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SCIENCE FORM 2

Chapter 1: The World through Our Senses 1.1 Understanding the sensory organs and their functions 1 2 3 4 5 State five sensory organs in human. What is the type of stimulus received by eyes? What is the stimulus received by nose and tongue? State four stimuli that can be detected by skin. What are represented by the symbols X and Y for the path of an impulse below, after a stimulus is received by the skin? Stimulus X Nerve Y Nerve Effector

1.2

Understanding the sense of touch 1 What are receptors X and Y?

2 3 4 5 6 1.3

State the type of receptor that is located in the fat layer of the skin. State the type of receptor that is located in the epidermis of the skin. State two factors that affect the sensitivity of the skin. Explain why lips are sensitive to touch. Explain why elbows are not sensitive to touch.

Understanding the sense of smell 1 2 3 4 What is the sensory organ for smell? State the receptors in nose which can detect smell. Where is the location of the smell receptors in nose? What is represented by X in the smell pathway below?

Chemical in the air


5

Impulses

Brain

Explain why when we have flu, the nose cannot function well.

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1.4 Understanding the sense of taste 1 2 State four tastes that can be detected by our tongue. Answer the following questions based on the diagram given.

(a) State the taste that P, Q, R and S are sensitive to. (b) Determine the areas, P, Q, R or S, which are sensitive to the following substances. (i) Honey (ii) Medicine (iii) Salt (iv) Lime 3 (v) Vinegar (vi) Sugar (vii) Bile (viii) Sea water

What is the relationship between the sense of taste and the sense of smell?

1.5

Understanding the sense of hearing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 What is the sensory organ for hearing? What is the structure of the ear that vibrates when it is hit by sound waves? Name the structure of the ear that amplifies sound vibrations. Name the structure of the ear that detects vibration and changes it into nerve impulses. State two structures of ears that do not play any part in hearing. Name the structure of the ear that sends nerve impulses to the brain. Name the structure of the ear that balances the air pressure on both sides of the ear. 8 9 Name the structures of the ear that controls balance in the body. Name the structure of the ear that collects and directs sound waves into the ear.

10 Name the structure of the ear that channels sound waves to the eardrum.

1.6

Understanding the sense of sight 1 2 3 4 What is the sensory organ for sight? What is the structure of the eye that is sensitive to light? Name the structure of the eye that allows light to enter it. Name the structure of the eye that controls the size of pupil.

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5 6 State two structures of the eye that maintain the shape of the eye. What is the structure of the eye that refracts light and helps to focus light onto the retina? 7 8 9 What is the structure of the eye that avoids reflection in the eye? What is the function of sclera? State three structures in eye that help eye lens to focus the light onto the retina.

10 State the part of the retina which is not sensitive to light. Explain your answer. 11 State the structure of eye that sends impulses to the brain for interpretation.

1.7

Understanding light and sight 1 2 What happens to light when it is directed to a plane mirror? What are the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection? (a)

(b)

3 4

What happens to the light that is directed to a medium with different density? Draw the refraction of light in the diagram below. (a) (c)

(b)

5 6

Explain why the drinking straw in a glass of water appears bent. State three examples of eye defects.

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7 State the eye defect that occurs because the image of a distant object falls in front of the retina. 8 9 State the eye defect that occurs because the image of a nearby object falls behind the retina. State two reasons for the occurrence of short-sightedness. 10 State two reasons for the occurrence of long-sightedness. 11 How can short-sightedness be corrected? 12 How can long-sightedness be corrected? 13 State an eye defect that is caused by the irregular curvature of the cornea. 14 State the limitation of the sense of sight when our brain cannot interpret accurately what is actually seen by the eyes. 15 We cannot see an object if its image is formed on the part X of retina. Name part X. 16 Explain why the blind spot is not sensitive to light ray. 17 State the type of vision involving both eyes. 18 State one advantage and one disadvantage of stereoscopic vision. 19 State the type of vision involving one eye only. 20 State one advantage and one disadvantage of monocular vision. 21 State two examples of animals that have stereoscopic vision. 22 State two examples of animals that have monocular vision.

1.8

Understanding sound and hearing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 How can sound be produced? State the change of energy during the production of sound. Can a huge explosion that occurs in outer space be heard? Explain your answer. State the property of sound that causes echo to be formed in caves. State two properties of the surface of objects that reflect sound effectively. State two properties of the surface of objects that absorb sound effectively. State the type of hearing involving both ears. State two possible reasons why a person is suffering from deafness (a hearing defect). 9 State the instrument that is used to amplify the sound of heartbeat.

10 State the instrument that is used by people with hearing defects.

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SCIENCE FORM 2
1.9 Understanding the stimuli and responses in plants 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The response by plants to stimuli is called _____________. State the type of tropic response shown by the shoots towards light. What is the importance of phototropism that occurs in plant? The roots show negative phototropism. What does this mean? State the type of tropic response shown by the roots towards gravity. State the type of tropic response shown by the roots towards water. State the type of tropic response shown by the tendrils of cucumber plants towards touch. 8 9 State the type of response shown by the mimosa plants towards touch. State two importance of geotropism that occurs in plant?

10 The shoots show negative geotropism. What does this mean? Chapter 2: Nutrition 2.1 2.2 Analysing the classes of food Evaluating the importance of a balanced diet 1 State the solution (reagent or material) that can be used to test the following food and give the observation. (a) Starch (b) Glucose (c) Protein (d) Fat 2 3 4 5 6 7 What will be observed when a few drops of iodine solution are dropped onto a piece of potato? Explain your answer. State three elements that make up the carbohydrate and fat. What is the main function of carbohydrate? State the main function of protein. State two functions of fat. State the class of the food below. (a) Starch (b) Milk (c) Margarine (d) Honey (e) Fish (f) Egg white (g) Egg yolk (h) Butter

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(i) Fruit (j) Vegetable (k) Rice (l) Potato (m) Groundnut 8 9 State one function of water State the diseases caused by the deficiency of the following vitamins in the diet. (a) Vitamin A (b) Vitamin B (c) Vitamin C (d) Vitamin D (e) Vitamin E (f) Vitamin K 10 State the diseases caused by the deficiency of the following mineral salts in a diet. (g) Iodine (h) Iron (i) Phosphorus (j) Calcium 11 State the disease caused by the deficiency of protein in a diet. 12 Name the diet which is made up of food that has all the nutrients in the right quantity. 13 A man took 100 g rice, 100 g fried egg and 50 g banana for his dinner. Calculate the calorific value he took. Food Rice Fried egg Banana 2.3 Calorific value (kJ/100g) 1 500 950 350

Understanding the digestive system in human 1 2 3 4 State the type of food that is digested in the mouth. State the type of food that is digested in the stomach. State the types of food that are digested in the small intestine. State two types of substance (contained in gastric juice) that are secreted by the stomach wall. 5 6 7 Name the process that pushes the food along the alimentary canal. State two functions of the small intestine. State two functions of the large intestine.

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2.4 2.5 2.6 Understanding the process of absorption of digested food Understanding the reabsorption of water and defaecation Put into practice the habits of healthy eating 1 What is the end-product of the digestion of carbohydrate that is ready to be absorbed into the small intestine? 2 What is the end-product of the digestion of protein that is ready to be absorbed into the small intestine? 3 What are the end-products of the digestion of fat that is ready to be absorbed into the small intestine? 4 Can starch, protein or fat molecules move through the walls of small intestine (villi)? Explain your answer. 5 6 7 Name the structure on the inner wall of the small intestine which is responsible for the absorption of digested food. State one characteristic of villus that enables it to absorb digested food efficiently. Name the process of expelling the undigested food in the large intestine out of the body. 8 9 Name the condition which occurs when a person face the difficulty to pass motion. State the process of pushing the undigested food along the large intestine.

10 What is the risk of consuming a large amount of food located at the top of the food pyramid?

Chapter 3: Biodiversity 3.1 Understanding variety of living organisms and their classification 1 2 3 State two classes of animals. State five classes of vertebrate. State the classification of vertebrates for the following animals. (a) Rabbit (b) Eagle (c) Chicken (d) Whale (e) Dolphin (f) Snake (g) Turtle (h) Toad (i) Frog (j) Shark (k) Penguin

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(l) Eel (m) Crocodile (n) Lizard (o) Tortoise 4 5 6 7 8 9 State the types of vertebrates which breathe through lungs. State the type of vertebrates which breathe through gills. State the type of vertebrates which breathe through moist skin. State the types of vertebrates which are warm-blooded. State the types of vertebrates which have cold-blooded. State the types of vertebrates which lay eggs.

10 State the type of vertebrates which gives birth to young. 11 State the types of vertebrates which carry out internal fertilisation. 12 State the types of vertebrates which carry out external fertilisation. 13 State two types of flowering plants. 14 State and draw the types of leaf vein of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants. 15 State and draw the types of root of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants. 16 State the types of stem of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants. 17 State the number of cotyledons of the seeds of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants. 18 State whether each of the given plants is a monocotyledon or dicotyledon. (a) Paddy plant (b) Coconut tree (c) Durian tree (d) Oil palm tree (e) Rubber tree (f) Grass (g) Maize plant (h) Balsam plant 19 State four types of non-flowering plant. 20 Among non-flowering plants, name a plant that cannot carry out photosynthesis. Explain your answer. 21 How do the non-flowering plants reproduce?

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Chapter 4: Interdependence among Living Organisms and the Environment 4.1 Analysing the interdependence among living organisms 1 2 State the natural living place for plants and animals. State a group of organisms of the same species that live together and reproduce in a habitat. 3 Several types of animal and plant populations live together and interact with one another in a habitat to form a _______________. 4 Several communities that interact with one another and with the physical environment form an ________________. 5 State the study on the relationship among organisms and the relationship between organisms and the environment.

4.2

Evaluating the interaction between living organisms 1 2 3 An organism that kills and eats another organism is called a _____________. An organism that is eaten by a predator is called a _______________. State the type of interaction between the different organisms that live together dependently. 4 State the type of interaction between different organisms where one organism benefits from the other whereas the other organism is not adversely affected. 5 State the type of interaction between different organisms where one organism benefits from the other whereas the other organism is negatively affected. 6 State the type of interaction between two different organisms that live together in which both organisms benefit from each other. 7 8 9 State the type of interaction that occurs when organisms compete for the same basic resources. State two examples of basic resources that are competed in a group of lions. Which of the following usually has a bigger body, a prey or predator?

10 State the type of interaction between the living things below. (a) A kingfisher and fish (b) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria and leguminous plant (c) Flowering plants and weeds (d) Tree barnacles and trees (e) Birds nest fern and tree 11 Name the method in which a natural enemy is used to control the population of pest in an area. 12 State two advantages of controlling pests using biological control. 13 Give one pair of organisms as an example of biological control.

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4.3 Synthesising food web 1 2 3 4 5 6 All green plants that make food through photosynthesis is called ___________. Animals that eat plants or other animals are called ____________. Organisms that decompose dead organisms and change them into simple substances are called _______________. State two examples of decomposers. Name the energy link shows how energy in food is passed from plants to animals. The diagram below shows a food chain in a habitat. Grass Caterpillar Frog Snake (a) Grass is a ________________ (b) Caterpillar is a ________________ (c) Frog is a ________________ (d) Snake is a ________________ 7 Based on the food chain in Question 6, state what will happen to the number of organisms if all the snakes in the habitat is caught. (a) Number of frog (b) Number of caterpillar (c) Number of grass 8 9 Name the term that refers to several food chains that are interlinked. What are the organisms that form the base and the top of a pyramid of numbers?

10 From the base of a pyramid of numbers to its top, state the changes in the (a) number of organisms (b) size of organisms 4.4 4.5 Analysing photosynthesis Evaluating the importance of conservation and preservation of living

organisms 1 2 3 4 What is the process that occurs in green plants where food is made? State four conditions (or substances) needed for the process of photosynthesis. Write the word equation of photosynthesis. In the laboratory activity to test the presence of starch as a product of photosynthesis, state the purpose of (a) boiling the small pieces of leaf in a beaker. (b) heating the small pieces of leaf in alcohol. (c) soaking the pieces of leaf in hot water. 5 State the solution that can be used to test the presence of starch in leaf and state the observation.

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6 7 8 9 What is the gas that can be absorbed by sodium hydroxide solution? State the change of energy that occurs during photosynthesis. Name the green pigment on leaves. What is the function of chlorophyll?

10 Complete the carbon-oxygen cycle below.

Green plants Photosynthesis

Living organisms Respiration/Breathing

Fuel Burning/Combustion

Dead organisms Decomposition

11 State three human activities than cause environmental pollution.

Chapter 5: Water and Solution 5.1 Analysing the physical characteristics of water 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 State the melting point of ice. State the freezing point of water. State the boiling point of water. State the change of state of matter when ice becomes water. State the change of state of matter when water becomes ice. State the change of state of matter when water becomes steam. State the change of state of matter when steam becomes water. State the change of colour when dry cobalt chloride paper is used to test the presence of water. 9 State the change of colour when dry copper(II) sulphate is used to test the presence of water. 10 What is the effect of the impurities on the (a) boiling point of water? (b) melting point of ice? (c) freezing point of water?

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5.2 Analysing the composition of water 1 What is the process that can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen? 2 3 4 5 6 7 Is a water a mixture or a compound? State two elements that form a water molecule. State the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in one molecule of water. Name the negative electrode in an electrolytic cell. Name the positive electrode in electrolysis. State the product at the anode for the electrolysis of water (acidified by a little sulphuric acid). 8 State the product at the cathode for the electrolysis of water (acidified by a little sulphuric acid). 9 State the test for the presence of oxygen gas.

10 State the test for the presence of hydrogen gas. 5.3 Analysing the process of evaporation of water 1 2 State four factors that affect the rate of evaporation of water. State the relationship between the surrounding temperature and the rate of evaporation of water. 3 State the relationship between the air humidity and the rate of evaporation of water. 4 State the relationship between the air movement and the rate of evaporation of water. 5 State the relationship between the surface area and the rate of evaporation of water. 6 The temperature that enables the boiling process to occur is referred to as _______________. For Questions 712, choose either boiling or evaporation as your answer. 7 8 9 What is the process that occurs at any temperature? What is the process that occurs at a higher rate? What is the process that takes place only on the surface of water?

10 What is the process that enables wet clothes to become dry under the Sun? 11 What is the process that enables the preparation of salt at the seaside? 12 What is the process that enables the preparation of distilled water in the school laboratory?

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5.4 Analysing solution and solubility 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Name the liquid that is used to dissolve a substance. Name the substance that dissolves in a solvent Name the mixture that is formed by a solvent and a solute. Name the solution that has very little solute. Name the solution that has a lot of solute. Name the solution that has the maximum amount of solute. Name the liquid that has suspended substances in it. State four factors that affect the solubility of substances in a solvent. State the relationship between the size of solutes and the solubility of substances in the solvent. 10 State the relationship between the temperature of a solvent and the solubility of substances in it. 11 State the relationship between the stirring and the solubility of substances in a solvent. 12 State the relationship between the volume of solvent and the solubility of substances in it. 13 Name the universal solvent? 14 State the organic solvent that can be used to remove the following dirt. (a) Chlorophyll (from grass) (b) Fresh paint (c) Rust (d) Grease (e) Blood State the organic solvents according to its uses. (f) To dissolve iodine to make an antiseptic (g) To dilute paint (h) To stick plastic substances (i) To stick rubber sheets 5.5 Analysing acid and alkali 1 2 3 State three properties of acid. Name the gas released when acid reacts with magnesium (or zinc). Write a chemical equation in words to show the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. 4 Write a chemical equation in words to show the reaction between zinc and sulphuric acid.

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5 Write a chemical equation in words to show the reaction between zinc and nitric acid. 6 7 8 9 Name the gas released when acid reacts with calcium carbonate. State three properties of alkali. Name the gas released when ammonium salt is heated with alkali. Acids and alkalis only show their properties in the presence of ________________. 10 A substance with pH value less than 7 shows the properties of an _____________. 11 A substance with pH value more than 7 shows the properties of an ____________. 12 A substance with pH value 7 is _____________. 13 Name the acid used in car battery. 14 Name the acid used to coagulate latex. 15 Name the acid in soft drinks. 16 Name the alkali used to prevent the coagulation of latex. 17 Name the reaction that occurs between an acid and an alkali. 18 Write a chemical equation in words to show the reaction between sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. 19 Name the method that uses burette to study neutralisation. 20 State the properties of toothpaste and gastric pills. 5.6 Analysing the methods of purification of water 1 2 State the natural sources of water that contains the most and the least impurities. State one water purification method that can only remove coarse impurities such as suspended substances. 3 4 5 State one disadvantage of purifying water through filtration. State two water purification methods that can only kill microorganisms in water. Name the method of water purification below.

State one method that can be used to kill the microorganisms contained in swimming pools.

State one method that is usually used to kill microorganisms in drinking water at home.

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8 9 State one advantage of purifying water through boiling. State one water purification method that can remove all impurities.

10 State whether water that is purified by distillation is suitable to be consumed as drinking water. Give one reason for your answer. 11 State the water purification method that can be used to prepare distilled water. 5.7 5.8 Analysing the water supply system Understanding the preservation of water quality 1 2 State the sequence of the tanks that are used in water purification plants. State two substances that are added into the coagulation tank to coagulate suspended particles. 3 4 5 6 State the substance added to the coagulation tank to reduce the acidity of water. State the function of chlorine that is added into the chlorination tank. State the function of sodium fluoride added into water at certain water purification plants. State five types of water pollutants.

Chapter 6: Air Pressure 6.1 Understanding air pressure 1 Air has particles that are continually moving and colliding with things on Earth. This produces _________________. 2 Draw the direction of the air pressure acting on the thick cardboard.

3 4 5

State two factors that affect air pressure. State the relationship between the number of gas particles and air pressure. State the relationship between the volume of a container filled with gas particles and air pressure inside the container.

State the relationship between temperature and air pressure.

6.2

Applying the principle of air pressure 1 2 3 Give three examples of tools using air pressure to operate. A student cannot pour out the milk from a condensed milk tin with a hole punched. Suggest one way to help him to overcome the problem. State one tool that can be used to suck out the clogged dirt in a sink.

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4 What will happen when a gas is placed under a very high pressure? Give two examples for the use of this property. 5 State one safety measure while using aerosol spray. Give a reason for your answer. Chapter 7: Dynamics 7.1 Understanding force 1 A plastic ruler is bent. What inference can be made based on the action of the force? 2 3 A spring is pulled. What inference can be made based on the action of the force? A stationary wheelbarrow is lifted and pushed. What inference can be made based on the action of the force? 4 Speeding a moving bicycle. What inference can be made based on the action of the force? 5 Kicking a ball that is rolling to wards a different direction. What inference can be made based on the action of the force? 6 State the type of force that is produced when two surfaces rub against each other. 7 8 9 State the type of force that opposes motion. State the type of force that pulls objects towards Earth. The attractive or repulsive force that is exerted by magnets is known as ______________ . 10 State the type of force that is produced when electrons move through a conductor. 11 State the type of force acting on a ping-pong ball when it stops moving after a short while. 12 State the type of force acting on an object that falls to the ground.

7.2 7.3

Understanding the measurement of force Application of frictional force 1 2 3 4 5 State the unit of force and its symbol. What is the instrument that can be used to measure force? What is the type of force that has direction and magnitude? What is the type of force that opposes the direction of motion? Draw an arrow (:) to show the direction of the frictional force.

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6 7

State two factors that affect the magnitude of frictional force. State the relationship between the nature of a surface and the magnitude of frictional force produced by it.

State the relationship between the weight of an object and the magnitude of frictional force acting on it.

Is the magnitude of the frictional force affected by the surface area in contact?

10 State three methods to reduce the friction between two surfaces in contact. 11 Why is the wet floor slippery to walk on it? 12 State three disadvantages of friction.

7.4 7.5

Application of the concept of work Application of the concept of power 1 What being done when an object is shifted from one place to another or to change the shape of an object? 2 Write a formula to relate the work done, force and the distance travelled by a moving object. 3 4 State the unit of work done. State whether the work is done or not for the following situations. (a) Sitting on the floor (b) Pushing a table (c) Brushing teeth (d) Sleeping on a bed (e) Climbing up the ladder 5 A bicycle is pushed to a distance of 5 m with a force of 20 N. Calculate the work done. 6 7 8 9 What refers to the rate of work done in one second? Write a formula to relate power, the work done and time. State the unit of power. A student took 5 seconds to push a box. If the work done is 60 J, what is the power generated? 10 A worker pushes a cupboard with a force of 500 N over a distance of 2 m in 5 seconds. Calculate the power that has been generated.

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Chapter 8: Support and Movement 8.1 Understanding the support system in animals 1 2 3 4 5 What is the support system of human and land vertebrates? How do aquatic vertebrates support their body weight? What is the support system of cockroach and scorpion (land invertebrates)? What is the support system of earthworm and caterpillar (land invertebrates)? State the types of support system for the following animals. (a) Elephant (b) Eagle (c) Tapeworm (d) Slug (e) Spider (f) Whale 8.2 Understanding the support system in plants 1 2 3 4 5 What is the support system of woody plants? What is the special structure that supports the rose plants? What is the support system of herbaceous plants such as balsam and mustard? What is the special structure that supports the cucumber plants? State the special structure in aquatic plants that enable them to be supported by the buoyancy of water. 6 Determine the type of plant based on the structure of the stem shown below.

Chapter 9: Stability 9.1 9.2 Understanding that the centre of gravity affects stability Appreciating the importance of stability 1 2 3 4 5 State the point of equilibrium of an object. What will affect the position of the centre of gravity? Where is the location of the centre of gravity of a circular-shaped object? State two factors that affect the stability of an object. State the relationship between the position of the centre of gravity and the stability of an object.

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6 7 State the relationship between the base area and the stability of an object. Which object is more stable? Explain your answer.

Which object is more stable? Explain.

Explain how a giraffe can achieve its stability while drinking water.

10 How can a crocodile achieve its stability? 11 State two examples of objects at home that achieve stability by having low centre of gravity. 12 Explain why elephant and rhinoceros have big and short legs. Chapter 10: Simple Machine 10.1 Analysing levers 1 State the class of lever where the fulcrum is located between the force (effort) and the load. 2 State the class of lever where the load is located between the fulcrum and the force (effort). 3 State the class of lever where the force (effort) is located between the fulcrum and the load. 4 5 State the classes of levers where the force and the load act in opposite directions. Determine the classes of levers for the tools below. (a) Paper cutter (b) Fishing rod (c) Scissors (d) Crowbar (e) Wheelbarrow (f) Pliers (g) Bottle opener (h) Ice tongs (i) Knife

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6 7 8 9 State two tools that are classified in the same class of lever as a broom. State two tools that are classified in the same class of lever as a see-saw. State two tools that are classified in the same class of lever as a nutcracker. Give the formula of the principle of levers.

10 In the diagram below, calculate the weight of the load that can keep the rod

balanced when a 100 N force is exerted on the rod.

ANSWERS
Chapter 1: The World through Our Senses 1.1 Understanding the sensory organs and their functions 6 Eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin 7 Light 8 Chemical substances 9 Touch, pain, heat and cold 10 X: Receptor; Y: Brain 1.2 Understanding the sense of touch 1 X: Pain receptor; Y: Pressure receptor 2 Pressure receptor 3 Pain receptor 4 The thickness of the epidermis and the number of receptors 5 Lips have thin epidermis and many receptors 6 Elbows have thick epidermis and fewer receptors 1.3 Understanding the sense of smell 1 Nose 2 Smell receptors 3 On the top part of the nasal cavity 4 X: smell receptor 5 The smell receptors are covered by a layer of mucus 1.4 Understanding the sense of taste 1 Sweet, sour, salty and bitter 2 (a) P: Bitter; Q: Sour; R: Salty; S: Sweet 3 (b) (i) S (v) Q (ii) P (vi) S (iii) R (vii) P (iv) Q (viii) R 4 The sense of smell facilitates the sense of taste.

1.5 Understanding the sense of hearing

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ear Eardrum Ossicles Cochlea Semicircular canal and Eustachian tube) Auditory nerve Eustachian tube Semicircular canal Ear pinna Auditory canal

1.6 Understanding the sense of sight 1 Eye 2 Retina 3 Pupil 4 Iris 5 Aqueous humour and vitreous humour
6 7 8 9 10 11

Cornea Choroid Protects the eye Cornea, aqueous humour and vitreous humour Blind spot. Blind spot does not contain receptor of light Optic nerve

1.7 Understanding light and sight 1 It will be reflected 2 (a) Angle of incidence = 90 40 = 50 o; Angle of reflection = angle of incidence = 50 o 3 (b) Angle of incidence = 90 60 = 30 o; Angle of reflection = angle of incidence = 30 o 4 It will be refracted. 5 (a)

(b) (c)

6 7 8 9

Refraction of light occurs Short-sightedness, long-sightedness and astigmatism Short-sightedness Long-sightedness

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10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 The eyeballs are too long; The eye lens are too thick The eyeballs are too short; The eye lens are too thin) By wearing concave lenses By wearing convex lenses Astigmatism Optical illusion Blind spot Blind spot does not have any light receptor Stereoscopic vision Can estimate distances accurately but the filed of vision is narrow Monocular vision The filed of vision is wide but distances cannot be estimated accurately Eagle and cat/tiger/owl (predator) Rabbit and deer/rat/cow/goat (prey)

1.8 Understanding sound and hearing 1 Through vibration 2 Kinetic energy sound energy 3 No. Sound cannot travel through a vacuum/The transfer of sound requires a medium 4 Sound can be reflected 5 Hard and smooth 6 Soft and porous 7 Stereophonic hearing 8 Tearing of the eardrum and damage to the ossicles/auditory nerve/cochlea 9 Stethoscope 10 Hearing aid 1.9 Understanding the stimuli and responses in plants 1 tropism 2 Phototropism 3 Enables the plant to obtain sunlight for photosynthesis 4 The roots grow away from the direction of the light 5 Geotropism 6 Hydrotropism 7 Thigmotropism 8 Nastic movement 9 Enables the plant to obtain water and mineral salt in the ground; Enable the roots to cling on to the ground firmly for support 10 The shoots grow away from the direction of the gravitational force Chapter 2: Nutrition 2.1 Analysing the classes of food 2.2 Evaluating the importance of a balanced diet 14 (a) Iodine solution. A dark blue colour appears. (b) Benedicts solution and brick-red precipitate is formed. (c) Millons reagent. A dark red precipitate is formed. (d) Filter paper. A translucent spot is formed. 15 A dark blue colour appears. Potato contains starch. 16 Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen 17 To supply energy 18 To build new cells to replace damaged tissues 19 As heat insulator and to protect the internal organs 20 (a) Carbohydrate

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(b) Protein (c) Fats (d) Carbohydrate (e) Protein (f) Protein (g) Fat (h) Fat (i) Roughage/Vitamins/Mineral salts (j) Roughage/Vitamins/Mineral salts (k) Carbohydrate (l) Carbohydrate (m) Protein Transporting digested food /Regulating the body temperature (a) Night blindness (b) Beriberi (c) Scurvy (d) Rickets (e) Sterility (f) Blood slow to clot (a) Goitre (b) Anaemia (c) Rickets (d) Rickets Kwashiorkor Balanced diet 1 500 + 9500 + 175 = 2 625 kJ

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24 25 26

2.3 Understanding the digestive system in human 8 Starch/Carbohydrate 9 Protein 10 Carbohydrate, protein and fat 11 Enzyme and hydrochloric acid 12 Peristalsis 13 Complete the digestion of food and absorbs the digested food 14 Reabsorbs water and produces faeces 2.4 Understanding the process of absorption of digested food 2.5 Understanding the reabsorption of water and defaecation 2.6 Put into practice the habits of healthy eating 11 Glucose 12 Amino acid 13 Fatty acid and glycerol 14 No. The starch, protein and fat molecules are too big to move through the walls of small intestine. 15 Villus (singular)/Villi (plural) 16 Villus has thin wall one-cell thick wall 17 Defaecation 18 Constipation 19 Peristalsis 20 Getting a heart attack

Chapter 3: Biodiversity

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3.1 Understanding variety of living organisms and their classification 22 Invertebrate and vertebrate 23 Fish, amphibian, reptile, bird and mammal 24 (a) Mammal (b) Bird (c) Bird (d) Mammal (e) Mammal (f) Reptile (g) Reptile (h) Amphibian (i) Amphibian (j) Fish (k) Bird (l) Fish (m) Reptile (n) Reptile (o) Reptile 25 Mammal, reptile, bird and amphibian 26 Fish 27 Amphibian 28 Mammal and bird 29 Reptile, fish and amphibian 30 Fish, reptile, bird and amphibian 31 Mammal 32 Mammal, reptile and bird 33 Fish and amphibian 34 Dicotyledon and monocotyledon

35 Monocotyledon: parallel veins

; Dicotyledon: network veins

36 37 38 39

Monocotyledon: fibrous roots ; Dicotyledon: tap roots Monocotyledon: non-woody/soft; Dicotyledon: woody/hard Monocotyledon: one; Dicotyledon: two (a) Monocotyledon (b) Monocotyledon (c) Dicotyledon (d) Monocotyledon (e) Dicotyledon (f) Monocotyledon (g) Monocotyledon (h) Dicotyledon 40 Alga, fungus, moss and fern 41 Fungus (singular) or fungi (plural). Fungus does not contain chlorophyll 42 By spores (fungus, moss and fern) and binary fission (algae)

Chapter 4: Interdependence among Living Organisms and the Environment

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4.1 Analysing the interdependence among living organisms 6 Habitat 7 Population 8 community 9 ecosystem 10 Ecology 4.2 Evaluating the interaction between living organisms 14 predator 15 prey 16 Symbiosis 17 Commensalism 18 Parasitism 19 Mutualism 20 Competition 21 Food and living space/water/mates 22 A predator 23 (a) Prey-predator (b) Mutualism (c) Competition (d) Parasitism (e) Commensalism 24 Biological control 25 Safe to use and does not pollute the environment 26 Owl and rat/Snake and rat 4.3 Synthesising food web 11 producers 12 consumers 13 decomposers 14 Bacteria and fungi 15 Food chain 16 (a) producer (e) primary consumer (f) secondary consumer (g) tertiary consumer 17 (a) Increases (d) Decreases (e) Increases 18 Food web 19 Base: Producer; Top: Tertiary consumer 20 (a) Decreases (b) Increases 4.4 Analysing photosynthesis 4.5 Evaluating the importance of conservation and preservation of living organisms 12 Photosynthesis 13 Carbon dioxide, water, sunlight and chlorophyll 14 Carbon dioxide + water : glucose + oxygen 15 (a) To kill the cells and break the cell walls (b) To remove chlorophyll (c) To soften the leaf 16 Iodine solution; A dark blue colour appears 17 Carbon dioxide

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18 Light energy chemical energy 19 Chlorophyll 20 To absorb sunlight for photosynthesis 21
Carbon dioxide

Green plants Photosynthesis

Living organisms Respiration/ Breathing Oxygen

Fuel Burning/ Combustion

Dead

organis Decomposition ms

22 Logging, agriculture and mining/industrialisation/construction

Chapter 5: Water and Solution 5.1 Analysing the physical characteristics of water 11 0 oC 12 0 oC 13 100 oC 14 Melting 15 Freezing 16 Boiling/ Evaporation 17 Condensation 18 Blue to pink 19 White to blue 20 (a) Increase the boiling point (b) Decrease the melting point (c) Decrease the freezing point 5.2 Analysing the composition of water 11 Electrolysis 12 A compound 13 Hydrogen and oxygen 14 2:1 15 Cathode 16 Anode 17 Oxygen 18 Hydrogen 19 Oxygen gas lights up the glowing wooden splinter 20 A pop sound is heard when the hydrogen gas is tested with a lighted wooden splinter 5.3 Analysing the process of evaporation of water 13 Surrounding temperature, air humidity, air movement and surface area 14 The higher the surrounding temperature, the higher the rate of evaporation of water 15 The lower the air humidity (drier air), the higher the rate of evaporation of water 16 The faster the air movement, the higher the rate of evaporation of water 17 The bigger the surface area, the higher the rate of evaporation of water 18 boiling point 19 Evaporation 20 Boiling 21 Evaporation 22 Evaporation 23 Evaporation

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24 Boiling 5.4 Analysing solution and solubility 15 Solvent 16 Solute 17 Solution 18 Dilute solution 19 Concentrated solution 20 Saturated solution 21 Suspension 22 Size of solutes, temperature of solvent, stirring and volume of solvent 23 The smaller the size of solute, the faster it dissolves in a solvent 24 The warmer the solvent, the faster the solutes dissolves in it 25 The solutes dissolve more easily if the solvent is stirred 26 The bigger the volume of the solvent, the faster the solutes dissolve in it 27 Water 28 (a) Alcohol (j) Turpentine/Kerosene (k) Lime juice (l) Turpentine/Kerosene (m) Sodium chloride solution/Table salt solution 29 (a) Alcohol (b) Turpentine (c) Chloroform (d) Benzene 5.5 Analysing acid and alkali 21 Taste sour, corrosive and changes damp blue litmus paper to red pH less than 7 22 Hydrogen 23 Magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + hydrogen 24 Zinc + sulphuric acid zinc sulphate + hydrogen 25 Zinc + nitric acid zinc nitrate + hydrogen 26 Carbon dioxide 27 Taste bitter, corrosive and changes damp red litmus paper to blue/pH more than 7/feel slippery 28 Ammonia 29 water 30 acid 31 alkali 32 neutral 33 Sulphuric acid 34 Formic acid 35 Tartaric acid 36 Ammonia solution 37 Neutralisation 38 Sodium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + water 39 Titration 40 Toothpaste: weak alkaline; gastric pills: alkaline 5.6 Analysing the methods of purification of water 12 The most: seawater; The least: rainwater 13 Filtration 14 The water still contains microorganisms/dissolved substances 15 Boiling and chlorination 16 Chlorination

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17 18 19 20 21 22 Chlorination Boiling Microorganisms in the water will be killed. Distillation No. The water does not contain any dissolved mineral salts Distillation

5.7 Analysing the water supply system 5.8 Understanding the preservation of water quality 7 Coagulation tank Mixing tank Sedimentation tank Filtration tank Chlorination tank Storage tank 8 Alum and slaked lime (or lime) 9 Slaked lime 10 To kill microorganisms 11 To reduce tooth decay 12 Domestic waste, industrial waste, chemical substances in agriculture, mud and silt, and oil spills

Chapter 6: Air Pressure 6.1 Understanding air pressure 7 air pressure 8

9 10 11 12

Temperature and volume of air As the number of gas particles increases, the air pressure also increases As the volume of the container decreases, the air pressure increases As the temperature increases, the air pressure also increases

6.2 Applying the principle of air pressure 6 Syringe, siphon and insecticide spray/drinking straw 7 Punch another hole on the tin 8 Suction pump 9 It condenses and becomes a liquid. Examples are cooking gas cylinder and insecticide spray/oxygen cylinder/hair spray/perfume. 10 Keep it away from heat sources because it might explode if exposed to heat. Chapter 7: Dynamics 7.1 Understanding force 13 Force changes the shape of an object. 14 Force changes the shape of an object. 15 Force changes the position of an object. 16 Force changes the speed of a moving object. 17 Force changes the direction of a moving object. 18 Frictional force 19 Frictional force 20 Gravitational force 21 magnetic force

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22 Electrical force 23 Frictional force 24 Gravitational force 7.2 Understanding the measurement of force 7.3 Application of frictional force 13 Newton, N 14 Spring balance 15 Frictional force 16 Frictional force 17

18 19 20 21 22 23 24

The nature of the surfaces in contact and the weight of objects The rougher the surface, the greater the frictional force caused by it The heavier the object, the greater the frictional force acting on it No Using wheels, oil and grease/lubricants/ball bearings/rods Water reduces frictional force. Friction produces heat, opposes or slows down movement of objects and wears away materials

7.4 Application of the concept of work 7.5 Application of the concept of power 11 Work 12 Work done = Force Distance 13 Joule/J) 14 (a) Work is not done (b) Work is done (c) Work is done (d) Work is not done (e) Work is done 15 Work done = 5 x 20 = 100 J 16 Power 17 Power = 18 Watt/W 19 Power = 20 Power =
Work done 60 = = 12 W Time 5 Work done Force Distance = Time Time

Work done Time

500 2 5

= 200 W

Chapter 8: Support and Movement 8.1 Understanding the support system in animals 6 Endoskeleton/Internal skeleton 7 By the buoyancy of water 8 Exoskeleton/Eexternal skeleton 9 Hydrostatic skeleton 10 (a) Endoskeleton (g) Endoskeleton (h) Hydrostatic skeleton

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(i) Hydrostatic skeleton (j) Exoskeleton (k) Buoyancy of water 8.2 Understanding the support system in plants 7 Woody tissues 8 Thorns 9 Tugor pressure 10 Tendrils 11 Aquatic plants have lots of air sacs in their leaves and stems 12 Aquatic plants Chapter 9: Stability 9.1 Understanding that the centre of gravity affects stability 9.2 Appreciating the importance of stability 13 Centre of gravity 14 The shape of the object 15 At the centre 16 The position of the centre of gravity and the base area 17 The lower the centre of gravity, the more stable the object 18 The bigger the base area, the more stable the object 19 Y: Y has a larger base area 20 Q: Q has a lower centre of gravity 21 A giraffe spreads out its legs to lower the centre of gravity and increase the base area 22 Crocodile has low centre of gravity and big base area 23 Cupboard and bed 24 To lower their centre of gravity in order to achieve stability

Chapter 10: Simple Machine 10.1 Analysing levers 11 First-class lever 12 Second-class lever 13 Third-class lever 14 Second and third classes of levers 15 (a) Second-class lever (j) Third-class lever (k) First-class lever (l) First-class lever (m) Second-class lever (n) First-class lever (o) Second-class lever (p) Third-class lever (q) Third-class lever 16 Fishing rod and ice tongs 17 Scissors and crowbar 18 Wheelbarrow and paper cutter 19 Load distance of the load from the fulcrum = Force distance of the force from the fulcrum 20 Load =
100 3 2

= 150 N

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