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THE STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF TALL AND SPECIAL BUILDINGS Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build.

(2011) Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/tal.717

Nonlinear time history analysis of a super-tall building with setbacks in elevation


Xilin Lu, Ningfen Su*, and Ying Zhou
State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, China

SUMMARY Standing 260m above the ground, the super-tall building employs steel reinforced concrete frame and reinforced concrete core wall system strengthened by a belt truss story to resist lateral and vertical loads. It has two setbacks in elevation. One is structurally designed by direct termination of vertical members, and the other is realized by inclining columns. Because of these characteristics, the building is classied as an irregular and complex structure. To investigate the seismic behavior of the structure under rare earthquake action, a rened nite element model was developed by using ABAQUS (Dassault Systmes Simulia Corp., Providence, RI, USA). Nonlinear time history analyses were conducted using explicit integration method. The results show that the structural system has sufcient seismic capacity and ductility to resist rare earthquake. The plastic deformation capacity of this building can meet the requirement of Chinese code, and seismic performance objective of no collapse under rare earthquake can be reached. However, deformations were found concentrated in members within and adjacent to setback stories, at the bottom strengthening portion of core walls and its upper story where lateral stiffness suddenly changed. It was suggested that transfer stories should be placed above or below these stories to improve the concentration of strain and deformation. Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Received 7 January 2011; Revised 22 April 2011; Accepted 21 June 2011
KEY WORDS:

steel reinforced concrete frame; core wall; super-tall building; setback; nonlinear time history analysis

1. INTRODUCTION In order to make the design unique and add beauty to cities, many new buildings adopt novel architectural styles, such as the wheel-shaped Icon Hotel in Dubai (Berahman, 2010) and the China Pavilion for Expo 2010 Shanghai (Yang et al., 2010). However, irregularity and complexity of structures are inevitable for these special buildings. This requires structural engineers to thoroughly understand how these structures behave, especially in future earthquakes. Among these irregularities, setback might be the most historic one, which was used by ancient builders to increase the height of masonry structures through distributing gravity loads produced by the building material such as clay, stone or brick. The most graphic example of a setback technique is the step pyramids of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Nowadays, driven by the limited urban land, modern buildings grow taller and taller. To get access to fresh air, skyline views and recreational uses such as hanging garden and outdoor swimming pool, setback is frequently adopted. However, setback usually means discontinuity and termination of partial bending resistance members, which will lead to inappropriate load transfer and sudden change of lateral stiffness. The nonuniform vertical mass distribution caused by setback may have a signicant inuence on the response to seismic loading. For asymmetric setback structure, torsion effect might be remarkable.

*Correspondence to: Ningfen Su, B306, Civil Engineering Building, College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China. E-mail: suningfen@163.com Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

X. LU, N. SU AND Y. ZHOU

Consequently, the setback level may become a weak point and vulnerable when attacked by earthquakes. Many researchers investigated the response of setback structures. To name a few, Humar and Wright (1977) studied the seismic response of steel frames with setbacks by using one ground motion. The most notable observations in their study were altered displacements and high ductility demands in the vicinity of the irregularities. Aranda (1984) made a comparison of ductility demands between setback and regular structures. He observed higher ductility demands for setback structures than for the regular ones and found this increase to be more pronounced in the portion above the setback. Khoury et al. (2005) considered four nine-story asymmetric setback perimeter frame structures that differed from each other in the location of the setback along the height. Nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed, and a 3D structural model was used under bidirectional ground motions. Results showed that higher vibration modes have signicant inuence, particularly the torsional ones. Seismic codes make specications on design of such vertical irregular structures as well. Nevertheless, setback structures have never been free from earthquake damages. Figure 1 shows unrecoverable damage that occurred in a building with setback in 27 February 2010 offshore Maule, Chile, earthquake (Lew et al., 2010). It is indicated that, in spite of the studies above, further study on the structure with setbacks is still needed. One way to investigate the seismic behavior of an irregular building is shaking table model test, which is thought to be one of the most effective ways to study complex buildings (Lu et al., 2007). However, when time and cost are considered, an alternative way is to perform nonlinear analysis using nite element method to get insights about the performance of complex buildings. Yahyai et al. (2009) used nite element model analysis to study the nonlinear seismic response of Milad Tower. Epackachi et al. (2010) conducted a seismic evaluation of a 56-story residential reinforced concrete building based on nonlinear dynamic time history analysis of nite element model. Krawinkler (2006) believes that earthquake engineering is relying more and more on nonlinear analysis as a tool for evaluating structural performance and nonlinear analysis will be a good trend.

Figure 1. Setback damage in Chile earthquake (Lew et al., 2010).


Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

NONLINEAR TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF A SUPER-TALL BUILDING

In this paper, a super-tall building with setbacks in elevation is introduced. Considering that a codeexceeding design is employed, detailed investigation is necessary and essential to verify the feasibility of preliminary design and guarantee its safety and also to provide guidance and advice to engineers for similar projects concerned. Three main parts are included. First, a rened nite element analysis model of this building is developed by using ABAQUS and its user material subroutine program. Then, nonlinear dynamic time history analysis under rare earthquake action is conducted to this complex building via explicit integration numerical solution method. Finally, the nonlinear dynamic responses including roof acceleration and displacement, interstory drift and damage of main lateral force-resisting members are presented and discussed. Moreover, practical suggestions are proposed on the basis of analysis results.

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE STRUCTURE 2.1. Basic information The target building is a multifunctional building located in Shanghai, China, which has 58 stories above the ground including a 24-story hotel part, a 23-story ofce part and a four-story basement underneath. It has a total architectural height of 260m, and the structural height is 244.8m. Dimension of the typical plan is 59.52m by 59.52m at the bottom, 52.02m by 53.52m in the middle and 28.02m by 53.52m at the top. Figures 2 and 3 show the typical plan layouts and south elevation, respectively.

Y X

(a) The1st to the 13th floor

(b) The14th to the 20th floor

(c) The 21st to the 31st floor

(d) The 32nd to the 58th floor

Figure 2. Typical plan layouts of each part.


Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

X. LU, N. SU AND Y. ZHOU

Figure 3. South elevation.

2.2. Lateral force-resisting system The structure employs the steel reinforced concrete (SRC) frame and the reinforced concrete (RC) core wall system to resist lateral and vertical loads. The cross-sectional dimensions of the core walls and of main the SRC columns and the reinforcement ratios are listed in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Owing to the weak connection between the frame and the core wall in the upper hotel part, a belt truss is arranged in the 46th oor to serve as a strengthened story (Figure 4).

Table 1. Cross-sectional dimensions of main lateral force-resisting elements. Dimensions (mm) Members
Wall

Story
15 621 21+131 31+58 15 613 1420 2131 31+58

Elevation (m)
026.7 26.794.9 94.9141.9 141.9244.8 026.7 26.760.3 60.390.7 90.7141.9 141.9244.8

Flange wall

Web wall

Column

1000/1200 400/600 800/1000 400/600 600/800 400/600 600 400 2200 2200; 2000 2000; 2200 2200; 2000 2000; 1850 1850 2000 2000; 1800 1800; 1850 1850 1600 1600; 1350 1350 1000 1500; 1200 1200

Story 21+ is a mezzanine between the 21st and 22nd story.


Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

NONLINEAR TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF A SUPER-TALL BUILDING

Table 2. Reinforcement ratio of main lateral force-resisting elements. Reinforcement ratio (%) Confining boundary elements Members
Wall

Story
16 728 2936 3758 129 3058

Horizontal
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Vertical
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.2 1.5

Horizontal
1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8

Vertical
2.5 2.0 2.5 2.0

Column

Figure 4. Belt truss in the 46th story. 2.3. Setbacks With the alteration of plan arrangement, two setbacks are formed in elevation in the 20th and 31st story, respectively (Figure 5). The former is realized by inclining two sets of columns (see the following section), whereas the core wall remains unchanged. The latter is structurally designed by direct termination of bending resistance members and 50% reduction of oor size, leaving a large setback in the core wall in the 31st story (Figure 6). The height of the tower structure above this setback level is 101.9m, which is about 41.7% of the overall structural height. To guarantee that the load from the upper structure transfers smoothly to the lower story, diagonal bracings (Figure 7) are added between the SRC frame and the core wall in the story right below this setback, and the thickness of slab in this story is increased. Newly added columns of the tower structure above the setback are rooted to the base structure below the setback level by extending them two stories down (Figure 7). In addition, the plan of core wall cuts off a corner from the 13th story and forms a relatively small setback (Figure 6). A column is used instead. 2.4. Inclined columns The two sets of inclined columns (Figure 8a) tilt respectively from the 16th oor to the 20th oor (Figure 8b) and from the 20th oor to the 21st mezzanine oor (Figure 8c). The angles of the inclined columns to the vertical direction are 11.5 and 13.2 , respectively. Beams connected to these columns are strengthened by using SRC beams. 2.5. Items beyond code limitation According to the Chinese Code for Seismic Design of Building (CCSDB, GB 50011-2001) (Ministry of Construction of the People's Republic of China, 2001) and Technical Specication for Concrete Structures of Tall Building (TSCSTB, JGJ3-2002) (Ministry of Construction of the People's Republic of China, 2002), the height of this building exceeds the specied maximum height of 190m for SRC
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

X. LU, N. SU AND Y. ZHOU

Figure 5. Setbacks in elevation.

frame and RC core wall system. Besides, the setback dimension in the 31st story is beyond the elevation layout requirement of TSCSTB (Figure 9a). Therefore, this building is classied as a vertical irregular one, and elasto-plastic time history analysis is required to investigate its seismic behavior under rare earthquake (23% probability of exceedance in 50years) action.

3. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL ABAQUS (version 6.9-1) was used to build nite element model and conduct nonlinear dynamic time history analysis. 3.1. Element type selection All members of the SRC frame including embedded boundary members in walls were modeled using a rst-order 3D Timoshenko beam element (B31), in which the transverse shear deformation was allowed. The beam section was divided into an array of bers or section points, at which beam element's response were calculated and outputted. For space beam element with rectangular prole, 25 section points were considered by default in ABAQUS. The linear, reduced-integration, quadrilateral shell element (S4R) was used to model shear wall and slab, in which in-plane bending and shear and out-of-plane bending can be simulated simultaneously. Numerical integration was performed at a number of section points through the shell thickness to calculate the stresses and strains independently at each section point. By default, ABAQUS uses ve section points through the thickness of a homogeneous shell, which is sufcient for most nonlinear design problems. Considering the complexity of the structure and the importance of this study, nine were used herein.
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

NONLINEAR TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF A SUPER-TALL BUILDING

Figure 6. Setbacks in core wall.

Figure 7. Diagonal bracing.

The simulation of reinforcements can be achieved by two methods. One is to model each reinforcement bar separately. In this way, reinforcement should be embedded into concrete elements or through node coupling to make them work together with concrete. The other is to treat the rebar layer as a smeared layer with a constant thickness equal to the area of each reinforcing bar divided by the reinforcing bar spacing, which is preferred for dening reinforcement in wall or slab. Here, the
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

X. LU, N. SU AND Y. ZHOU

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 8. Inclined columns.

Figure 9. Requirement for elevation layout in Chinese code. former one was used to model reinforcement in beams and columns, steel in columns and boundary members in core wall, and the latter one was used to model reinforcement in wall and slab. The coupling beams, which usually damage rst, are of great importance in dissipating energy inputted by earthquake and thus inuence the ductility and seismic performance of the core wall. In order to observe the development of damage in detail, S4R was used again to model the coupling beam. Along the longitudinal direction of beams and columns and the two directions of wall, members were divided into several elements to improve accuracy. The length of beam element and shell element should be less than 2.5m. As far as running time is concerned, element should be better longer than 1m. Finally, the nonlinear analysis model (Figure 10) is comprised of 88297 elements and 158 747 nodes in all. 3.2. Material constitutive models The isotropic bilinear kinematics hardening model was used for reinforcement and steel, in which Bauschinger effect was considered. During the cyclic loading, no degradation was developed. The ratio of ultimate strength to the yield strength was 1.2 for reinforcement bar and 1.3 for steel. The ultimate plastic strain corresponding to the ultimate stress was considered as 0.025. Check Table 3 for details. Properties of concrete used in this building are listed in Table 4. The damaged plasticity model was used to simulate the behavior of concrete in the core wall, which used concepts of isotropic damaged elasticity in combination with isotropic tensile and compressive plasticity to represent the inelastic behavior of concrete (ABAQUS, 2009). The model made use of the
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

NONLINEAR TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF A SUPER-TALL BUILDING

Figure 10. Nonlinear analysis model.

Table 3. Properties of the steel. Steel grade


HRB335 HRB400 Q345(t > 3550) Q345(t > 1635)

Yield stress (MPa)Ultimate stress (MPa)Ultimate plastic strainModulus of elasticity (MPa)


335 400 295 328 402 480 384 426 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 2.06E+5 2.06E+5 2.06E+5 2.06E+5

Table 4. Properties of the concrete. Design values of concrete strength (MPa) Concrete grade
C35 (beam/slab) C60 (wall/column)

Compressive
16.7 27.5

Tensile
1.57 2.04

Poisson ratio
0.2 0.2

Modulus of elasticity (MPa)


3.15E+4 3.60E+4

yield function of Lubliner et al. (1989), with the modications proposed by Lee and Fenves (1998) to account for the different evolution of strength under tension and compression. It assumed nonassociated potential plastic ow. The ow potential used for this model was the DruckerPrager
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

X. LU, N. SU AND Y. ZHOU

Figure 11. Response of concrete to uniaxial loading in tension (a) and compression (b).

hyperbolic function. The response of concrete to uniaxial loading in tension and compression are shown in Figure 11, where dc and dt are the compressive and tensile damage variable respectively and used to characterize the degradation of the elastic stiffness. The damage variables can take values from zero, representing the undamaged material, to one, which represents total loss of strength. Figure 12 shows the mechanical response of concrete under cyclic loading (tensioncompressiontension), where wc and wt are the compressive and tensile stiffness recovery factor respectively to control the recovery of compressive and tensile stiffness upon load reversal. Since there was no proper concrete material model available for B31 element in current ABAQUS edition, a user material subroutine was written and incorporated into ABAQUS via VUMAT subroutine. This user material uses the uniaxial concrete constitutive model proposed by Mander et al. (1988a, 1988b),

Figure 12. Uniaxial load cycle (tensioncompressiontension) assuming wc =1 and wt =0.


Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

NONLINEAR TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF A SUPER-TALL BUILDING

which takes into account the inuence of various types of connement by dening an effective lateral conning stress. 4. NONLINEAR TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS 4.1. Input ground motions It is specied in TSCSTB that no less than two strong earthquake records and a synthetic accelerogram should be selected for elasto-plastic time history analysis. The duration should be no shorter than 12s. Soil condition should be taken into account. According to the CCSDB, the site soil in Shanghai is categorized as type IV, which is dened as soil whose soft layer thickness is more than 80 m, and average velocity of shear wave in the soil layer is not more than 140m/s. In consideration of the factors mentioned above, two strong earthquake records (Table 5) and Shanghai synthetic accelerogram SHW1 were selected. SHW1 is specied for the particular soil conditions of Shanghai and can be found in the Shanghai Code of Seismic Design of Buildings (SCSDB, DGJ08-9-2003) (Shanghai Government Construction and Management Commission, 2003). Figures 1315 show time histories (normalized to 1 g) and spectrum accelerations of selected accelerograms when damping ratio is 0.05. Figure 16 shows the displacement response spectrum of each accelerogram given a 5% damping ratio. The seismic protection intensity of Shanghai is 7, and the corresponding design basic acceleration of ground motion is 0.1 g, which means 10% probability of exceedance in 50years. Since seismic behavior under rare earthquake action was investigated mainly in this paper, the peak ground acceleration (PGA) of selected earthquake accelerograms were scaled to 0.2 g, which was specied in SCSDB to characterize the seismic risk of 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years in the seismic protection zone of 7. During the analysis, the two strong earthquake records were inputted in two principal directions simultaneously (the NS record is inputted in the X direction) with the PGA ratio of 1:0.85, whereas the synthetic accelerogram was inputted in one direction.

4.2. Damping ratio As specied by TSCSTB, a damping ratio of 0.04 for SRC frameRC core wall structural system was adopted. 4.3. Numerical solver of the nonlinear equations of motion The direct-integration dynamic procedure provided in ABAQUS/Standard uses the implicit HilberHughesTaylor operator for integration of the equations of motion, whereas ABAQUS/ Explicit uses the central-difference operator. In an implicit dynamic analysis, the integration operator matrix must be inverted, and a set of nonlinear equilibrium equations must be solved at each time increment. In an explicit dynamic analysis, displacements and velocities are calculated in terms of quantities that are known at the beginning of an increment; therefore, the global mass

Table 5. Characteristics of selected records. Earthquake


El Centro NS El CentroEW Pasadena NS Pasadena EW Imperial Valley 18/5/1940 Kern County 21/7/1952

Station
117 El Centro Array #9 80053 PasadenaCIT Athenaeum

Magnitude
7.1 7.36

Epicentral distance (km)


12.99 125.81

PGA ( g)
0.349 0.215 0.053 0.045

PGA, peak ground acceleration.


Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

X. LU, N. SU AND Y. ZHOU


1

Acceleration(g)

0.5 0 -0.5 -1

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

Time(s)

(a)
1

Acceleration(g)

0.5 0 -0.5 -1

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

Time(s)

(b)
Spectrum Acceleration(g)
3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Target Spectrum El Centro N-S El Centro E-W

Period(s)

(c)

Figure 13. El Centro accelerogram: (a) time history of acceleration in NS direction; (b) time history of acceleration in EW direction; (c) spectrum acceleration.

and stiffness matrices need not be formed and inverted, which means that each increment is relatively inexpensive compared with the increments in an implicit integration scheme. The analysis cost rises only linearly with problem size for explicit integration, whereas the cost of solving the nonlinear equations associated with implicit integration rises more rapidly than linearly with problem size. Therefore, explicit analysis method is attractive for very large problems (ABAQUS, 2009). Here, explicit method was selected.

5. ANALYTICAL RESULTS Prior to the nonlinear dynamic time history analysis, stress generated by static load such as gravity and service load has already acted on the structure, which serves as the initial state of nonlinear dynamic analysis. So, a static analysis was performed before time history analysis to obtain the initial stress state in structure members. According to the static analysis results, the structure totally weights 2764 660kN. A modal analysis was conducted to get the natural vibration characteristics of the structure. Material nonlinearity and geometric nonlinearity were considered in the time history analysis. Main results are summarized and discussed in the following sections.
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

NONLINEAR TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF A SUPER-TALL BUILDING


1

Acceleration(g)

0.5 0 -0.5 -1

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Time(s)

(a)
1

Acceleration(g)

0.5 0 -0.5 -1

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Time(s)

(b)
Spectrum Acceleration(g)
3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Target Spectrum Pasadena N-S Pasadena E-W

Period(s)

(c)

Figure 14. Pasadena accelerogram: (a) time history of acceleration in NS direction; (b) time history of acceleration in EW direction; (c) spectrum acceleration. 5.1. Natural vibration characteristics The results of modal analysis are listed in Table 6. Figure 17 shows the rst three mode shapes. 5.2. Base shear and moment Results of maximum base shear and moment when subjected to different ground motions are listed in Table 7. It is clear that a difference exists between structural responses to the three inputs, in which responses under SHW1 are signicantly greater than that of the other two. This is true not only for the maximum base shear and moment but also for roof displacement and interstory drift results, which will be discussed in the following sections. Acceleration and displacement response spectrum may explain this to some extent. From Figures 1316, we can see that the response spectrum of SHW1 is the one that matches the target spectrum most in the period range interested, whereas that of El Centro in two directions and Pasadena in EW direction are smaller than the target spectrum. The response spectrum of Pasadena in NS direction exhibits a peak at about 1.6s larger than that of SHW1 but turns smaller after 3s. According to the CCSDB, design seismic action is determined by using seismic coefcient, which is derived from acceleration response spectrum. For a long-period structure, lower spectrum value is usually obtained and consequently leading to lower design seismic action. In order to guarantee the safety of designed buildings, seismic shear factor is introduced. It is dened as the ratio of horizontal
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

X. LU, N. SU AND Y. ZHOU


1

Acceleration(g)

0.5 0 -0.5 -1

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time(s)

(a)

(b)

Figure 15. SHW1 accelerogram: (a) time history of acceleration; (b) spectrum acceleration.

Figure 16. Displacement response spectrum of each accelerogram. seismic shear force to the representative value of gravity load of the structure and is used to prevent the design seismic action from becoming too small. Usually, there is a minimum value for seismic coefcient in seismic design code. As far as seismic protection intensity 7 is concerned, the factor
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

NONLINEAR TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF A SUPER-TALL BUILDING

Table 6. Natural vibration frequencies. No.


1 2 3 4 5 6

Frequency (cycle/time)
0.227 0.251 0.328 0.552 0.680 0.742

Period (s)
4.405 3.984 3.049 1.812 1.471 1.348

Mode shape
Translation Translation Torsion Translation Translation Torsion in X in Y in X in Y

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 17. First three mode shapes: (a) the rst mode (translation in X); (b) the second mode (translation in Y); (c) the third mode (torsion).

Table 7. Results of maximum base shear and moment. Input ground motions
Principal direction Maximum base moment (108 Nm) Maximum base shear (105 kN) Seismic shear factor at ground oor

El Centro
X 3.848 2.089 7.56% Y 6.694 2.662 9.63%

Pasadena
X 4.743 2.526 9.14% Y 4.045 2.043 7.39%

SHW1
X 9.914 3.343 12.09% Y 12.780 3.489 12.62%

should be no less than 0.016 for structures with obvious torsion effect or fundamental period of less than 3.5s and 0.012 for structures with fundamental period greater than 5.0s. The seismic shear factors at ground oor of this building satisfy the requirement of 1.84% interpolated to its period of 4.4s. 5.3. Roof acceleration Figure 18 shows the time history of roof acceleration response when SHW1 was inputted. Table 8 lists the maximum responses of roof acceleration when different ground motions were inputted. The acceleration amplication coefcient is the ratio of maximum roof acceleration response to the inputted maximum ground acceleration. The results show that the whipping-lash effect is not very signicant for this building.
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

X. LU, N. SU AND Y. ZHOU


0.5 0.5

Acceleration (g)

Acceleration (g)
0 6 12 18 24 30 36

0.25 0 -0.25 -0.5

0.25 0 -0.25 -0.5 0 6 12 18 24 30 36

Time (s)

Time (s)

(a)

(b)

Figure 18. Roof acceleration response when SHW1 is inputted: (a) in X direction; (b) in Y direction.

Table 8. Results of roof acceleration responses. Input ground motions


Principal direction Maximum roof acceleration response (g) Inputted maximum ground acceleration (g) Acceleration amplication coefcient

El Centro
X 0.420 0.200 2.10 Y 0.355 0.200 1.78

Pasadena
X 0.554 0.200 2.77 Y 0.311 0.200 1.56

SHW1
X 0.424 0.200 2.12 Y 0.444 0.200 2.22

5.4. Roof displacement Figure 19 shows the roof displacement response history of the structure. The maximum roof displacement response, generated by SHW1, is 1.643m in the X direction and 1.576m in the Y direction, respectively. The ratio of maximum roof displacement response to the height of the whole structure is 1/149 and 1/155 in the X and Y directions. To gain a better understanding of the nonlinear dynamic behavior, an elastic time history analysis was conducted, in which SHW1 was inputted with the same PGA as elasto-plastic analysis. The two results of roof displacement response are compared in Figure 20. It is shown that the elastic and elasto-plastic analysis results are nearly the same in the rst 2s, during which the structure remains elastic. From 27s, there developed little difference between the two results, which indicates that damages have been generated in the structural members. After 7s, the two curves were separated, obvious damages were observed and the structure stiffness began to degrade. The vibration frequency decreased, time corresponding to the peak value of elastoplastic roof displacement response lagged behind to that of the elastic response and elasto-plastic displacement response decreased quickly after reaching the maximum. 5.5. Interstory drift Results of interstory drift are shown in Figure 21. Sudden changes exist in the 20th and 31st setback story and the 46th belt truss story. The reason for these sudden changes may be attributed to the decrease or increase of lateral stiffness in these stories. The belt truss improved the integrity of lateral force-resisting system. Therefore, the lateral stiffness was greater than that of the adjacent stories. The maximum interstory drift resulted and the corresponding stories are listed in Table 9. The maximum
Roof displacement in X direction(m)
1.5 1 0.5 0 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2

Roof displacement in Y direction(m)

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

Time(s)

1.5 1 0.5 0 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

Time(s)

(a)

(b)

Figure 19. Elasto-plastic response of roof displacement: (a) in X direction; (b) in Y direction.
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

NONLINEAR TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF A SUPER-TALL BUILDING

Roof displacement in X direction(m)

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 -1 -1.5 -2

Roof displacement in Y direction(m)

Time(s)

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 -1 -1.5 -2

Time(s)

(a)

(b)

Figure 20. Comparison of elasto-plastic and elastic responses of roof displacement under SHW1 with the same peak value: (a) in X direction; (b) in Y direction.

60 55 50 45 40 35

60 55 50 45 40 35

Storey

Storey

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0
SHW1 El Centro Pasadena 1/100

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0
SHW1 El Centro Pasadena 1/100

0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012

0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012

Inter-storey drift

Inter-storey drift

(a)

(b)

Figure 21. Interstory drift: (a) in X direction; (b) in Y direction.

Table 9. Maximum interstory drift results. Input ground motions


Principal directions Maximum interstory drift Story where maximum value developed
1

El Centro
X 1/313 F47 Y 1/210 F31+1

Pasadena
X 1/145 F47 Y 1/392 F42

SHW1
X 1/103 F34 Y 1/130 F21

Story 31+ is a mezzanine between the 31st and 32nd story.

interstory drift when subjected to rare earthquake can meet the requirement of TSCSTB of no greater than 1/100 for framecore wall structure. 5.6. Damage results of core wall Considering the structural response when SHW1 was inputted is more signicant than that of the other two; responses generated by SHW1 were taken for example to illustrate in detail the damage development in the core wall in the course of ground vibration.
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

X. LU, N. SU AND Y. ZHOU

When ground motion was inputted along the X direction, the structure was elastic in the rst 2s. From 4s on, plastic deformation began to occur in the coupling beams of stories adjacent to the 13th oor where a setback exists in the core wall and a slight damage develops in the wall of these stories. When time came to 6.5s, mild damage came out in the walls above the bottom strengthening portion (specied by CCSDB, is a height range or several stories at the bottom of walls for wall structure; for this building, it ranges from the rst to the fth story) of the core wall, and the coupling beams along the X direction began to yield. During this period, damages in other places extended quickly. At 7.5s, the walls of bottom strengthening portion were damaged, and the compressive damage variable exceeded 0.3, which means that the elastic modulus of concrete was reduced by 30%. Then, damage developed in walls in the X direction adjacent to the 31st setback story and spread quickly soon afterwards. After 10s, the damages accumulated, and the compressive damage variable of coupling beams and walls in and adjacent to the bottom strengthening portion reached 0.9. Figure 22 presents the compressive damage variable in different times. When ground motion was inputted along the Y direction, the structure remained elastic in the rst 2s. From 24s, coupling beams in and adjacent to the 13th setback story yielded rst, and plastic deformation began to develop. From 46s, slight damages occurred in the walls of the 12th to 14th story. From 6.5s on, walls in bottom strengthening portion began to develop mild damage. Until 9s, all coupling beams under the 31st story yielded, and plastic deformation spread to the lateral walls connected to the coupling beam. From 10s on, coupling beams in the Y direction above the 31st setback story yielded one after another also. In the end, the compressive damage variable of the coupling beams and walls in and adjacent to the bottom strengthening portion reached 0.9. Figure 23 shows the compressive damage variable in different times. In conclusion, damages focus on the coupling beams and walls in and adjacent to the bottom strengthening portion and walls in stories adjacent to setbacks. Since coupling beams serve as the rst seismic defense line, they should yield and dissipate seismic energy prior to the other structural members when attacked by earthquake. At the bottom strengthening portion of the core wall, a relatively great number of steel-reinforced conning boundary members are congured according to CCSDB, compared with the neighboring sixth story. On the other hand, the thickness of peripheral walls changes in the sixth story. Therefore, considerable stress concentrates in the sixth to the seventh story, which in turn develops great plastic deformation in these places and extends to the story above and below. It is suggested that a transfer story should be placed above the bottom strengthening portion of the core wall to keep the gradual alteration of lateral stiffness and consequently decrease the stress concentration effect. Besides, damage concentrates in stories adjacent to setbacks where lateral

Figure 22. Compressive damage development in core wall at 4s, 7.5s and 36s when SHW1 is inputted in X direction.
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

NONLINEAR TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF A SUPER-TALL BUILDING

Figure 23. Compressive damage development in core wall at 4s, 9s and 36s when SHW1 is inputted in Y direction.

stiffness changes too. Measures should be taken to improve the seismic performance of setback stories. As specied in CCSDB, the strengthening portion at the bottom and its adjacent upper one story shall be erected with conning boundary elements for wall structures, whereas ordinary boundary elements shall be erected at the other portion of the wall. Usually, the former is larger in size and higher in strength than the latter. In this building, conning boundary elements were located in the rst six stories. For the steel of boundary members in the core wall, plastic strain occurred in the 13th story rst, and then, the steel in the sixth oor yielded too. Eventually, the plastic strain concentrated in the few members of the 13th and sixth story whereas the rest remained elastic. Figure 24 shows the plastic strain developed in the steel of boundary members. 5.7. Responses of frame Inclined columns, members in the belt truss and diagonal braces in the 31st and 56th story behaved elastically in the course of vibration. No obvious damage was observed in the peripheral frame structure. The maximum stress occurred in the 31st setback story in shaped steel in columns (Figure 25). Concrete in the two ends of a few beams yielded, and the whole SRC frame has sufcient earthquake-resisting capacity left.

6. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS In this paper, seismic behavior under rare earthquake of a super-tall building with setbacks in elevation was studied through nonlinear dynamic time history analysis. On the basis of the analytical results, the following conclusions can be drawn: When subjected to rare earthquake action, the target building develops damage mainly in the core wall, whereas a majority of the members in the peripheral frame remain elastic. The plastic deformation capacity of this complex building can meet the requirement of CCSDB (GB 500112001), and the seismic protection objective of no collapse under rare earthquake can be reached. For the SRC frameRC core wall structural system, the RC core wall serves as the rst seismic defense line and the main lateral force-resisting member and shows considerable seismic capacity
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

X. LU, N. SU AND Y. ZHOU

(a)

(b)

Figure 24. Plastic strain in steel of boundary members when SHW1 is inputted: (a) in X direction; (b) in Y direction.

(a)

(b)

Figure 25. Stress in steel of columns when SHW1 is inputted: (a) in X direction; (b) in Y direction. and ductility when subjected to rare earthquake action. Coupling beams could yield and dissipate seismic energy prior to the core wall, which realizes a favorable energy dissipation mechanism. For a structure with setbacks, sudden change of lateral stiffness caused by the termination or reduction of vertical members at setback level has a great effect on the structural seismic behavior. Damages concentrate in members within and adjacent to the setback story. Therefore, a transfer story is suggested to be placed above or below the setback. More specically, the seismic details of
Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

NONLINEAR TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF A SUPER-TALL BUILDING

members in the several stories above and below the setback should be increased. For asymmetric setback structures, since responses of peripheral columns in the setback story are likely to increase dramatically due to the torsion effect of structure, details of seismic design of peripheral columns should be improved. As specied in CCSDB (GB 50011-2001), the strengthening portion at bottom and its adjacent upper one story shall be congured with conning boundary elements for wall structures, whereas ordinary boundary elements shall be congured at the other portion of the wall. In this study, stress concentration is observed at the interface story where conning boundary elements change to ordinary boundary elements. It is suggested that boundary elements should be reduced gradually story by story.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors are grateful for the partial nancial support from Kwang-Hua Fund for College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 90815029, 51078274 and 51021140006) and the Beijing Science & Technology Program (grant no. D09050600370000). The authors wish also to thank Doctor Hu Qi who provided the user material subroutine program and structural engineer Jinsheng Zeng of China Architectural Design & Research Group who provided great help in using the ABAQUS.

REFERENCES
ABAQUS. 2009. ABAQUS Theory Manual and User' Manual, version 6.9. Dassault Systmes Simulia Corp.: Providence, RI, USA. Aranda GR. 1984. Ductility demands for R/C frames irregular in elevation. Proceedings of the 8th world conference on Earthquake Engineering, San Francisco, USA 4: 559566. Berahman F. 2010. Performance-based seismic evaluation of the Icon Hotel in Dubai United Arab Emirates. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings. Published online: 7 Dec 2010. DOI: 10.1002/tal.688 Epackachi S, Mirghaderi R, Esmaili O et al. 2010. Seismic evaluation of a 56-story residential reinforced concrete high-rise building based on nonlinear dynamic time history analysis. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings. Published online: 8 Mar 2010. DOI: 10.1002/tal.586 Humar JL, Wright EW. 1977. Earthquake response of steel-framed multistory buildings with set-backs. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 5(1): 1539. Khoury W, Rutenberg A, Levy R. 2005. On the seismic response of asymmetric setback perimeter-frame structures. Proceedings of the 4th European workshop on the seismic behavior of irregular and complex structures, Thessaloniki, August 2005. Krawinkler H. 2006. Importance of good nonlinear analysis. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings 15: 515531. DOI: 10.1002/tal.379 Lee J, Fenves GL. 1998. Plastic-damage model for cyclic loading of concrete structure. Journal of Engineering Mechanics ASCE 124: 892900 Lew M, Naeim F, Carpenter LD, Youssef NF et al. 2010. The signicance of the 27 February 2010 offshore Maule, Chile earthquake. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings 19: 826837. DOI: 10.1002/tal.668 Lu XL, Zhou Y, Lu WS. 2007. Shaking table model test and numerical analysis of a complex high-rise building. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings 16: 131164. DOI: 10.1002/tal.302 Lubliner J, Oliver J, Oller S, Oate E. 1989. A plastic-damage model for concrete. International Journal of Solids and Structures 25(3): 299326. Mander JB, Priestly MJN, Park R. 1988a. Theoretical stress-strain model for conned concrete. Journal of Structural Engineering ASCE 114: 18041826. Mander JB, Priestly MJN, Park R. 1988b. Observed stress-strain behavior of conned concrete. Journal of Structural Engineering ASCE 114: 18271849. Ministry of Construction of the People's Republic of China. 2001. Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (GB 50011-2001). China Architecture and Building Press: Beijing, China. Ministry of Construction of the People's Republic of China. 2002. Technical Specication for Concrete Structures of Tall Building (JGJ 3-2002). China Architecture and Building Press: Beijing, China (in Chinese). Shanghai Government Construction and Management Commission. 2003. Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (DGJ 08-9-2003). Shanghai Standardization Ofce: Shanghai, China (in Chinese). Yahyai M, Rezayibana B, Daryan AS. 2009. Nonlinear seismic response of Milad Tower using nite element model. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings 18: 877890. DOI: 10.1002/tal.468 Yang JH, Chen Y, Jiang HJ, Lu XL. 2010. Shaking table tests on China pavilion for Expo 2010 Shanghai China. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings. Published online: 11 Mar 2010. DOI: 10.1002/tal.591

Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal

X. LU, N. SU AND Y. ZHOU

AUTHORS BIOGRAPHIES
XILIN LU born in 1955, received his doctoral degree from Tongji University in 1984, and now working as a professor at State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China. His research focuses on seismic performance of tall and special buildings, performance-based seismic design method, nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structure, retrotting design of building structures. He has authored 10 books in the eld of seismic design theory and application and published over 280 journal papers, in which over 140 were cited by SCI or EI. NINGFEN SU born in 1981, is pursuing her doctoral degree in Tongji University. YING ZHOU born in 1978, is working as an associate professor at State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China. She received her doctoral degree from Tongji University in 2005 and worked as a visiting scholar at University of California at Berkeley, USA from January 2010 to January 2011. Her research interests lie in seismic performance of tall and special buildings, structural passive control of buildings, earthquake resilient building design, and structural dynamic testing technology.

Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. (2011) DOI: 10.1002/tal