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MARA JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE PASIR SALAK 2013/2014

CHEMISTRY FOLIO:

MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY


NAME CLASS 2013 TEACHER COLLEGE NO. I/C NUMBER : : : : : ANIS SYAFIKA BINTI YUSOF 4A SIR ROSLAN BIN CHE HARI AP13616 970203-10-6276

NO
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TOPIC
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

PAGE

OBJECTIVES

MANUFACTURED OF SULPHURIC ACID

MANUFACTURED OF AMMONIA

ALLOYS

SYNTHETICS POLYMERS

GLASS AND CERAMICS

COMPOSITE INDEX

CONTENT

OBJECTIVES

Understand the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Synthesise the manufacture of ammonia and its salts. Understand alloys. Evaluate the uses of synthetic polymer. Apply the uses of glass and ceramics. Evaluate the uses of composite materials. Appreciate various synthetic industrial materials.

MANUFACTURED OF SULPHURIC ACID

Uses of sulphuric acid, h2so4, in our daily life are:


1. Sulphuric acid is used to produce chemical fertilizer such as ammonium sulphate and potassium sulphate, which are highly soluble in water and can be easily absorbed by plant. 2. Sulphuric acid also used in the making of artificial silk-like fibres and rayon. 3. Chemical like paints, dyes and drug use sulphuric acid as one of the component materials. 4. Pesticides also use sulphuric acid in their component materials. 5. Plastic such as rayon and nylon use sulphuric acid in their manufacturing.

MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID IN INDUSTRY


1. Sulphuric acid is manufactured in industry though contact process 2. The process contain three stage

STAGE1: Production Of Sulphur Dioxide From Sulphur i. Combustion of sulphur or sulphide ores in the air produce sulphur dioxide SO 2. S(s)+O2(g)SO2(g)
sulphur

ii. Sulphur dioxide is dried and purified. STAGE2: Production Of Sulphur Trioxide From Sulphur Dioxide i. The purified sulphur dioxide SO2 and excess air are passed over vanadium(V) oxide V2O5 at controlled optimum condition optimum condition to produce sulphur trioxide SO3. 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g) ii. The optimum used is: a. Temperature:450-500C b. Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres c. Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide iii. Under controlled optimum conditions, 98% conversion is possible. Sulphur dioxide and oxygen that have not reacted are allowed to flow back again over the catalyst in the converter. STAGE3: Conversion of trioxide to sulphuric acid i. Sulphur trioxide SO2 is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid H2SO4 to form oleum H2S2O7 which is then diluted with water to form sulphuric acid H2SO4. SO3 (g) +H2SO4 (l) H2S2O7 (l)
Oleum

H2S2O7 (l) + H2O (l) 2H2SO4 (aq) ii. The two reactions in stage3 are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide directly into water. SO3 (g) + H2O (l ) H2SO4 (aq)

iii. The addition of sulphur trioxide directly into is not carried out because the reaction is very vigorous; a lot of heat is given off. As a result, a large cloud of sulphuric acid fumes is produced, which is corrosive and causes severe air pollution.

FLOW CHART OF CONTACT PROCESS

S(s) + O (g) SO (g)

SULPHUR

BURNS IN AIR

SULPHUR DIOXIDE, SO

Temperature: 450-500 Pressure: 1 atm. Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide

2SO (g) + O (g) 2SO

SULPHUR TRIOXIDE, SO
SO (g) + HSO (I) HSO (I)

OLEUM, HSO

SULPHURIC ACID, HSO