right.

Holes on a circular pitch

0-p

-0-

0~"~^

0"

Holes on a linear pitch


42

Conventional representation:

Gears

(1)

Before gears can be drawn a great deal of background knowledge about their nomenclature and construction must be acquired. The following drawings of gears are presented as conventions only.
Subject - GEARS
Convent-ion

Note

Side view of gear

wheel is
in section.

*'!.!

SPUR GEAR
Note

Single spur gear

jL
Si de vi ew

A pinion is so called when it has a relatively small number of teeth compared with its mating gear wheel.

XS
Pinion
In mesh with

a.

pinion

Wheel

WORM AND WHEEL


Worm
and wheel
in mesh.

Worm

43

Conventional representation:

Gears

(2)

A good example of how a complex component may be drawn relatively simply is the bevel gear. The assembly shown below is of a pair of gears of equal size, the direction of motion being changed through an angle of 90. In this arrangement, the gears are often referred to as mitre wheels The gears may be of differing sizes, of course, and the angle between the shafts may be other than 90. In this latter case, the side view of the gear assembly would have to show one gear as an ellipse
Sub j eat

Convention

BEVEL WHEEL

Assembly of a pair of bevel gears set


at 90 to each other.

Note

BS 308: Part I: 1972 deals with a number of features which require to be shown less frequently than those illustrated in this section. They are:

Thread inserts; repeated parts; semi-elliptic springs; conical springs; torsion springs and a rack and pinion.
Summary
In all cases, conventional representation should only be used when it saves drawing time. Where it is not considered adequate, a more detailed view should be shown.

44

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oo
i" rH
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Test for conventional

representations

Select, from the array, the names of the items for which the following diagrams are conventional representations. Insert in the answer column the corresponding number and letter,

Solutions on page 148

Conventional reps
Example

Answer
ARRAY

ea
EL
ET

4C
Worm Wheel

B
Shoulder Knurling
Bevel Gear

;K^-l;
Tension spring
Round Shaft
Spur Gear

External Screw Thread

Splined Shaft

A Resistor
Worm

Break in Rectangular Shaft

Break in Tubular Shaft

^
ri ^
1

Square on Shaft

Form of Machining Symbol

Compression spring

Machine All Over

Internal Screw Thread

Counterbore

8
7
Serrated Shaft

Diamond Knurling

Bearing

10

Weld-

symbol

Collar

Straight Knurling

47

48

Pictorial

Drawing

A component may be represented graphically in various ways. An Orthographic Drawing, for example, requiring a minimum of two views to fully communicate the size and shape of a component, is used in engineering mainly to convey manufacturing instructions from the designer to the craftsman. On the

other hand a well executed Pictorial Drawing, adequately representing all but the most complicated components using one view only, is used mainly as an aid to visualization of
the shape of a component rather than for communicating

detailed instructions for manufacture. A pictorial drawing, generally, is a quickly produced, approximately scaled representation of a component - a "picture" rather than an accurately scaled line drawing. There are many different types of pictorial representation. Two of the most commonly used ones are known as Isometric Drawing and Oblique Drawing both of which are discussed in detail in this section.
There is a method of isometric representation, more precise than the one discussed here, known as Isometric Projection. This method is much more time-consuming, and therefore less commonly used, because all sizes for the drawings have to be transferred from a specially constructed isometric scale. It is the approximate method of representNote!
ation, Isometric Drawing, which is used in this section.

49

Pictorial

Drawing: Isometric

Note: All receding lines are


in

\^

|3 SC1
P

Plan

drawn

at 300. All lines are drawn full-size,

s
Arrow L Arrow D
-

SV/^
Isometric drawing

Looking from LEFT Looking DOWN.

1.

When making an isometric drawing from orthographic views of a component use an isometric grid at first, as shown above. Follow this simple procedure: Choose the direction from which the component is to be viewed so that the resulting isometric drawing will show the most detail of the component. Compare the isometric drawings below.
Example A is drawn looking from the left and down, and is a good representation of the component Example C shows the same detail but is drawn from a different direction.
All of the other drawings fail to; show some of the details of the component.

Draw the outline


of a box into which the component will just fit.

3.

Use distances from the orthographic views to set out points within this box, e.g. P.

Heavy-in the lines when the outline is completed.

50

Isometric drawing: inclined edges


-hdU
square

sometri

When components have sloping surfaces, the edge distances in the orthographic views are transferred to the isometric box as shown by the dimension D in the above example.
-
i

^m-

2iiOlJARtS

o in
(Nl

<

\
E

/
1

A
|

1
1

/
I

I
1

k >
S,

N
.

T -kr

4t (

>

The component shown above has surfaces sloping in two directions resulting in inclined edges, for example, IE. In this case, pairs of distances from the orthographic views are used to plot points within the isometric box. Distances used in this, way for location purposes are called ORDINATES

Note:- The angles of inclination in the orthographic views are never transferred to the isometric box. When I and E have been located, they are joined to produce the correct slope in the isometric drawing.
51

Isometr ic drawi ng exerc:ises


j , |

!
l l ! '

i
j i

P
i

5
>

2
I,
_^
J J |
i i I

V
tr

-! ! 1

"T

k
1

^!^ __l r
i

/
3
i ^

r, ipm
i
! 1

1,

1
I

'

_
r">k^
U_i
|

T<\

1 1

\M /

%/
j

V
\

j
1

v
1

'

'

Make an isometric drawing of each component on tracing paper placed over the isometric grid on page 60. Sizes for the x^ ^__-,^ isometric drawing are obtained by counting the relevant -~~-\4rt/^ number of squares in the orthographic views * v^x J Solutions are given on p. 149.
.

52

2
,
l

V >

V
1
|

"

'
'
i

J
1

3
i

j_

\ -U ^1 ^ - /
I

i
I

qi A
y

U n

.J,
I

/
[

/ /

^/

\ \
\
1

~1
1

n
1 I

-i

j
|

L_

/ f

\ \

/
/

""
1

_,
i

' '

1 '

'

n
_*

Make an isometric drawing of each component shown above using isometric paper. If the isometric grid size differs from that of the squared grid, transfer EQUAL numbers of divisions from the orthoqraphic views to the 1 so met ric dr awi ng S ol ut ic ns are give>n an P ag e 14 9.
<

iff^

-TO.

^T
53

Make an isometric drawing of each component shown above using tracing paper with the isometric grid or using isometric paper. Solutions are given on page 150. Always start with a faintly drawn "isometric box" which provides three faces from which to set out ordinates.

54

Isometric drawing: construction of ellipses


s*
H
B-4 r
I

(1)

^\

\V
s

A shape which is circular on an orthographic view is shown as an ellipse on an isometric drawing. The following constructions illustrate 3 different methods of producing the elliptical shape
Lines, called ordinates, are drawn on the circle in the orthographic view as shown. Corresponding ordinates are drawn on the isometric drawing with the same spacing S. The height H of each ordinate on the true circle is transferred to the corresponding ordinate on the isometric drawing to form the outline These points of the ellipse. are joined with a neat freehand curve The more ordinates, the more accurate the ellipse. As the circle and ellipse are symmetrical, the ordinates need only be constructed in a quarter-circle.

2.

Diagonals are drawn on the orthographic side view as shown on the left.

Horizontal and vertical ordinates are drawn to touch the points where the circle crosses the diagonals.
The ordinates are transferred to the isometric box as shown and the resulting points of intersection P are joined with a neat freehand curve.
As in method 1, only a quarter-circle need be drawn to obtain the four points

required
This method is useful for quick freehand sketching but is not as accurate as method 1.

55

Isometric drawing: construction of ellipses (2)


In this method, the ellipse is constructed on the isometric box with compasses and several construction lines are needed to find the centres of arcs.

Centre lines and a diagonal are drawn across the face of the isometric box as shown.
Lines are drawn from the bottom corner of the box B to the mid-points of the opposite sides.
The intersections C provide the centres for both minor arcs of the ellipse.

The corners of the box B are the centres for the major arcs of the ellipse.
If the centres have been constructed accurately, the arcs drawn with compasses will blend perfectly.

(a

FRUSTUM "beheaded" cone or

pyramid)

The ellipses of the conic frustum opposite have been drawn using method 3, i.e. with compasses.

Make further isometric drawings of the frustum using methods 1 and 2 to plot the ellipses
Compare the shapes and sizes of the ellipses obtained by the 3 methods
In general

Method 1 gives the best shaped ellipse and is very useful when there is only part of a circle to draw
on the face of the isometric box. However, methods 2 and are more rapid than 1.
3

56

Isometric drawing
EXAMPLE
1

examples
The Vee and the sloping face have been constructed by using pairs of ordinates as shown on page 51

An isometric drawing of the Vee-block shown on page 21

The small radius at the intersection of surfaces I may be drawn:


The ellipses have been constructed using method 3, i.e. with compasses.
(a) (b)

using ordinates
or

with a radius gauge if the curve is small.

EXAMPLE

The incomplete isometric drawing of the component below is viewed from the right and >v looking down

Use the procedure suggested on page 52 to complete the isometric drawing in the space provided or make a complete isometric drawing on isometric grid paper. For further examples use the drawings provided for sectioning exercises on pages 28-31 (solutions are not given)

57

Isometric drawing exercises

)
1-

-1-1

IN ^

m
*e-

Make an isometric drawing of each component shown above. Construct the ellipses by using one of the methods illustrated on pages 55 and 56. L^_~T ^~~-J In each case view the components in the direction indicated by the arrow and looking down. Solns. p. 151.

58

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need
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of
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view
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59

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ISOMETRIC GRID

- to

be used for isometric sketches.

The above grid is composed of lines drawn at an angle of 30 which intersect with vertical lines The equilateral triangles thus formed have lengths of side equal to 5 mm. Use the grid with tracing paper or detail paper.
.

60

Pictorial

Drawing: Oblique
An oblique pictorial drawing presents the component with one of its faces as a true shape. This true shape is drawn on tne front face of the oblique box as shown below.
The longest face is usuallydrawn on the front of the oblique box with receding lines between h and \ full size.

y
v N

L)

_
'
1

Compare tnese oblique drawings. Drawings 7, 8 and 9 represent the shape of the component better than the others.
Note:-

Arrow L Arrow D

Looking from LEFT Looking DOWN.

TL= TRUE LENGTH

S=K3

HK
(D
30

TL '/2TU f

45'\!_TL

fNL_TL

r^
TL
TL
61

Oblique drawing: methods of construction


There are many variations in angle, length of receding lines, and directions from which a component may be viewed in order to produce an oblique drawing, as can be seen by the examples on the previous page. Different oblique drawings of the same component may each provide the detail required.
In general:
1.

The receding lines may be drawn at any angle to the horizontal but an angle of 30, 45 or 60 is preferred as lines can be drawn with set-squares.

Receding lines may be any proportion of their true length. A good pictorial representation is obtained if lengths from \ to \ x actual length is used.

\^

Note: All vertical and horizontal lines are drawn true length.

__

11

/oTL
i

^i
r
i
,

SCI

This oblique drawing is of the component viewed from the left (arrow L) and looking down (arrow D)

'

Receding lines are drawn at 45 and \ true length using tee and set-squares

When making freehand oblique sketches it is convenient to use 5 mm squared paper and to draw the receding lines at 45 and 7 x true length. As the diagonal of a square is 1*4 x side of the square, then each diagonal can be used to represent two squares on the orthographic views as shown below.

N
62

XL

Construct the shape with faint lines. Complete by lining in the outline heavily.

An alternative view

Oblique drawing: inclined edges


D
6

SQ

>Q
l

D
j

j'

'I

/
'

/ /

\ \
1

^<

represented by 3 diagonals

When components have sloping surfaces, the edge distances in the orthographic views are transferred to the oblique box as shown by the dimension D in the above example.
-]2S5QI*1
1

SQ
t
1

\ \
1
i

>

:;

H
>

s?
ii

diag

R^'

nP
\i

^*,

\ >
/
f

\
\
\
r-

y
J

f-

The component shown above has surfaces sloping in two directions resulting in inclined edges, for example IE. Pairs of ordinates from the orthographic views are used to plot points within the oblique box, for example point E.
Note:

The angles of inclination in the orthographic views are never transferred to the oblique box. When I and E have been located they are joined to produce the correct slope in the oblique drawing.

63

Nlethods of constructing "oblique


1

circles"

III!
1
1

l
! 1 i 1

z
L_

^T
\

1 f

1 I

i \

A shape which is circular in an orrnograpnic view may be snown as a circle on the oblique drawing if the component is viewed as shown in example 1.
The end of the cylinder is a true circle which may be drawn with compasses.

^v

//

The linfis nf t.hp "nhl irmp lir>v" have been drawn to show the size of a box into which the cylinder will just fit.

"X \
*

If the circular face is receding, e.g. at 45, it will appear elliptical and will have to be plotted. Examples 2, 3 and 4 show ways of constructing
TL
,-,

-r,

ellipses.

yf
45

Tl_

When making an oblique drawing view the component, if possible, in a direction which will allow circular and part-circular faces to be drawn with compasses.

A
,

1
1

=-=q '*

s,

/ l.
L

Ci

\
^
.

The oblique ellipses on the left are plotted by using a method similar to that used for plotting an isometric ellipse.

^-

^.^

y/

The ordinates, however, have to be proportionately spaced along the receding lines.

\lxS
k
\ "

jr-i

"^.

J"
1

In the case of the freehand oblique drawing shown in example 2, the spacing S is 0*7 x s i.e. trie length of
^s \

l\
^
^
v

s
i

diagonal represents 2 squares on the orthographic view


1

/..t.

\
>

T L

\
ri_

u
X >

As in the construction for an isometric ellipse, the ordinates need only be constructed in a

45

>

L,

quarter-circle

2
64

Methods

of constructing "oblique ellipses'


The method for constructing an oblique ellipse shown opposite is only used when the receding lines are drawn at 0*7 x true length, mainly for quickly drawn freehand sketches.
The larger scale drawing below shows how the length CD is obtained. The length ^CD can be judged by eye.

The actual length of CD is transferred to the oblique


box.

Note:

The ellipses of the conic frustum in example 4 have been drawn freehand using the ordinate method.

The ordinates used for plotting the points on the ellipse have been measured along horizontal lines spaced proportionately.

Ordinates are true lengths.


Spacings are
true length,

Represents

8SQ

The ordinate method is also useful when there is only part of a circle to be drawn in the oblique box.

TL

\/r JL

Exercises: Make oblique drawings of the components shown on page 58. Solutions are not given.

65

Oblique drawing examples


EXAMPLE 1 Two oblique drawings of the Vee-block shown orthographically on page 21. Compare these with the isometric drawing of the same component on page 57.

TL
Fig lb

TL

True Length

Ordinates are spaced to suit the size of ellipse oeing plotted and More ordinates will make the drawing more the accuracy required. accurate but it will take longer to draw. Note that ordinates set off from receding lines are spaced at proportionate distances along these lines. The length, width and height dimensions Fig. la has been drawn of Fig. lb have been rounded off to using the actual dimensions multiples of 5 mm so that the squares Receding of the vee-block. of the 5 mm grid may be used to full lines at 45 and \ TL. advantage, particularly for lines at 45 and 0-7 true length. receding EXAMPLE 2

z
N -._
i

z~

This view shows the

maximum
use of

_L.-

i^z^E"

compasses

~t ^t

^f

l"\ -^Sv> 4 X'V^ !

-p_
,

-T

Complete the oblique view on the right. This view involves the most construction
--

For further exercises: Make oblique drawings of the components shown on pages 52, 53 and 54, using tracing paper and the Draw receding lines at 45 and 0*7 x TL, 5 mm squared grid on page 67. 153 and 154. Solutions are given on pages
66

"

SQUARED GRID - to be used for oblique pictorial drawing and orthographic drawing and sketches.
The above grid is composed of lines drawn to form squares which have lengths of side equal to 5 mm. Use the grid with tracing paper or detail paper.

67

Dimensioning
Any drawing from which a component is to be made must convey information from the designer to the craftsmen in three ways. It must
Describe the shape of the component by using orthographic and, sometimes > pictorial views
Give sizes by dimensioning

Provide information about the workshop processes involved

Draughtsmen and designers should understand not only methods


of projection, but also dimensioning methods and processes required for the manufacture of an engineering component, so that correct instructions may be issued to the craftsman. Most of the problems of dimensioning may be solved by the application of a few simple rules. Some may be simply stated, e.g. 1, 2 and 3 below whilst others can be more easily explained by reference to diagrams (next page)
(1)

Dimensions should be placed on drawings so that they may be They must be clearly printed and placed outside easily "read". the outline of the most appropriate view wherever possible.
The drawing must include the minimum number of dimensions necessary to manufacture the component and a dimension should not be stated more than once unless it aids communication.
It should not be necessary for dimensions to be deduced by the

(2)

(3)

craftsman.

The way a draughtsman dimensions a component or assembly is influenced also by the need to consider the "type" of dimension he will use. These may be classed broadly as
(i)

SIZE DIMENSIONS - used to describe heights, widths, thicknesses, diameters, radii, etc., and, where appropriate, the shapes of the component.

(ii)

LOCATION DIMENSIONS - necessary to locate the various features of a component relative to each other, to a reference surface or to a centre line, etc.

This (iii) MATING DIMENSIONS - applied to parts that fit together. shafts of case the in and accuracy, of implies a certain degree

which fit into holes, the application of limits and fits will most likely be necessary. For details of limits and fits refer to pages 84-90.

All the examples in this section are intended to explain the rules of dimensioning which are set out as recommendations in BS 308: Part 2:1972, It must be stressed, however, that the dimensioning of any component depends on the draughtsman's interpretation of the recommendations. A component may be dimensioned in a number of different ways yet still be dimensioned correctly.

68

Dimensioning

A number of the basic rules of dimensioning can be explained by reference to the above drawing of a thin plate. The sides marked A and B are known as DATUM faces. They are used as reference edges from which dimensions are drawn. Datums may or may not be machined. Even if they are not machined it is practice to choose reference edges in order to simplify the good layout of dimensions.
_

Points to note:
(1)

(2)

(3) (4)

(5) (6) (7) (8)

(9)

(10)

DIMENSION LINES - thin full lines placed outside the component wherever possible and spaced well away from the outlines. The longer dimension lines are placed outside shorter ones. PROJECTION LINES - thin full lines which extend from the view to provide a boundary for the dimension line. Drawn at 90 to the outline. ARROWHEADS - drawn with sharp strokes which must touch the extension lines. A LEADER LINE is a thin full line which is drawn from a note a dimension or, in this case, a "balloon" and terminates in an arrowhead or a dot. Relatively small gap. Relatively short tail. Crossing extension lines - usually a break to ensure clarity. Dimension placed above the dimension line. This is preferred to the alternative method of placing the dimension in a gap in the line. Avoid using both methods on the same drawing if possible. Dimension placed so that it may be read from the bottom or Dimension placed so that it may be read from the right hand side of the drawing sheet.
Study this information before turning to the next page.

69

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71

Arrangement of dimensions
Dimensions should be placed so that they may be read from either the bottom or right-hand side of a drawing, for example:
25

The arrangements at 1 and 2 are the most usual but there are occasions when it may be necessary to use the arrangement at 3

Avoid placing dimension lines in the shaded area - zones of about 30

Various methods of dimensioning narrow spaces or widths are shown below. Note the placing of the arrows outside the extension lines.
3

T?

J? )
/

% //

n ^n
y

The figures shown below are dimensioned incorrectly.

Exercise

Dimension the figures correctly. (Solns. p. 155)

2-8

V^O)

^v
2

c
K
to
-M

-.

20
,

\
..

\
\
)

t^

25

-J 5:
/

-if

/
>

\ 'V /

\A 4
7

%o

vTTT-n ss sn J
7

72

Dimensioning circles
On an engineering drawing a circle may be one of the following;

~eA

thin
di sc

hole in a thin plate

The side view of a cyl inder

The side view of a cylindrical hole

The way a circle is dimensioned is influenced by the factors shown above and also by the size of the circle and the space available within the circle.

Points to note:

The dimension always refers to the diameter and NOT the radius (ii) A circle is never dimensioned on a centre line, (iii) The conventional symbol for diameter is
(i)
<j>

Methods used for dimensioning relatively small circles


10

<^
and larger circles

In 3 and 4 the leader line must be drawn in in line with the centre of the circle

When the dimension line has to be drawn as in example 6 it is preferable to place the dimension as shown so that it may be easily read from the bottom of the sheet.

For diameters of cylinders


7 In this example it is preferable to

o
<r>

CM

is

Z3

*-4

IS

Side view

Front view

dimension the side view even though the cylindrical shape is not apparent. Dimensions in this view, however, must always be preceded by the symbol
<J>

73

Dimensioning
either

radii

On an engineering drawing a radius usually describes the shape or contour of a component in a particular view and may be

An external

radius

An internal

radius

or

spherical

radius

A radius should be dimensioned by a dimension line which passes through, or is in line with, the centre of the arc. The dimension line should have one arrowhead which should be placed at the point of contact with the arc. The abbreviation R should always precede the dimension. The above statements may be interpreted as follows:
For small radii

For spherical radii R20

re

R 5

yR

ZJ
-R 10

R 5

s pHB&

For larger radii

The circles shown below are incorrectly dimensioned,

Exercise

Dimension the circles on the right correctly using the information given on the previous page (Solns. p. 155)

74

Dimensioning angles
Angles should be expressed in: or
(1) (2)

degrees e.g. degrees and minutes e.g.

90 27 30' 0 15'

The placing of the angular dimension depends on: the position of the angle in relation to the bottom and/or the right-hand side of the drawing sheet and the size of the angle.

Angles may be dimensioned using one of the methods shown in these examples o qo Alternative /

Alternative

L
2x45

Arc struck from apex of angle

DIMENSIONING CHAMFERS
45 chamfers should be specified by one of the methods shown below:

e
-26

25

2x45

Chamfers at angles other than 45 should be shown as a dimension and not as a note, e.g Chamfers should not be specified by a note and a leader line.
The radii below are dimensioned incorrectly.

lORad

cfps
22V

Exercise:- Dimension the radii below correctly using the information given on the previous page. (Solutions on page 155)

75

Designation of plain holes


It is often necessary to specify not only the diameter of a hole Processes for forming holes but also, the way the hole is produced. include drilling, boring, reaming and coring (holes made when casting). The drawing below shows how these may be designated.
-c

A
<f>

HOLES
5

EQUI- SPACED

DRILL

THROUGH

**

Section CC

Front view

Note:- The 40 mm diameter circle is referred to as the Pitch Circle Diameter PCD

Designation of "special" holes

COUNTERSINKS

SCREW THREADS
AT
90

^4
TO

CSK
8

M
25

12-

6H

Ytifa
-J
I

04

mm
Note:

COUNTERBORES

A coarse ISO thread is designated by diameter and tolerance grade


only.

MI2-6H
THROUGH

M
J*6 C'BORE 0IOx 5 DEEP

I2-6H
I 12 MIN

06

C'BORE 10 x 5 DEEP

OR

OR
SPOTFACES
S'FACE
(f>

MI212
/2

feH

MIN LENGTH FULL THREAD

OR
OR

w>
M
12

12 - GH MIN LENGTH

FULL THREAD

76

Location dimensions
Examples on previous pages have shown how components and features may be dimensioned when size is the main consideration. Figures 1, 2 and 3 show how to dimension a component when location is necessary. The features can be located from a machined Such a surface or line is known as a DATUM. surface or centre line.

e
-+
oc

r
00

>B

o
cc

(^ Jh
R

.m

10

15

25
1.

3.

Spigot located from two reference edges (R)

Both holes located from two reference edges (R)

Hole A located from two reference edges (R) then hole B related to hole A.

Size an d location dimensions and use of the machining symbol


4.

30 S
20 S

REAM
CD

The simple bearing bracket casting on the left shows both size and location dimensions.

o
Reference surfaces are marked wj.th a machining symbol:- s/
This is placed so that it may be read from the bottom or from the right of the sheet.
It is preferable to place the symbol on the appropriate projection line rather than as shown on the left.

L-r-t-r-

CD CO

34 S

44

0\2 DRILL
S

20 S'FACE
S

SCALE

No symbol is required where the machining is specified i.e. in the case of the drilled holes, the reamed holes and the spot-face.

The location dimensions are those shown with a letter L and size dimensions by a letter S. Some of the size dimensions are less accurate than others e.g. the thickness of the rib is fixed during the casting process whilst the 20 mm diameter hole is accurately reamed. The 20 mm diameter reamed hole is located by the dimension from the machined base to the centre line of the hole.
77

Dimensioning exercises
Each drawing below shows a component made from mild steel plate 15 mm thick. Dimension both drawings so that accurate marking out and subsequent manufacture of the plates may be carried out. Use the machined surfaces as reference edges. The holes are to be reamed. Sizes may be obtained by measuring the drawing. All dimensions in millimetres.

>

sL

Note: Each machining symbol in the following dimensioning exercises has been placed so that it appears "upright" when viewed from either the bottom right hand corner or right hand side of the drawing sheet. "The symbol is placed on the machined surface itself provided that when it is so positioned it "falls" outside the outline of the component. Alternatively, it is placed on a suitable projection line.

Solutions to the above exercises are given on page 156

78

a o
H
4J

rH
CO

D O

0)

n rH
(0

^
d)

3 o o
-P

rH rH 0) H X!

U
d>

o
nJ

tn

O
d)

(f)

^^

i+-r

o
t

O
tn H

d
4-1

<Tl

O M
0)

C M 3
CO (0

to

<D

X
CD

C nJ M
to

XI
-P tl
Ifl
(1)

X!

a)

X!

P
O
to

-H

u 3
d>

cu > O O O
-P

10

P T3 WOO)
o
CO
4-1
1

P
to

d)

>l X)
TJ

p
d)

h
I-l

ffd)

0)

c
'c
CO

c O

HX
-P

OlH O -H
1

P MO C
>h

h x:
-p
0) to
(d

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d) d)

rH

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<D

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to

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c
H
tO

d)

d)

C H
to
.

xi

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03

3 0) C > -P o O 0) d> H O 4-1 -O ^ 3H -H G rH

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C

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4-1

X!

O
d)

d)
trj

CN
4-1

XJ
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ctj

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(d n)

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O
d)
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d)

rH

0)

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rH

x! -H X! -P
QJ
(1)

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a>

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S & ca M
fO

6
H TJ

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13
d)

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fo

10 (0

d)

T3 T3

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rH rH

<

79

Di mensioni ng

exercises
/

Fully dimension this drawing assuming that the component is to be machined all over. Take the datum as the face of the flange marked Sizes may be obtained by measuring the drawing. All dimensions in millimetres. - 4 mm drill equi-spaced Note: Holes Chamfer - 2 mm at 45

#--E3-

BUSH

Solution
Section CC
Front view
on page 158

Fully dimension this drawing assuming that the component is to be / machined all over. Take the datum as the face of the flange marked v Note: (1) Use the horizontal centre line for locating the countersunk holes in the front view (2) The countersink is 90 and enlarges the drilled holes from 5 mm diameter to 10 mm diameter. (3) The internal chamfer - 3 mm x 60

GLAND

Section CC

Solution on page 158

80

Dimensioning exercises
The component below is to be made of brass. Fully dimension the drawing to enable the bracket to be manufactured. Note:- (1) The only parts to be machined are the back face (which should be used as the datum) and the tapped holes. (2) Locate the holes from the centre line in the front view. (3) Locate the holes and slot from point X in the side view,

"^"

*1

LOCATING BRACKET
Side view

Front view

Solution on page 159

Fully dimension the drawing so that factured. Take the shoulder marked Note:- The thread is M 6. The head The chamfers - 2 mm at 45 The radius at the end of the

the adjusting screw may be manuv' as the datum face. is knurled (fine diamond).

screw is

mm.

-3#
Side view

ADJUSTING SCREW
Front view

Machined
all over

Solution on page 159


81

Dimensioning exercise

Fully dimension the orthographic views shown above to enable the bracket to be manufactured. Details of sizes, locations, screw threads, etc., may be taken from the pictorial view of the same (All dimensions millimetres) component shown on the opposite page. Both the 8 mm base holes and the 35 mm bore must be located from the machined face R. The tapped hole must be located from the 3 5 mm bore,
Note: This drawing can be fully and clearly dimensioned using two views only. The drawing of a more complicated component would possibly include a side view also to clarify both shape and dimensioning. The solution to this exercise is on page 160.

82

MI2-6H. 16 MiN LENGTH 20 FULL THREAD. S'FACE

HOLES DRILL,

THROUGH
BOSS
HEIGHT
16

0'p

In this isometric view of the cast-iron bracket all the corner fillets (or radii) have been omitted in order to simplify the drawing.

Cast iron Bracket


for

Vertical Spindle.
83

Limits and Fits


"mating" parts, e.g. a shaft and the bearing in which it is housed, were manufactured individually and assembled only after laborious hand fitting by craftsmen. This method of production demanded
In the early days of engineering,

great skill, was slow, and thus an expensive operation. To overcome this the first system of limits and fits was introduced around the turn of the century. When the system was used correctly production costs were greatly reduced because identical mass-produced components, even
those made in different places, could be readily interchanged without resorting to the time-consuming fitting

operation.
The use of a suitable system of limits and fits, the latest of which (B.S. 4500) is outlined in the following
text, ensures that all identical components are made to a specific size within narrow limits.
It must be stressed that when assigning limits to

the dimensions of a component it is necessary to consider not only its function but also the skill of the operator

and the type and condition of the machines which are used to manufacture the component.

Limits should be applied to the dimensions of a component only if the resulting degree of accuracy is essential for the efficient functioning of the component. It is uneconomical to limit the accuracy of a dimension to 0.005 mm when 1 mm would prove satisfactory.

84

Limits

and

Fits for Holes


V7,
Tolerance zones (exaggerated
)

and Shafts
A TOLERANCE on a hole or a shaft is a permissible degree or error. It depends on:
(1)

Machining or cutting operation used.


Quality of work.
Type of fit between hole and shaft.

A
Hole

Shaft (normal
represeri'
tat
i

A
Hole
)

on

Shaft with tolerance zones

(2)
(3)

Effect of manufacturing process on degree of accuracy obtainable

Process
(typical)

Numerical value of tolerance for sample sizes BS 4500 metric BS 1916 inch 0.001 mm 0.001 in
0.119
to
1

S-

(U

.969
to

4.725
to

o
1

mm
to

0.237
Slip blocks, reference gauges High quality gauges Good qual
i

3.150

7.087
0.16
0.2

6
1

mm
.0
.5

50 mm to 80 mm
2 3
5

120 mm to 180 mm

0.06 0.08
0.12 0.15
0.2
0.3 0.5 0.7
1

008 0.12
0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7
1

3.5
5

2 3

ty gauges

0.32
0.5 0.7
1

2.5
4
5

4
5 6
7

Gauges and precision fits


Ball

12 18 25

bearings, fine grinding

13
19

Grinding, fine honing


High quality turning, broaching

.0

.2

1.6

12 18

30

40
63

8
9

Centre lathe turning and reaming


Horiz. and vert,

.8

2.5

46
74

boring

.2

3.0 4.5
7.0

4.0
6.0

30

100

10
11

Milling, planing, extrusion


Drilling, rough turn-ing, boring
Light press work, tube drawing
Press work,
tube rolling

.8

48
75

120

160

3.0

10.0 16.0

190

250

12
13 14

5.0
7.0

12.0 18.0

120
180

300

400
630

25.0

460
750

Die casting or moulding

12.0 18.0

30.0

40.0 60.0
100.0
i

300

1000

15

Stamping (approx)
Sand casting, flame cutting

45.0
70.0

480
750

1200
1900

1600

16

30.0

2500

For more detailed lists refer to BS 1916 and BS 4500

Tolerance

ncreases wi th size of component

The tolerance number is directly related to the manufacturing process and hence to the quality of work in terms of the degree of dimensional accuracy required. The permissible degree of error increases (a) as the process becomes less precise and {b) as the size of component increases. Tolerance number should not be confused with the numbers which relate to surface roughness.

Refer to British Standards for further information. Use BS 1916 for inch sizes and BS 4 500 for metric sizes.
85

Limit

systems
Hole size

constant
Shaft size varies to provide the required fit

Shaft size constant


Hole size varies to provide the required fit

Clearance
HOLE BASIS

Interference

Clearance

Interference

SHAFT BASIS

BS 1916 and BS 4500 use the hole basis but there are occasions when it is necessary to design a fit on a shaft basis.

Basic size and disposition of tolerance

Whenever possible, holes are designed and machined to sizes obtained with standard tools and/or to preferred sizes in millimetres (see BS 4318) The basic size of a hole is the dimension used if no tolerances were applied. Another name used is "nominal size".
Tolerances can be applied to holes and shafts in various ways.
o

'///,

of
o o o
CM

Basic size = 24.000 Tolerance = 0.030


+ 0-0 30

Basic size = 24.000 Tolerance = 0.030

Write
or

24.000
24

Write
or

+ 0-0 1 5 -0 015 2 4.000


-

V///
Uni
1

24.030 000
.

24.015 23.985
Tol erance

ateral

Tolerance placed to
ONE side of basic size

Bi

ateral

disposition

disposition

split above and below basi c size

BS 1916 and BS 4500 generally use the unilateral method of applying limits to a size.

The tolerances can be represented as shapes on a graph. The OX axis is the top side of the basic size, in this case, the hole,
Inches
Mi
1

imetres
ISHAFT

+
0.

SHAFT
HOLE
15HAFT
1
I

HOLE

HOLE

HOLE

o o
r*
<2

5HAFT
N
CD U>

* o

M
Interference
CI

<
CO u>

CI

earance

earance

Interference

86

hole (or internal feature) and shaft external feature) ALLOWANCE - the prescribed (algebraic) difference between the low limit of size for the hole (or internal feature) and the high limit of size for the "mating" shaft (or external feature), i.e. maximum metal condition
(or

piT-the relationship between

allowance*

^_y

(positive)
e.g.
a simple bearing

lllllllftfllglllltf

v vv

*%

T
SHAFT
(exaggerated)

The shaft is "loose" running or "easy" running or "slide".

CLEARANCE FIT Shaft is ALWAYS smaller than hole.


e.g.

BEARING

Verbal descriptions of the fit may vary widely. Numerical differences are more important.

for

<j>2

inch (BS1916:53)

for $24 mm (BS4500:69)

2.0018 2.0000 "Mating" shaft sizes 1.9988 1.9970 Smallest hole 2.0000 Largest shaft 1.9988 ALLOWANCE + 0.0012

Hole sizes

Hole sizes
"Mating" shaft sizes

Smallest hole Largest shaft ALLOWANCE


(

24.033 24.000 23.980 23.959 2 4 000 23.980 0.020


.

Note

Allowance is ALWAYS positive


/allowance* (negative)

+)

for a clearance fit.

The shaft is forced into the hole.


e.g. a gear wheel on a shaft (exaggerated)
/
5252

The fit can be described in such terms as "light press" or


"press" or "heavy press" or "shrink"

INTERFERENCE FIT Shaft is ALWAYS larger than hole.

2
GEAR

Numerical differences are more important.


for $24 mm (BS4500:69)

e.g.

for $2 inch (BS1916:53)

Hole sizes (as above) "Mating" shaft sizes 2.0032 2.0020 Smallest hole 2 0000 Largest shaft 2.0032 - 0.0032 ALLOWANCE
.

Hole sizes "Mating" shaft sizes

(as above)

Smallest hole Largest shaft ALLOWANCE

24.048 24.035 2 4.000 24.048 0.048

As shaft sizes are subtracted from hole sizes, the allowance will always be negative (-) for an interference fit. * The use of the word "allowance" has been omitted from BS4500. It has been used here solely to explain the difference between clearance fit and interference fit. It is still used, of course, in BS1916:53.

87

Both BS 1916 and BS 4500 recommend limits and fits for a wide range of engineering processes and activities - even horology J For most general purposes a carefully selected range of hole and shaft sizes are given in each standard. -Holes are lettered by capitals, A, B,C, etc., the limits allocated to the H-hole being recommended. The H-hole always has the basic size of the hole as one size. The letter is followed by the tolerance grade number e.g. H8 Shafts are lettered by lower case letters, a,b,c, etc., and a range of fits is provided by those given in the charts below. BS 1916 01.182-1 .575 in BS 4500 <j)30-40 mm
.

+ 160 + 10
+ +
75.

"%**

30

40 mm

50
25.

D
Hll H9

H8

H7

o-

25-

DU

50
75-

-100
-125-

-150
-1 75-

I- 0.02S mm
d

-20 -280

10

Tolerance grade number


If the tolerances on hole and shaft overlap it is possible in the random selection of components to obtain either clearance or interference. These are called TRANSITION fits e.g. H7 with k6, and are described as "push", "easy keying", "tight keying" or "drive". A fit between an H8 hole and an f7 shaft is written H8-f7 and reference to the chart above will show that this must always be a CLEARANCE fit. Further reference to BS 1916, parts 2 and 3 will show the types of fit recommended for particular types of work. Extract from BS 1916-Limit values. Extract from BS 4500-Limit values
Shafts
Hole
H7 component 3.001 in between
+

Shafts
Hole Size
ot

e8

f7

h6

J6

s6
+

H7 component 3.001 mm between


ES
EI
+

96

k6
+

n6
+

s6
+

0.5

0.12
0.24

0.24

0.8
1.5

0.4 0.9
0.5

+
-

0.2 +
0.1 +

.0

15

mm
6

mm
10

0.3

0.7
1 1

14
6

+ + + +

10 +
1

19
10

+ +

+ + + +

32 es 23 ei 39 es 28 ei

0.6

0.40

1.0
1

+
-

0.3 +
0.1 +

.9

-1.1
-

0.4

.4 .0

ES
EI

18

10

18

12
1

23
12

17

+
+ +

0.7

0.40

0.71

.2

0.6
1

0.3 +
0.1 +

1 1

2.2
1.6 2.8

.3 -

0.4

.6 .2

ES
EI

21

18

30

15
2

28
15

20

+ +

48 es
35 ei

0.8
.0

0.71

.19

0.8
1

+
-

.6 .0

0.5

0.3 + 1.9 0.2 + 1.4


0.4 + 2.4 0.2 + 1 .8
+ + + +

ES
EI

25

30

40

25

+ +

18 + 33
2

59

es

17

43 ei

1.19

.97

2.0 3.6
2.5

+
-

2.0

0.2

40

50

.2

.97

2.56
3.15

.2

0.4
0.3

2.7 2.0 2.9 2.2

ES
EI

30

50

65

10

21

39

+ +

72 53

es
ei

2.56

4.3

2.4

0.7

65

80

29

20

+ +

78 es 59 ei

88

Conventional method of
BS

illustrating

terms

1916

hole

<
a
1LE J

X < S

SHAFT

x < 2i

BS 4500

For H hole. Zero line coincides with basic size line, hence lower deviation = 0, as shown above.

BASIC SIZE

The size to which hole and shaft are referred.


The algebraic difference between a size and the corresponding basic size. The difference between the maximum limit of size and the basic size. , ES for hole The letters stand _ Designated: ~ .. _ c ^ for the French term es c for shaft ecart superieur.
.
,

DEVIATION

UPPER DEVIATION

LOWER DEVIATION

The-

difference between the lower limit of size and the basic size. _ , EI for hole Designated ecart inferieur, ei for shaft
.

ZERO LINE

The line to which the deviations are referred. The line of zero deviation. The line which represents the basic size. For each pair of deviations, the fundamental deviation is the one nearer to the zero line. This defines the position of the tolerance zone in relation to the zero line.
- H

FUNDAMENTAL DEVIATION

Graphical representation of fits


Clearance
HOLE

holes
Transi tion
HOLE
es
I

Interference

H
es
'

ZERO
LINE

SHAFT ^SECT HOLE

'

ES

ES

TiT
BSSCT3.

SHAFT KSSSSSa

es
EI

TT
ET
t

es

n
EI

es

XERO
eL
LINE

vm
EI

^
t

et

SHAFT

T
eL

im^i.

et

el

89

..

'

Ho le
H 7

and

Shaft

Exerci ses
Fit
ZERO
Lirife

96
0.001mm
including

0.001mm
ES
+

v///,
holeH 7
1

^ -r^S
.

H7-g6

V/////>/>/?/

CL>

EI

o
Up
6

>

to

es

ei

V///A

o
5

V///A shaft n h

,_

Y
/
1

15

10

14 17
CI earan-ce

\_r

18
21

10

18 30 50

^^^ ^^
r

///////////.

18

20
25

Hoi e

Shaft
ei

25

30 50

Max. Mi n Basic Basic es ES EI size si ze size size


10

Max

Mi

si ze

si ze

0-015

10-015 10-000

10

0-0051)04

9-995 9-986

30

80

>0

29

Complete the table for any other two hole and shaft sizes.
Hole
H 7
-a co
ca -iCD

Shaft
s 6

H7-s6
Fit

0.001mm
ES
+

EI

>

+->

o 3 r O Q- C
-i-

-a

0.001mm
es
+ ei +

S6&ZZ2

SHAFT
E

ZD

H7^hou
Interference
Hole
Basi
c

15

10

32

23

18
21

10 18

18
30
50

39

28
35

48
59
78

Shaft
.

25

30 50

43
50

size

ES EI

Max Mi n Basic es size size size

ei

Max Mi n size size


. .

30

80

Complete the table for any three hole and shaft sizes,
Hole
H 7

H7-k6
~0 CD

c c
(O -rJcu

Shaft
k 6

Fit

,^5^
Z. Y7>?>f///1

0.001mm
ES
+

EI

>

+J 1

-o
=3

0.001mm
+

o es
Q=

ei +

k6

SHAFT
I

H7^
Transition
Hole

HOLE

15

10
10

10
12 15

f5 V////S f/SM/S/^ s:
Shaft
.

18
21

18

18 30

30

Basic Max. Mi n Basic size ES EI size size size es

ei

Max Mi n size size


. .

25
30

50

18
21
.

50

80

Complete the table for any three hole and shaft sizes. Solns
90

p. 161.

ISO Metric Screw Threads (BS3643)


One of the most common items which needs to be clearly described on an engineering drawing is the screw thread which may be used for:
(1) (2) (3)

Transmitting power, e.g. square thread in a vice or a lathe. Adjusting parts relative to each other (usually a Vee-thread) Fastening parts together, e.g. a nut and bolt (a Vee-thread).

The following section deals mainly with the ISO metric thread which is recognized internationally and, over the next few years, will be used in preference to the many varied types of threads which exist in industry today. In order to specify an ISO metric thread on a drawing it is necessary to understand the basic terminology of screw threads and how the fit between internal and external threads is derived.

The fit is based on the "effective" diameter, i.e. the diameter at which the pitch is measured.

NUT

BOLT

(EXTERNAL)

(INTERNAL)

W
Thread
angl
e
.

Pitch

Note: The helix and thread form are drawn simplified.

s_ <D
+->

>
+->

CD

s_

o E c fO
1 1

CD

CJ CD

CD

BOLT
Secti on showi ng

2: -a
'

thread form
or "profile"

crest

Class of fit

Right-hand thread

Although the thread profile is a Vee in section, the nuts are classed as "holes" and the bolts as "shafts" and tolerances are applied according to BS 4500 (Limits and Fits) They may be represented graphically like any hole and shaft combination.
NUTS Internal thread
zero line
+

Close fit
5H
4h
*

Medium fit
6H

Free fit
7H 8g
1

0)

>

U
0)

K
minimum

External thread BOLTS


fd
ffl

-p

-u
CD
Fi

w
0)1

clearance
6H/6g 7H/8g

Fit designated as

-*-

5H/4h

Coarse and fine pitches are available but it is expected that the coarse pitch screw threads will suffice for most applications and This may be that the medium fit will be the most commonly used. summarized as follows: Nuts Bolts & screws Class of fit 6H medium 6g

91

ISO Metric screw thread designation


In production engineering it is necessary to provide information about the size of thread and the tolerance allocated to it. On a drawing, the thread would be "dimensioned" or designated bystating the information as shown in the following examples:

M 10

1.5 - 6H

[NUT - capital H for hole or internal thread.]

M 10

1.5 - 6g

[BOLT - small g for shaft or external thread.]

Thread tolerance grade number


-Pitch in millimetres

MI0~6H

Nominal size in millimetres

Symbol for ISO metric.


The ISO metric coarse is the thread most commonly used and a designation for this would omit the pitch, e.g. M 10-6H as shown.
Isometric threads Preferred sizes
Nominal Pitch di ameter coarse mm mm
1

13 74

ISO metric threads comp jred with Imperial inch and number sizes
(

UNC
No.

UNF
No.

ISO metric DIA mm

BA
No.

BSW

BSF

D] A
1-6
1
1

D [A

.6

0.35
0.4

10
9

Note
In the

2
2 3 2 3 4
5

2.5
3

0.45
0.5

2-5
7
1

0.7

0.8
1

.25
.5

table on the right, the inch and number sizes relate only approximately to the ISO metric sizes in the centre column,
e.g.
5 S ln
.

4
5

3
6
5

"5

T2"
3

4
c

4
3 2
1

10
12
1

10
12

T6
1

7
5

5 3
"8"

T*
7

e\

T5
7

3
"5

10
12

TE
9

TE
2 6
3

2
i

1.75
2

actually equals
15. 875 mm

2
K 5
"8

T6
3
"ZF

T5

5
"5
i

16 20

J
7
"5

2.5
3
1

2 2 4
1

1
"5

24

92

Screw

threads, nuts and bolts (ISO metric series)

A rapid, easy-to-remember method of drawing screw threads, nuts and bolts is essential if templates are not available. The drawing should look right and slight discrepancies in size are not important. The most used ISO metric bolts (up to <}>24 mm) are:
M6 M8

M10

M12

M14

M16

M20

M22

M24

Major diameter mm 6-00 Minor diameter


Minor diameter
(approx.

8-00 10-00 12 00 14-00 16-00 20-00 22-00 24-00


6-47
6-5 8-16
8-2

4-77
4-8

9-85 11-55 13-55 16-93 18-93 20-32


9-8

11-6

13-6

17-0

19-0

20-4

Example of application

16

Stud

CD

CD CO

Nut and bolt head sizes across the flats

(spanner sizes) in mm.


14
22 16 24 24

Major diam. D. Distance across the flats


D
x

10

12 19

20 30 30

22
32 33

24 36 36

10

13

17

1-5
1

(Dxl-5) +

mm""

10

13

16

19

22

Thickness of nut
Height of head

5-0 4-0

6-5
5-5

8-0

10-0
8-0
x x

11-0
9-0

13-0 10-0

16-0 13-0

18-0 14-0

19-0

7-0

15-0

Approximate method: Thickness of nut = D = D Height of head


Example of application

0-8 e.g. M10 0-7 e.g. M10

,-No chamfer

D*
=

0.8
12.8

here
16 Nut

= 16x0.8

Nuts are usually made from hexagonal stock bar and a 30 chamfer is machined on at least one surface. In the plan view this appears as a circle, the diameter of which is equal to the distance across the flats. The chamfer is drawn in the front view but not in the side view.

= I6

93

Nuts and bolts exercises


The drawing below is of an M 24 nut showing how the radii in the front view and side view may be constructed. The major diameter of the bolt is the size D for calculating the distance across the flats and the thickness of the nut.

Major diameter D = 24 mm Minor diameter = 20-4 mm approx. (See p. 93).


D
x

1.5 = 24

1-5 = 36 mm A/F
-

and R = 18 mm

this value of R is used to .find the centres for radii (1), (2) and (3)

Plan

o-8 = 24

o-8 = 19-2 mm

T = 19 '2

mm

Procedure
(1) (2) (3) (4)

Side view

(5) (6)

Draw major and minor diameter circles in plan, according to BS convention (See page 38) Set out circle in plan with radius = 18 mm, i.e. distance A/F. Construct hexagon around this circle using 60 set-square. Set out thickness of nut = 19*2 mm and project the hexagon to the front and side views. In the front view the centres for the radii marked (1) and (2) are obtained by setting out the radius R = 18 mm from and 0] as shown. In the side view the centres for the radii marked (3) are obtained by setting out the radius R from 2 and as shown. 3
Note:

Front view

The length of a bolt is measured from under the head as shown

Exercise
Length of bolt = 60 mm

M 20 Bolt with nut.


1.
(a)
(fc)

Front view

Verify that

(c) (d)

minor diameter distance across flats thickness of nut height of bolt head
Complete the drawing.

= = = =

17 -0 mm

30*0 mm 16*0 mm
14 '0

mm

(approx.
2.

94

Assembly Drawings
The purpose of an assembly drawing ation about the way in which parts together. There are several types differences in presentation depend intended. They are:
(1)

is to. provide visual inform-

of a machine or structure fit of assembly drawings and the on the uses for which they are

LAYOUT ASSEMBLIES - in which the designer places together all the various parts in order to establish overall sizes, distances, etc., and, as a result, the feasibility of his design.

(2)

OUTLINE ASSEMBLIES - these give general information about a machine or a group of components, for example, main sizes and centre distances which would show how the unit would be installed. This type of assembly is often used in catalogues giving details of the range of units offered for sale.

(3)

GENERAL ASSEMBLIES or ARRANGEMENT DRAWINGS - show clearly how components fit together and, more important, how the assembled unit functions. Outside views, sectional and part-sectional views may be used but dimensions are rarely needed. The various parts may be labelled by ballooning and a parts list would complete the drawing. SUB-ASSEMBLIES - are drawings which show only one unit of a multi-unit component. On more complicated or multiple part components it may first be necessary to arrange parts into sub-assemblies which are then built up into the main assembly.

(4)

(5)

SECTIONED ASSEMBLIES - a simple assembly may be drawn without the need for sectional views and be clearly understood. more complex assembly drawings, however, too many hidden On detail lines tend to confuse and a sectional view of the assembled parts conveys the information more clearly.
An assembly drawing should not be overloaded with detail. The correct place to fully dimension and describe a" single part is on a detail drawing.

Note

The drawings shown on the next page are typical of the use of a general assembly to give a general picture of a valve and a subassembly to show how the spindle unit is built up. A detail drawing of one of the parts is added to emphasise that the physical assembly of the valve depends on the manufacture of a large number of individual items.

The exercises which follow are of relatively simple assemblies which could be drawn with reasonable clarity without the use of sections but the resulting increase in clarity will show the advantage to be gained by their use.

The solution to the example on page 98 indicates the way in which the exercises should be carried out.

95

General assembly (or General arrangement)


The above drawing is a general assembly of a screwdown valve

used to control the flow of water.


The purpose of this sectional view is to label the various parts
of the valve and to show how they fit together.

A parts list

which matches the ballooned letters is necessary and this may be


either on the assembly drawing or on
a

separate document.

The general assembly is not dimensioned in detail although the


sizes of the inlet and outlet and a few overall sizes may be

shown as the drawing may be typical of a range of valves of

differing sizes.

96

3+

_J

n
i

_i

^
at

! i

*
!

i
i

*
t t

M24-6 3

SUB-ASSEMBLY
The above sub-assembly

DETAIL DRAWING
The detail drawing shown above
is of one of the numerous com-

drawing shows how several parts


are assembled together before

ponents which make up the com-

being fitted into the main body


of the valve.

plete valve and in this case is


a

This type of

single-part drawing.

drawing is particularly useful


if information more detailed

All the dimensions and processes

required to manufacture the part


must be shown on the drawing.
It is probable that the machin-

than that shown on the general

assembly is required, for


example, by the person

ist who makes this item will

assembling the valve or the

take no part in assembling the

maintenance worker.

valve and will therefore use


only this detail drawing.

97

Sectioned assembly
>

Typical exercise

End view
on
bol

3-

H
*J

"1

Front view

Exercise

Build up a sectioned assembly drawing of the component parts looking on cutting plane CC to obtain a sectional front view and cutting plane SS to obtain a sectional end view, by tracing over and correctly positioning each part

Solution

Note that most of the outlines are unaltered.

Sectional Front View looking on cutting plane CC

Sectional End View looking on cutting plane SS.

Note The bolt and rib are not sectioned in the front view, but are sectioned in the end view.

98

m
B>

>1
CU

S
to

3
Oj

CM

O
-H
-P
CU

rH

O
CO

CP
(0

m
to

>1p
V-l

cj
(U

>1 >H

43

(0

C
to

P
o
<1J

Oj
-P
cu

d) to

.H

to to

w
m o w
X!
CO

<:

a,

CUP -a to c S P c & o O 3 tO H o o X! -p O o oj in a) m > (0 01 P -P o


to

ceo o

ftH cr> o

-p

m
o
tn On

CT>

C c H

03

W Q H

'

cu

C C

P
*

-d H -H

2:

S M t0 O 3 M O

O o to H U P
-P

CO

>i

CQ T3 rH ,Q

CU

P
U
tO

to

X!

P
o

G O

cu
Q) 10

cu

P C

> o

>1

Cu
tO

MH -a
cu
"

CO

is

H
0)

H SH G >H 3 G tu cr> tn o M o tO CQCCfiflU O-Hft t3 O -H -H M O -P rH cu.* p p H ! H o to to TJ to o cu to u o o 3 >i G O f0 PQ to t0 13 O rH o Xi to cu tu


>i

rH o> CU G

p
o
CU

-H

r-\

&>

c o
H

CM

p
o

SOP

CU

tn
tO

CO

o
CO

.Q

E
CD 0)
(/)

5
CD

CD

"D
CD

o
0)
Q)

0--

0)

<
I

IS

w u
CO

coo
99

Sectioned assembly exercises


HINGE FOR VICE
1

e
1

!;

HI

niT\
Upper hinge
Lower Hinge

I
1 1

i
I

2L

<k
For both exercises

^Nri
ca
Hinge Pin

-m

Ji

h
i i

: i

-&

Solution on page 162

Build up a sectioned assembly drawing of the component parts looking on the cutting plane CC by tracing over and positioning each part.
ANT I -VI BRAT I ON MOUNTING

Pivot Arm

Steel Liner

-E3-

Rubber Bush
Side View

Rubber Bush
Front View

^
--&--

Hinge Pin

)
V-

Welded Base
for

m
100

Pivot Arm
-i

Solution on page 163

L.

Side View

Front View

ft
xt

w
>1-p
.Q
fO

(d-P

SOS
G
H
a<

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Solution
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Exercise Build up a sectioned assembly drawing of the component parts looking on the cutting plane CC by tracing over and correctly positioning each part.

page 163

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104

Developments
Many objects in everyday use are made from thin materials such as cardboard, plastic, aluminium, copper, brass and steel. Metals not more than about 3 mm thick are referred to as SHEET METALS.
The objects made from these materials are developed from the flat sheet. A pattern is drawn on the sheet which is then cut to the outline of the pattern. The material is bent, folded or rolled into the required shape, these processes giving the object stiffness and strength for a comparatively small weight of material. A pattern which is used to mark out further patterns is called a

TEMPLATE
a

There are four basic shapes in sheet metal development from which wide variety of work is fashioned, including hoppers, bins, chutes, vessels and ducts for ventilation and dust-extraction.
1.

PRISM

PYRAMID
L= Slant Height on edge

CYLINDER

CONE

TTD

L=Slant

Height

Simple shapes based on prisms, cylinders, pyramids and cones may be developed by three commonly used methods of construction. They are
1.

PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT:


RADIAL LINE DEVELOPMENT:

for prisms and cylinders mainly. for pyramids and cones.

2.
3.

TRIANGULATION:

for transition pieces which are used to join different shapes.

A pattern is usually folded so that the lines indicating its shape appear on the inside of the component. In practice, allowances may have to be made for extra material required for joints, stiffened edges, bends and seams. No such allowances have been made in the exercises in the following pages so that basic principles can be emphasized.

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107

EXERCISES

Joint

True shape of duct A

Start the shape of the hole at this point,


(1)

Develop the pattern for branch A.


Develop the pattern for one half of branch B
(SSS)

(2)

Solutions on p. 166

to

find the true shape of half of the hole.

Measure the orthographic views to obtain dimensions.


All dimensions in millimetres

30 TEE-PIECE DIAMOND SECTION

PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT

108

EXERCISE

Typi cal

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of cross-section of chute

chute
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Complete the pattern for


the
| |

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Solution
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the space provided.

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views to obtain dimensions.
-SECTION CHUTE

All dimensions in millimetres

PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT

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Plan on T

Cylinder T is shown in two plan views, both of which are divided into 12 equal parts
Note how the projection lines intersect to provide points on the curve of intersection. These correspond to points obtained by the construction used on page 112

Plan on T

(1)

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D3
(2)

C2
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12

Complete the pattern for one half of the cylinder B (SSS) showing the shape of the hole in B.

90 TEE-PIECE FORMED WITH

CYLINDERS OF
Solutions on p. 168 All dimensions in millimetres
UNEQUAL DIAMETERS.

PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT

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EXERCISES
Front view

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Complete the end view looking on the inclined circle YY.


Show that the curve of intersection is a straight line in the front view.

(2)

(3)

Develop the pattern for the cylinder

A.

Solutions on p. 16

30

TEE-PIECE FORMED WITH CYLINDERS


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All dimensions in millimetres.

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116

EXERCISES

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30 u TEE-PIECE

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Solutions on p. 170

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Complete the pattern for the cylinder marked B showing the shape of the hole in B.
PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT

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117

EXERCISE

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123

(b)

Development of right cones


2ttL

There are two methods commonly used for developing patterns of Both are conic shapes explained below.
.

Fun
circumference =
(360)
(1)

The accurate method (Fig.l)

The true length of the sloping edge of the cone is L as centre, an arc is Using drawn of radius L Before the circumference of the base of the cone can be drawn along this arc, angle 6 must be calculated as follows.
9

_ 360
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2-rrr
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360

27Tr

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j-

360

ise: Measure r and L (in millimetres) from fig.l, calculate angle 6 , and check that the pattern is correctly drawn.

Fig.l

(2)

The approximate method (Fig. 2)


as An arc is drawn with centre and radius L as in method 1 The plan view is divided into equal parts as shown. 12 parts are convenient, being easily obtained using a 30 set-square. Distance d, which is the approx. length of the distance between pairs of points on the base circle, is stepped off around the arc 12 times to complete the development. The sketch below shows clearly that a distance stepped off in this way is the true length of the chord between the points and not the true length of the arc.

Fig. 2

Exerc%se.

Compare the pattern constructed by this method with the one obtained using the accurate method by measuring the angles at 0.

124

DEVELOPMENT OF THE FRUSTUM OF A RIGHT CONE


(1)

Radial 1 ines
(2)

Develop the full surface area by using either the approximate method or the accurate method.

Add radial lines as shown. These correspond to the radial lines drawn on the surface of the cone.
From the points where the radial lines on the surface of the cone intersect the cutting plane SS project horizontally to the true length line e.g. 2 to 2 3 to 3 etc.
T,

True length line 0-

(3)

(4)

Swing these true lengths from O to the corresponding radial lines on the pattern, e. to line 2 to line 3 etc. 3 T

Exercise:

(5)

Complete the pattern by adding the remaining points and joining with a heavy line.
All lengths on the pattern must be true lengths The shortest edge is usually used as the joint line. In this case it is along line 0-1.

Note:

'As

an aid to visualizing the shape of conic frusta the construction of the front and plan views is illustrated and explained below.

Construction of plan view and side view of a conic frustum


Front view

Plan view Project the points of intersection of the radial lines and the cutting plane S-S from the front view to the corresponding radial lines in the plan as shown.
e.g. points
g

to lines

and 8.

Side view Project the points of intersection of the radial lines and the cutting plane S-S from the front view to the corresponding radial lines in the side view as shown.
e.g. points ,. to lines
4 4

and 10.

Plan

Exercises : Complete the plan and side view. Solns RADIAL LINE DEVELOPMENT p. 175

125

EXERCISES

Complete cone

\\

Side
vi ew

(1)

Solutions on p. 176.
126

(2) (3)

Complete the development of the pattern of the surface area of the frustum in the space provided. Complete the plan view. RADIAL LINE Complete the side view. DEVELOPMENT

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135

Solutions
In this section a solution is given for each of the exercises

presented in the text. Each solution is identified by the page number on which the exercise appears. The solutions are arranged in the order in which the exercises are set. Where an exercise has specifically requested a sketch
or tracing the solution is sketched or traced freehand.

Where it is felt, however, that an accurate representation makes it easier to understand the solutions they have been drawn to scale using instruments. On some of the more complicated solutions notes have been added in order to emphasize important points.

The Isometric and Oblique solutions shown are those thought to provide most detail. As explained in the text there is not necessarily a unique solution for each of these
exercises.

Similarly the solution given for each of the dimensionThe ing exercises may not be the only correct solution. alternatives must, however, not only meet the requirements of the exercise but also obey the "rules" of dimensioning. If cardboard or paper models are made of each of the development solutions and folded into the three-dimensional
shape indicated in the corresponding exercise then these solutions can be easily and convincingly verified. Notice that all lines on the patterns are, as emphasized in the
text,

"true length" lines.

136

Solutions: First Angle

Orthographic Projection
On

Drg. Reason for incorrect interpretation


1

page
7

Plan incorrectly positioned.

It should be below F.
It should be projected below F.

2 3

Plan incorrectly positioned.

Plan and side view incorrectly positioned. be interchanged.


Side view out of position.

They should

4
5 6

It should be projected from F.

Plan incorrectly positioned. Plan incorrectly drawn. front of P.

It should be projected below F.

The cut away should be at the


The cut away should be
It should be drawn on

Side view incorrectly drawn. hidden detail.

Side view positioned incorrectly. the right hand side of F.

Plan drawn incorrectly. the rear of P.


9

The cut away should be at

On

p age

On

page

Note

These are sketched freehand.

C
i

2
3 4

D
1

K
MB

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5
6

F H
5

7
8

A
On page 10

B
Drawing

9
10
II

G
J

A
10

B
1

D
4

E
7

F
6

Front view in direction of F


Plan view in direction of
P

14

17

12

Side view in direction of R

16

12

13

15

137

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138

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Solutions to exercises on pages 12 and 13 (sketched freehand)

4
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140


Solutions to exercises on page 19

Addition of missing views,

Third
R
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i
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Third Plan

First Front

Third Front

[~ L.

First Front

Third Front

Fi

rst L.H.S.

Third Front

First Front

Solution to exercise 1 on page 20

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141

142

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143

Solutions: Sectioning

Exercises on page 25

y///.

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Third angle Third angle

First angle

Third angle

if

r7T//A

m^
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First angle

Third angle

SSSQ3

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Solutions to sectioning

Solutions to sectioning

exercises on page 26

exercises on page 27

K
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8
10

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B
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144

Solutions to sectioning exercises on page 28

7-7-

i
V/V/. // '///A
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t
Section CC Section BB

/ / / / /

/ /

/
/

/ / / / /
Section DD

E
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/

4-

zz
Section EE

End View FF

Solutions to sectioning exercises on page 29


Third angle
Third angle

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///

%\ '//// /
i

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145

Solutions to sectioning exercises on page 30


Third angle

Third angle

'-VAAA A

W//
Third angle

V /
1.

Third angle

Va
/ /

y/'/ \
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AU

ri
31

Note: In exercise 1 there is no bolt in the threaded hole, so the section lines cross the thread.

Solutions to sectioning exercises on page

Thi rd angle

Third angle
I

lj/A

zz
]A

V z

/ /

Third angle

Third angle

xa
I

x//

/ y
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146

Solutions to sectioning exercises on page 32

-d

sectional

Front View looking on cutting plane CC

/
/

/"

//
A

'/,.

//A
A sectional on cutting

on cutting

sectional Side View looking plane AA

Side View looking plane BB

Ld A

on cutting

sectional Side View looking plane DD

Third Angle Orthographic projection

}
147

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148

Solutions: Pictorial

Drawing

isometric ex.

Pa

ge 52

Solutions to exercises on page 53

149

Solutions to exercises on page 54

Note

In these, and the preceding exercises dealing with isometric projection, each component has been viewed in the direction which shows the most detail.

150

Solutions to exercises on page 58

Note

Each view has been drawn looking the directions indicated in the exercise. These were chosen so as to show the most detail in the pictorial view. All solutions have been drawn using either an isometric grid or a framework of lines as in

2.

151

Solutions to exercises on page 59

Note

Each solution has been sketched freehand on an isometric grid. The resulting pictorial views are those which show the most detail of each component.

\l-"'l\U"' \i-" |\1.-"'|\U-

152

OBLIQUE

Solutions to exercises on page 66 (drawings on page 52)

F^

^
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b-i
Solutions to exercises on page 66 (drawings on page 53)

XK

^
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153

Solutions to exercises on page 66 (drawings on page 54)


Note
In these, and the preceding exercises dealing with oblique projection, each component has been viewed in the direction which shows the most detail.

154

Solutions:

Dimensioning
28
Solutions to exercises on page 72
74

and 75

20

Note
The solutions given are ideally spaced because there is adequate space for dimension lines and numbers On an engineering drawing, other lines may reduce the amount of space available for dimensions and care must be taken to ensure that lines and numbers are clear and do not clash with any other detail. This is particularly the case with circles and radii when the dimension is often taken outside the circle or the radius.

\
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see page 72

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see page 75

155

Solutions to
exercises on
e

78

80 40

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156

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157

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page 80

-E3-

40

3 HOLES EQUI-SPACCD 4 DRILL THROUCH

2x4-5
\

30

MACHINE ALL OVER

e
MACHINE ALL OVER

R7

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AT

90

5 TO

CSK
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10

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158

Solutions to exercises
on page 81

#-310
10

2 HOLES

M6-6H
RIO

40

MATL-

BRASS.

3#
30 25

Note
In this view, the heavy line of the root diameter is in front of the fine line circle of the thread.

20

FINE
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DIAMOND KNURL

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2^

7
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MI0-6g

2*4-51,

(50)

/
Note: The brackets indicate that this is an AUXILIARY dimension given for information only

159

50
2 HOLES
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NOTE

ALL FILLET RADII 3

RI8tf/6

040
MI2-6H
16 MIN LENGTH FULL THREAD S'FACE $ 20

ALL DIMENSIONS
MILLIMETRES.

Solution to exercise on page 82


In this exercise, an end view of the casting could have been used for indicating several of the above dimensions, but it is possible to fully dimension the component using two views only. There might well be other arrangements of the dimensions which would be quite satisfactory providing that the "rules" of dimensioning are observed and that a clear distinction is made between size and location dimensions.

160

..

Solutions: Limits
Note:

and

Fits

Specimen solutions to exercises on page 90

All sizes are in millimetres. The decimal point is on the base line.

Hole
Basi c Si ze

Shaft
Max.
Si ze

ES
+

EI

Min. Si ze

Basic Size
10

es

ei

Max
Si ze

Min.
Si ze

H7-g6

10

0.015 0.018
0.021

10.015 15.018
25.021

10.000 15.000

0.005

0.014
0.017

9.995
14.994

9.986

15

15

0.006 0.007 0.009 0.010

14.983

25

25.000 40.000 65.000

25

0.020
0.025 0.029

24.993
39.991

24.980
39.975
64.971

40

0.025

40.025
65.030

40

65

0.030

65

64.990

Hole

Shaft
Max
Si ze

Basic
Si ze

ES
+

EI

Min.
Si ze

Basic
Si ze

es
+

ei
+

Max.
Si ze

Min.
Si ze

H7-s6

0.015 0.018
0.021

8.015
18.018
28.021

8.000
18.000

0.032

0.023 0.028
0.035 0.043 0.050

8.032
18.039

8.023

18

18

0.039

18.028 28.035
38.043

28

28.000
38.000

28

0.048
0.059 0.078

28.048
38.059
78.078

38

0.025 0.030

38.025 78.030

38

78

78.000

78

78.050

Hole
Basi c Si ze
ES
+

Shaft
Max
Si ze

EI

Min.
Si ze

Basic
Si ze

es
+

ei
+

Max.
Si ze

Mi n Si ze
.

H7-k6

0.015

7.015
.018

7.000
.000

0.010
0.012 0.015

0.001 0.001

7.010

7.001

11

0.018
0.021

11

11

11

11.012

11 .001

20

20.021

20.000
50.000

20

0.002
0.002

20.015
50.018
70.021

20.002
50.002

50

0.025
0.030

50.025

50

0.018
0.021

70

70.030

70.000

70

0.002

70.002

161

Solutions: Sectioned Assemblies


Exercises on pages 99 and 100

On page 99
(1)

Sectioned assembly looking on


cutting plane CC,

Note

Although the screw lies in the


cutting plane it is not sectioned

when cut longitudinally


(i.e.

along its length).

On
(2)

page 99

Sectioned assembly looking on


cutting plane CC.

Note

The pin, nut and washer are

not sectioned. The spacer is not considered


to be the same as a washer

and is sectioned in this case.


On
(3)

page 100

Sectioned assembly looking on


cutting plane CC.

Note

s^ffSS
162

The hinge pin lies across the

cutting plane and is sectioned


when cut transversely.

Solutions to Sectioned Assembly Exercises on pages 100, 101 and 102

On
(4)

page 100

Sectioned assembly
looking on cutting
plane CC.

Note

The thin steel liners


are sectioned by

single thick lines

On
(5)

page 101

Sectioned assembly
looking on cutting
plane CC.

Note

As the Vee grooves are


at
4

5,

the section

lines may be drawn at


an angle other than

the normal 45.

On page
(6)

102

Sectioned
assembly
looking on

cutting
plane CC.

163

Solutions to Sectioned Assembly Exercises on pages 103 and 104

On
(7)

page 103

Sectioned Assembly looking on


cutting plane CC.

Note

The grease nipple is similar to a nut


and need not be sectioned.

The ball race is shown in the

conventional manner.

See page 41.

On page
(8)

104

Sectioned Assembly
looking on cutting
pi

ane CC

164

Solutions: Developments: Parallel Line


In the solutions of development exercises, the following notes will be useful:

(1)

Types of line.

Outlines
Bend lines

Construction lines
(2)

All the prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and transition pieces are hollow, thus no section lines are required on cut surfaces.
The development of a sheet metal component can be shown to be correct by forming the required shape from the pattern. A tracing can be made of each solution and transferred to thin card from which the pattern can be cut. An allowance must be made for extra material along fixing edges. See the example on page 105. The card folds more easily if the bend lines are scored on the inside surface of the pattern with a fine ball point pen. A quick drying latex type adhesive is ideal for joints.

(3)

PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT

Solutions to exercises on page 107

S-

Bend line
o
s-

Pattern for branch B

165

O
Ol
3

a.

c o
CD

CO
r-

O x
cu

sai

o
o
c/>

I/)

-4-

s-

o
c
s+>

co

<j

c:
re

JQ

+->

fO<4-

Q-

166

u
othe
pattern
mirror

is
truncated

this.

\ \
of
TV'

s-

to

on

The

1
tern
Solution exercise

1 1

a
of
is

the
linder

the

XN^

f
i

nch
page

CD

-p

If

own.

If

tage

+->

to

to to i~

-to

o
S3

IE CLJ2
-

WOO

IDXI'H

,_cM

en
cu

.00

s_

o
f-

c
en
.

i. J=. OJ

+J
to

o c
s-

U>

-in

-->

0)

00

o c o
a CO

CO CO

o
r CO
<J>

r r

M O 3
o x
a>
Xcu

cm i i
CO

-ro

a>
to

o.

-CN

in
-f-CM

CM

CM CM
CO

-M

O
CO
i

QJ

CM

767

Solutions to exercises on page 113

3 2

12

Pattern for one half of cylinder B showing the shape of the


hole in
B

Solutions to exercises on page 114

Pattern for branch

18

Solutions to exercises on page 1 1

Pattern

Pattern

"Curve" of ntersecti on

r^
1
Ellipse YY

Solutions to exercises on page 116

169

Solutions to exercises on
page 117

Ellipse YY

Pattern for B showing shape of hole

Pattern for the \J -section chute

Note

Line is straight here *

Solution to exercise on page 118

170

CM

<+-

o
<D

o
r
t->

O .c
<0 to +J
a>

Q_

o
0)
</)
1

3
S-

o> to to

</)

to

I en

o io

to cu
l/>

o
s<u

ai

o
+j en
1

to

c o

<u

CO
(O

4->

3 a. O c CO o
i

171

CO

"0

(U

3
CO

>
0.
O
S+->

c
E

+->

rO

a
o

l Q
o
+->

o
CO
<1)
I

c
i

10

o
r4-1

Q.

CO
*r

3 o

O
Sa>

CM r
cu CT>

(0

fO

CO

0)

Q.

172

E
Z3
+->
I/)

S<+-

i-

o
c
s+->

CO

Q.

<u tn a)

to Q)

a;

tr>

c 3 c

J2 -H Eh -H

QJ

-a

o
+->

o
</>

v>

c
CM CM
i

c o
ri

TO

QJ

V)
r-

-t->

3 o

O
Sd)
a>

aj

a>
A3

</}

Q.

173

I/)

S-

4-

o
<+-

S-

c
s<u
4-> 4->

<U

Q.

w
<u

<D

0)

tr>

C 3 C H 0)
-P

EH

-P IS

-o
to

o
+->

o
1/1

10

o
*p

dl
</>

+>
i

3 o

CO <M r
0J

s<u

en
fO

l/>

<D

Q.

174

Radial Line

Development

Cones

Completion of exercises started on page 125

Note

A RIGHT CONE is one in which a line drawn from the apex of the cone to the centre of the circular base is always at right angles to the base.
Apex

Centre of base

Complete pattern for surface area of frustum of a right cone

An OBLIQUE CONE is one in which the line from apex to the centre of the circular base is inclined at any angle other than" 90 to the base.

Note

Section lines are not drawn on cut surfaces because


the cone is hollow

Plan

I/O

Pattern frustum

Plan

Solutions to exerci ses


on

page 126

176

X X

t/1

CD
</)

u
X
sa> CD
+->

S_
CU

4-

o
c
Scu

S-

<-

O
E
Z3
+->
</)

Q.

O
+-> r-.

O o
r

Q.

xz

CNI
i/>

CD

c o
1
-->

4-> +->

en
(0

<o

S-

D.

4-

3 o
oo

o o

Q.
SZ

177

"*^~

X X

OJ

CO S-

O
>
S-

OJ

Nj

0) 10
1

o
s<u

c
s0)
+->

X
<u

sCD S-

+J
<o

+J 00
CVJ
t/>

o o

o. Q.

Q. f- IE

r
OJ

Z
1

o
4->

en
cO

3 Q. r o C CO o

178

+->

o e o
10

o
+->

to 0) <Xl in cvi

r r*

3 sCD o X
v)

i
<u
C7>

oa
<0

-c
+->

aj

s-

.c
-t->

cu

Q.

o <4c
s-

S-

Q. 4-

o E 3
4->
(/>

o
-G

,
<o

cu
4->

o
r-

M
<a

S-

a.

<-

o o

179

\
\
\
1

/
/

\ \ \

/
' 7

/ /

/7

/
\

/ Q

/
/ /
/ /

/
/

<4-

<D
+->

O E O !+-> C
- -r(/)

s-

\/ -^^
CG
OJ

Q-+->
<L)

OJ

./

E4->

O
C_>

JZ IO

U
(U

reJ

S-t-

CX+-> Q.

<

c
4*
ft
+->

1M

3
0)

o c o
CJrto

C
O
-t->

CO
CD

m > h

ft

<S)

o 3 S<U o x
CD

Ol
(o

Q.

180

O o
+->

o
CD CO
'r-

CO CO I
CD
CTI

u 3 ir Q) O X
00
CD

(O

Q-

<LI

CO

CM CO
CD
CT>

o
5-

o X

CD CD

(O

Q.

181

O
E

CU

SCU
+->

mCU = <0 CU S- !c/>

Q--t->

<0

C_)

CL+J Q-

i4-

cu
+->

o c O +> E
Jcu

E o

CU

t</>

Q.4->
+->

C O
<o s-

cu

<a

cu

C_}

Q-4-> CL

cu a</>

3 O
1/9

O
SCU

f
CU

Ol

:,

**

182

Basic Engineering Drawing is for any student about to begin the study of engineering or technical drawing. It is actually used throughout the whole educational spectrum -from CSE to degree students. The pace of working through the book is dictated by the ability of the student.
It is particularly suitable for craft and technician students and has found great favour with first-year engineering degree students who have done little or no engineering drawing. For CSE and O-level students it provides a firm foundation in the practicalities of engineering,

not oriented towards a particular syllabus but deals with the basic requirements for the preparation and the interpretation of engineering drawings, Information and exercises are presented on a one-sheet system,
It is

and attention is concentrated on particular topics by using a minimum of words and a maximum of pictorial explanation. The approach
to the subject is based largely on the interpretation of drawings as a means of communication, The student is encouraged to interpret and properly use the conventions of BS308:1972. Subjects covered are 1st and 3rd angle projection, technology, abbreviations, conventional representation, sectioning, isometric and oblique drawing, dimensioning, limits and fits, ISO metric screw threads, assemblies, and parallel line, radial line, and triangulation

developments.

Each section deals with basic ideas and applications with the maximum
involvement of the student. Many of the exercises are for completion in the book itself, and solutions to exercises are given at the end. For these reasons, the book is ideal for self-study.

iSBN

273 31887 X