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Tanvi Patel Mrs.

Jalil Biology / 1A 2/22/12 Yeast Population Dynamics Introduction: Almost all organisms are able to produce unlimited populations but environmental factors keep the population in check. Things such as food, competition, and temperature are just a small sampling of how the environment controls population. Yeast cells are single-cell fungi that produce carbon dioxide from cellular respiration. The cells take in glucose or fructose and produce energy, a byproduct is the CO2. They are very useful for studying how environmental factors affect organisms. This is because they are small and reproduce rapidly. The main goal of this experiment is to see how the amount of food affects population growth. Hypothesis: If there is a more concentrated solution of molasses then there will be a larger population. This is because more food means that more of the yeast cells will survive. The concentration of molasses represents the different amounts of food for the yeast cells. The survival of the yeast cells will be measured by the increase of carbon dioxide, which is the byproduct of their cellular reproduction. Variables: Independent Variable – The amount of food; represented by the concentration of molasses. Dependent Variable – The survival or yeast cells; represented by the amount of carbon dioxide. Controlled Variables – Amount of molasses solution, amount of yeast solution, time between measurements, how the height of the carbon dioxide bubble is measured, temperature at which the subjects are held, and the light. Procedure: 1. Gather Materials: yeast solution, molasses solutions, metric ruler, several 1mL graduated dropping pipettes, clean test tubes (small and large), test tube rack, 100 mL graduated cylinder, safety goggles, incubator 2. Put 20mL of the 5% molasses solution in a small test tube 3. Add 1mL of the yeast solution to the same small test tube. 4. Mix the two solutions by placing your palm over the end of the small test tube and inverting it five times. 5. Now slide a larger test tube down over the smaller test tube with the 5% molasses and yeast mixture. 6. Quickly invert the tubes so the opening of the larger test tube is up. 7. Now use a metric ruler and measure the initial height of the air bubble (cm) in the smaller test tube and record the data. 8. Repeat steps 2-7 with the 10% solution of molasses, 20% solution of molasses, and the control. For the control, use 20mL of tap water instead of the molasses solution. 9. Store the test tubes in an incubator or temperature controlled area. Take the measurements of all 4 solutions for five days and record the data.

the higher the concentration.4cm 8.7cm 6. This is proven by the fact that 20% concentration had an end bubble that was 3. the more food. This means that the number of yeast cells is staying constant.2cm 6.7cm more than the 5% concentration and 1.2cm 6.4cm Size of the CO2 Bubble Masured in cm Affect of the Concentration of Molasses on the Survival of Yeast Cells 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day the Bubble was Measured Concentration of Molasses Control/ 0% Concentration of Molasses 5% Concentration of Molasses 10% Concentration of Molasses 20%      Observations Smaller gas bubbles were in the large bubble Generally speaking. the lines for all the concentrations flat-line.5cm 8. There is growth from day 1 and day 3 in all of the different concentrations.7cm 10% 3.4cm 8.3cm 7.8cm 7.9cm more than the control’s end bubble.7cm 6. Clearly.5cm 4. but after day 3.Results: Day 1 2 3 4 5 Control/ 0% 4cm 4.5cm 6.5cm 7. the larger the growth was There is growth from day one to day three but after that the numbers are constant Large growth from day one to day two Minor growth form day two to day three Conclusion: The amount of food does affect population growth. 1.3cm 7.5cm 4. Another interesting discovery can be seen on the graph.3cm 20% 4.5cm 5% 4. This means that there was more respiration going on which implies that there were more cells surviving. The hypothesis was proven true because the as the concentration of molasses grew the survival of the yeast cells was also more.1cm more than the 10% solution. This must mean that the yeast in each test tube has .5cm 4. the larger the CO2 bubble was.

which is the preferable number of trials. There were no mishaps and the experiment was safe. Reflection: Overall. this was a very well conducted experiment with a few minor flaws. Also. temperature. most likely because that is the number of yeast cells that the environment can support. One possible source of error was the fact that different people measured the carbon dioxide bubble. One possible source of error may be that the experiment was not conducted 3 times. This is because the population is now staying constant. we could look for the affect of salt on the survival or the yeast cells. the time between each measurement was not exactly the same. The experiment kept all possible variables constants (other than the independent variable). If this experiment were conducted again. .reached its carrying capacity. took temperature into consideration and placed the test tubes in a temperature independent place for storage and gathered reasonable data. and light. We can also look at the affect of pH.