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We have learnt

•How do the crystallites arrange in a polycrystalline material •How to represent polycrystal information in stereographic projection •Macro- and micro- texture

Today’s objective
•To learn the principles of macro or bulk texture measurements by X-ray diffraction

quite powerful Ultrasonic methods -non-destructive method .Texture Measurement X-ray diffraction method -most common method Neutron diffraction method -used. where X-ray methods fail Electron diffraction methods -SEM (EBSD) and TEM (OIM) Synchrotron X-ray method -very specialised.

local surface texture (nms penetration in most materials). type of data depends on neutron source. projection (2 angles). limited information (one angle). measures average texture in bulk (cms penetration in most materials) . projection (2 angles). measures average texture at a surface (μms penetration). • Neutron diffraction. pole figures. • Electron [back scatter] diffraction. • Optical microscopy: optical activity (plane of polarization).How to Measure Texture Measurement of pole figure • X-ray diffraction. . easiest [to automate] in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). complete orientation (3 angles).

electrons. light wavelength [nm] energy [eV] 400-700 1 0 0 - neutrons X-rays electrons 0.67x10-24 10-100 0.001-0.05-0.602x10-19 9.11x10-28 10-3 charge[C] rest mass [g] penetration depth.3 10-2 0 1. neutrons.01 105 -1.1 Particle beams (electrons. absorption length [mm] 0 0.05-0.3 104 0 0.01-0.  = h/ 2mEkin . neutrons): de Broglie relation:  = h/mv or.Virtually all techniques for texture analysis are based upon diffraction of radiation by the crystal lattice: X-ray.

•electrons •X-ray •neutrons nuclei + shell electrons microtexture shell electrons macrotexture nuclei macro texture .• Interaction of radiation with lattice atoms and penetration depth / absorption length utimately decides whether a particular radiation will be giving information about microtexture or macrotexture.

local surface texture (nm penetration in most materials). easiest [to automate] in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). • Neutron diffraction. • Optical microscopy. type of data depends on neutron source. measures average texture in bulk (cms penetration in most materials). activity (plane of . optical polarization). limited information.Special attributes of each technique • X-ray diffraction. measures average texture at surface (μm penetration). • Electron [back scatter] diffraction.

the normal K of the diffracting planes (hkl) remains fixed in space and the specimen is rotated through a wide range of angles  many different orientations in the sample are brought into coincidence with the diffracting normal  Total diffracted intensity (at any instant)  volume of the specimen in which the (hkl) planes are so-oriented .All diffraction methods use  a monochromatic beam of radiation with the Bragg condition fixed for a single set of reflecting planes – which is maintained throughout the determination of a particular pole figure.

All diffraction methods use a monochromatic beam of radiation with the Bragg condition fixed For a single set of reflecting planes – maintained throughout the determination of a particular pole figure the normal K of the diffracting planes (hkl) remains fixed in space and the specimen is rotated through a wide range of angles. This brings many different orientations in the sample are brought into coincidence with the diffracting normal Total diffracted intensity (at any instant)  volume of the specimen in which the (hkl) planes are so-oriented .

• Pole figure represents variation in diffracted intensity with respect to direction in the specimen.t. . • Pole figures are represented by mapping of crystal directions w. easiest to measure.X-ray Pole Figures • X-ray pole figures are the most common source of texture information.r. sample reference frame.

Introduction of texture goniometer and Geiger counters (Decker et al. 1948: 1949: Since 1960s: Today.. Schulz initiated modern quantitative X-ray texture analysis. .Pole figures: Historical perspective 1924: Wever (Berlin) generated 1st pole figure from evaluating the inhomogeneous intensity distribution along the Debye-Scherrer rings. Norton). Automated computer-controlled systems are available and the corresponding measuring techniques and the necessary correction methods are well-established. Pole figure determination by neutron diffraction.

(a) X-ray. X-ray diffraction provides better spatial resolution and statistics X-ray diffraction provides better statistics. Microtexture is mainly measured by (a) X-ray diffraction. Bulk texture can be measured by (a) Transmission electron microscopy. (d) Optical microscopy. (a) (b) (c) (d) Which of the following statements are true. (c) Neutron diffraction. 4.Questions 1. (b) Neutron diffraction. but poor statistics . 2. (b) X-ray diffraction (d) Optical microscopy 3. EBSD provides better spatial resolution and statistics EBSD provides better spatial resolution. (c) Electron back scatter diffraction. (d) All are equal. but poor spatial resolution. (b) Neutron (c) Electron. The sample is subjected to different tilts during X-ray measurement of texture for (a) bringing all the grains in diffraction condition (b) increasing the statistics of measurent (c) to impose the sample reference direction on the pole figure (d) none of the above 5. Which of the following has the highest depth of penetration.