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WHAT IS PLANNING AND DESIGNING ? This is where the student design an experiment to test a hypothesis .

The student may carry out the experiment although this is not necessary . What is a hypothesis ? A hypothesis is a intelligent guess . How do you come up with an hypothesis ? The student is given a statement describing a situation or a problem . The student is asked to suggest an explanation for the situation or problem . The explanation or hypothesis must be a one sentence stated in a positive way . e.g. You are given a colourless liquid which has a sour odour . Hypothesis : The liquid is an acid . Whats afte the hypothesis ? The student comes up with an aim . The aim must be to prove or determine something . t must be based on the hypothesis . e.g. To identify an unknown liquid as an acid . You then come up with an method to test the hypothesis . How do you dete mine a method ? The method must have three elements . !. t must be simple and easy to carry out . ". The results must be reproducible # that is every time it is carried out the same results are obtained . $. The results must be clear and definite . What to !e conside ed in desi"nin" the e#pe iment ? There are in every experiments # factors . %actors affect the outcome of experiments . &ome factors cannot be changed and those which can are called variables . %actors include : 'ight Temperature (oncentration &urface area

)olume *ass 'ength Time $o e on %a ia!&es )ariables are of three types !. (ontrolled + not changed ". *anipulated + changed by the experimenter $. ,esponding + changes by the conditions of the experiment -.g. f was to react an acid with a metal . The acid will dissolve the metal . f

was to keep the concentration and amount of acid and metal constant and change the temperature the variable that respond would be the time . the time taken for the metal to completely disappear / . n writing up a 012 experiment you must state all the variables and which are controlled # manipulated and responding . 3nly one variable may be manipulated at a time . At times you may not change any variable in an experiment # this is called a cont o& . Types of $ethod There are three formats in which we can do an 012 experiment . !. You can do a -xpected vs. Actual %ormat You can set up a table as follows Test -xpected Actual Add a few drops The indicator will The of indicator change to blue nference indicator The substance is not an alkali

changed to red

The test is the test which you will carry out . The -xpected is what you would expect the results to be if your hypothesis is true . The Actual is what really occurred . The nference is what you deduce by the actual results . e.g.

". You can do a (omparison %ormat You set up a table as follows Test Add carbonate Add blue litmus Hyd och&o ic acid sodium effervescence occurred changed to red Li'uid A effervescence occurred changed to red Infe ence A could be an acid A could be an acid You test a known substance and then the unknown an compare the results . $. You can do a 4ormal %ormat 5ust carry out the experiment and then refer to supporting material to draw conclusions . What is ne#t ? f you are not required to carry it out you stop after method and 6ust write your 2iscussion about the method you have chosen . f you carry out the experiment the 2iscussion will not only include the method but the results as well. The conclusion will be whether the hypothesis is true or not . (ut&ine of P)D e#pe iment Title 0roblem &tatement Hypothesis Aim 3utline : %actors 1 )ariables 7 8hich are controlled and manipulated 9 8hich will respond 9 Apparatus *ethod ,esults 2iscussion : 8hat led you to the hypothesis 9 8hy this method 9 How did you control the variables 7

(onclusion

Example 1 Title : 0lanning 1 2esigning : 0roblem &tatement : You are given a silver looking pebble and asked to determine what this substance might be . Hypothesis : The substance is a metal Aim : To identify an unknown as a metal 3utline : f the substance is a metal we have to look at the properties of metals and carry out tests for these properties . All the factors will remain constant and we will 5ust perform different tests . *ethod : 2ivide the substance into several small but equal pieces Add acid 0lace in a circuit ; metals will effervesce ; metals will conduct an electric current

2iscussion : The substance is silver in colour which is indicative of metals . Example 2 Title : 0lanning 1 2esigning < 0roblem &tatement : You are given a salt and asked if the salt will dissolve in water more at high temperatures . Hypothesis : The salt will dissolve more at room temperature . Aim : To determine the solubility of a salt at different temperatures .

3utline : The factors to be considered are 7 the amount of salt # the volume of water # he temperature # the time taken to dissolve # 8e control the volume of water # amount of salt and time to dissolve . responding . *ethod : 8eigh out four equal amounts of the salt . *easure out four equal volumes of water . 0repare the water to the following temperatures # = degrees (elsius . use ice / # room temp $= degrees (elsius # >= degrees (elsius . warm slightly / and ?= degrees (elsius . boil / . 0lace the salt in each container of water and stir for "= seconds . mmediately pour the solution through a filter paper . Allow the residue to dry and reweigh . The one with the highest mass was most insoluble . 2iscussion : The substance is silver in colour which is indicative of metals . P&annin" ) Desi"nin" $a * Scheme &tatement of Hypothesis Aim Apparatus 1 *aterial *ethod )ariables 2ata 0redicted ,esults : mks " mks $ mks "mks " mks ! mk $ mks 8e manipulate the temperature . The amount of salt that remains undissolved is

'ogical sequence @ 'anguage @ &teps @ Tense

'imitations @ Assumptions @ &ources of -rrors $ mks